Large Animal Surgery Review

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					                              Large Animal Surgery Review

General principles:

Suture; absorbable vs. non, multifilament vs. mono, natural vs. synthetic

Patterns; interrupted vs. continuous, inverting vs. everting, full vs. partial thickness

Surgical technique; minimize tissue trauma, aseptic technique, controlled hemostasis,
minimize dead space, keep surgical time to a minimum. Remember time, tissue trauma

Soft tissue:

Colic= abdominal pain…Remember that diarrhea, renal disease, urolithiasis, liver
disease, choke, pleuropneumonia, testicular torsions, foaling, laminitis, neuro disease,
ovarian tumors etc. can cause signs that look like colic.

Common colics:
     Enterolithes- horses in California or sandy climates

        Old horses- more likely to get strangulating lipomas (s. intest most common site)
        and impactions (bad teeth)

        Broodmares- Large colon torsions, uterine artery bleeds, uterine torsions (don’t be
        fooled by foaling)

        Standardbreds- more likely to get inguinal hernias

        Foals: meconium impactions, ruptured bladders, leathal whites

        Weanlings- ascarids, r. equi abscesses

        Warmbloods and horses with big nephrosplenic spaces- Left D. Displacements
        (phenylephrine)

Normal values on belly tap: t. protein < 2, WBC <5000

If heart rate is >60 bpm, horse is severely painful or s. intestine is felt on rectal PASS A
STOMACH TUBE!!!!

Most common colic is gas (spasmodic) colic which responds to banamine and hand
walking.

To treat endotoxemia, banamine (low dose), plasma, polymyxin, acepromazine,
nitroglycerin (laminitis), pelvic flexure enterotomy
Upper Airway

Roarers (left laryngeal hemiplegia) inspiratory noise; tie back; partial arytenoidectomy

DDSP; expiratory noise, poor performance; tie forward

Epiglottic entrapment; laser resection of subepiglottic+/- aryepiglottic folds

Epistaxis (decide uni or bilateral)- guttural pouch mycosis, ethmoid hematoma, lung
abscess, Cushing’s disease

Strangles (strep equi) vs strep zoo.

Sinusitis: usually bad tooth, cysts

Hernias: Usually congenital in horses, infection related in cattle
Evaluate for reducibility, heat, pain, hernial ring

Castration: post op infection (champignion vs schirrous cord) complications include
swelling, eviceration and excess bleeding

Sedation
Xylazine, detomidine, butorphanol, acepromazine (except stallions) commonly used

Remember ruminants are EXTREMELY sensitive to xylazine (30-50 mg will cause
recumbency in a healthy cow)

Non Steroidals
Banamine, Bute (not in cattle), aspirin (more in cattle)

Ulcer meds
Omeprazole (proton pump blocker), ranitidine/famotidine/cimetidine (H2), sucralfate
(bandaide)

Antibiotics
TMS/SMZ/trimethoprim sulfa: most common first line antibiotic in horses (not for food
animals)

Ampicillin/PPG (cattle)/ K pen commonly used for gram + coverage

Gentocin/amikacin: good gram – coverage (NOT FOR FOOD ANIMALS)

Metronidazole: anaerobes


Cattle specific
Right sided ping: abomasum, cecum, s. intestine, spiral colon

Left ping: rumen, LDA

Either: uterus, pneumoperitoneum, pnuemorectum

Jejunohemorrhagic syndrome, clostridial abomasitis

Ways to pexy: omento, abomaso, pyloro, long tack, roll and tack

C- sections in cattle- standing L flank

Rumenotomy: hardware, grain overload, frothy bloat, vagal

Foot abscesses: medial claw in front, lateral in hind

Lameness:
Down on sound, hip hikes/drops
QH commonly get Navicular disease
Jumpers: hocks
TB: fetlocks
OCD: DIRT, prox P1, lat trochlear, SBC
Remember joint communications, function of peroneus tersius, laminitis
ALD-varus vs valgus


Common terms: Poll evil, knees, hocks, stifle, coffin, pastern, ringbone, splint, hopples,
cribbing, stall weaving, heaves, spavin, chondroids, curb, thoroughpin, jacks,

				
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