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     suoHo 6enozo KapnuKa Cupuyc B. PucyHoK, cjJaHmacmuKa.

        Ha o6pamHOU cmopoHe. nbmesou K/leU( noo MUKpOCKOnOM. A Bbl oyManu, 4mO moou, KOmOpble
     npuoyMGflU MOHCmpOB UUHOnnaHemRH OflR cPUflbMOB- ZeHUU? Ha CGMOM oene y HUX O'leHb XOpOWUe
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   - R AaiO 3eMne Tenno 111 cseT, Mory o6orpeTb 111n111 c>Ke4b! 6e3 MeHfl HeT
>KJ.II3HJ.II.
      BoAa 3aMeTJ.IIna:
      -A BOT Ill HeT, 3TO 6e3 MeHfl Hill OAHO cy~eCTBO He MO>KeT >KJ.IITb! R npe-
Bpa~aiO KaMeHb B neCOK, CllEkKOCTbiO Bpa~aiO orpOMHble 3JleKTp1!14eCKJ.IIe
ryp6111Hbl, 111 IIIMeHHo fl AaiO 1110AfiM 3Hepr11110! - KaMeHb ocTaHOBIIIn Hanop
BOAbl Ill TBepAO np01!13Hec:
      -A fl MOry neperopOAJ.IITb peKY Ill C03AaTb HaBOAHeHJ.IIe 111n111 OCTaHOBJ.IITb ero.
       HaneTen BeTep 111 npocBJ.IICTen:
      - BoT xsacryHbl! Ho fl Ha scex sac HaiiiAY ynpasy: pa3pywy KaMeHHble ropbl,
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      TaK BbiXBanflnlllcb clllnbl nplllpOAbl APYr nepeA ApyroM, noKa He
scrpeTJ.IIlllll B nyCTbiHe 4enoseKa, KOTOporo MY4111na >Ka>K- ··"""'...-........-
Aa.lll nonpoclllnlll, 4T06bl oH 111x paccyAIIIn. Bblcnywas
scex, 4enoseK OTBeTIIIn:
      - 6naroAap10 Te6fl, ConHbiWKo, 3a To,
4TO 111Cnap111no BOAY 1113 MOpfl. 6naro-
Aap10 Te6fl, BeTep, 3a TO, 4TO npiii-
Hec TY4KIII. 6naroAap10 Te6fl,
KaMeHb, 3a TO, 4TO Ha Te6e
CKOHAeHCIIIpOBanCfl BOAHblill
nap. IIIMeHHo 6naroAapfl
saM fl yTon111n >Ka>KAY· Bee
Bbl Mory~eCTBeHHble Ill
sa>KHble, Ka>KAbllll no-
csoeMy. C Tex nop ConH-
1..\e, BoAa, KaMeHb 111 Belep
CTaJllll Hepa311Y4HbiMJ.II

APY3bfiMIII. A 4enoseK l
Hay4H11Cfl yKpo~aTb Clllnbl    'i~~~~ii~~~~~;-~;~~~~~:"..··~!-·"~
npHpOAbl.
       Pew111na OHa paccnpOCIIITb, KaK OH 3a60TIIITCfl 0 CBOIIIX B/la,QeHIIIfiX.
   BbiCilyWaB KOpOileBy, CbiH Hal.la/1 XBaCTaTbCfl CBOIIIM MOry~eCTBOM:
   - nocMoTplll, MaMa, KaKolll fl 6oraTbllll! MHe npiiiHa,qne>KaT              6onee
96 % see !II O,Qbl Ha nnaHeTe.
   - r,qe >Ke bl ee pa3MeCTIII11? - nOIIIHTepeCOBa/laCb riii,Qpoc<j>epa.
   - nonOBIIIHa MOIIIX 6oraTCTB - B TIIIXOM OKeaHe. Ero TeppiiiTOplllfl
6onbwe scex MaTepiiiKOB, He rosopfl Y>Ke o ,qpyr111x oKeaHax. EcTb y
MeHfl 111 ,qpyr111e 6onbwllle coKpOBIII~a: 111H,QIIIIIICKIIIIII, Tlllxllllll, AmaHTIII-
4eCKIIIIII, (esepHblill ne,QOBIIITblill OKeaHbl, MHOro 60/lbWIIIX MOpe~~!.
       - BIII>KY, CbiH, Tbl 04eHb rOp,QIIIWbCfl 60/lbWIIIMIII BO,QOeMaMIII, HO TaK
11,111 xopowo Tbl 3Haewb cso111 Me/1KIIIe sna,qeHIIIfl?
               np1113a,QyManCfl MlllpOBOIII OKeaH, Hal.la/1 IIICKaTb CBOIII
            Me/1KIIIe COKpOBIII~a no BCeMy Mlllpy, Ill He HaWe/1. Tor,Qa rlll-
            ,qpoc<j>epa noKa3ana CbiHY caMble MellKIIIe B Mlllpe MOpfl -
             A30BCKOe MOpe, KOTOpoe HaXO,QIIITCfl B YKpaiiiHe 803/le
                   KpbiMCKoro nonyoCTposa, 111 MpaMopHoe, Heno,qaneKY
                        OT Cpe,QIII3eMHoro MOpfl.
                               -    Kor,qa-To A30BCKoe Mope 6bi110 caMbiM
                              6oraTbiM. B HeM 6bi110 6onbwe scero pb16bl
                                   Ha e,QIIIHIIIL\Y 06beMa BO,Qbl. Tenepb K0/1111-
                                    , ecTBO ynosos pb16bl yMeHbWIIIIlOCb no-
                                      HTIII B ,QeCfiTb pa3, - noy4a11a CbiHa riii-
                                       ,Qpoc<j>epa. -    3a6oTbCfl o He6onbwlllx
                                        BO,QOeMax!
                                           YcTbi,QIIIIlCfl   M111posolll   oKeaH     111
                                        nOHfln, 4TO Ma/leHbKI/Ie MOpfl - 3TO
                                        HeoTbeMneMafl 4aCTb ero 6oraTCTB, 111
                                        OHIII 04eHb HY>K,QatOTCfl B 3a60Te.
                                          Co..tJU!Itltbee ~iie~u,odtne CJtCJiieJtbt
   ConHe4Hafl 3Heprlllfl npespal!laeTCfl s TennosyiO s npo1...1ecce nornol!leHLIIfl
11131ly4eHLIIfl aTOMaMLII Bel!leCTBa. norllOL!IeHHaf! COJ1He4Haf! 3Heprlllfl npespal!la-
eTCfl B TenJlOBYIO 3Hepr11110 COJ1He4HbiX 3JleMeHTOB (KOJlJleKTOpOB).
   nocK01lbKY 3HeprLIIR COJ1He4HOrO 11131ly4eHLIIR pacnpeAeJleHa Ha 60JlbWOIII
nJlOL!IaALII, TO A11fl ee LIICnOJl b30BaHLIIfl Heo6XOALIIMO ycTpOVICTBO A11fl c6opa (nnoc-
KLIIIII KOJlJleKTOp). KonneKTOp COCTOLIIT 1113 4epHOIII TepMOLII3011LIIpOBaHHOIII CHLII3Y
nJlLIITbl, noKpbiTOVi CTeKJlOM. Me>KAY nJlLIITOVi Ill CTeKJlOM pacnOJlO>KeHbl MeAHble
Tpy6KLII, noKpbiTble 4epHolll KpacKolll LllnlllnaKoM A11fl          6onee 3cj>cj>eKTLIIBHoro   no-
rllOL!IeHLIIR COJ1He4HbiX 11y4ell!.   B 3TLIIX   Tpy6KaX I...ILIIPKY11LIIpyeT TenJlOHOCLIITeJlb,
KOTOpbllll nepeAaeT Tenno OT K0111leKTopa B 6aK-aKKYMY1lf!TOp C BOAOVI.
   (OJ1He4HaR      TenJlOBaf!    CLIICTeMa       COCTOLIIT   1113   OTAeJlbHbiX    3JleMeHTOB,
COeALIIHeHHbiX nOCJleAOBaTeJlbHO 11111111 napanneJlbHO, a TaK>Ke BCnOMOraTeJlb-
HOro o6opyAOBaHLIIfl. ConHe4Hble KonneKTOpbl 1113roTaBnLIIBaiOT 1113 AOcrynHbiX 111
OTHOCLIITeJlbHO AeWeBbiX MaTeplllallOB: CTaJllll, MeALII, aJliOMLIIHLIIfl.

   A~Jttne u Jl.accudJttne ~~
   4al!le BCero COJ1He4HOe 11131ly4eHLIIe LIICn01lb3YIOT A11fl HarpeBaHLIIfl BOAbl B CLII-
CTeMaX OTOnJleHLIIfl Ill ropfl4ero BOAOCHa6>KeHLIIfl AOMOB.
    B    aKWIBHbiX          TennoBbiX           CII1CTe-
Max (p111c.     1     a) c noMO~biO Hacoca
ocy~eCTB/lfleTCfl            np111HY,D,II1Te/lbHafl         a)

4111PKY1lfll.lll1fl     HarpeTOVl        >KII1,li,KOCTII1
(TennoHOCII1Tellfl).          TaKII1e      CII1CTeMbl
                                                                 4
y,n,o6Hbl,      nOCKO/lbKY           np111eMHII1KII1
conHe4Horo             11131ly4eHII1fl    111   Hacoc          Puc. 1. AKmUBHaR (a) u naccuBHaR (6)
MO>KHO no,n,coe,D,II1HII1Tb K Y>J<e             cy~e­       cucmeMbl HazpeeaHuR eoab1: 1 - npueMHUK co-
                                                            nHeLIHozo u3ny1.1eHUR, 2 - pezynRmop, 3 - U30-
CTBYIO~II1M         so,n,oHarpesaTe/lbHbiM
CII1CTeMaM.       He,n,ocTaTKOM 3 TII1X Cll1-               nupoeaHHblii HaKonumenb, 4- Hacoc
CTeM fiB/lfleTCfl 3aBII1CII1MOCTb OT ,n,pyr111X 111CT04HII1KOB 3/leKTp03Hepr111111, 6e3 KO-
TOpbiX OHII1 He MOryT pa60TaTb.
    B   naccii1BHbiX HarpesaTe/lbHbiX CII1CTeMax TennoHOCII1Te/lb 4111PKY11111pyeT 3a
C4eT eCTeCTBeHHbiX nepena,D,OB TeMnepaTypbl 111 ,D,aB/leHII1fl (eCTeCTBeHHafl KOH-
BeKL.1111fl). 3TO- CII1CTeMbl, B KOTOpbiX 3Hepr111fl (O/lHL.Ia npeBpa~aeTCfl B Ten/10
Henocpe,n,cTBeHHO TaM >Ke, r,n,e 111 noTpe6nfleTCfl (p111c.                     1 6).
    B naccii1BHOM conHe4HOM 3,D,aHII1111 caMa KOHCTPYKL1111fl111rpaeT pollb co6111paTe/lfl
C0/1He4HOVl 3Hepr111111. (0/1He4Hble 11Y4111, na,D,afl Ha CTeHbl, OKHa, KpbiWY 111 ,n,pyr111e
nosepxHOCTII1, nomo~aiOTCfl 111 npespa~aiOTCfl B Tennosy10 3Hepr11110. K MaTep111-
anaM, KOTOpble nomo~aiOT 111 coxpaHfiiOT Tenno, np111Ha,n,ne>KaT 6eTOHHble n/1111Tbl
nona, KaMeHHble cTeHbl 111 ,n,pyr111e cTp0111Te/lbHble KOHCTPYKL1111111. 0HII1 fiBilfiiOTCfl
OCHOBHbiMII1 3/leMeHTaMII1 B ,li,OMaX, KOTOpble naCCII1BHO 111CnO/lb3YIOT C0/1He4HYIO
3Hepr11110. Cy~eCTBYIOT TaK>Ke CII1CTeMbl, B KOTOpbiX npe,n,ycMOTpeHbl cnel.lll1a/lb-
Hble 3/leMeHTbl ,ll,/lfl HaKOn/leHII1fl Tenna, BMOHT111pOBaHHble B KOHCTPYKL.111110 3,D,a-
HII1fl (Hanp111Mep, fi~II1KII1 c KaMHfiMII1 11111111 3anonHeHHble so,n,oLII6aK111). KonneKTopbl
B ,C0/1He4HOM ,li,OMe" pa3Me~a10T C IO>KHOVl CTOpOHbl 3,D,aHII1fl (p111C.                       2).
    CospeMeHHble conHe4Hble CII1CTeMbl ropfl4ero so,n,ocHa6>KeHII1fl cnoco6Hbl
Ha 60-80% y,n,osneTBOp111Tb noTpe6HOCTb B ropH4eLII so,n,e Ha w111poTe K111esa, a B
                                                                     KpbiMY- 111 Ha see        100 %.    ll1cnonb-
                                                                     30BaHII1e TaKII1X re/11110CII1CTeM o6e-
                                                                     cne4111T Hawy            3HepreTII14eCKYIO
                                                                     He3aBII1CII1MOCTb        OT    nOBbiWeHII1fl
                                                                     4eHbl Ha ra3 1113/leKTp03Hepr11110.
                                                                        Mo>KHO         111CnO/lb30BaTb        111    He-
                                                                     3aBII1CII1Mble      OT     3,D,aHII1fl         K0/1-
                                                                     /leKTOpbl.        rnaBHbiVl      He,D,OCTaTOK
                                                                     OT,D,e/lbHO       ycTaHOB/leHHOro              K0/1-
                                                                     /leKTopa      -    BbiCOKafl     CTOII1MOCTb
Puc. 2. (f)pazMeHm eoaoHazpeeamenbHOii cucmeMbl
                      ,COflHeLIHOZO" aoMa
                                                                CTpOIIITe/lbHbiX       pa60T,        a
                                                                npeiiiMy~eCTBOM            RBJlReTCR
                                                                To, 4TO ero pa3Mepb1 MoryT
                                                                6b1Tb HaMHOrO 60/lbWe, 4eM
                                                                y K0/1/leKTOpa, ycTaHOB/leH-
                                                                HOrO Ha .QOMe. He3aBIIICIIIMaR
Puc. 3. 8bt6op yzna HaKI7oHa KonneKmopa a pa3HbteapeMeHa zo0a   KOHCTpyK IIIR MO>KeT MeHRTb
                                                                          4
0p111eHTa411110 Ill yr0/1 HaK/lOHa, TO eCTb,C/le.QIIITb"3a (OilH4eM.
   Yron HaK/lOHa - 3TO yron Me>KAY rop11130HTallbiO 111 nnocKOCTbiO KonneKTopa
(piiiC. 3). Ha KpbiWe yroll HaK/lOHa 3a.QaeTCR HaK/lOHOM KpOB/1111. 60/lbWe BCero
3Hepr111111 naHe/lb K0/1/leKTopa norno~aeT np111 pacnono>KeHIIIIII ee nnocKOCTIII
nO.Q npRMbiM yrllOM K HanpaB/leHIIIIO IIIHCOI1R4111111 (na.QeHIIIR C0/1He4HbiX 11y4eVI).
nocKOilbKY yroll IIIHCOI1R4111111 3aBIIICIIIT OT
BpeMeHIII CYTOK Ill BpeMeHIII rO.Qa, OpllleH-
Ta411110 nllOCKOCTIII K0/1/leKTOpa Bbl6111pa-
                                                                               w
IOT B COOTBeTCTBIIIIII C BbiCOTOVI (OilH4a B
                                                                                    MIOIIb
nepiiiOA nocTynneHIIIR caMoro 6onbworo
K0/11114eCTBa conHe4HOVI 3Hepr111111. VI.Qe-
anbHbiMIII .Q/lR HaWIIIX WlllpOT RB/lRIOTCR
yrllbl HaKilOHa OT 30 .QO    45   rpa.QyCOB.
   EC/1111 C0/1He4Hb1Vi CBeT na.QaeT Ha CTe-
K/lRHHYIO nosepXHOCTb nO.Q ymoM MeHb-
                                                           Puc. 4.IA3MeHeHue Bbtcombt ConHL(a Hao
WIIIM 4eM 30 rpa.Qycos, 3Ha4111TellbHoe ero
                                                       zopU30HmOM B30BUCUMOCmU om BpeMeHU zoOa
K0/11114eCTBO OTpa>KaeTCR. 3111MOVI (0/1H4e
Ha lOre HaXO.QIIITCR HIII>Ke no cpaBHeHIIIIO C /leTHeVI nopoV! (piiiC.     4), Ill yro/1     na.QeHIIIR
conHe4HbiX ny4eVI yMeHbwaeTcR.           B 3TO speMR Ba>KHO ycTaHOBIIITb KonneKTop no.Q
                                                                  yr/lOM HaK/lOHa He MeHb-
                                                                   we 4eM 80 rpa.Qycos.

                                                                           C().,I,JU!Itltbte

                                                                   rpomo.ue~t'*futtte­

                                                                      c~ate   cucJiieJtbt.
                                                                      (0/1He4Hble              cpOTO-
                                                                   npeo6pa30BaTe/llll           Heno-
                                                                   cpe.QCTBeHHO              npeBpa-
                                                                   ~aiOT 3Hepr11110 Co11H4a
                                                                   B 3/leKTp1114ecKyiO. Coe-
          Puc. 5. ConHe4HOR 6amapeR Ha Kpbtwe 300HUR
A111Hflfl   cj>oTo3neMeHTbl           B MOAynll1
111 Me>KAY co6olll, MO>KHO CTp0111Tb
MOW.H ble         cj>OT03neKTp1114eCKII1e
CTaH~II1111 (p111C.   5, 6, 7).
    CDoTo3neMeHTbl           Bb1pa6aTbiBaiOT
6onbwe 3neKTp03Hepr111111 np111 HII13-
KII1X TeMnepaTypax. 3TII1 3neKTpOH-
Hble        ycTpOII!CTBa          reHep111py10T
3neKTp03Hepr11110 noA AelllcTBII1eM                       Puc. 6. Pa3MeU(eHue conHe'/Hbtx Moayneu Ha
cseTa, a noBbiWeHII1e TeMnepaTypbl                                   npuycaae6HoM y'lacmKe
CHII1>KaeT     3cj>cj>eKTII1BHOCTb        cj>OTO-
reHepa~ll1111 111 nOBbiWaeT 3neKTpOCOnpOTII1BneHII1e 3neMeHTOB. no3TOMY 3111MOIII
COnHe4Hble 3neMeHTbl pa6oTaiOT 3cj>cj>eKTII1BHee, 4eM neTOM. 0AHaKO 3111MOIII
OHII1 Bblpa6aTbiBaiOT MeHbWe 3Hepr111111 3a C4eT                6onee     KOpOTKOrO CBeTOBOrO AHfl,
yMeHbWeHII1fl yrna naAeHII1fl conHe4Horo cseTa,6onbwelll o6na4HOCTII1.

~Odaltl«!~ tpO~IU!Ciai.X ~
    YKpa111Ha     cyw.ecTBeHHO             OTCTaeT    no     ypOBHIO      111CnOnb30BaHII1fl   COnHe4-
HOIII 3Hepr111111, XOTfl fiBnfleTCfl OAH111M 1113 roCyAapCTB-pOAOHa4anbHII1KOB AaH-
HOrO HanpasneHII1fl.              B   YKpa111He pa6oTaeT OAHa 1113 caMbiX MOW.HbiX B M111pe
renll1o3neKTpocTaH~II1111 (c. neposo,                AP   KpbiM, p111c.   8),   MHor111e KOCMII14eCKII1e




                            Puc. 7. renuocucmeMa a6nu3u 5anmuMopa (CWA)
                 Puc. 8. KpblMCKaR conHeLIHOR 3neKmpocmaHu,uR ,nepoeo"
annapaTbl o6opy.QoBaHbl conHe4HbiMIII naHeJlflMIII, KOTOpble pa3pa6oTaHbl
111 1113roTosneHbl s YKpaiiiHe. Pa3pa6oTKIII pa3Hoo6pa3HbiX KOHCTPYK4111VI
COJ1He4HbiX naHeneVIIII reJ111103JleKTpOCTaH4111VI (piiiC. 9, 10) npO.QOJl>KaiOTCfl.
   B KapaKYMax .Qllfl csapKIII KOHCTPYK4111VI Q>epMbl BMecTo rpoM03.QKIIIX 6an-
JlOHOB CO C>KaTbiM ra30M 11111111 .QIII3eJlb-reHepaTopa IIICnOJlb30BaJllll He60JlbWYIO
COJ1He4HYIO 6aTape10. no.Q .QeVICTBIIIeM COJ1He4HbiX 11y4eVI B HeLl! IIIHAY4111POBalllll
nOCTOf1HHbiVI3JleKTp1114eCKIIIVI TOK, pa311ara10~111VI BOAY Ha BO.QOPOA Ill KIIICllOpO.Q.
3Ta rop104af1 cMecb nocTynana B ropenKy ra3ocsapo4Horo annapaTa.
    B wTaTeAp11130Ha.QeVIcTsyeTO.QHa 1113CaMblx6oJlbWIIIXBM111pe 111pp111ra41110HHbiX
CIIICTeM, Hacocbl KOTopoVI pa6oTaiOT Ha conHe4HOVI 3Hepr111111. B H111rep111111, Ma11111
111 CeHerane TO>Ke nonynHpHbl conHe4Hble Hacocbl. OHIII Ka4aiOT 1113-nO.Q 3eMJllll
npeCHYIO BO.Qy, TaK He06XO.QIIIMYIO B 3TIIIX nyCTbiHHbiX MeCTHOCTflX.
                                           B.QOJlb .Qopor B nycTbiHe Caxapa
                                        ycTaHOBJleHbl COJ1He4Hble pa.QIIIOTelleQ>OHbl-
                                        aBTOMaTbl; s nepyaHCKOM ropo.Qe T111pyHTaM
                                        OT COJ1He4HbiX 6aTapeVI pa6oTaeT pa.QIIIOTe-
                                        JleQ>OHHafl CTaH4111f1; flnOHCKIIIe cne4111aJ1IIICTbl
                                        CKOHCTpy111posan111      conHe4HYIO      6aTape10,
                                        no pa3MepaM 111 Q>opMe HanoMIIIHaiO~YIO
                                        06bi4HYIO 4epen1114y. npaB.Qa, noKa He flCHO,
 Puc. 9. ConHeLIHaR 3neKmpocmaHu,uR     KaK oHa 6y.QeT pa6oTaTb B nepiiiO.Qbl cHero-
      c zenuoKOHU,eHmpamopoM
na.QOB, AO>K.Qe!IJ Ill l)'MaHOB. 6e3 TpaAIII'-'IIIOHHbiX IIICT04HIIIKOB 3/leKTp03Heprllllll,
HasepHoe, He o6oiiiTIIICb.




           u ~-teqoclhQJJ;Jat
     ~0~
     VlcnO/lb30BaHIIIe             C0/1He4HbiX
6aTapelll o6na.QaeT MHOriiiMIII npeiii-
My~ecTBaMIII             no cpaBHeHIIIIO C .Qpy-
riiiMIII   cnoco6aMIII          npo1113BO.QCTBa
3/leKTp03Hepr111111. CaMble sa>KHble
                                                      Puc. 70. ConHeLIHaR 3neKmpocmaHL(UR c
1113 HIIIX: aBTOHOMHOCTb; BbiCOKafl
                                                   nOOHRmbtMU cpom03neKmpu4eCKUMU MOoynRMU
Ha.Qe>KHOCTb; CHIII>KeHIIIe 3aTpaT Ha
ropfl4ee BO.QOCHa6>KeHIIIe 111 oTonneHIIIe .QO         85%   (conHe4Hafl 3Heprlllfl- 6ecnnaT-
Hafl); 3KOHOMIIIfl Tpa.QIII'-'IIIOHHOrO TOn/liiiBa (Ma3yTa, Heci>TIII, ra3a, yrllfl); COKpa~eHIIIe
Bb16pOCOB ABYOKIIICIII yrnepO.Qa; 06~eAOCl)'nHOCTb Ill HeiiiC4epnaeMOCTb IIICT04HIII-
Ka; .QO/lrOBe4HOCTb; BbiCOKafl 6e3onaCHOCTb A/lfl nepCOHa/la nplll 06CilY>KIIIBaHIIIIII.
     BMecTe c TeM y npo1113BOACTBa conHe4HOIII 3/leKTp03Hepr111111 ecTb '-'e/lbllll pfi.Q
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   *
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                                                                                                                                              V O N          F R Is c H
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                        }.__...- /                                      ~ .... ~- ..;'           .....   _/      A PIONEER Of ETHOLOGY ; DE COD ED THE LA NUAG E OF BEES
                                                                                                                 BIENENSPRACHE


                      ©                       ©-~ ~-©                                              {             !Iaypeam Ho6elle6cKou npeMuu


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-45 °(), a IIIHOr,Qa CTOJ16111K TepMOMeTpa na,qaeT ,QO OTMeTKIII -70 °(. JleTOM B
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noro,Qe 6bma BIII.QHa c sepwiiiH rop 3ana.QHOIII LllcnaH.QIIIIII. 0Ha ne>Kana Ha paccTo-
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Hyncfl B LllcnaH,QIIIIO Ill Ha4afl ariiiTIIIpOBaTb MeCTHbiX BIIIKIIIHrQB nepeCeflfiTbCfl Ha
HOBble 3eMnlll. BcKope CIOAa Ae~CTBIIITeflbHO np111exan111 IIICflaHAI...Ibl. 0HIII Hana-
,[llllfllll TOprOBble CBfl3111 CO CBOelfi pO,QIIIHO~: npo,QaBafllll MeX, MOp>KOBble KflbiKIII,
a noKYnan111 xne6, TKaHIII, Aepeso 111 >Kene3o.

38
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   H  a CaMOM 6011bWOM B Mlflpe OCTpOBe HenKe11e3HbiX,ll,OpOr, a npOTfi>KeHHOCTb
aBTOMarlflCTpaneV! COCTaBilfleT 111f1Wb 150 KM. 3,1J,eCb npO>KiflBaeT OK0/10 60 Tb1Cfl4
4e110BeK, KOTOpble pacCe111f1111f1Cb B 6-Tifl HaCelleHHbiX nyHKTaX. 3THif14eCKif1Vl CO-
CTaB HaCelleHiflfl npe,ll,CTaBileH 3CKif1MOCaMif1 lf1 nOTOMKaMifl 6biBWif1X esponeV!-
CKiflX K0110Hif1CTOB. MecTHble >Kif1Te111f1 nepe,ll,BiflratOTCR Ha co6a4blf1X ynpR>KKax, a
,IJ,Ilfl npeO,[I,OileHiflfl 6011bWif1X paCCTOfiHiflVl lf1Cn011b3YIOT aBiflaTpaHCnOpT.
   cP110pa rpeH11aH,lJ,If11f1 6e,[I,Hafl, npe,ll,CTaBileHa npelflMy~eCTBeHHO Hlf13KOpOC-
11biM TpaBRHbiM nOKpOBOM,111f1WaVlHif1KaMif1 lf1 MXaMifl. 3aTO Ha OCTpOBe YHiflKallb-
Hafl lf1 6oraTaR cj>ayHa. 3,1J,eCb BO,IJ,RTCR cesepHbiVI oneHb, 6enbll4 Me,IJ,Be,IJ,b, 6enbll4
nonRpHbiVI B011K, nece4, neMMiflHr.        B np1t16pe>KHbiX    BO,IJ,ax o61f1TatOT rpeHnaH,lJ,-
CKiflVI KlflT, rpeHilaH,[I,CKafl aKylla, TIOileHb, MOp>K lf1 ,ll,pyrlfle >KiflBOTHble. MHOrlfle
nTif14bl rHe3,lJ,fiTCfl B rpeH11aH,lJ,If11f1, a c HacTynneHifleM 31f1Mbl yneTaiOT Ha lOr. Ky-
ponaTKa lf1 nonRpHaR oscRHKa >KiflBYT 3,1J,eCb KpyrnbiVI ro,IJ,.      B rpeHnaH,lJ,Ifllfl caMbiVI
6011bWOVl B Mlflpe apea11 pacnpOCTpaHeHiflfl ,IJ,If1Kif1X OB4e6biKOB, KOTOpbiX e~e 50
lleT Ha3a,IJ, Ha OCTpOBe He 6bl110.   8 cepe,IJ,If1He XX BeKa Ha OCTpOB 3aBe3111f1 27 OC0-
6el4 3Toro Blfl,IJ,a, a cero,lJ,HfllflX nony11R41f1R coCTaBnReT 6onee 20 000 >KiflBOTHbiX.
   Ha Tepp1t1T0plf11t1 apKTif14eCKOro OCTpOBa 22 MaR 1974 rO,[I,a C03,lJ,aH CaMbiVl
6onbwol4 B Mlflpe Ha41f10Ha11bHbll4 np1t1pO,ll,Hbll4 napK,rpeHnaH,lJ,IflR': Ero nno~a,IJ,b
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B napKe B nOilHOVl 6e30naCHOCTif1, Be,IJ,b CIO,IJ,a nplf1e3>Ka10T TOilbKO y4eHble. olla-
ro,[l,apR lf130111t1pOBaHHOCTif1 lf1 cypOBbiM K111f1MaTif14eCKif1M YC110Bif1fiM rpeHilaH,lJ,Iflfl
OCTaeTCfl O,lJ,HiflM lf13 HeMHOrlflX MeCT Ha 3eM11e, r,[l,e COXpaHif111aCb ,[l,eBCTBeHHafl
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            Mbl HAE4H HKH
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npop,omKaTbCR Lll ,D,allbWe, 4epe3 HeCKOilbKO ,D,eCRTLIIIleTLIIVJ MO>KeT npOL1130VJTLII
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nep, rpeHilaH,D,LIILII, ypoBeHb MLIIpOBOrO OKeaHa nO,D,HLIIMeTCR Ha 6-7 M. 3TO MO>KeT
npLIIBeCTLII K KaTaCTpOcj>LII4eCKLIIM LII3MeHeHLIIRM KllLIIMaTa, 3aTOnlleHLIIIO OCTpOBOB,
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naH,D,LIIR Lll Ha4LIIHaeM nop,roTOBKY K nepenery B 3HOVIHyiO JlaTLIIHCKYIO AMepLIIKY.
MalleHbKUe zpeHJlaH011bl B zpeHJlaHOCKOM nocellKe                                     MeonyHKm
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HRemcR. Pa3flUliQ/Om neaHUKU noKp08Hbte (o. rpeHnaHauR, AHmapKmuaa) u zopHbte.
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OTKJlOHReTCR OT npRMOJlLIIHeiiiHOIII (pLIIC. 1),                           !.'If'(!
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KaK y Clllplllyca. no4eMy >Ke TOrAa cnyTHLIIK         KOMnOHeHmOB BOKpyz 06UjeZO L(eH-
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npeABLt1AeHHbllll 5ecceneM (p111c. 2). 0Ka3a-
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                        3
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