Docstoc

zmenwkolosok_3_2012_ru1

Document Sample
zmenwkolosok_3_2012_ru1 Powered By Docstoc
					                                                        3aperliiCTplilpOBaHO B rocyAapCTBeHHOM KOMIIITeTe
                                                        reneBIIIAeHIIIR 111 paAIIIOBeU\aHIIIR YKpaliiHbl.
                                                        CaMAerenbCTBO o      perMCTpa~IIIM:    KB N9 18209-7009nP or 05.1 0.11 r.
                                                        YtlpeAIIITenb M3Ai1HMR: nrQO.JlbBOBCKIII~ IIIHCTiilryT o6pa30BaHIIIR~
                                                        79006, r. nbBOB, nn. PbiHOK, 43.
                                                        lii3ABTenbCTBO: (Q .ropOACKiile IIIH<I!OpMal.IIIIOHHble CIIICTeMbl"
                                                        79013,r. nbBOB, yn. reH. 4ynp111HKIII, 5.

BbiXOAIIIT 12 pa3 B rcA.                                ©.JlbBOBCKIII~   IIIHCTiilryT o6pa30BaHIIIR~ 2006
Nil 3(45) 2012.




              HAYKA lf1 TEXH lf1 KA
                4     Banepuu CmapoU{yK. 5onbwoVI aApOHHbiVI K0111laVIA' i
                10 AHOpet15pbiZOC. (KOTlbKO KIIIC110Tbl B BaweVI >Kiii3Hiil.
                   14      BuKmopMRCHUKOB. Mera111lbllilliiX,4YAeCHble" csoVI

              >Kif1BAR     nPif1POAA
                  16       /ITpuHa nucynuHcKaR. PaAOH - APYr 111 spar.
                  20       TambRHa Tap6uHcKaR. PacreHIIIR-c<j>IIIHKCbl.
                  24       Cepzeu CmenbMax. olllii>KaVIwaR pOACTBeHHIIII...\a Kpor '·


              nllAHETA 3EMJ1R
                  26 JOpuu Wuaana. B nOIIICKax ,D,oporlil rlilraHTOB.
                  36 tJapbR 5uoa. Ill sce-raKIII oHa spa111aercR!
                  42 3HaKOMbmecb: Hay4HbiVI 1...\eHrp,KonepHIIIK".


              nO"'TOBbiLII R~IIIK
                  44       /11114a Hawero >KYPHana.
                  48       MapK KpacuH. AIIICTbl- npeABeCTHIIIKIII C4aCTbfl.                            ~
                   Ha cl>op3a~e. lllror111 KOHKYpca ,/ly4w111VI 4111Tarenb YKpaiiiHbl                   ;e
                                                                                                    n m~ pc111111

                  >KYPHana «KO/lOCOK»" 2011.


         po308biU. Bua pacnpocmpaHeH no 8ceu meppumopuu YKpauHbi, HO LIGUle 8cezo 8cmpeLiaem ,
         Kapnamax. (/)omo HUKOflOR nupOZ080.
            flUWOUHUKU- aemu KOCMOCO. 88epxy: rjJomo cpe30 flUWOUHUKO, KOmOpbiU a8e Heaenu npe6bi80fl
         8 )l(eCmOLIOUWUX ycno8URX OmKpblmOZO KOCMOCO (3neKmpOHHb/U MUKpOCKOn). Hu oaHa KnemKO He
         no8pe)/(aeHa!
            Ha o6opome. npuznawaeM nocMompemb, KaK 8POUiaemCR 3eMnR.
            MaRmHUK (/)yKO 8 HayLIHOM L(eHmpe uKonepHuK", Bapwa8a. (/)omo IJapbU 5uabl.
Ifj;   fJ41£-11t_up__   ~          (/)Ulh-l/lJill   If£   ~{l.fl{Jfl.   O,qHa)K,Qbl OH BCTpenm
HemyHa, TO>Ke rpycTHOro 1t1 He ynbl6aiOLllerocR. 4T06bl pa3Blle4b enaCTenlt'I-
 Ha Mope!~!, )J,enb<f>l-1H pew11111 CTaH4eBaTb 1t1 cneTb ,qnR Hero. PR,qOM nponnbl-
   eana AK}'na. YBit'l,qeB HenTyHa 1t1 )J,enb<f>lt'IHa, oHa npe3plt1TellbHO cKa3ana:
       ,0,lllt'IH - HaXMyplt111CR l-1 Cl-1,lllt'IT, CilOBHO MOpCKaR CBit'IHbR, a BTOpOII! nepe,q
         Hl-1M naRCHl-14aeT".
                HemyHa B03MYTit11la TaKaR HeBe>Killt'IBOCTb AKYilbl. OH pew11111 npo-
              Y41t1Tb rpy61t1RHK}' lt'IJllt'IWl-111 ee B03MO>KHOCTl-1 pa,qoBaTbCR >Kl-13Hit1, a
                )J,enb<f>lt'IHa Harpa,q11111 eecenolll ynbi6Kolll.   C Tex nop y ecex ,qenb<f>lt'I-
                   HOB no KpaRM 4eJliOCTelll o6pa30BaJllt1Cb >Kl-1p0Bble OTJlO>KeHit'IR B
                        Bl-1,Qe MRrKit'IX no,qywe4eK, 6naro,qapR KOTOpbiM l-1X MOp,Q04Ka
                         HanoMit'IHaeT ynbl6aiOLlleecR Ill-140. Bee 11106RT ,qenb<f>lt'IHOB 3a
                           APY>Keni06Hbllll xapaKTep, lt'ICKpeHHIOIO ynbi6K}', roTOBHOCTb
                            nplt'lii!Tl-1 Ha nOMOLl.lb. 3Tit1 KOMnaHeiiiCKit'le >Kit'IBOTHble 4aC-
                              TO nnaBaiOT rpynnaMl-1. A Xlt'IL4Hl-1Kit1 aKyllbl - O,lll-1H0Kit'le lt1
                                OCKaJleHHble, lt'IX 60RTCR lt1 npe3lo1pa10T.
       .   ~dilR£'122 ~fmCfJ'i!JJ.JliJBJJMifi
        ~~~~ DC6en
            OH BCTpewl/1 Pb16y lll CKa3a11:                           r
           - YnnbiBllllll ,qaVI MHe ,qopory, MenKaR pb16ewKa!
           Pb16a o6ll!,qenacb, xnecTHyna xsocTOM lll yn11b111a. BcKope AV!c6epr ysll!-
      ,qen Mop>Ka lll nplllrpo3li!Il eMy:
          - 3V!, Tbl, HeC4aCTHaR Me11I03ra, yVI,qlll C MOero nyTlll, a He TO R Te6R pa3-
     ,qasmo!
         Te4eHll!e yHOCli!IlO AV!c6epr ,qanbwe, lll s,qpyr Ha ero nyTlll noRBli!IlaCb
    HesepoRTHaR rpoMa,qli!Ha - 6onbwoVI Cli!Hli!VI Klll~ Kpacll!soe >Kli!BOTHOe
   cnoKoVIHo nllblllO no MopcKoVI nyllli!He, nycKaR TPliiAI...IaTli!CaHTli!MeTpOBble
   <j>oHTaHbl BOAbl. AV!c6epr lll Ha Hero no,qHRil ronoc:
        - XBOCTaTOe 4YAOBli!Ll.le, yVI,qlll C ,qoporll!, a TO npespaTli!WbCR CO CBOli!M
  <j>OHTaHOM B 6e11y10 neHy!
       06li!>KeHHble MOpCKll!e >Kli!Tellll! nonllbllllll 3a COBeTOM K 6ory MOpeV! -
 HemyHy. VIMeHHO OH noo6ellla11 >Kli!BOTHbiM HaKa3aTb caMoysepeHHoro
 xsacryHa. 4TO >Ke c,qenan HenryH? OH cnpRTan AV!c6epr rny6oKo no,q so,qy,
OCTaBli!B Blii,QHbiMlll Ha nosepXHOCTlll TOJlbKO 10 %OTero 06beMa. ( TeX nop
AV!c6epr >KaneeT o TOM, liTO OH He3acny>KeHHO o6ll!,qen o6li!TaTeneVI MOpR.
0H >K,QeT, KOr,qa K HeMy KTO-TO no,qnllbiBeT OlleHb 6Jlli!3KO lll 06HapY>KliiT, Ha-
~...~~~~~iiifj~~RopoHa HLt1KOr,qa He Y4Lt1Jla <j>III3111KL>1, HO npe-
                      KpaCHO ee npLt1MeHfleT Ha npaKTIIIKe. 4T06bl pac-
                   KOJ10Tb KpenKL-1111 opeweK, YMHafl nT1114a no.QHL-1-
                  NI))~&..f_ HL>1M Ha BbiCOTY nfiTOro 3Ta>Ka Lt1 6pocaeT
                 Ha   KaMi:r~Jl ~<j>aJlbT. na,qafl C 60J1bWOifi BbiCOTbl,
                opex Ha6Lt1paeT CKOpOC~~n pa36Lt1BaeTCfl OT CLt1JlbHO-
               ro y,qapa. BopoHe ocTaeTcfl rollbKo"co6paTb BKYCHYIO
            cepe,qLt1HKY, KOTopaH npHTanacb no,q cKopnynolli.
                                                                               ~

               ATOMbl, 1113 KOTOpbiX COCTOIIIT opex, TaKLt1M CnOC0-
          60M He pa3o6bewb - HY>KHa 3Heprlllfl HaMHoro 6onbwe.
         no3TOMY <j>L>13111KL>1 np111,qyMaJ1Lt1 cne4111a11bHble ycKopiiiTelllll, B
        KOTOpbiX 4aCTIII4KLt1   Be~eCTBa    CHa4aJ1a pa3rDHfiiOT n04TLt1 ,QO
      CKOpOCTIII CBeTa Ill TOJlbKO nOTOM CTaJlKIIIBaiOT ,qpyr C ,qpyroM.
     B 3TOM Clly4ae MO>KHO nOl1Y4111Tb 4aCTLt14KIII, L-13 KOTOpbiX COCTO-
    fiT BCe TeJla 80 BceJleHHOIIi, B TOM 4111CJ1e opex, BOpOHa, >KypHaJl
   ,KOnOCOK" Ill Mbl C BaML-1. Ho ,qa>Ke BOpOHa-3KCnepLt1MeHTaTOp
  3HaeT, 4TO    pa3JleTaiO~IIIecfl   KYC04KL>1 opexa onacHbl, se,qb OHL-1
 MoryT nopaHLt1Tb. OcKOllKL-1 aTOMOB onacHee B Mllll111Lt10Hbl pa3! Pa3-
neTafiCb C orpOMHOifi CKOpOCTbiO, OHIII MoryT HaBpe,QIIITb 3,QOpOBbiO
                                         K•apK
                                 DIIOOII~
                             ~.QPO ~
                                            nPOTOH
                                           HE~TPOH

                                            ~
                                     TJIIOOH W

                                         KsapK
    -.enoBeKa M Aa>Ki! y6Mlb ero. no3TOMY y'leHble CTpmrT
    piiiTeiiM rny6ot<O nOA leMileM. CaMbiM MOIJ.!HbiM ycKOpiiiTeS1b B
    MMpe pacnono>KeH Ha rpaHMqe Waeliiqap~~tM 111 Cl>paHqlltllt a cKa-
    nax Ha my6~~tHe 100M. 3TO- 6onbWOM ;lApoHHbiM KOMai71Aep,
    COKpaiJ.IeHHO 6AK (LHQ.
      ~T06bl notunb, 3a~eM ero CAenanM TaKMM 6onbWMM, Aa-
    aa~re cHa'lana paCCMOTpMM coapeMeHHYJO MOAenb aroMa.
    HanoMHMM. aTOM - o'leHb Mal'leHbKMiii. Ha        cporo
                                                Bbl Br.tAMTe
    CS10MIHHbiM BOJIOC LtenoaeKa TOIIIJ.IMHOM       0,08   MM nOA MM-
    KPOCKOnOM. TaKYIO TOIIIJ.IMHY MOJ«Ho nony-.Mlb, ecnM nocra-
    ar.m, s PRA npiiiMepHo 250 TbiCJI'I aroMoa. Ho BtfYTPIII aroMa
    HaxDAMTCfl   H,Apo, KOTOpoe MeHbWe caMOrO alOMa npMMepHO
    a 10 lbiCR'I pa3. EcnM fiApo yaenM'IMTb AO pa:wepoa opexa,
    TO a Tl!IKOM .,aroM" noMecrlltTtfl cjlyr6onbHoe none! CaMoe YAM-
    BIIfl'el1bHOe, 'ITO nO-.TM BCR MaCca aTOMa COCJ)e,AOTO'IeHa B no-
    11C»KIIfl'eS1bHO 3apllltC.eHHOM fiApe, a BOKpyr 8pa1J.!aiOTCR nerKMe,
    OTpVII.Iatel'lbHO 3apR>KeHHble ~neKTpoHbl.
       PaCCMOTpMM I!Apo no6nMIKe.       Y BCeX 8TOMOB      OHO COCTOMT
    M3 nonOJ«MTellbHO 3aplllKeHHbiX npoTOHOB VI He3apmKeHHbiX
    Helil1pOHOB (KpOMe aTOMa fr.tAporeHa, ~t,qpo KOTOporo COCTOMT
    acero 1113 OAHOro nporoHa).lo13MeHRA KOI1VI'IeCTBO npoTOHOB M
    HeKrpOHOB, Mbl MC»KeM nony-.llllb BCe XMMM'IeCKIIIe 3JleMeHlbl
    ra6nVIL(bl MeHAeJJeeaa. Ha.qo ronbKO noMHMlb, 'ITO KonM'I~
•   CTBO nporoHOB onpe,Aem•er XIIIMIII'IeCKIIIe caoliicraa aroMa.
    HanpMMep, CTOIIIT y JIAPI 8TOMa pTyTII! 3a6pa1b OAMH npOTOH,
    KaK ::lTO }'*e 6yAer J~Apo aroMa 30110Ta. Ho 3a6parb MnM A06a-
         nporoH OKa3allOCb AenOM cno:JKHbiM, 111 croMMOCTb raKo-
    BIIIlb
    ro 30110Ta 6yAeT pa3 B Aecf!Tb 60S1bWe, -.eM nony-.eHHOro
              PYAbl.
                  4T06bl Y3HaTb, 1113 4ero COCTORT npOTOHbl Ill HeVITpOHbl, y4eHble CTa11KIIIBaiOT
              4aCTIII4KIII APYr c ApyroM Ha 6o11bwoVI cKopocTIII, 111 c noMo~biO cne4111a11bHbiX
              AaT4111KOB 110BRT IIIX OCK011KIII. 3TIII 3KCnep111MeHTbl 04eHb AOpOrllle Ill B 06bi4HOVI
              11a6opaT0p111111 IIIX He npoBeAeWb. no3TOMY B 1953 roAy 12 esponeVICKIIIX CTpaH
              noAn111ca11111 comaweHIIIe o C03AaHIIIIII EsponeVIcKoVI opraHIII3al.lllllll no RAepHbiM
              IIICC11eAOBaHIIIRM WEPH (CERN). A66peBIIIaTypa CERN npo11130w11a oT <I>P· Conseil
              Europeen pour Ia Recherche Nucleaire (EsponeVIcKIIIVI coseT no RAepHbiM IIIC-
              C11eAOBaHIIIRM). 8 HaCTOR~ee BpeMR 4111(110 CTpaH-411eHOB B03pOC110 AO 20.
              KpoMe TOro, HeKOTOpble CTpaHbl Ill Me>KAYHapOAHble opraHIII3al.lllllll IIIMeiOT CTa-
              TYC Ha61110AaTe11eVI. B WEPHe nocTORHHO pa6oTaeT OK0110 2 500 4e11oseK, e~e
              OK0110 8 000 <I>1113111KOB Ill IIIH>KeHepOB 1113 580 YHIIIBepCIIITeTOB Ill IIIHCTIIITYTOB 1113 85
              cTpaH y4aCTBYIOT B Me>KAYHapOAHbiX 3Kcnep111MeHTax WEPHa 111 pa6oTaiOT TaM
              BpeMeHHO, B TOM 4111C11e Ill y4eHble 1113 YKpaiiiHbl.
                  WEPH HaXOAIIITCR s6111113111 >KeHeBbl. TeppiiiTOpiiiR WEPHa cocTOIIIT 1113 ABYX
              OCHOBHbiX Ill HeCK011bKIIIX MeHbWIIIX n110~aAOK. D011bWOVI KOMn11eKC 3AaHIIIVI
              BK11104aeT B ce6R pa604111e Ka6111HeTbl, 11a6opaT0p111111, np01113BOACTBeHHble no-
              Me~eHIIIR, CK11aAbl, 3a11bl A11R KOHcl>epeHL..IIIIVI, >KIII11ble noMe~eHIIIR, CT0110Bble.
              YcKop111Te11bHbiVI KOMn11eKc pacno11o>1<eH KaK Ha nosepxHOCTIII (napble ycKo-
              p111Te11111 Linac, PS), TaK 111 noA 3eM11eVI - Ha my6111He AO 100 MeTpos (6o11ee
              cospeMeHHble SPS, LHC).
                  4aCTIIIL..Ibl pa3roHRIOT B HeCK011bKO 3TanOB. CHa4a11a npOTOHbl 11111111 TR>Ke11ble
              IIIOHbl (Hanp111Mep, aTOMa CBIIIHL..Ia) pa3rOHRIOT B 11111HeVIHbiX YCKOp111Te11RX Linac2,
              Linac3. 3aTeM B ycKop111Te11e PS Booster 111x cKopocTb CTaHOBIIITCR e~e 6o11bwe, ~              111 -o
              OHIII nonaAaiOT B npoTOHHbiVI cynepciiiHxpoTpoH (Ha cxeMe- SPS, Super Proton
              Synchrotron). BnepBble ero 3anycTIII11111 B 1971 roAY· 3To K011bl.IO AlllaMeTpoM
~~l""'b::::::=-~.....,;~

                                                                                                            -~
            6
                 Ill
JOo--::::iill::::==-___;~~
                                                                                                           "'        3
                                                                                                                 ,' tv
                                                                                                              ':J:
                                                                                                             ~ "
                                                          LHC - B    CERN
                                                     ~_._Poi n t S
                                                                     - ~"'"' ATLAS
                                                                         Poi n t 1




2 KM, rAe 4aCTII14KII1 pa3rOHfiiOTCfl n04TII1 AO CKOpOCTII1 CBeTa,3aTeM pa3Ae11fiiOTCfl
Ha ABa noToKa 111 3anycKaiOTCfl HaBcTpe4y APYr APyry B 6onbwoe KOilb~O aApOH-
Horo KOJlllaLIIAepa A11111HOLII 26,7 KM (Ha cxeMe- LHC, Large Hadron Collider).
   KOilb~O KOJlJlaVJAepa pa3Ae11eHO Ha BOCeMb paBHbiX CeKTOpOB, B Ka>KAOM
1113 KOTOpbiX CTOfiT MarHII1Tbl, ynpaBJlfll0~111e AB111>KeHII1eM ny4Ka npOTOHOB. noA
B03AeVJCTBII1eM MarHII1THOrO nOilfl 3/leMeHTapHble 4aCTII1~bl He yneTaiOT no KaCa-
TeJlbHOVJ 3a npeAellbl KOJlb~a, a OCTaiOTCfl BHyTp111. Bcero BAOJlb TOHHeJlfl ycTa-
HOBJleHO 1 624 MarHII1Ta . 111x A11111Ha B o6~eLIJ C110>KHOCTII1 npeBbiWaeT 22 KM,
A11111Ha Ka>KAOrO MarHII1Ta - OKOJlO 15 MeTpOB. 06~afl Macca OAHOrO MarHII1Ta -
6011ee 27 TOHH. Ha cf>OTO Bbl B111A111Te OA111H 1113 TaKII1X MarHII1TOB.
   Anfl AOCTII1>KeHII1fl Tpe6yeMbiX Be111114111H Hanpfi>KeHHOCTII1 MarHII1THoro nonfl
MarHII1Tbl np111W110Cb AeJlaTb CO CBepxnpOBOAfi~II1MII1 o6MOTKaMII1. 111x OXJla>KAa-
IOT AO TeMnepaTypbl 1,9 K (271,3       °(). 3TO HII1>Ke, 4eM TeMnepaTypa B OTKpbiTOM
KOCMII14eCKOM npOCTpaHCTBe (2,7 K 11111111 -270,5       °(). 4T06bl OX11aA111Tb KOHCTpyK-
~11110 MaccoLIJ36 800 TOHH 111 n011Y4111Tb KOCMII14eCKII1Vl XOilOA B 3eMHbiX YC110BII1fiX,
Allfl 6AKa C03Aa11111 MO~HeLIIwy10 Kp111oreHHYIO CII1CTeMy. 0Ha COAep>K111T 6o11ee
40 000 repMeTII14HbiX CBapHbiX WBOB, 111CnOJlb3yeT 10 000 TOHH >K111AKOrO a30Ta
111 130 TOHH >K111AKOrO re11111fl. Tenepb Bbl nOHII1MaeTe, n04eMy KOilllaVJAep Ha-
3Ba11111 60JlbWII1M!
   B 4eTb1pex MecTax ny4KII1 1113 ABYX Tpy6 ycKop111Tellfl nepeceKaiOTCfl, 111 111MeHHo
3AeCb np0111CXOAfiT CT011KHOBeHII1fl npOTOHOB, 3Hepr111fl KOTOpbiX B 7 pa3 BbiWe
npeAbiAY~ero peKOpAa, AOCTII1rHyToro Ha ycKOp111Tene T3BaTpOH B CWA. B T04-
                                  !;@:~.•
                                 --·
          ~::;::-___~._ -=-- --~~ fte1~1C.C1             u mexHu1C.e1
Ke CTO/lKHOBeHIIIR npOTOHOB TeMnepaTypa 6011ee 4eM B                 100   TbiCR4 pa3 BbiWe,
4eM B 4eHTpe Co11H4a, a se.o.b csepxnposo.o.R~IIIe MarHIIITbl 5AKa oxna>~<.o.eHbl
.o.o   -271,3   OC. TaK 4TO oAK - 3TO o.o.HospeMeHHO 111 caMaR ropR4aR, 111 caMaR xo-
no.o.HaR MaWIIIHa B Mlllpe.
       CTOilKHOBeHIIIe .o.syx 4aCTIII4 ,1106 B   no6"-   co6b1TIIIe .o.osonbHO pe.o.Koe, TaK
KaK 4aCTIII4bl 04eHb ManeHbKIIIe. Kor.o.a nepeceKaiOTCR .o.sa ny4Ka no             100 Mllllllllll-
ap.o.os 4aCTIII4 B Ka>K.QOM, CTaJlKIIIBaiOTCR BCero JliiiWb     20   1113 HIIIX. Ho nOCKOJlbKY
ny4KIII nepeceKaiOTCR npiiiMepHO         30   MIIIJl/liiiOHOB pa3 B CeKyH.Qy, e>KeCeKyH.QHO
MO>KeT npOIIICXO.QIIITb     600   MIIIJlJliiiOHOB CTOJlKHOBeHIIILII. Y4eHble BCer.o.a pa.Qbl
CTO/lKHOBeHIIIRM, n03BOJlRIO~IIIM BbiRCHIIITb, 1113 4ero COCTORT 4aCTIII4bl, Ill 3a<I>IIIK-
C111pOBaTb pO>K.QeHIIIe HOBbiX 4aCTIII4.
       np111 CTOJlKHOBeHIIIIII npOTOHOB BO BCe CTOpOHbl JleTRT ,6pb13riii-OCKOJ1KIII" -
3/leMeHTapHble 4aCTIII4bl. B cpe.o.HeM po>~<.o.aeTcR        100 TaKIIIX   4aCTIII4 Ha Ka>~<.o.oe
CTO/lKHOBeHIIIe. B npoeKTe npe.QyCMOTpeHO, 4TO no TeM >Ke Tpy6aM MO>KHO YCKO-
pRTb He TOJlbKO npOTOHbl, HO Ill R.Qpa aTOMOB CBIIIH4a. B 3TOM C1ly4ae np111 Ka>K-
.QOM CTOJlKHOBeHIIIIII R.Qep 6y.QeT pO>K.QaTbCR nopR.QKa        15 000    HOBbiX 4aCTIII4.
       O.o.HaKo CTOJlKHYTb .o.se 4aCTIII4bl ,1106 B   no6"-   3TO TOJlbKO nonos111Ha .o.ena.
no COBpeMeHHbiM npe.QCTaB/leHIIIRM HeLIITpOHbl Ill npOTOHbl COCTORT 1113 KBapKOB,
KOTOpble B3aiiiMO.QeLIICTBYIOT C nOMO~biO rJliOOHOB (aHr/1.        gfuon   OT   glue-   KJleLII). K
CO>KalleHIIIIO, cerO.QHR B pacnopR>KeHIIIIII y4eHbiX HeT np11160pa, KOTOpbiLII MOr 6bl
HanpRMYIO 3aperiiiCTplllpOBaTb, HanpiiiMep, KBapK-rlliOOHHYIO nlla3My. 0Ha IIIC4e-
3aeT 6e3 CJle.Qa 4epe3 HIII4TO>KHO KOpOTKIIILII npoMeW\YTOK BpeMeHIII           10-23 CeKyH.Qbl.
       BoT TaK y4eHble npe.o.cTaBJlRIOT KsapKoso-rniOOHHYIO nna3MY (eM. <l>oTo),
1113 KOTOpOLII pO>K.QaiOTCR pa3Hble 4aCTIII4bl. 0 pe3y1lbTaTaX CTOJlKHOBeHIIILII .Qe-
JlaiOT BbiBO.Qbl no cne.o.aM, ocTasneHHbiM 4aCTIII4aMIII, po.QIIIBWIIIMIIICR B xo.o.e
3Kcnep111MeHTa.       AnR   per111cTpa4111111 4aCTIII4 CKOHCTpylllposaHbl cne4111a11bHb1e
np1116opb1 - .QeTeKTOpbl. Vlx wecTb - ALICE (A Large lon Collider Experiment),
ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC ApparatuS), CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid), LHCb (Yhe
Large Hadron Collider beauty experiment), TOTEM (TOTal Elastic and diffraclive
cross section Measurement) 111 LHCf (The Large Hadron Collider forward). Ha
cj>OTO Sbl SIII.QIIITe cne.Qbl 4aCTIII4, nonyl.leHHbiX SO speMfl CTOflKHOSeHIIIfl S .QeTeK-
TOpe ALICE.
    3a4eM >Ke HayKe TaKOIII orpOMHbllll IIIHCTpyMeHT KaK 5AK? Bo-nepSbiX, OH
MO>KeT SOCC03.QaTb ycnOSIIIfl, np111 KOTOpbiX pO.QIIIfliiiCb MHOrllle 4aCTIII4KIII. 3TO
Sa>KHO, TaK KaK, 3Hafl see 0 npOWflOM, MO>KHO ny4We npe.QCKa3aTb 6y.Qyll\ee.
Bo-sTopbiX, ecn111 y4eHble o6Hapy>KaT 4aCTIII4KY 6o30H X111rrca, OHIII cMoryT
06be.QIIIHIIITb see Cyll\eCTSYIOLl\llle TeOpllllll S3aiiiMO.QeiiiCTSIIIIII S OAHY e.QIIIHYIO
KapTIIIHY Mlllp03.QaHIIIfl. Ecn111 ee He o6Hapy>KaT, TO Haw Ill cospeMeHHble nonbiTKIII
06bfiCHIIITb Mlllp C nOMOLl\biO CTaH.QapTHOIII MO.Qefllll OKaW\YTCfl HanpaCHbiMIII, Ill
y4eHble sbiHY>KAeHbl 6y.QyT co3.QasaTb HosytO TeopllltO. B-TpeTbiiiX, c noMOLl\btO
3KCnep111MeHTOS Ha KOnnaiii.Qepe OTKpbiSaiOT 4aCTIII4bl CHOSbiMIII CSOIIICTSaMIII, 0
KOTOpbiX paHbWe Ill He nO.Q03pesanlll.
    B UEPHe snepsble 6bln C03.QaH VlHTepHeT, KaK cpe.QcTso o6MeHa .QaHHbiMIII
Me>KAY MHOriiiMIII IIIHCTIIITyTaMIII Mlllpa. Cellll.laC OTpa6aTbiSaeTCfl HOSafl CIIICTe-
Ma GRID, s Mlllnnlllap.Qbl pa3 MOLl\Hee no cKopocTIII o6MeHa 111 coxpaHeHIIIfl IIIH-
cj>opMa4111111. A ell\e a.QpOHHbllll Konnaiii.Qep- 3TO xopowafl wKona Aflfl Mono.QbiX
y4eHbiX CO scero Mlllpa. 3.QeCb OHIII He TOflbKO 06MeHIIISaTbCfl 3HaHIIIfiMIII, HO Ill
nposepRIOT 111x Ha npaKTIIIKe.

 M11 TAM &biBAn, HA MOil.IA.QM
 rAnMnEII cro11n,
 "'Ero MBAM >KEJIAIOI :-)
                    Bb1   C4111TaeTe, 4TO KIIICilOTbl - 3TO TOilbKO XIIIMIII4eCKIIIe peaKTIIIBbl B wKone?
                 ,[\asaiiiTe y6e.QIIIMCR, 4TO Ka>K.Qbllll 1113 sac He pa3 IIIMe/1    ,qeno   c KIIICilOTOIII, ,qa>Ke He
             ,qora.QbiBaRCb o6 3TOM.
                    KIIIC/lOTbl - 3TO Bell.leCTBa, COCTORll.lllle 1113 aTOMOB BO,QOpo,qa (H) Ill KIIIC/lOTHbiX
                 OCTaTKOB (KQ). np111 paCTBOpeHIIIIII KIIIC/lOTbl B BO,Qe aTOMbl BO,QOpo,qa Ill KIIIC/lOTHble
                 OCTaTKIII npespa111a10TCR B IIIOHbl. VIOHbl - 3TO 3apR>KeHHble 4aCTIIIL.Ibl, B KOTOpble
                 npespa111a10TCR aTOMbl, OT,QaBaR (11111111 npiiiHIIIMaR) 3/leKTpOHbl. EC/1111 aTOM OT,QaeT
                 3/leKTPOH, IIIOH Ha3biBaiOT KaTIIIOHOM, npiiiHIIIMaeT - aHIIIOHOM. B KIIICilOTax aTOMbl
                 BO,QOpO,Qa npespa111a10TCR B KaTIIIOHbl           (H+),   a KIIIC/lOTHble OCTaTKIII - Ha aHIIIOHbl
                 (KQ-KQ-). Bee KIIICilOTbl KIIIC/lble Ha BKYC. B np111po,qe OHIII BCTpe4aiOTCR npeiiiMYll.leC-
                 TBeHHO B TBep,QOM Ill >KIII,QKOM COCTORHIIIRX.


                    CoJI.a:Ha.a:
                    CaMoiiiiii3BecTHolll RB/lReTcR xnoposo,qopo,qHaR KIIICilOTa- HCI, KOTO-
                 PYIO e111e Ha3biBaiOT conRHolll.
                    3TO - Clll/lbHaR KIIIC/lOTa. nonaB Ha >KIIIBble TKaHIII, OHa Bbl3biBaeT
                 pa3,qpa>KeHIIIe Ill O>KOrlll.   A B MallbiX   KOHL.IeHTpal.IIIIRX (npiiiMepHO    0,5 %)
                 CO/lRHaR KIIIC/lOTa BXO,QIIIT B COCTaB >Kelly,Q04HOrO COKa, CnOC06CTByeT ne-
                 pesapiiiBaHIIIIO n111111111111 y6111saeT 6one3HeTsopHble 6aKTep111111 •
..--""""i::J~=
   XnopoBOAOPOAHafl K~cnoTa - pacTsop
ra3a xnopOBOAOPOAa B BOAe. 3TOT ra3 Tfi-
>Kenee B03Ayxa, ~MeeT pe3K~III 3anax. B
fl~Tpe BOAbl MO>KeT paCTBOp~TbCfl n04T~

300 n~Tpos xnopoBOAOPOAa. B B03Ayxe
KOHI...IeHTp~pOBaHHafl    COflfiHafl K~CflOTa
,AbiM~TCfl": xnopOBOAOPOA o6pa3yeT C
BOAfiHbiM napoM MenK~e KanenbK~.
     ConfiHYIO K~cnory np~MeHfiiOT Aflfl
TpasneH~fl MeTaflflOB, 04~CTK~ nOCYAbl

OT HaK~n~, 6biTOBbiX Tpy6 ~ 6ypOBbiX
CKBa>K~H - OT OCaAKa ~ 3arpfi3HeH~III. B
MeTannypr~~ e10 o6pa6aTbiBaiOT PYAY, s
KO>KHOIII npOMbiWfleHHOCT~ - KO>KY nepeA
Ay6neH~eM. B MeA~LI~HCKolll npaKT~Ke
Kann~ ~ M~Kcrypbl Ha OCHOBe pa36aB-
neHHOIII COflfiHOIII K~CflOTbl B C04eTaH~~
c nenc~HOM ~cnonb3YIOT Aflfl ne4eH~fl         ConRHaR Kucnoma ,db/MumcR"
3a6oneBaH~III, CBfl3aHHbiX C HeAOCTaT04HOIII K~CflOTHOCTbiO >KenyA04HOrO COKa
(Hanp~Mep, np~ racTp~Te), ne4aT r~noxpoMHYIO aHeM~IO (BMecTe c npenapaTaM~
>Kene3a- Aflfl ny4wero scacbiBaH~fl).

                                        Cy~~~aTHa&                     (cepHa&)
    (OflfiHafl K~CflOTa He COAep>K~T aTOMOB K~CflOPOAa. Cyl..l.leCTBYIOT ~ K~CflOPOA­
COAep>Kal..l.l~e K~CflOTbl,   CaMOIII ~3BeCTHOIII ~3 KOTOpbiX fiBflfleTCfl cynbcj>aTHafl ~fl~
cepHafl K~cnoTa- H2S04 • CepHafl K~cnoTa- MacnfiH~cTafl >K~AKOCTb, no4T~ BABOe
Tfi>Kenee BOAbl. 3TO TO>Ke C~flbHafl K~CflOTa, KOTOpafl MO>KeT Bbi3BaTb O>KOr~ KO>K~
~ cn~3~CTolll o6ono4K~. 0Ha ~MeeT csolllcTBO,OTH~MaTb" BOAY OT APYr~x Bel..l.leCTB.
nponycKafl 4epe3 cepHyiO K~cnory Bel..l.leCTBa, KOTOpble He scrynaiOT c Hell! s pe-
aKLI~IO, ~x ocywa10T. KOHI...IeHTp~posaHHafl cepHafl K~cnoTa o6yrn~saeT opraH~-
4eCK~e Bel..l.leCTBa - caxap, 6yMary, Aepeso, sonoKHa. Ecn~ ee HaHecT~ Ha 6yMary,
MoneKynbl 1...1enn10no3b1 OTAaAyT BOAY, 6yMara o6yrn~TCfl ~ no4epHeeT.
            Ha~6onee w~poKafl o6nacTb np~MeHeH~fl 3TOIII K~cnoTbl - npo~3BOAC­
          TBO M~HepanbHbiX YA06peH~III. Ee TaK>Ke ~cnonb3YIOT KaK 3neKTpon~T B
           CB~HI...IOBbiX aKKYMYflfiTOpax, B np0~3BOACTBe Kpac~Tenell!, nnaCTMaCC,
          neKapcTBeHHbiX npenapaTOB.
             Ha OCTpOBe flea Ha BbiCOTe 2 386 MeTpOB HaA ypOBHeM MOpfl B
     KpaTepe-4awe synKaHa lt1A>KeH c cepbiM~ 6a3anbTOBbiM~ cTeHaM~ pacno-
                   no>KeHo Herny6oKoe (212 MeTpos) 03epo c cepHolll K~cnoTolll I...IBeTa
                    3eneHoro fl6noKa. nosepxHOCTb o3epa oKyTaHa cepHbiM wnelll-
                     cj>oM. Ha ero 6eperax MeCTHble >K~Ten~ A06biBaiOT cepy.
                                                                                YxcycHa.a:
                     Xopowo 1113BeCTHaR B 6biT}' a4eTaTHaR (3TaHoBaR, yKcycHaR) KIIICllO-
                 Ta. 0Ha OTHOCIIITCR K CJla6biM KIIICJlOTaM, HO ee KOHL..IeHTplllpOBaHHbllll
                 paCTBOp MO>KeT Bbi3BaTb pa3,n,pa>KeHIIIe KO>KIII Ill R3Bbl, eCJllll MeCTO
                 KOHTaKTa cpa3y He npOMbiTb BO,ll,Oill. OnaCHbiMIII RBJlRIOTCR paCTBOpbl
                 C KOHL..IeHTpal.llllelll 6011ee 30 %. B 4111CTOM BIII,LJ,e YKCYCHaR KIIICJlOTa -
                 6eCL..IBeTHaR >KIII,lJ,KOCTb C xapaKTepHbiM pe3KIIIM 3anaXOM, 3HaKOMbiM
                 Ka>K,LJ,OMy. TeMneparypa ee nJlaBJleHIIIR-1 7 °(, OHa 3aTBep,n,esaeT B XO-
                 JlO,lJ,HOM noMe~eHIIIIII, npespa~aRCb B CHeroo6pa3HYIO Macey. B TaKOM
                 COCTORHIIIIII ee Ha3b1Ba10T Jle,LJ,RHOIII.
                     B 6biTY 111Cn01lb3YIOT 8-9 %-bill! BO,ll,Hbllll paCTBOp a4eTaTHOIII KIIICJlO-
Tbl- yKcyc. 3Ta KIIICJlOTa XOpOWO 1113BeCTHa C ,LJ,aBHIIIX BpeMeH, Be,LJ,b yKcyc- O,ll,IIIH
1113 npO,LJ,YKTOB 6po>KeHIIIR BIIIHa. nepBOe ynOMIIIHaHIIIe 0 npaKTIII4eCKOM npiiiMeHe-
HIIIIII YKCYCHOIII KIIICJlOTbl ,n,aTIIIpOBaHO    Ill   BeKOM ,ll,O H. 3. rpe4eCKIIIIII y4eHbllll Teocp-
pacT on111ca11 o6pa3osaHIIIe nlllrMeHTOB Ha MeTa1111ax no,n, ,n,elllcTBIIIeM yKcyca. TaKyiO
TeXHIIIKY cero,n,HR npiiiMeHRIOT B IIICKYCCTBe. KOHL..IeHTplllposaHHYIO yKcycHyiO KIIIC-
JlOTY snepBble ,n,o6bllllll B VIII seKe, a B 1845 ro,n,y HeMel.IKIIIIII XIIIMIIIK A,n,Ollb<l> K01lb6e
BnepBble CIIIHTe3111pOBall ee 1113 HeopraHIII4eCKIIIX Be~eCTB.
   YKcyc IIICnOJlb3YIOT B KY11111Hap111111, B npoMbiWJleHHOCTIII ,lJ,llR npo1113BO,lJ,CTBa
HeKOTOpbiX KpaCIIITellelll, nap<j>10Mep111111111 Me,lJ,IIIKaMeHTOB.


   Acxop6HHo:ea.a:
   AcKop6111HOBaR KIIICllOTa (BIIITaMIIIH       C)- 3TO 6ellbllll Kplllc-
Ta11111114ecKIIIIII nopowoK, KOTOpbllllllerKo pacTsopReTcR B                 HO                           0
BO,LJ,e. BnepBble B 4111CTOM BIII,LJ,e BIIITaMIIIH ( ,LJ,06bllllll B 1 928
ro,n,y, a B 1 932 ro,n,y y4eHble ,lJ,OKa3alllll, 4TO OTCYTCTBIIIe
3TOro BIIITaMIIIHa B pa41110He 4eJlOBeKa Bbl3biBaeT L..IIIIHry.
   BIIITaMIIIH   C   111rpaeT Ba>KHYIO pollb B npol.leccax o6-
MeHa se~ecTB. Ero lllcnollb3YIOT ,lJ,llR CTIIIMYlllllposaHIIIR IIIMMYHHolll CIIICTeMbl np111
pa3111114HbiX 3a60lleBaHIIIRX, B 4aCTHOCTIII, npOCTY,lJ,HbiX Ill OHK01lOrlll4eCKIIIX. np111 He-
,lJ,OCTaT04HOM nocTynlleHIIIIII BIIITaMIIIHa ( C n111~el/l Bpa4111 COBeTyiOT npiiiHIIIMaTb ero
npO<j>IIIJlaKTIII4eCKIII, HanpiiiMep, B 3111MHe-BeCeHHIIIIII nepiiiO,lJ,.
   B n111~esolll npOMbiWJleHHOCTIII acKop6111HOBYIO KIIICJlOTY Ill ee COJllll IIICn01lb3YIOT
     KaK aHTIIIOKCIII,LJ,aHTbl E300-E305, ,lJ,llR npe,n,oTspa~eHIIIR OKIIICJleHIIIR npo,n,yK-
             TOB. Ee CIIIHTe3111py10T 1113 r1110K03bl, a B np111po,n,e Bblpa6aTbiBaiOT pacTe-
                      HIIIR Ill HeKOTOpble >KIIIBOTHble. DIIIOJlOrlll4eCKaR pOllb BIIITaMIIIHa (              (
    CBR3aHa C npOL..\eCCaML-1 o6pa30BaHL>1R KOnnareHa- 6enKa, KOTOpbl~ BXOAL>1T B CO-
    CTaB COeAL>1HL>1TenbHO~ TKaHL-1 1>1 KO>KL-1.
          11136biTOK BL>1TaML>1HOB TaK >Ke OnaCeH, KaK 1>1 1>1X HeAOCTaTOK. ~l36biT04HOe KOnl>1-
    4eCTBO BL>1TaML.1Ha ( MO>KeT Bbi3BaTb pa3Apa>KeHL.1e M04eL.1cnycKaTenbHbiX KaHanOB,
    3YA 1>1 AL>1ape10. ,[\nR 3AOPOBOrO B3pocnoro opraHL>13Ma AOCTaT04HO 90 Mr aCKOp61>1-
    HOBO~ KL>1CnOTbl B CYTKL-1, AnR AeTe~ - 30-90 Mr, B 3aBL.1CL>1MOCTL>1 OT B03paCTa.
          5oraTbl aCKOp61>1HOBO~ KL>1CnOTO~ nnOAbl CBe>Kero WL>1nOBHL>1Ka, 6onrapCKL>1~
    KpacHbl~ nepel...\,4epHaR CMOPOAL>1Ha 1-1 o6nenl>1xa,R6noKL>1, cnaAKL>1VI3eneHbiVI nepel...\
    1-1 neTpywKa, 6p10ccenbcKaR KanycTa, yKpon 1-1 4epeMwa, Kny6HL.1Ka caAOBaR,
    I...\1>1Tpycosble.
0        OH
                                Ecn~-1 >Ke saM He YAanocb 1>136e>KaTb npocryAbl, spa41>1
                                Ha3Ha4aT ell..\e OAHY KL>1cnory - al...\eTL>1ncanl>11...\1>1nosyiO (ac-
                                n1>1p1>1H). 3TO - 6enoe Kp1>1CTannl>14eCKOe Bell..\eCTBO, 4aCTO B
                                cj>opMe 1>1ronb4aTbiX Kp1>1cTannos. PacTsopReTcR B ropR4e~
                                BOAe 1>1 Cn1>1pTe.
        BnepBble al...\eTL.1ncanl>11...\1>1nosyiO KL>1cnoTy CL>1HTe3!>1posanl>1 B 1853 rDAY· B 1897
    rOAY HeMei...\KL-1111 XL>1ML>1K 1-1 COTPYAHL>1K cj>apMal...\eBTL>14ecKo~ KOMnaHL-11>1 Bayer AG <De-
    ni>1KC Xocj>cj>MaH B nOL>1CKaX neKapCTB AnR 6onbHOro peBMaTL.13MOM OTI...\a OTKpbln
    ne4e6Hble CBO~CTBa 3TO~ KL>1CnOTbl. Y>Ke B 1899 rOAY nepBaR napTL>1R acn1>1p1>1Ha
    noCTyn1-1na s npoAa>Ky. OH o6naAaeT o6e36oni>1Bal0ll..\1>1M, >KaponoHL>1>KaiOll..\1>1M 1-1
    npOTL>1BOBOCnanL.1TenbHbiM CBO~CTBaML-1, pa3>KL>1>KaeT KpOBb, n03TOMY noMoraeT OT
    ronosHoVI6onl>1.111cnonb30BaTb acn1-1p1>1H HaAO no Ha3Ha4eHL>110 spa4a. 5e3onacHaR
    cyT04HaR A03a acn1>1p1>1Ha- 4 rpaMMa. nepeA031>1pOBKa MO>KeT nosne4b 3a co6o~
    TR>Kenble 3a6onesaHL>1R no4eK, M03ra, ne4eHL>1, nerKL>1X. lllcmp1>1KL>1 MeAL>11...\1>1Hbl C41>1-
    Ta10T, 4TO 1>1MeHHO Maccosoe np1>1MeHeHL>1e acn1-1p1>1Ha (1 0-30 rpaMMOB s cyTKL-1) 3Ha-
    41>1TenbHO ysenl>141>1nO CMepTHOCTb 80 BpeMR naHAeML-11>1 rp1-1nna B 1918 rOAY·
                          no3TOMY 6yAbTe OCTOpO>KHbl C KL>1CnOTaML>1, KOTOpble MoryT 6b1Tb
                      KaK BaWL>1ML>1 nOMOll..\HL>1KaML>1, TaK 1>1 BparaML-1.




                       flO'IeMy   KRIOKBQ U 6pyCHUKQ XOpOWO
                   COXpOHRIOmCR 8 CblpOM BUoe?

                       Y3Ha~Te, KaKaR KL>1CnOTa coAep>KL>1TCR
               RrDAaX. 0Ha nepeXOAL>1T 1>13 TBepAOrO COCTO-
           RHL>1R cpa3y B ra3oo6pa3Hoe, o6naAaeT aHTL-1-
                                  cso~cTBaML-1, npenRTCTBy-
                          pa3BL>1TL>110 ML>1KpOOpraHL>13MOB 1>1
                 pacnpocTpaHeHHblr71             MeTanmt'l'leCKMr71       t-t----+---=~
    XMMM'IeCKMr71 3neMeHT Ha 3eMne -           amoMIIIHIIIVI. B ro :>Ke
    BpeMfl, cpeAIII BCeX XIIIMIII4eCKIIIX 31leMeHTOB OH 3aHIIIMa-
    eT TpeTbe MeCTO, yCTynafi11111Wb KIIIC110pOAY Ill KpeMHIIIIO.
       CaMbiM TBepAblM MeTann -                xpOM.    3TO   CBOVJCTBO
    XpOMa IIICn01lb3YIOT B npOMbiWileHHOCTIII A11fl BblnllaBKIII
    xpOMVICTbiX CTaneVI, HlllxpoMa 111 APYrlllx cnnasos c BbiCOKOVI
    TBepAOCTbtO. W111poKoe npiiiMeHeHVJe xpoM nony411111 KaK Ae-t-+-----ir--~~~-+­
    KopaTIIIBHoe aHTIIIKOpp03111VJHOe noKpbiTIIIe.
       CaMbllil    MJirKMM     MeTann - 4e3111VI.          lt13-3a   HIII3KOVI
    TeMneparypbl n1laB1leHIIIfl (t 0 = 28,6 °() nplll      KOMHaTHOVJ TeM-
-                                      nn
    neparype HaXOAIIITCfl B n011Y:>KIIIAKOM COCTOfiHIIIIII. MeTa11111114eC-
    KIIIVJ 4e3111VI npeACTaBnReT co6oVI Bell.leCTBO 30110TIIICT0-6enoro
    4sera, no BHewHeMy BIIIAY noxo:>Kee Ha 30110TO, HO cseTnee. X111-
    MIII4eCKIII 04eHb aKTIIIBeH, n03TOMY xpaHIIITCfl B 3anaRHHbiX aMny-
    llaX 11111111 nOA CllOeM KepOCIIIHa.
       CaMbiM TJUKenbiM MeTann -            OCMIIIVJ, ero nllOTHOCTb B     22,5   pa3a
    6onbwe nnoTHOCTIII BOAbl. OcMIIItO 4YTb- 4YTb ycTynaer IIIPIIIAIIIVI.
       CaMbiM nerKIIIIil MeTann -11111TIIIVI, ero nnoTHOCTb no4TIII B ABa          pa3a
    MeHbWe nllOTHOCTIII BOAbl. niiiTIIIVJ nllaBaeT Ha noBepXHOCTIII BOAbl, Ke-
    pOCIIIHa, 3TIII110BOfO CnlllpTa Ill a4eTOHa.
       CaMbiM TyronnaaKMM MeTann -                     sonb<l>paM.   TyronnaBKIIIVI       111
    n1laCTIII4HbiVJ, B011b<l>paM He3aMeHIIIMbiVJ MaTep111a11 A11fl HIIITeVJ HaKa-
    11111BaHIIIfl B ocseTIIITellbHbiX np1116opax, a raK>Ke B KIIIHecKonax 111 APYrlllx
    BaKyyMHbiX Tpy6KaX.
       CaMbiM nerKonnaaKMiil MeTann-              PTYTb. PryTb- eAIIIHCTBeHHbiVI >KIIIA-
    KIIIVI MeTa1111 np111 HOpMallbHbiX YC110BIIIfiX, a TaK:>Ke CaMafl nllOTHafl :>KIIIAKOCTb,
    1113BeCTHafl 4e1lOBe4eCTBy.
       CaMbllil nnacTM'IHbllil MeTann - 30110TO. Bcero 1 r 301lOTa MO:>KHO pacKa-
    TaTb B nnaCTIIIHY pa3MepOM   2 M 2, np1114eM ee MO;>KHO nerKO CrVJ6aTb, Ill OHa He
                                         noMaeTCR. 1113 30nOTa TaK>t<e MO>KHO nony4111Tb 30nOTYIO
-~~'="""-+----1f-----H                   cj>Onbry TOn~IIIHOLII 0,0001 MM (3TO 8 500 pa3 TOHbWe 4e-
                                        n08e4eCKOro 8onoca). 3onoTo TaK>t<e caMbiVI IIIHepTHbiLII
                                        MeTann no XIIIMIII4eCKOLII aKTIII8HOCTIII. TaK>Ke Ol.leHb
                                       nnaCTIII4HbiMIII R8nRIOTCR C811'1He4, cepe6po Ill MeAb.
                                       MeTann c Halll6onbwelil Tenno- 111 :meKTponpoBOA-
                                     HOCTbiO- cepe6po. 3TOT >t<e MeTann, HapRAY C antOMIIIHIIIeM
_ ____.___ __.___ _ _._---; l1 nannaAHeM, ny4we 8Cero oTpa>~<aeT cseT, no3TOMY 111x IIIC-
                              nonb3YIOT AnR nonyl.leHHR 3epKan.
                                CaMbllil AOporolil MeTann - 3TO Kanlllcj>opHHLII. B 1970 rOAY
                           era npoAa8anH no 10 AOnnapo8 3a MIIIKporpaMM (no nocneAHIIIM
                          AaHHbiM era 4eHa coCTa8nReT 6 500 000 AOnnapo8 3a 1 rpaMM).
                          Mlllp080LII 3anac Kanl'lcj>OpHl'IR COCTa8nReT HeCKOnbKO rpaMM08,
                         8epORTHO, HIIIKaK He 6onee 5 r. Ha nnaHeTe 3eMnR l'!MeiOTCR TOnb-
                        KO 2 R,qepHbiX peaKTOpa, KOTOpble MoryT era 8blpa6aTbl8aTb. O,qiiiH
                       peaKTOp- 8 Pacelli Ill, ApyroVI- 8 CWA. Ka>t<Ab1Vrlll3 peaKTOpo8 npo-
                      111380AIIIT no 20-40 MIIIKporpaMM Kanlllcj>OpHIIIR 8 rOA.
                         CaMbllil CTOMKIIIIil K KlllcnoTaM MeTann- IIIPIIIAIIILII. ,ll,o c111x nap He
                    11138eCTHO Hill OAHOLIJ KIIICnOTbl Hnlll IIIX CMeCl'l, 8 KOTOpbiX OH 6bl pac-
                   T80pRnCR.
                              CaMbiM TyronnaBKIIIIil MaTeplllan Ha OCHOBe COeAIIIHeHIIIM MeTan-
                           noB- 3TO cnna8 Kap6111A08 racj>HIIIR H TaHTana (1 :1 ). OH VI MeeT TeMnepa-
                          TYPY nna8neHHR +4 215      oc.
                            6onbWIIIHCT80 MeTann08 IIIMetOT HpKIIIM MeTannlll'leCKIIIM 6necK. Ro
                         TOnbKO 'leTblpe MeTanna COXpaHRIOT era B HeKOMnaKTHOM COCTOJIHIIIIII
                       (8 8111Ae CTpy>t<eK, OnlllnOK 111n111 nblnlll) - 3TO 30nOTO, cepe6po, antOMIIIHIIIVl
                     111 MarHIIILII. AntaMIIIHIIIesyta ny,qpy (nbrnb) 1113-3a RpKoro MeTanm114ecKoro
                    6necKa Ha3biBatOT ,cepe6p111H11 Ill IIICnOnb3YIOT B nlllpOTeXHIIIKe, a TaK>Ke AnR
                   nOKpbiTIIIR MeTannllll.leCKIIIX 1113AeniiiLIJ, 4T06bl 3a~IIITIIITb IIIX OT KOpp03111111 (AnR
                  3TOrO ,cepe6pl1H" CMeWH8atOT C Onlllcj>OLIJ).
                        npoaon~eHuecneayem.




    tri1   1   vqo::>
                 .. . . .~~&;.~Geological SUrvey
                  J1                  ao;;:=l Hazo.rds           Melting point
                                                                  -71 o C
                                                                                       /\Y4tAC1biC/t            IA3
                                          4        10        2        6
                                     4(       Sd        6s       6p          lll ccJle.QyR npO.QYKTbl pa.QIIIOaKTIIIBHOrO pac-
                                                                          na.Qa TOpiiiR, B 1899 ro.Qy 6p111TaHCKIIIVi <J>III-
                                                                      3111K 3pHecT Pe3ep<J>op.Q o6Hapy>KIIIIl pa.QOH.
                                                                          BnepBble ero Bbi.Qellllllllll B 4111CTOM BIII.Qe WOT-
                                                                      JlaH.QCKIIIVi XIIIMIIIK 111 <I>1113111K YlllllbRM PaM3aVI 111
                                                                      aHrlliiiVICKIIIVI <I>1113111K nbiOIIIC XapOilb.Q rp3VI B
                                                                          1908 ro.Qy. 0.QHaKo TaKoe ,secenoe" Ha3BaHIIIe
                                                                          ra3 nony411111 lliiiWb B 1923 ro.Qy, KOr.Qa y4eHble
                                                                          BbiRCHIIIJllll, 4TO pa.QOH o6pa3yeTCR B npOL,4eCCe
                                                                                                   KaK BIII.QIIIM, y ,OT~a" pa.QoHa
                                                                                              1
                                                                          pacna.Qa pa.QIIIR    •

                                                                          Ha3BaHIIIe e~e ,secenee"- pa.QIIIVI. Ho oHo npo-
                                                                          IIICXO.QIIIT He OT CllOBa ,pa.QOBaTbCR'~ a OT lla-
                                                                      TIIIHCKOrO      radiUS - , 11y4" Ill yKa3biBaeT Ha TO, 4TO
                                                                      aTOMbl pa.QIIIR cnoco6Hbl K 11131ly4eHIIIIO. Pa.QOH,
                                                                          KaK Ill pa.QIIIVI, RBJlReTCR pa.QIIIOaKTIIIBHbiM.


             cl,otA. c-aA 1i'D/\AIO'PODHOI0 11
             P a.QOH - pa.QIIIOaKTIIIBHbiVI O.QHOaTOMHbiVI IIIHepTHbiVI ra3 6e3                                      ~BeTa    111 3a-
         naxa. Xopowo npoHIIIKaeT CKB03b nolliiiMepHble nneHKIII, nerKo sniiiTbiBaeTcR
         aKTIIIBIIIposaHHbiM yrneM 111 CllllliiiKareneM. Cpe.QIII 6naropo.QHbiX ra3oB oH -
         CaMbiVi aKTIIIBHbiVi, nOTOMY 4TO ero 3JleKTpOHbl pacnOJlO>KeHbl Ha MaKCIIIMaJlb-
         HOM paCCTORHIIIIII OT R.Qpa.
             Ha caMOM .Qene -                  Hlll4ero 6naropo.QHoro: R.QOBIIITbiVI, pa.QIIIOaKTIIIBHbiVI,
         onacHbiVI .QilR >KIII3HIII 111 3.QOpOBbR. Ko sceMy - pa.QOH o4eHb pacnpocTpaHeH B
         nplllpO.Qe,llerKO paCTBOpReTCR B BO.Qe, a e~e 11Y4We- B >KIIIpOBbiX TKaHRX >KIIIBbiX
         opraHIII3MOB. np111 HopMallbHbiX ycnos111Rx pa.QoH - O.QIIIH 1113 caMbiX TR>KellbiX
         ra30B B nplllpO.Qe (B         7,5 pa3 TR>KeJlee B03.Qyxa), a nOTOMY OH 3anOJlHReT                                    ~e11111
         B ropHbiX nopo.Qax (r.Qe rpaHIIITbl - TaM pa.QOH). OH xopowo pacTsopReTcR B
         rpyHTOBbiX BO.QaX, C nOTOKaMIII BO.Qbl Ill .QpyriiiX ra30B nona.QaeT B aTMoc<J>epy;
         CO.Qep>KIIITCR     B    HeKOTOpbiX                           nplllpO.QHbiX       MIIIHepallbHbiX       BO.QaX,   KOTOpble
         Ha3b1Ba.IOT pa.QOHOBbiMIII .
..--~-====
    3TOT ra3 11'1 npOAYKTbl ero paAII'IOaKTII'IBHOrO pacnaAa,OTBeTCTBeHHble" np11'1-
61111'1311'1TellbHO 3a% rOAOBO~ II'IHAII'IBII'IAYallbHO~ 3<J><J>eKTII'IBHO~ A03bl o6ny"'eHII'I.R,
KOTopyiO nony"'aeT HaceneHII'Ie OT 3eMHbiX II'ICTO"'HII'IKOB paAII'Ia~ll'lll'l.

   ffel>lADlA tnbiE 'PA3'PYW.lAlE/\lA
   n POAYKTbl pacnaAa paAOHa (11'130TOnbl CBII'IHI.Ia, BI.IICMYTa 11'1 nollOHI.II.R), nonaAa.R
BMeCTe C B03AyxOM B nerKI.IIe, pacnaAaiOTC.R 1.11 11'1311Y"'aiOT HaCTO.R!.,41.11e MalleHbKI.IIe
CHap.RAbl- Q-"'aCTI.II~bl. 0HII'I nopa>KaiOT 3n111TefllllllillerKII'IX 1.11 Bbl3biBaiOT MII'IKpOO>KO-
rl.ll. ,llni.IITeflbHOe nospe>KAeHII'Ie 3TII'IX TKaHei71 npi.IIBOAI.IIT K pa3BI.IITII'IIO paKa nerKI.IIX.
KypeHII'Ie ycll'lllii'IBaeT nary6Hoe B03Ael7icTBII'Ie paAOHa. TaK>Ke a-"'aCTII'II.Ibl pa3py-
wa10TxpoMocoMHbl~ annapaT KJleTOK, nospe>KAaiOT KJleTKII'III'IMMYHHO~ CII'ICTeMbl,
nOilOBble 11'1 KpOBeTBOpHble KJleTKII'I KpaCHOrO KOCTHOrO M03ra.

   OlTACHbiE ~lA/\lA~
    P aAOHoonacHbJe Teppii'ITOpll'lll'l onpeAen.RIOT so MHor1.11x cTpaHax Esponbl.
YKpaii'IHa .RBil.ReTc.R rocyAapcTBOM c BbiCOKI.IIM yposHeM o6ny4eHI.II.R Hacene-
HII'I.R paAOHOM. TaK, aKTII'IBHOCTb paAOHa B eAI.IIHI.III.Ie o6beMa no"'BeHHoro B03-
Ayxa s AoH6acce BTpoe npeBblwaeT cpeAHee 3HalleHI.IIe. 3To noATBep>KAaiOT
paAI.II03K0110rl.ll"'ecKII'Ie o6cneAOBaHII'I.R noMe!.,4eHII'IIil Ha nepBbiX 3Ta>Kax AeTca-
AOB 11'1 WK011 B r. PoBeHbKII'I     (1992      rOA) 11'1 B COCeAHeM AHTpa411'1TOBCKOM paliiOHe
(2001-2003      rOAax): paAOHOOnaCHbiMII'I OKa3aJ111'1Cb COOTBeTCTBeHHO                   61   11'1   62 %
                      noMei.LieHI.II~ •
                                       2
o6cneAOBaHHbiX
   HesepO.RTHO, HO OCHOBHYIO A03Y o6ny"'eHI.II.R OT paAOHa "'enoBeK nony"'a-
eT, He BbiXOA.R 11'13 CBOero AOMa! 0H KOBapHO npOHII'IKaeT B HaWII'I AOMa CKB03b
1..4e1111'1 3AaHII'I~, nonaAaeT B noMe!.,4eHII'Ie BMeCTe C BOAOnpOBOAHO~ BOAO~ 11'1
npl.llpOAHbiM ra30M, Ha KOTOpOM Mbl rOTOBII'IM eAy, npii'ICYTCTByeT B CTpOII'ITellbHbiX
MaTepll'lanax. Aepeeo, Kll'lpnll'l"' 11'1 6eToH COAep>KaT OTHOCI.IITellbHO HeMHoro pa-
AOHa, a BOT paAI.IIOaKTI.IIBHOCTb rpaHI.IITa 11'1 neM3bl B paclleTe Ha eAII'IHI.II4Y MaCCbl
HaMHOrO BbiWe. K paAOHOOnaCHbiM OTHOCRTC.R TaK>Ke rJlii'IH03eMbl, <J>oc<J>orll'lnC,
WJlaKII'I, 11'13 KOTOpbiX 11'13rOTaBnii'IBaiOT wnaK06110KII'I. Ho 60J1bWe BCero paAOHa B
HaWII'I noMe!.,4eHII'I.R nonaAaeT 1.113 nO"! Bbl. ~MeHHO n03TOMY B AOMaX C nOABallaMII'I

KOHI.IeH~r:>~~-~~. P.~~?.~~-~~~~::.~~~~:~~-~. Ha nepBbiX 3Ta>K....._._":'k
                                                               ax
         :                                            :                          ~

                                           I   e .




                    ............ .................... .
                                     Pa.n.oH no.n.cTeperaeT Hac B .n.ywe 11111111 B BaHHOVI- B BOP.HHOM nape.
                                 Cl>IIIHCKIIIe y4eHble B npOW/lOM BeKe ycTaHOBIIIJllll, 4TO B BaHHOVJ KOM-
                                 HaTe pa.n.oHa BTpoe 6onbwe, 4eM Ha KYXHe 111 B copoK pa3 6onbwe,
                                 4eM B >KIIIIlbiX noMe~eHIIIHX. A KaHaP.CKIIIe y4eHble yTBep>~<.n.aiOT: noc-
    86: Radon   2,8,18,32,18,8
                                 ne CeMIII MIIIHYT .n.ywa KOH~eHTpa~IIIH patJ.OHa Ill ero npO.LJ.YKTOB B B03-
                                 .n.yxe pe3KO B03pacTaeT 111 B03Bpa~aeTCH K HOpMe TOilbKO nocne no-
                                 nyTopa4acoBoro npoBeTpiiiBaHIIIH.

                                    ClfACEHlAE ECTb~
                                       K aK >Ke 3a~IIITIIITbCH OT 3Toro onacHoro HeBIIIP.IIIMKIII? Bee 04eHb
                                 npocTo. Ha.n. ra3oBoVI nlliiiTOVI ycTaHOBIIITe npiiiHYAIIITellbHble BbiTH>K-
                                 Hble WKacJ>bl, BaHHYIO KOMHaTy XOpOWO npoBeTpiiiBaVITe, JliiiKBIII.LJ.IIIpyV!-
                                 Te ~e11111 B cTeHax 111 nony, repMeTIII3111pyVITe no.n.Ballbl, noKneVITe o6o111
                                 111 T. n. C.n.ena11111? Tor.n.a 3a6yP.bTe o pa.n.oHoBoVI onacHOCTIII.

                                    3lc:.OHO MlATb C Ytv\Otv\
                                      X opow111VI cnoco6 npe.n.oTBpaTIIITb noTeplll 31leKTp03Hepr111111 - 3a-
                                 MeHa CTapbiX .n.epeBHHHbiX OKOH Ha nllaCTIIIKOBble. KTO 6bl cnop11111!
                                 CTeKnonaKeTbl 11y4we coxpaHHIOT Tenno, Ho ... cnoco6cTBYIOT HaKonne-
                                 HIIIIO pa.n.oHa B Haw111x .n.oMax. B repMeTIII4eCKIII 3aKpb1TOM ,eBpooKHa-
                                 MIII" Ill ,eBpO.LJ.BepHMIII nOMe~eHIIIIII K0111114eCTBO patJ.OHa Ill npO.LJ.YKTOB
                                                            11



                                 ero pacna.n.a HaMHoro Bblwe, 4eM cHaPY>KIII. Pa.n.111 >KeCTKoVI 3KOHOMIIIIII
                                 3/leKTp03Hepr111111 He npeHe6peraV!Te 6e3onaCHOCTbiO >KIIIIlbfl. npoBeT-
                                 p111BaVITe noMe~eHIIIH HecKOilbKO pa3 B .n.eHb. B Tennoe BpeMH .n.enaVITe
                                 CKB03HOe npOBeTpiiiBaHIIIe, OTKpbiB P.Ba OKHa HanpOTIIIB. lll patJ.OHOBaH
                                 onaCHOCTb BaM He CTpaWHa .

      ......-~, lT'POcl>Ew,tHHbiiA - 3AW,lAw,tHHbiiA!
                        K aK BIIIP.IIITe, 4enoBeK Hawen ynpaBy Ha TaKoro onacHoro coce.n.a,
                    KaK pa.n.oH. Aa>~<e nocTaBIIIIl ero Ha cny>~<6y! C noMo~biO pa.n.oHa MeTall-
                    llyprlll onpetJ.ellHIOT CKOpOCTb ra30BbiX nOTOKOB B tJ.OMeHHbiX ne4aX,
                    ceVIcMonorlll nporH03111PYIOT 3eMneTpHceHIIIH 111 1113Bep>KeHIIIH BYilKaHOB,
                    HaKaHyHe KOTOpbiX yBe111114111BaeTCH BbiXOA patJ.OHa 1113 He.LJ.p. PaP.OH no.n.-
                    CKa3biBaeT reonoraM, r.n.e HaXO.LJ.HTCH MeCTOpO>KtJ.eHIIIH ypaHa Ill TOpiiiH.
                        B Ha4ane npownoro BeKa o6 y6111VIcTBeHHOM .n.eVIcTBIIIIII pa.n.111a~111111
                    e~e He 3Halllll. Hao6opoT, 6bllla ,Mo.n.a Ha pa.n.111a~11110": ynoTpe6neHIIIe
                    MIIIHepallbHbiX BOA, HaCbl~eHHbiX pa.LJ.OHOM, C4111Talllll n01le3HbiM IIIMeH-
                    HO 6naro.n.apH 111x pa.n.111oaKTIIIBHOCTIII. Cero.n.HH cne~111a11111CTbl cnopHT o
                     ~e/lecoo6pa3HOCTIII patJ.OHOBbiX BaHH tJ.IlH Jle4eHIIIH HeKOTOpbiX 3a6o-
                    1leBaHIIIVJ. He noBTOpHeTcH 11111 .n.peBHHH IIICTOPIIIH?


                 .:i
.-------~n&:z:::~~~~
   npo cse ~eHHbiVJ lleJlOBeK- 3a ~lll~eHHbiVJ lleJlOBeK. Ha.QeeMCfl, liTO M bl XOTb
4YT04KY sac 3a~IIITIII11111!

    7
     Paauu - xuMullecKuu 3neMeHm c amoMHbiM HOMepoM 88. 3a omKpbimue paauR u nonoHuR
cynpyzu nbep u MapuR K10pu nonyllunu Ho6eneBCK}'IO npeMu/0 no c/JuJuKe B 7903 zoay.
     2
       npo6neMbl HOpMamUBHOZO pezynupOBQHUR OL(eHKU paaoHOBOU onaCHOCmU 3QCmpoeHHb/X
meppumopuu u nymu ux peweHuR I BoumuKoBa A. E., KoHOHOB 10.0., PewemHuKoB E. B. II
 7-U 8ceyKpGUHCKUU Cbe3a 3KOflOZOB: Me)KayHap. HGyll. -mex. KOHc/J., 4-7 OKmR6pR 2006 z.: me3UCbl
aoKnaaa- 8UHHUL(Q, 2006. - (. 755.
                     rpufi + BogopOGJlb = JIU
           C peAL-1 AepeBbeB,          6J1aroyxa10~L11X     l.IBeToB, AeKopaTLi1BHbiX KYCTapHL11KOB
        Mbl He 3aMe4aeM pa3HOL\BeTHble nRTHa Li1J1Li1 nJ1aCTLi1HKLi1 c YAL11BL!1TeJ1bHbiMLi1
        J10naCTRMLi1 no KpaRM Ha KOpe AepeBbeB, KpbiWaX AOMOB Li1J1Li1 KaMHRX. Me>K-
        AY TeM, 3TO o4eHb Li1HTepecHble opraHLi13Mbl- J1Li1WaiAHLi1KLi1.
            OOJ1ee   100 J1eT Ha3aA OHL-1 6biJ1Li1 3araAKOIA AJ1R         HayKL-1.   B 1867 roAy ee,pa3-
        raAaJ1" HeMel.\KLi11A 6oTaHL!1K CL!1MOH WBeHAep. v13seCTHbiiA pycCKLi11A y4eHbiiA
        K. A. TLi1ML11pR3eB      Ha3Bal1 J1Li1waiAHLi1KLi1 ,pacTeHLI1RMLI1-ccj>LI1HKcaMLi1". ,Ccj>LI1HKc" B
        nepeBOAe C rpe4eCKOrO R3b1Ka 03Ha4aeT,4YAOBLi1~e, CLi1MBOJ13araA04HOCTLi1"•
.._...,l!l:i!!!!.- TaKoe Ha3BaHL!1e BnOJ1He onpaBAaHo, nocKOJ1bKY J1Li1waiAHLi1K o6beAL!1HReT B
        OAHOM Telle ABa opraHLi13Ma: rpL-16 (ML11K06Li10HT) Li1 cj>OTOCLi1HTe3Li1pyiO~Li11A op-
        raHLi13M (cj>Li1K06Li10HT). <J>Li1K06Li10HTaML11 B 60J1bWLi1HCTBe J1Li1WaiAHLi1KOB RBJ1RIOT-
        CR BOAOPOCJ1Li1, a y       8-10%-      l.ILI1aHo6aKTepL!1Li1. HayKa, 3aHL!1MaiO~aRCR Li13y4e-
        HLi1eM J1Li1WaiAHLi1KOB, Ha3biBaeTCR J1Li1XeHOJ10rLi1R.
           (J10eBLi1~e J1Li1WaiAHLi1Ka CHapy>KL-1 noKpbiTO TOJ1CTbiM CJ10eM CpOCWLi1XCR
                            1



        rL!1cj>OB 2 rpL!16a, nOA KOTOpbiM HaXOARTCR 3eJ1eHble XJ10pOcj>L!1J1J10HOCHble KJ1eT-
        KLi1 cj>LI1K06Li10HTa. 0HLI1 cj>yHK4Li10HL11pyiOT nOA 3a~Li1TOIA rpL116a, Li1CnOJ1b3YR BOAy,
        KoTopyiO oH BnLi1TbiBaeT. Me>KAY 3eJ1eHbiMLi1 KJ1eTKaMLI1 npoHLI1KaiOT TOHKLI1e
        HLi1TLi1 KJ1eTOK rpL!16a. rpL-16 nL!1TaeTCR opraHL!14eCKLi1MLi1 Bell.leCTBaML-1, KOTOpble
        o6pa3yiOTCR B XOAe cj>OTOCLi1HTe3a B KJ1eTKaX BOAOPOCJ1Li1 Li1J1Li1 L\Li1aHo6aKTepL!1Li1.

                                              Kmo koro?
           Ha nepBbiiA B3rJ1RA,J1L11WaiAHLi1KLi1- 3TO npeKpacHbiiA npLi1Mep cocy~ecTBOBa­
        HLi1R opraHL!13MOB, KOTOpble no6opOJ1Li1 KOHKYpeHL\L-110 Li1 BMeCTe Bbi>KLI1J1Li1 TaM,
        rAe OTAeJ1bHO He CMOrl1Li1 6bl. Ho 3TO TaK>Ke npL!1Mep,pa6cTBa'~ B KOTOpOM pOJ1b
        ,nopa6oTLi1TeJ1R" BblnOJ1HReT rpL-16. HL11TLI1 rpLi16a BblcacbiBaiOT COAep>KLi1Moe
        KJ1eTOK cj>L!1K06Li10HTa, Li1 OHL-1 OTML!1pa10T. no3TOMy nOA CJ10eM >KLi1BbiX KJ1eTOK cj>L!1-
                        1
                            CnoeBM~e - He paC411eHRIOlJ.IeeCR Ha CTe6enb Ill 11LIICTbR TellO HLII3WLIIX Ill
                     HeKOTOpbiX BbiCWLIIX paCTeHLIILil.
                        2
                            rMcl»bl - MLIIKpOCKOnlll4eCKLIIe, HLIITeBLIIAHble OTBeTBileHLIIR rp1116a (j:lllla-
                     MeTp 2-30 MKM), o6pa3YIOlJ.IIIIe ero sereTaTLIIBHOe Teno.
K06LI10HTa ecTb nycTble o6oll04KLI1 OTMepwlllx. O,o,-
HaKo rpll16 HLI1Kor,o,a He LI1CTpe611ReT see KlleTKLI1 so-
,o,opoclllll: eCillll nli1TaHLI1e LllCCRKHeT, OH norli16HeT.
   nll1waLIIHLI1KOBble rpll16bl He MOryT >KLI1Tb 6e3
<I>L11K06LI1oHTOB. MHorllle so,o,opoc11L11          Ll1   4LI1aHo-
6aKTepL11L11 >KLI1BYT BHe Tella 1lli1WaLIIHLI1Ka, HO eCTb
Cpe,D,Lil HLI1X Ll1 TaKLile, KOTOpble 6e3 MLI1K06LI10HTa He
Cyll.\eCTBYIOT. <0LI1K06LI10HTbl no11y4a10T OT rpL1160B
                                                                        1 - aooopocnu unu 1.4UaHo6aK-
BO,D,Y Ll1 MLI1HepallbHble Bell.\eCTBa.IIITaK, COCyll.\eC-           mepuu; 2 - BHympeHHue ZUQJbl
TBOBaHLile rpll16a Ll1 BO,D,Op0Cilll1 B opraHLI13Me lllll-           zpu6a; 3 - noaepxHocmHble cnou,
waLIIHLI1Ka B3ali1MOBblrO,D,HO.                                      o6pa30BQHHb/e ZUQJQMU zpu6a

IIpupoglThl@ ungukamopbl
   nll1waLIIHLI1KLI1 - 04eHb HenpL11XOT1lli1Bble opraHLI13Mbl. 0HLI1 11erKO nepeHOCRT
Ll1 ClllllbHble MOp03bl, Ll1 HeBbiHOCLI1MYIO >Kapy, pa3HOe OCBell.\eHLile, Blla>KHOCTb,
60ilbWLI1e ,D,03bl pa,D,LI1a4LI1LI1. no3TOMY OHLI1 nepBbiMLI1 nORBilRIOTCR B MeCTaX,
HenplllrO,D,HbiX ,D,IlR >KLI13HLI1 pacTeHLI1LII. Y4eHble o6Hapy>KLI11lll1 6o11ee 20 TbiCR4
Blll,D,OB 1lli1WaLIIHLI1KOB B pa31lli14HbiX nplllpO,D,HbiX 30Hax (TyH,o,pe, xsoLIIHbiX Ll1
                                                      cMewaHHbiX 11ecax, B cTenRx), a TaK>Ke B
                                                      noce11eHL11RX 4elloBeKa.
                                                           oOilbwoe     pa3Hoo6pa3LI1e        1lll1waLII-
                                                      HLI1KOB    -   ,D,OKa3aTellbCTBO       4LI1CTOTbl
                                                      B03,D,yxa Ll1 ,D,eBCTBeHHOCTLI1 npL11pO,D,bl.
                                                      nyTewecTBYR no CKilOHaM KapnaTCKLI1X
                                                      rop, MO>KHO YBLil,D,eTb MHoro Blll,D,OB 1lll1-
                                                      waLIIHLI1KOB so sceLII LI1X Kpace. 3,o,ecb
                                                      pacTyT cepble       KYCTLI1KLI1   LI1CilaH,D,CKoro
                                                      Mxa, opaH>KeBaR KCaHTOplllR, ceposa-


T0-3elleHble c11oesli1Ll.\a     napMellli1LI1.
0HLI1 - HaCTORLl.\Lile LI1H,D,LI1KaTOpb1 4LI1-
CTOrO KapnaTCKOrO B03,D,yxa.
     EC11LI1   B B03,D,yxe MHOrO R,D,O-
BLI1TbiX Bell.\eCTB, 1lli1WaLIIHLI1KLI1 rli16-
HyT. Oco6eHHO         spe,D,Hbl    ,D,IlR   Hlllx
,D,LI10KCLI1,D, cepbl, OKCLI1,D, a3oTa Ll1 yme-
po,o,a, coe,D,LI1HeHLI1R <I>Topa.     B     Mec-
Tax, r,o,e KOH4eHTpa4LI1R ,D,LI10KCLI1,D,a
cepbl B so3,o,yxe cocTaBilReT 6o11ee
           3
0,3 Mr/M , 1lli1WaLIIHLI1KLI1 He pacTyT.
                                                           no3TOMY B 4eHTpallbHOVJ l!aC-
                                                           TIII ropOAa Ill 86111113111 aBTOCTpaA
                                                           Bbl IIIX He HaVIAeTe. ECJllll CO-
                                                           Aep>KaHIIIe AIIIOKCIIIAa cepbl B
                                                                                                 3
                                                           B03Ayxe       MeHee      0,05     Mr/M ,
                                                           JliiiWaVJHIIIKIII    nORBJlRIOTCR    Ha
                                                           CTBonax        AepesbeB.         MeTOA
                                                           onpeAeJleHIIIR          3arpR3HeHIIIR
                                                           B03AyXa no COCTORHIIIIO 11111-
                                                           waVJHIIIKOB         Ha3biBaiOT   niiiXe-
                                                           HOIIIHAIIIKB~IIIeM.




       Goagam@JJ.U UJJ.U
       paapymum@JJ.U?
     Ha nepBbiVI B3r11RA, 3Ta cyxaR wenyxa
 Ha KaMHe, KOTOpaR paCTIIIpaeTCR B nblllb,-
 MepTBaR. Ho nocne AO>KAR 11111waVIH111K
 nOAHIIIMaeTCR Ill 6yVICTByeT, nOKa BeTep Ill
 co11H4e onRTb He npespaw.a10T ero B cy-
 xyiO KOpKy. TaK Ill >KIIIBeT OT AO>KAR K AO>K-
 AIO: KOpHeVJ y Hero HeT, a Ha CKaJlaX BOAa
 He 3aAep>KIIIBaeTCR. 3a      5-10 JleT BblpaCTaeT nRTHbiWKO         pa3MepOM C nRTIIIKOne-
 el!HYIO MOHeTy. 3aCbiXaR, J1111WaVJHIIIK,npR4eTCR" B W.ellb, pa36yxaeT nOCJle AO>K-
 AR, Bb1AeJ1ReT OC06ble KIIICJ10Tbl, pa3pywaR ropHyiO nopOAY· 0TMIIIpaR, OH o6-
 pa3yeT neperHoVI, Ha KOTopoM pacTyT APYrllle pacTeHIIIR.
     3111MOVJ Ha CeBepe JliiiWaVJHIIIKIII RBJlRIOTCR OCHOBHbiM KOpMOM A11R OJleHeVJ. V13
 HeKOTOpbiX BIIIAOB JliiiWaVJHIIIKOB np01113BOART KpaCKY Ill JlaKMyc. V13 JliiiWaVJHIII-
 KOB, KOTOpble HaKanJliiiBaiOT MHOrO KpaxMaJla Ill MallO caxapa, A06biBaiOT naTOKY
 111 cn111pT.   B napc:I>IOMepHoVI   npoMbiWJleHHOCTIII 1113 HIIIX A06biBaiOT apoMaTIIIl!ec-
 KIIIe BeW.eCTBa, B c:l>apMaKOJlOrllllll- aHTIII6IIIOTIIIKIII, B niiiW.eBOVJ npOMbiWJleHHOCTIII
 IIICnOJ1b3YIOT AllR 1113rOTOBJ1eHIIIR MYKIIIIII Bblne4KIII,3CKIIIMoccKoro xne6a'~
     CpeAIII nallRW.IIIX nycTbiHb ApaBIIIVJCKoro nonyoCTposa Ha KaMeHIIICToVI nol!Be
 paCTyT He6onbwllle cepble 111 >KeJlTble cbeAo6Hble 11111waVIHIIIKIII - MaHHa.              B >Kapy
 BeTep nOAXBaTbiBaeT MaJleHbKIIIe BbiCOXWIIIe KOM04KIII MaHHbl Ill nepeHOCIIIT IIIX
 Ha 60J1bWIIIe paCCTORHIIIR. V1MeHHO TaKIIIe,AO>KAIII" nOJlO>KeHbl B OCHOBY 61116JleVJ-
 CKOVJ JlereHAbl 0 ,MaHHe He6eCHOVI".




22
                              .>KUBCJ.S    npupoge1.
                          UMrE...fE..CMbiE..
                                          or J.a1rO'If(u
                               nVIWaVJHVIKVI pe,QKO 6biBaiOT 3eJleHbiMVI. 4a~e
                          OHVI nenenbHo-cepble, >KenrosaTble, opaH>KeBble,
                          KOpV14HeBble. lllx OKpacKa 3aBVICVIT OT nVIrMeHTa,
    co,qep>Ka~erocR s rVI<f>ax rpV16a.
         Pacryr JlVIWaVIHVIKVI Me,qneHHO, 0,025-8 MM B ro,q.
         npo,QOJl>KVITeJlbHOCTb >KVI3HVI JlVIWaVJHVIKOB COCTaBJlfleT 50-4 500 JleT.
         B YKpaVIHe VI3BecrHo 6onee 1 600 BVI.QOB JlVIWaVIHVIKOB, 6onbwe
    scero VIX s Kapnarax VI s KpbiMy.
         52   BVI,Qa JlVIWaVIHVIKOB 3aHeceHo B KpacHyiO KHVIry YKpaVIHbl.
         noKpbiTble JlVIWaVJHVIKaMVI ,qepeBbfl MeHbWe pa3pywaiOTCfl rpV16aMVI.


                    p UOJ.OJU'IE..Cf(A~                             UJ .fa
                                     Or Y)JMUf(A
                                  HALii.QLJI OWLJI6KLJI
         WanyHVIWKa peWVIJl YAVIBVITb Jlan04KY VI YMHVIKa CBOVIMVI
    3HaHVIRMVI. BepHyswVICb Vl3 WKOJlbl, OH paccKa3an APY3bRM:
         ,CrpaHHble pacreHVIR 3TVI JlVIWaVIHVIKVI. BHyrpVI HII1X OAHOBpeMeH-
    HO >KII1BYT ,QBa >KII1BbiX opraHII13Ma - rpV16bl 111 6aKTep111111 (11111VI
    rp1116 111 so.Qopocnb). rp1116 o6ecne4111saer 3a~111ry 111 nocrynne-
    HII1e BO.Qbl 111 MII1HepanbHbiX      se~ecrs,    a BO.Qopocnll1 npo1113BO-
    ART n111rareJ1bHble se~ecrsa. TaK OHII1 noMoraiOT .Qpyr .Qpyry.                  A
    KOr,Qa nOCCOpRTCR- Ka>K,QbiVI >KII1BeT CaMOCTORTeJlbHO.
         n111waVIHII1KII1 111MeiOT CaMyiO pa3H006pa3HYIO paCL-'BeTKY,
    HO 6onbWII1Hcrso 1113 HII1X- 3eneHble. E~e HaM paccKa3biBanll1 o6 VIH-
    A111Karopax, Ho R He 04eHb noHRJl, 4TO 3TO raKoe. Ka>KeTcR, ec11111 so
    ,QBOpe pacryT 11111WaVIHII1KII1- B03AYX BOKpyr 3arpR3HeH.
         n111waVIHII1KII1 -    HaCTOR~II1e 4YAOBII1~a, KOTOpble 04eHb
    6    CTpO pacryT 111 ,QOCTII1raiOT KpynHbiX pa3MepOB. noceJlRIOT-
    CR       a CTBOJlaX ,QepeBbeB, KaMHRX, KpbiWaX ,QOMOB, B npy.QaX 111
    o3epax. 0HII1 Ha pe.QKOCTb Henpii1XOT11111Bbl K ycnosii1RM.                H HII1-
J        l
    KBrAa He o6pa~a11 Ha HII1X BHII1MaHII1e.         A Bbl   B111.Qe11111 11111WaVIHII1-
     111 B03Jle csoero AOMa ?"
         YMHII1K HaWeJl       7 OWII160K B paccKa3e WanyHII1WKII1. nonpo6yVI 111 Tbl
    BbiRCHII1Tb, r.Qe 111MeHHO WanyHII1WKa ow1116cR.
                                  o6p10xaJI              H
                (MepKanocb. Pb16a He Knesana. nplllwno BpeMR cMi:rFbiBaTb YA04KIII Ill III,QTIII
       .......u.v,,ulll. Ho s,qpyr cnbiWY wopox no3a,q111. OrnH,QbiBaiOCb 111 Blll~y, KaK OT Moelll
                po6KIII C Ha~IIIBKOIII B np1116pe~HYIO TpaBy IOpKHyna ManeHbKaR 3BepywKa,
                    60fibWe ,QOMaWHelll MbiWIII. BOT OHa CHOBa nORBIIInaCb, 3aMepna Ha HeC-
                         CeKyH,Q. 3a 3TO speMR R ycnen xopowo pa3rnR,qeTb 3BepbKa. Cn111Ha y
           Hero 6blna cMonlllcT0-4epHolll, a 6p10wKo - 6eneHbKoe. He3HaKOMKa Me,qneH-
\J.-IG~~ HO np1116n1113111naCb K KOp06Ke, 06HIOXana ee YAfliiiHeHHbiM HOCIIIKOM, MrHOBeHHO
           CXBaTIIIna orpOMHOro ,QO~,QeBOro 4epBR Ill CTpeMIIITefibHO no6e~ana B yKpbiTIIIe.

                              OT npHpO,ll;hi o6lliopa
             MeHR noceTIIIna KyTopa BO,QHHaR (Neomys fodiens), BillA ceMeiiiCTBa 3eMne-
                poiiiKOBble, oTpR,qa HaceKoMORAHble. ~IIIBYT 3TIII3BepbKIII s,qonb 6eperos
                  so,qoeMoB, npeKpacHo nnasaiOT 111 HblpRIOT. KaK 111 ,qpyr111e npe,qCTaBIII-
                     Tenlll oTpR,qa HaceKOMOHAHbiX, 3TO ~IIIBOTHoe o4eHb npo~opn111soe.
                      3a cyTKIII KyTopa Cbe,qaeT niiiLl.IY, KOTopaR no secy BABOe npesoc-
                       XO,QIIIT ee C06CTBeHHbllf1. 0TCYTCTBI/Ie e,Qbl B Te4eHI/Ie KOpOTKOro
                        BpeMeHIII MO~eT npiiiBeCTIII K r1116en111 OT rono,qa. HesepORTHbllll an-
                         neTIIIT 3acTaBnReT KyTopy nocTORHHO ,qo6biBaTb nlllll.IY· B nep111o,q
                            BCKapMniiiBaHIIIH nOTpe6HOCTb B KOpMe y CaMOK B03paCTaeT
                             ell.le 6onbwe. Cny4aiiiHO HaTKHYBWIIICb Ha nerKyiO ,Q06bl4y, ~111-
                             BOTHOe npORBIIIflO OTBary Ill He IIICnyranOCb MeHR.
                                  KyTOpbl noe,qaiOT TOnbKO ~IIIBYIO ,Q06bl4y: BO,QHbiX Ill
                            Ha3eMHbiX HaCeKOMbiX, MOflfliOCKOB, 3eMHOBO,QHbiX Ill pb16. He-
                            CMOTpR Ha CBOIII He6onbWIIIe pa3Mepb1, ~IIIBOTHOe CMeno 6po-
                              caeTCR Ha ~epTBy, 3Ha4111TenbHO KpynHee ce6R. li13BeCTHbllf1
                                    HaTypanlllcT A. E. 5peM n111can, 4TO Kympa 4acm Hana,qaeT
                                        Ha pb16y, KOTOpaR B ,QeCRTKIII pa3 TR}Kenee ee.
                          .>1Cuad.s TlpUp<)9d.                                             fiJ
                     HccJie~osaHH.H B ~OMHKe
     O.QHa>KAbl aseTp111VIeKIIIVI3ooJlor KoHpa.Q JlopeH~ Haw ell rHe3.QO KYTOpbl e .Qe-
BfiTbiO MallbiWaMIII. OH noMeeTIIIll 111x B npoeTopHbiVI aKsaplllyM e .QepeBfiHHbiM
.QOMIIIKOM. MallblweVI KopMIIIlllll >KIIIBbiM KopMoM. Bee KyTopeHbiWIII Bblpoelllll.
     Ha6J110Aafl3a 3BepbKaMIII B HeBOJle, y4eHbiVI Y3Hall MHOrO HOBOrO 0 KYTOpax.
Ao6bi4Y 3TIII >KIIIBOTHble paeno3HaiOT TOllbKO Ha o~ynb, e noMo~biO w111poKo
paeeTaBJleHHbiX Ha Hoeyynpyr111x BOJlOeKOB. 3peHIIIe pa3BIIITO xy>~<e. Te11o KYTOpbl
nOKpbiTO MHO>KeeTBOM MalleHbKIIIX ny3blpbKOB B03AyXa, B BO.Qe Ka>KeTefl, 6yATO
oHo yeblnaHo eepe6poM. n11asaeT KYTOpa o4eHb 6bleTpo. nosepxHoeTb nallb-
~es Ill HIII>KHflfl eTOpOHa XBOeTa OKaVIMlleHbl OTOp04KOVilll3 ~eTIIIHIIIeTbiX BOJlOC.
B BO.Qe OHIII paenpfiMJlfiiOTefl, yBeJ11114111BaeTefl nosepXHOeTb JlanOK Ill XBOeTa,
n03TOMY >KIIIBOTHOe 6bleTpO nllaBaeT. ryeTOVI Ill nllOTHbiVI BOJlOefiHOVI noKpOB
OTTaJlKIIIBaeT BO.Qy.

                          Y~HBHTeJihHOe                          p.H~OM
     CpeAIII MJleKoniiiTaiO~IIIX eeTb TOllbKO weeTb fiAOBIIITbiX >KIIIBOTHbiX, KYTOpa-
OAHa 1113 HIIIX. l/13seeTHO .QBa BIIIAa fi.QOBIIITbiX KyTop. Bee fiAOBIIITble MJleKoniii-
TaiO~IIIe (KpOMe YTKOHOea) OTHOefiTefl K OTPfiAY HaeeKOMOfi.QHbiX. B IIIX eJliOHe
eo.Qep>KIIITefl napa111113y10~ee Be~eeTBO, Bblpa6aTbiBaeMOe nO.Q4eJ110eTHOVI >Ke-
lle30VI. YKyweHHble 6een03BOH04Hble OeTaiOTefl HenOABIII>KHbiMIII Ha npOTfi>Ke-
HIIIIII   3-5 AHeVI. TaK KYTOpbl 3anaeai0Tefl >Kill BOLli   Ill Heno.QBIII>KHOVI A06bl4eVI.
     KyTopa BO.QfiHafl 04eHb pe.QKO nona.QaeTefl lliO.QfiM Ha rlla3a. oOllbWIIIHeTBO
JliO.QeVI .Qa>Ke He AOra.QbiBaiOTefl, 4TO 86111113111 >KIIIBeT TaKafl IIIHTepeeHafl 3Bepyw-
Ka, O.QHa 1113 eaMbiX 6Jliii3KIIIx,po.QeTBeHHIII~" KpoTa.         A YAIIIBIIITellbHOe,   oKa3biBa-
eTefl, pfi.QOM.

     OT pe~aKQHH.                            B YKpaiiiHe seTpe4aiOTefl TOllbKo ABa BIIIAa
KyTop. KpoMe ynoMf!HyToVI, eeTb e~e KyTopa Mallafl (Neomys anomalus
Cabrera,1907), KOTopafl 3aHeeeHa B KpaeHyiO KHIIIry YKpaiiiHbl 111 B 5epHeKyiO
KOHBeH~IIIIO (nOllHOe Ha3BaHIIIe ,KOHBeH-
~IIIfl o6 oxpaHe AIIIKOVI cpayHbl 111 cp110pb1 111
nplllpO.QHbiX epeA o6111TaHIIIfl B Espone")
                   IOpHil WHaana




                       TpaHce8pa3uiAcKoe nymeutecm8ue
                "1To6bl ys~,qeTb cne,qy10lllee 1.1y,qo np~po,qbl, KOTopoe Haxo,q~TCfl B Espo-
             ne, HaM np~,qeTCfl npeo,qoneTb orpoMHoe paccTOfiH~e. Me>K,qy BbeTHaMcKolll
             6yxTolll XanoHr ~ sen~Ko6p~TaHCKOIII ,[\oporolll r~raHTOB- 6onee 10-T~ Tb1Cfl4
             K~noMeTpos. B 3TOT pa3 Mbl noe,qeM Ha asTOM06~ne, 4T06bl nomo6osaTbCfl
             He06bi4HbiM ~ pa3H006pa3HbiM espa3ii!IIICK~M KOHT~HeHTOM. Mbl nepeCe4eM
             caMble 6onbw~e nycTbiH~ A3~~ - ro6~ ~ TaKna-MaKaH; no6biBaeM Ha T~6eT­
             CKOM Haropbe ~ TypaHCKOIII H~3MeHHOCT~; non106yeMCfl KpaCOTO!Ii 6eperOB
             ApanbcKoro ~ Kacnii!lllcKoro Mope!~!; nepece4eM sc10 Espony ill TOnbKO noToM
             c,qenaeM nepBble warill no Aopore r~raHTOB. Biii.Qi!IMO, HacTOflll.leMy senii!KaHy
             ,qm1 Toro, 4T06bl npeo,qoneTb 3TO paccTOfiH~e, 6blno 6bl ,qocraT04HO o,qHoro
.r--"~rr--
,QHfl, HO Mbl He cneWlt1M lt1 B03bMeM OT Hawero nyTeWeCTBlt1fl KaK MO>KHO 60Jlb-
we socnoMl-1HaHl-1~.111TaK, snepe,Q! Ellie pa3 B3rllfiHYB Ha KpacoTy 6yxTbl XanoHr,
r,Qe ,QpaKOH norpy3lt111Cfl B MOpe, Mbl Ca,Qlt1MCfl B aBTOM06lt1Jlb lt1 HanpaBJlfleMCfl B
O.QHY l-13 KpynHe~Wlt1X CTpaH Hawe~ nnaHeTbl - Klt1Ta~.

                           noiJHe6ecHaR UMnepuR
    Klt1Ta~   -   ,QpeBHflfl      l...ll-1Blt1Jllt13al...llt1fl,   KOTOpafl    B   Te4eHlt1e        6   Tb1Cfl4     JleT
06be,Qlt1Hlt1Jla 60JlbWOe KOJllt14eCTBO HapO,QOB lt1 KYllbTyp. no nJlOLl.la,Ql-1 OH 3a-
Hlt1MaeT TpeTbe MeCTO B Mlt1pe (nocne Pocclt1lt1 lt1 KaHa.Qbl). 3Ta CTpaHa lt1MeeT
,QOJ1ry10 ltlCTOpl-110 lt1 O.QHY l-13 ,QpeBHe~Wlt1X lt1 CaMbiX CJlO>KHbiX Clt1CTeM nlt1Cb-
Ma, KOTOpafl BKJ1104aeT 6011ee                     47      Tb1Cfl4 lt1epornlt1<f>OB (o6pa30BaHHbl~ Kl-1-
Tael...l 3HaeT OKOJlO      4-5     Tb1Cfl4 lt1epornlt1<f>lt14eCKlt1X Clt1MBOJ10B). 4aCTO Klt1Ta~
Ha3biBaiOT no,QHe6eCHO~. TaKOe Ha3BaHl-1e BOWJlO B 06l-1XO,Q 6naro,Qapfl ,QpeB-
HeMy <f>lt1J10CO<f>CKOMY Mlt1pOB033peHlt110 -                         Klt1Tael...leHTplt13My.   8   Tpy,QaX <f>lt1J10-
co<f>oB-Klt1Tael...leHTplt1CTOB Klt1Ta~ Ha3b1Ba11Cfl Tf!Hb Cfl                        C~T), 4TO B nepeso,Qe
03Ha4aeT ,3eMJlfl no,Q He6ecaMlt1". TaKoe lt1HTepecHoe Ha3BaHlt1e B03Hlt1KllO
He npocTo TaK. 5onee ABYX TbiCfl4eJleTlt1~ >Klt1Telllt1 BocT04HO~ A3l-1lt1 C4lt1Ta-
Jllt1, 4TO Kl-1Ta~ fiBllfleTCfl LleHTpoM l...ll-1Blt11ll-13al...ll-1l-1, KYllbTYPbl l-1
B Mlt1pe, HanOJlHeHHOM ,BapBapaMl-1'~ lt1
rnaBHbiM npocseTlt1TeJleM ,sapsapcKlt1X"
HapO,QOB. no3TOMY Klt1Ta~l...lbl peWlt1Jllt1,
4TO yMeCTHO Ha3biBaTb CBOIO TeppltlTO-
pl-110            KOTOpbl~ HaXO,Qlt1TCfl nO,Q
                       Klt1Tael...leHTplt13M            Y>Ke




                                                                            5onbWlt1HCTBO           cTpaH         Ml-1pa
                                                                        nbiTaiOTCfl     no,Q.Qep>Klt1BaTb         APY-
                                                                        >KeCKlt1e OTHOWeHlt1fl C no,QHe6ec-
                                                                        HO~,    KOTOpafl        lt1MeeT    MOLl.IHYIO
                                                                        apMl-110 lt1 Hal-16onee MHoro4lt1C-
                                                                        neHHOe HaceneHl-1e cpe.Ql-1 scex
rocy,QapCTB - CBbiWe         1   Mlt111Jllt1ap,Qa         300      Mlt111Jllt10HOB 4eJlOBeK. 3TO n04Tlt1 B           30
pa3 6onbwe, 4eM HaceneHl-1e YKpalt1Hbl! 111 BOT caMafl 6onbwafllt1 3KCTpeManbHafl
                                                                                                                       =~*""---....
                .
nycTbiHfl A31. w1 - ro6111 - 6poc11111a Bbi30B K111Tal0. Pacw111pflfl cso111 nec4aHble
nno~aA111, oHa co3AaeT Tfi>Kellble ycnoBII1fl A11fl >KII13HII11110Aelil.
     DII1TBY Me>KAY ro6111111 K111TaeM MO>KHO CMellO Ha3BaTb,6111TBOLil r111raHTOB'~ no-
CKOilbK}' o6e CTOpOHbl ,KOH<j>11111KTa" 0611aAaiOT orpOMHbiM K0111114eCTBOM Cll111
111 pecypcos. 4To6bl 3a~II1TII1Tb noAHe6ecHyiO oT HacTynneHII1fl necKoB, npa-
BII1Te11bCTBO rocyAapcTBa pew111110 BOn110TII1Tb OA111H 1113 CaMbiX rpaHA11103HbiX
npoeKTOB nocne nocTpoLiiKII1 Be11111Kolil KII1TaLilcKoLil cTeHbl - ,3eneHyiO KII1Talii-
CKYIO CTeHy". Ee ,CTp0111TenbcTso" Ha4anocb e~e s 1970-x roAax 111 3asepw111T-
Cfl B 2050 roAY· 3a 3TO speMfl nnaH111pyeTCfl o3eneHII1Tb Tepp111TOp11110 nno~a­
AbiO 6onee 35 MII111111110HOB reKTapoB, 3KBII1BaJ1eHTHYIO Tepp111T0p111111 repMaHII1111.
3a~II1THbiLil nOfiC 1113 AepeBbeB, TpaB 111 K}'CTapH111KOB W111p111HOLil 100 KM npOTfi-
HeTCfl Ha 4 500 KM. 3a BCIO 111CT0p11110 4e110Be4eCTBa 3TO- KpynHeLiiWII1Lil npOeKT
111CKyccTBeHHoro o3eneHeHII1fl Tepp111TOp111111. Mbl Y3HaeM o pe3y11bTaTax 6111TBbl
Me>KAY K111TaeM 111 ro6111 4epe3 HeCKOilbKO AeCf!TII111eTII1Lil, n03TOMY He 6yAeM Te-
Pf!Tb speMfl Ha npocMoTp 3TII1x,6aTa11111Lil". BnepeAII1 e~e OAHa 6onbwafl a3111aT-
cKafl nycTbiHfl - TaKna-MaKaH.

              TaKAa- MaKaH:                                -
                                                           •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••
                                                           -
         nyc~~HR-peKopa                                    ~
  ,lJ,s111raflcb no T1116eTCKOMY HaropbiO B 3a-
naAHOM HanpasneHII1111, Mbl npoe3>KaeM rop- _..._                 .....,.._
  HYIO CII1CTeMy HaHbWaHb (iiiBJ!rJJ), 4TO B ne- ~~::;..-
     peBOAe c KII1TaLilcKoro 03Ha4aeT ,IO>KHble
        ropbl". CneAY10~111M ropHbiM o6pa3o-
          BaHII1eM, KOTOpOe HaXOA111TCfl K 10ry
             oT Hawero MapwpyTa, f!BilfleTcfl
                xpe6eT AnTbiHTar- ,3onoTble ropbl"
                  (11ii11F~rJJ). TaK Ha3Ba11111 3TY MecT-
                     HOCTb 1113-3a 4BeTa, KOTOpbiLil
                         np111o6peTaiOT ropHble cKno-
                            Hbl BO BpeMfl 3aKaTa.
                                   YB111AeB 1113 OKHa as-
                                  TOM0611111fl xpe6eT An-
                                    TbiHTar, rOTOBbTeCb K
                                         Bbe3AY Ha Tepp111TOp11110 nycTbiHII1 TaKna-MaKaH,
                                               6ecKpaLiiHII1e npOCTOpbl KOTOpOLil noKpbiTbl
                                                    30110TbiMII1 necKaMII1 111 Ha4111HaiOTCfl ce-
                                                          sepHee ,3onoTbiX rop'~ TaKna-Ma-
                                                                KaH - OAHa 1113 KpynHeLiiWII1X
                                                                           nec4aHbiX nycTbiHb Ha-
        well! n11aHeTbl. Ee n11o~a.qb- 30 MII111111110HOB reKTapos, a npoTR>KeHHOCTb c 3a-
        na.o.a Ha BOCTOK- 6011ee 1 000 KM. EC11111,nepeHeCTII1" 3TY nyCTbiHIO Ha Tepp111TO-
        p11110 YKpa111Hbl, TO OHa npOTRHeTCR OT nbBOBa AO XapbKOBa (C 3ana.qa Ha BOCTOK)
        111 oT K111esa .o.o Kp111soro Para (c cesepa Ha 10r).
             MecTHble >KII1Te11111 rosopRT o TaK11a-MaKaH: ,.lJ.a>Ke peKII1 noK111AaiOT 3TY
        nyCTbiHIO". no4TII1 BCe BOAOTOKII1, 6epy~111e CBOe Ha4a110 B OAHOIII 1113 KpynHe17J-
        WII1X ropHbiX CII1CTeM M111pa KyHb-nYHb, conp111KacaRCb c necKaMII1 TaK11a-MaKaH,
        111C4e3aiOT B HII1X. To11bKO peKa XoTaH npeo.qo11esaeT 3TY C110>KHYIO nec4aHyiO
        nperpa.o.y 111 pa3pe3aeT nycTbiHIO TaK11a-MaKaH Ha .o.se 4aCTII1, o6pa3yR BA011b Te-
        4eHII1R MHoro4111C11eHHble oa3111Cbl. 0Ha sna.o.aeT B OAHY 1113 caMbiX A11111HHbiX peK
        K111TaR - Tap111M.

                                           -
11111111111111111111111111111111111111111111.


                                           -
                                                 OnycMoweHHbtiA Kpa.iA
                                           -           c6eMa.
                                              .D.o Ha4a11a 111HTeHCII1BHoro opoweHII1R 3eM11111 B
                                          peKY Tap111M 4epe3 TaK11a-MaKaH B11111Ba11111Cb e~e
                                         Tp111 BOAOTOKa: Kawrap, TII13Hacl> 111 Kep111R. Ce1714ac
                                         OHII1 111C4e3aiOT B 6ecKpa171HII1X necKax nycTbiHII1.
                                          Mbl nonpo6yeM OTbiCKaTb, r.o.e 111MeHHO 111C4e3aeT
                                          Kawrap, a ee Te4eHII1e np111Be.qeT Hac K naMII1PY-
                                          noc11e.qHelll ropHolll nperpa.qe Ha nyTII1 K .D.opore
                                          r111raHTOB B Be11111Ko6p111TaHII1111. E.qeM B cesepo-3a-
                                          na.qHOM HanpaB11eHII1111 B Ta.q>KII1KII1CTaH, Haxo.qii1M
                                          pyc11o peKII1 Kawrap, a npeo.qo11es e~e 6o11ee
                                          500 KM, npoe3>KaeM ropHyiO CII1CTeMy naM111p 111
                                         oKa3biBaeMCR Ha orpoMHOIII Tepp111TOp111111 TypaH-
                                         cKolll HII13MeHHOCTII1.
                                              Ha3BaHII1e 3T0171 Tepp111TOp111111 npo111cxo.q111T OT
                                          Ha3BaHII1R K04eBOrO 111paHO-R3bi4HOrO n11eMeHII1
        rypaH, KOTopoe o.qHo 1113 nepBbiX Ha o11111>KHeM BocToKe Ha4a11o 3aHII1MaTbCR >KII1-
        BOTHOBOACTBOM. nbiTaeMCR yra.qaTb 3aMbiC11bl np111pO.lJ.bl. Ka>KeTCR, OHa C03Aa11a
        TypaHCKYIO HII13MeHHOCTb KaK 111111110311110 ,KpaR cseTa'~ HasepHoe, 11106olll, nonas
        CIO.qa HeCK011bKO TbiCR4 11eT Ha3a.q, He peWII111CR 6bl ee nepece4b. Tepp111TOp111R
        HII13MeHHOCTII1 0611111bHO ycblnaHa necKaMII1 .qsyx KpynHbiX nycTbiHb: KapaKYMbl
                                                                        Tpex CTOpOH ee
                                                              Henp111cTynHble ropHble
                                                             Ha 10re - ropHaR CII1CTeMa
                                              KoneTAar 111 npeArOpbe naponaMII13,
                                              Ha IOrQ-BOCTOKe - ropbl TRHb-WaHR
                                              111 naMII1pO-AilaR, Ha BOCTOKe- IOrO-
                                              BOCT04HaR 0Kpa111Ha nyCTbiHII1 5eT-
                                              naK-,lJ,alla 111 4y-111nll1111cKII1e ropbl; Ha
                                              ceeepo-eocToKe- Ka3axcKII1111 Me11KO-
                                              cono4HII1K, Ha ceeepe- TypralllcKoe
                                              Haropbe 111, HaKOHel\, BOCT04HOe
                                                                           ro KpR>Ka My-




HII13MeHHOCTII1 np111pOAa ycTaHOBII11la npenRT-
CTBII1R Apyroro POAa. 3To - ABa 3araA04HbiX
o3epa-MopR: ApanbcKoe 111 Kacn111lllcKoe.

        03epa         IAAIA    MopR?
     Kacn111lll Ha3biBaiOT caMbiM 6eccT04HbiM
o3epoM M111pa. B Hero enaAaeT MHoro peK, HO
Hill OAHa He BbiTeKaeT. MopeM ero Ha3biBaiOT
noToMy, 4TO AHO Kacn111R noKpbiTO OKeaH
                      KOpolll. Ho, B OT111114111e


                                                    He nonaAaiOT B oKeaH.
                                                      111lllcKoe o3epo-Mope LlleApo
                                                        nOilHReTCR pe4HbiMII1 BOAa-
                                                    MII1 111 CAep>K111BaeT BTOp>KeHII1e
                                                    nycTbiHb TypaHcKolll HII13MeH-
                                                    HOCTII1 B Eepony.
                                                           A BOT ApanbcKoe Mope
                                                    MO>KHO C rpyCTbiO Ha3BaTb
                                                    YM111pa10Ll.III1M eoAoeMoM ... Ellie
                                                    AO 1960-ro roAa 3TO o3epo
                                                    6bi110 OAH111M 1113 caMbiX 6onb-
                                                    WII1X 6eCCT04HbiX COileHbiX
                                                    o3ep M111pa. Ero 6ecKpaiiiHII1e
BOAHble       npOCTOpbl        -       HaCTOfl~ee

Mope! -       paAOBalllll rna3. CeroAHfl
Apan -       3TO 30Ha 3Konorll14eCKolll
KaTaCTpO<pbl,          TeppiiiTOplllfl      onyc-
TowaiO~IIIX          neCKOB,       a   He   >KIIIBO-
TBOpHOIII BOAbl. np1114111HOIII r1116e11111
o3epa fiBilfleTcfl xo3fllllcTBeHHafl Ae-
fiTellbHOCTb 4ellOBeKa, B pe3yllbTaTe
KOTOpolll nepeKpbiBaiOTCfl ABe >1<1113-
HeHHO Ba>KHble BOAHble apTep111111 -
peKIII AMyAapbfl 111 CblpAapbfl.
OpOWeHIIIfl CellbCKOX03fliiiCTBeHH
yroAIIIIII   C 3TIIIX peK 6e3>Ka110CTH
BbiKa4111BaiOT BOAy, KOTOpafl TaK He-
o6XOA111Ma Apany.
  ( 1960 no 2012 roA aKBaTOplllfl                 03epa yMeHbWIIIIlaCb n04TIII B     5   pa3: C   u n ..   "7-~
AO 13,9 TbiC. KM. Ha nno~aAIII, rAe               paHbWe 6bllla BOAa, Morna 6bl noMeCTIIITb-
Cfl cTpaHa pa3MepoM c XopBaTIIIIO. YpoBeHb BOAbl B o3epe CHII1311111Cfl c                      53    AO
30   MeTpOB. Ton~elll BOAbl, KOTopyiO noTepflll Apan, MO>KHO 6bi110 6bl yKpbiTb
nfiTII13Ta>KHbllll AOM. nycTbiHHble Ill CTenHble npOCTOpbl Apana                         HanOMIIIHa-
IOT KaApbl 1113 anoKalllllnTII14ecKoro <j>lllllbMa: 3a6poweHHble nopTbl nocpeAIII
cyw111; 3ap>KaBeBWIIIe 60ilbWIIIe K0pa611111, KOTOpble HIIIKaKafl Cllllla He CMOrlla
6bl OTTfiHYTb TaK AalleKO OT CYAOXOAHbiX MeCT; np1114YA11111Bble X011Mbl, KOTOpble
KOrAa-TO 6bl11111 OCTpOBaMIII. 0AIIIH 1113 TaKIIIX 6biBWIIIX OCTpOBOB- Bo3pO>KAeHIIIe -
npeBpaTIIIIlCfl B nonyoCTpoB. Bo BpeMeHa CCCP 3AeCb <I>YHK41110H111poBana na6o-
paTop111fl no IIICCileAOBaHIIIIO 6aKTep1110110rlll4eCKOro opy>KIIIfl (B036YA111Tellelll Clll-
6111pCKOIII fi3Bbl, TYilflpeMIIIIII, 4YMbl, Tlll<j>a, ocnbl 111 APYrlllx cMepTellbHO onacHbiX
BlllpycoB) Ha>KIIIBOTHbiX. KOrAa-TO BOAbl Apa11bCKOroMOpfl3a~lll~a11111 KOHTIIIHeHT
OT pacnpocTpaHeHIIIfl IIIH<j>eK4111111, a celll4ac y4eHble onacaiOTCfl, 4TO CTenHble
rpb13YHbl CTaHyT nepeHOC4111KaMIII B036YA111Tellelll onaCHbiX 3a6oneBaHIIIIII B
3a<:~JJle.J:IIHble   MeCTa.
                        1111111111111111111111.

                                                         raAOJ1.0M           J1.0   E6poJ1.e
                                                         HaAefiCb,   4TO   ne4allbHbllll     npiiiMep
                                                       ApanbcKoro    o3epa    CTaHeT       npeAOCTe-
B03POAL11110Cb Lil .QapLIIT HosytO >KLII3Hb oKpY>KatO~LIIM              ""
onyCTOWeHHbiM 3eMJlfiM!
   OcTaBJlflfl no3a.QLII 3ana.QHbllll 6eper KacnLIIR, Mbl Ha-
npasnReMcfl Ha 3ana.Q no TeppL11TOpL11Li1 PoccllllllcKolll
CDe.Qepa4Lillil Lil BCKope nepeceKaeM pocclillllcKo-yKpaLIIH-
cKYIO rpaHLii4Y· o011ee 1 000 KM OT nyraHCKa ,QO nbBOBa
Mbl e,QeM, npoe3>Kafl 4epe3 yKpaLIIHCKLile ropo.Qa Lil cena,
Ha ocTaHOBKax Hac pa.QyeT po.QHOIII yKpaLIIHCKLillll R3biK. B
OKHaX MeJlbKaiOT >KLIIBOnLIICHble JlaH,QWacj>Tbl .[lOHe4KOIII
B03BbiWeHHOCTLil, nonTaBCKOIII paBHLIIHbl Lil nplii,QHe-
npOBCKOIII HLii3MeHHOCTLil. nepee3>KaeM B KLileBe .[lHen
4epe3 MOCT naTOHa, npoe3>KaeM no,QOJlbe, BOllbiHb, fl
Jllii4LIIHY Lil - nOKLii,QaeM YKpaLIIHy. npoe3>KaeM no TeppL11-
TOpL11Li1 noJlbWLil, repMaHLIILil Lil oeJlbrlillil, nepenpaBJlfleMCfl
                                                        Ha napoMe 4epe3 np011LiiB na-
                                                       ,Qe-Kane Lil OKa3biBaeMCfl B noH-
                                                       ,QOHe -    CT011Lil4e Coe.QLIIHeHHoro
                                                        KoponescTBa           BenLIIKo6pLi1TaHLIILil
                                                        Lil CesepHolll       VlpnaH.QLIILil (LiiMeH-
                                                       HO TaK 3BY4LIIT nOJlHOe Ha3BaHLile
                                                       :noll! cTpaHbl). Haw asTOM06LIIJlb
                                                        HanpaBJlfleTCfl B LilpllaH,QCKLillll ro-
                                                        pO,Q oyWMLIIJlC B rpacj>CTBe AHTPLIIM.
                                                        Bnepe,QLII - Aopora rlilraHTOB.

                                                               Bo 6ceM
                                                           6uHo6aW\ roAA?
                                                           CTynLIIB Ha Aopory rlilraHTOB,
                                                       4YBCTByewb no.Q HoraMLII nosepx-
                                                        HOCTb .Qpyrolll nnaHeTbl. BoKpyr
                                                        see nocTpoeHo Li13 coe.QLIIHeH-
                                                        HbiX    Me>KAY        co6olll KOJlOHH,
                                                        npeLIIMy~eCTBeHHO         npaBLIIJlbHOIII
                                                        wecTLilyronbHolll cj>opMbl. Y4eHble
                                                        nOC4LiiTaJ1Lil, 4TO TaKLIIX KOJlOHH
                                                       3.Qecb   6onee 40 Tb1Cfl4.       Vlx BbiCOTa
                                                        KOJle6JleTCfl OT HeCKOJlbKLIIX ,Qe-
                                                       CfiTKOB CaHTLIIMeTpOB ,QO          10 MeT-
                                                        pOB,    BbiCOTa       CaMOIII    601lbWOIII
                               HaLiJ,qeHHbiX KOnOHH COCTaBnReT          12   MeTpOB. 4T06bl
                              HaTb, OTK}',Qa B3RnOCb 3TO 4Y.QO npVIpO,Qbl, Mbl 06-
                                       K MeCTHbiM KpaeBe,QaM, VI OHVI paCCKa3anVI
                                nereH,qy.
                              Kor,qa-To xpa6pb1Lil VlpnaH.QCKVILil BOVIH CDVIHH MaK Ky-
                            Man peWVIn nocopeBHOBaTbCR C O,QHOrlla3biM BenVIKa-
                            HOM no VIMeHVI     ronn,    KOTOpOro 6oRnOCb BCe MeCTHOe
                            HaceneHVIe.    ronn >KVIn   3a MOpeM, n03TOMY CDVIHH pewVIn
                            nOCTpOVITb MOCT, 4T06bl nonaCTb Ha ,qpyry10 CTOpO-
                            Hy, He HaM04VIB HOr. 0H BbiTeCbiBan VI B6VIBan Me40M B
                            ,QHO MOpR KaMeHHble KOnOHHbl VI, HaKOHe4, COe,QVIHVIn
                            6epera MopR.
                              Pa6oTa 6blna HenerKoLil, BOVIH o4eHb ycTan, npVIner
                            OT.QOXHYTb VI ycHyn. B 3TO speMR rpo3Hb1Lil senVIKaH
ilj~[f§~-IK-1-Ier>.~V..J~NieH
 Mocry. VI                He yMHaR >KeHa    -
                                            •11111111111111111111111111111111111111111

                                            -
 cPVIHHa, YHar, TO ronn ,QO CVIX nop ny-    -
                                            -
 ran 6bl npV1e3>KVIX TYPVICTOB. 4To6bl
 rVIraHT He pacnpaBVInCR C COHHbiM
                                            -
                                            -
My>KeM YHar Bbi.Qana ero 3a CbiHa
 VI npe,qnO>KVIna   ronny   yroCTVITbCR
nenewKaMVI c 3ane4eHHbiMVI BHyT-
pVI   >Kene3HbiMVI     CKOBOpO,QaMVI.
 BenVIKaH OXOTHO COrnaCVInCR, HO
 Ka>K,QbiLiJ pa3, OTK}'CbiBaR K}'COK,nO-
Man3y6bl VI, HaKOHe4, OTKa3anCR VIX
ecTb. KaK TOnbKO CDVIHH npocHyncR,
>KeHa ,qana eMy TaKVIe >Ke neneWKVI,
TOnbKO     6e3    CKOBOpO,QOK.    ronn
 VlcnyrancR, ysVI,qes,   KaK 6biCTpo
,pe6eHoK"        noe,qaeT    nenewKVI.
 npe,QCTaBVIB OT4a TaKOro pe6eHKa,
OH 6pOCVInCR 6e>KaTb no nOCTpO-
eHHOMY CDVIHHOM MOcTy. OT y,qapos
 rVIraHTCKVIX CTynHeLiJ MOCT CnOMan-
CR. ronn   y6e>Kan B 6e3niO,QHOe MeC-
TO, VIc Tex nop ero 6onbwe He BVI-
,qenVI. A OT MOCTa cPVIHHa Vl3 KOnOHH
COXpaHVInaCb nVIWb ManaR 4aCTb.
 Ee Ha3BanVI Aoporolil rVIraHTOB.           .11111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111
      l<.aHaacKue f.JusuKu He cAyucaJOM AezeHa
    TyplitCTbl A0B011bC."JBY101'01 nen:!HAOM 0 BOlHIIIKHOBeHiillil Aoporlll r~~traHTOB.
reonOrDB BnOnHe ycrpaiiiBaeT MHciloPMaL!KA 0 TOM, 'lTD Mel reppMTOpWI 60
MMI1S1MOHOB neT HalaA ~pMIIIpOBanaCb nOA BniiiRHIIIeM aKTIIIBHOM Byl1KaHM-
I.IeCKOM AeRTeJ1bHOCTI.1. 8yl1KaHMI.IeCt<llle OTl10>KeHIIIA, KOTOpble noKpblnlll 3eM-
HytO noaepxHOCTb, anocneAcnntlil norpecKanliiCb, B pe:;aynbtaTe ~o~ero o6pa-
30BanCf1 caoeo6pa3Hbllil naHAwa+r. A KaHaACKMe y~o~!Hble-cj)r.131i1Kiil pew~·111r.1
noJKCnepliiMeHmposaTb. OHM np111nerenlil a BenliiKo6pr.1TaHiiiJO, 'f1'06bl Hccne-
AOBaTb npMpDAY o6pa30BaHiilll WecrMrpaHHbiX KOI10HH Aoponlll rMraHTOB.
     npoaHal11i13lilpoBaB reoMeTplill.leciG1e Iii '1113lil'leCKiile xapaKrepMCTiiiKir1
nplilpDAHbiX KOS10HH, KaHClAL\bl nOHJVIIII, 'ITO npOLjeCC paCTpeCKiiiBaHWI Byl1Ka-
Hiil'lecKOM naBbl 'M3Iil'leCKiil HanOMiiiHaeT o6pa30BaHiile Tpell.\liiH B BblcyweHHOM
rp}lHTe 11111111 KpacKe, a lHa'lliiT, ero MO>KHO nosropliiTb B na6oparopHbiX ycnoalil-
"x.   He MeAJJ.R, Yl.feHble nonb1Tai1111Cb COJAaTb MliiHiilaTIOPHYJO KOm110 AoporM rlil-
raHTOB B IIICCJ1eAOBaTel1bCKOM 4eHTpe.ASlfi3TOrD 111M noHaA06MI10Cb COBCeM He-
MHOrD MarepManos: naMna HaKaniiiBaHIIIfl, BOAa 111 KYKYPYJHbllil KpaxMan. CMecb
BOAbl 111 KYKYPYlHOro KpaxMana no crpytcrype 111 'M3lll'lecKMM xapaKTepiiiCTiii-
KaM HanOMIIIHana naay. 8 npOL\ecce HarpesaHMfl OHa nOACbiXalla, M nO BCeMy
ee  06beMy 06pa30Bb1Ban111Cb MIIIHIIIaTIOpHble WeCTiilrpaHHble KOSlOHHbl. noBTO-
pliiB 3KCnepMMeHT HecKOnbKO pal, cj.llllMKIII yetaHOBIIIIllil laKOHOMepHOCTb, Ko-
TOpall KOrAa-TO Cblrpana OnP.eAeMIOLeyiO ponb 8 ~pMiilpOBaHMiil pa3Hb1X no
Bblccne ~H.!!.A9por111 nuaHtoBi_1.1eM Me,qneHHee OCTbiBana naaa, 11!M Kpyn-
Hee o6pa30BbiBal1MCb KOIIOHHbl.
        ~
   )J,OBOJlbHble CBOelll pa60TOIII, y4eHble BepHyllLIICb B TopOHTO, a Mbl MO>KeM
CMOAellL!IpOBaTb npOL.IeCC <j>OpMLIIpOBaHL/Ifl )J,oporL/1 r111raHTOB Ill npOCTO mo6o-
BaTbCfl LllpnaHACKLIIM 4YAOM nplllpOAbl. BpeMfl ompaBnf!TbCfl B noHAOH, 4T06bl
nocne 3KCKYPCLIILII no ropOAY noAroTOBLIITbCfl K cneAYIOLl.lelll noe3AKe.            A noKa -
npeAnaraiO ocyll.leCTBLIITb nyTewecTBLIIe ellle pa3, Hap111cosas npoiiiAeHHbllll
MapwpyT Ha reorpa<j>LII4eCKolll KapTe.




   ropHaJI CIIICTeMa -        COBOKYnHOCTb ropHbiX xpe6TOB,
ropHbiX MaCCLIIBOB,        nnOCKOropLIIIII, Me>KropHbiX BnaALIIH
LIIAOJlLIIH.
   3eMHaH Kopa -         BHeWHLIIIII cnolll 3eMHoro wapa, OAHa 1113 CTPYKTYPHbiX o6o-
Jl04eK nnaHeTbl TOJlll.ILIIHOIII   5-40 KM. Pa3JlLII4aiOT KOHTLIIHeHTaJlbHbllll Ill OKeaHLII-
4eCKLIIIII Tllln 3eMHOIII KOpbl. (OCTOLIIT 1113 TeKTOHLII4eCKLIIX nllLIIT, KOTOpble ABLII>KYTCfl
B MaHTL/1111 3eMJlLII.
   OpoweHIIIe (l.•pp111r84111J1} -     nOABOA BOAbl 1113 nplllpOAHbiX BOAOeMOB 11111111 LIIC-
KYCCTBeHHO C03AaHHbiX KaHaJlOB Ha nOJlfl, LIICnbiTbiBaiOLl.ILIIe HeAOCTaTOK BJlarLII,
ysenLII4eHLIIe ee 3anacos B        cnoe   no4Bbl, rAe HaXOAflTCfl KOpHLII pacTeHLIIIII, c Lle-
JlbiO yny4WeHLIIfl nJlOAOPOALIIfl n04Bbl.
   Oa3111C -    ocTposoK pacTLIITellbHOCTLII nocpeALII nycTbiHLII, pacnono>KeHHbllll
86111!13111 nplllpOAHOrO BOAOeMa. 60JlbWLIIHCTBO Oa3LIICOB flBJlfliOTCfl y6e>KLIIL1.1eM
                                                                         IJporp@GG aGmpOH.O.JJlUU lJ.JJlH.O-
                                                                         Jka@m B namux gymax GJia:sy
                                                                                     Bory.
                                                                                      raJIU.Jl@O raJIU.Jl@U




                                                                             Ilymu, komophl.JJtU JilOgu
                                                                            nponuka10m :s GlJIDh R@tl@G-
                                                                            RhlX 5l:B.Jl@RUU, np@gGma:s-
                                                                            Jl5llOIDG5l .JJlR@ nO"tl.IDU GIDO.Jlh
                                                                            Jk@ lJgUBUID@JlhH.bl.JJlU, kak U
                                                                                  Ga.JJtu amu .H:BJI@HU.H.
                                                                                             Morann K@nJI@P




                                peBHIIIe rpeKIII C4111Talllll,
            ....._ ......,..4TO 3eMilfl n11ocKafl. CDa-
   u.-a~~ 11ec M11111eTCKIIIIII, >KIIIBWIIIIII B VI seKe .n.o
            H. 3., npe.n.cTaBilflll ce6e 3eMiltO B BIIIP.e
            nllOCKOrO tJ.IIICKa, OKpy>KeHHOrO MOpeM,
            1113 KOTOporo Ka>K.LJ.bi!IJ Be4ep BbiXO.LJ.IIIIllll, a
            se4epoM caP.IIIIliiiCb 3Be3.LJ.bl. Ka>K.n.oe yTpo c
            BOCT04HOIIJ 4aCTIII MOpfl nO.LJ.HIIIMa/laCb 30/lOTafl KO-
            JleCHIII4a 6ora C011H4a - re/liiiOCa Ill P.BIIIra/laCb no He6y.
                 ApeBHIIIM erlllnTfiHaM KapTIIIHa Mlllpa Ka3allaCb TaKolll: BHIII3Y - 3eMilfl, HaP.
            Hell!- 6or111Hfl He6a; c11esa 111 cnpasa- Kopa61lb 6ora Co11H4a, KOTOpbllll yKa3biBaeT
            P.HeBHOMY CBeTIIIIlY nyTb.
                 ApeBHIIIe IIIHP.elll4bl npe.n.cTaBilfllllll 3eMiltO B BIIIP.e nollyc<J>epbl, KOTopytO
            y.n.ep>KIIIBatOT 4eTb1pe CllOHa. CllOHbl CTOfiT Ha orpoMHolll 4epenaxe, 4epenaxa-
            Ha 3Mee, KOTOpafl, CBepHyBWIIICb K01lb40M, OXBaTbiBaeT BCe npOCTpaHCTBO BO-
            Kpyr 3eMillll.
                 >K111Te11111 BaBIIIIlOHa npe.n.cTaBilfllllll 3eMiltO B BIIIP.e ropbl, Ha 3ana.n.HoM CKilOHe
            KOTopolll HaXOP.IIITCfl BaBIIIIlOHIIIfl. OHIII 3Halllll, 4TO K tOry OT BaBIIIIlOHIIIIII pacKIII-
            HYilOCb MOpe, a Ha BOCTOKe - rOpbl, 4epe3 KOTOpble OHIII 60flll111Cb nepeXO.LJ.IIITb.
            lllM Ka3allOCb, 4TO BaBIIIIlOHIIIfl pacnollo>KeHa Ha 3ana.n.HoM CKilOHe ropbl M111pa.
            3Ta ropa oKpy>KeHa MopeM, a Ha Mope, KaK nepesepHyTafl 4awa, on111paeTCfl
r-~~:::::=s TBep.n.oe He6o - He6ecH bill! cso.n., r.n.e TO>Ke ecTb cywa, so.n.a 111 so3.n.yx.
    He6ecHaH cywa - 3TO noHc
1113 12-TII1 30,QII1aKaJlbHbiX C0-
3Be3,QII1ill: OseH, Tene~, 6nii1-
3He~bl, PaK, nes, )J,esa, BeCbl,
CKopn1110H, CTpene~, K03e-
por, Bo,qoneill, Pb16bl.
    B Ka}K,QOM co3Be3,QII1111
ConH~e e}Kero,qHo Haxo-
,QII1TCH np111MepHO B Te4e-
HII1e MecH~a. B,qonb noHca
cywll1 ,Q8111}KYTCH COJlH~e, nyHa 111
nHTb nnaHeT. A no,q 3eMneill - 6e3-
,QHa, s KOTopyiO nona,qaiOT ,qyw111
yMepw111x. Ho4bl0 ConH~e onyc-                                                  .
KaeTCH B 3TO nO,Q3eMe1lbe OT 3ana,QH0f0 KpaH 3eM11111 K BOC- . ··.·
T04HOMy, 4T06bl yTpoM onHTb Ha4aTb csoill e}Ke,QHeBHblill nyn~ ·..
no He6y. Ha61110,QaH 3aKaT ConH~a, 1110,QII1 ,qyMa11111, 4TO oHo:".: ·.. ·
                                                                           .
YXO,QII1T B MOpe Ill BOCXO,QIIIT TaK}Ke 1113 MOpH. TaKIIIe npe,qCTas-· : • ·•
JleHIIIH 0 3eMJle OCHOBbiBaJliiiCb Ha Ha6JliO,QeHIIIHX nplllpO,QHbiX
HBJleHIIIill, HO 06bHCHIIITb IIIX ,qpeBHIIIe BaBIIIJlOHHHe He MOfJllll
1113-3a orpaHIII4eHHOCTIII CBOIIIX 3HaHIIIill.
    B 3noxy pa3BIIITIIIH MopennasaHIIIH noHBIIIJliiiCb ,qoKa3a-
Te1lbCTBa wapoo6pa3HOCTIII 3eMJlll1 1 • nepBbiMIII IIICCJle,QOBaTe-
JlHMIII, CBe,QeHIIIH 0 KOTOpbiX ,QOWJ1111 ,QO HaWIIIX speMeH, 6b1Jllll
,qpeBHIIIe erlllnTHHe. 6onee        5 000    neT Ha3a,Q OHIII c03,qan111
MOll.IHYIO ~IIIBIII111113ai..\IIIIO Ha nJlO,QOpO,QHbiX 6eperax peKIII H11111,
KompaH 6epeT csoe Ha4ano s ropax BocT04Hoill A<f>piiiKIII 111
HeceT BO,Qbl s Cpe,QIII3eMHoe Mope. 6naro,qapH H111ny, rnas-
Hoill BO,QHOill apTep111111 CTpaHbl, erlllnTHHe CTaJllll OnbiTHbiMIII
Mopexo,qaMIII. B Er111me 6b1na co6cTBeHHaH niiiCbMeHHOCTb, a
3Ha4111T, Ill B03MO}KHOCTb OniiiCbiBaTb HOBble MeCTa Ill 4y,Qeca,
KOTOpble BCTpe4a11111Cb Ha nyTIII nyTeWeCTBeHHIIIKOB.




'qJnall. o .n;oKa3aTeJihCTBax rnapoo6pa3HOCTH 3eMJIH B :>KYPHaJiax ,KOJIOCOK"
.N'!! 12/2011, .N'!! 1/2012.
                                                                                                I1AaHem.hl UHOI'Afl ABU~ffiC51 B

                                        ... U HeDOi\BillkHOO                                    OBpanlHOM HarrpaBAeHUU


                      or,qa-ro lliO.QIII C4111Tanlll 3eMniO LleHrpoM BceneHHOIII 111 AYManlll, 4TO ConH-
           Lie, nnaHeTbl 111 3Be3.Qbl spall.laiOTCR soKpyr Hee. 111 Hlll4ero Y.QIIIBIIITenbHoro! Be.Qb
           Kai'K,Qbllll ,QeHb Mbl C06CTBeHHbiMIII ma3aMIII BIII,QIIIM, KaK (OJlHL..Ie ,QBIIIJ'KeTCFI no
           He6y, a 3eMJlFI Kai'KeTCFI HaM HenO,QBIIIJ'KHOIII. 4T06bl OC03HaTb IIICTIIIHy,
           noHa,Q06111JliiiCb TbiCFI4eJleTIIIFI.
                 ,L:\pesHerpe4eCKIIIII1 <j>111noco<j> Ap111crapx BbiCKa3an MHe-
           HIIIe 0 TOM, 4TO 3eMJlFI Ill ,qpyr111e nJlaHeTbl BpaiJ..IaiOTCFI
           BOKpyr (OJlHL..Ia, HO K HeMy He npiiiCJlyWaJliiiCb. ,[\Oil-
           roe speMR rocno,qcrsosan111 B3mR.Qbl nroneMeR o
           HenO,QBIIIJ'KHOCTIII 3eMJllll, KOTOpaFI HaXO,QIIITCFI B
           l..leHTpe BceJleHHOIII, a BOKpyr Hee no KpyroBbiM
           op6111TaM ,QBIIIJ'KYTCFI (OJlHL..Ie, nyHa, nnaHeTbl
           Ill    3Be3,Qbl. TaKaFI   CIIICTeMa      Mlllpa   nony4111-
           Jla Ha3BaHIIIe reOL..IeHTp1114eCKOII1 (OT ,Qp.-rp.
           Tij,   raza- 3eMJlFI). 0Ha o6bFICHFIJla BIII,QIIIMOe
           CyT04HOe ,QBIIIJ'KeHIIIe 3Be3,Q Ill (OJlHL..Ia CJle,Q-
           CTBIIIeM spaiJ..IeHIIIFI BceneHHOIII BOKpyr Mlll-
           pOBOII! OCIII.
                  0,QHaKO HeKOTOpble FIBJleHIIIFI 06bRCHIIITb
           6b1Jl0 Kpaii!He TPYAHO. ECJllll (OJlHLie Ill nyHa
           BCer,Qa ,QBIIIJ'KYTCFI B O,QHOM HanpaBJleHIIIIII
           (c 3ana,qa Ha socTOK), TO nnaHeTbl IIIHOr,qa
           ,QBIIIJ'KYTCFI Ill B o6paTHOM HanpaBJleHIIIIII, ne-
           p1110,QIII4eCKIII ,nFITFICb" Ha <j>OHe 3Be3,Q. l.Je-     %-
           pe3 HeKOTOpOe speMR nnaHeTa BOCCTaHaB-                    ~«>
           JliiiBaer npe.Qbi,QYIJ..Iee ,QBIIIJ'KeHIIIe. 0rMe4aR          '%~
           ,QeHb 3a ,QHeM nonoi'KeHIIIe nnaHeTbl Ha He6e,                  ~u
           acrpoHOMbl nony4a11111 rpaeKropiiiiO ee .QBIIIJ'Ke-                 ~~
           HIIIFI, HanOMIIIHaiOIJ..IYIO 3111r3ar.                               u'%
                  l.JT06bl 06bFICHIIITb TaKOe ,QBIII>KeHIIIe, nroneMelll            Q<Y~
           npiii,QyMan ,QnR nnaHeT o4eHb cnoi'KHble op6111Tbl c                        <;)¢Cb
           3nllll..IIIIKJlaMIII Ill ,Qe<j>epeHTaMIII. 0 CIIICTeMe Mlllpa nro-              V
           neMeR wyr111n111: ,ner4e C,QBIIIHYTb c Mecra caM VI nnaHeTbl,
           4eM 06bFICHIIITb, KaK OHIII ,QBIII>KYTCFI".

       rl
      ~--- (:               TOT, KTO OCTAHOBUt\
                          COt\HUe U C.£\BUH~t\ 3eMi\l8                                           ~
                  3111r3aroo6pa3HOe,QBIIIJ'KeHIIIennaHeTMOJ'KH006bFICHIIITb04eHb                 5
                                                                                                 <'
           npocro. neoHap,qo ,qa BIIIH4111 np111Ha,qnei'KIIIT BbiCKa3biBaHIIIe o ~
.,_....i;a'i:z--TOM, 4TO npOCTOTa- HaiiiBbiCWaR <j>OpMa 1113biCKaHHOCTIII.
         KpacoTa B rrpocToTe.            npocro- 3TO ro, 4TO 111HOr.Qa TPYAHee scero npe.Q-
      craBII1Tb. 3ro sepw111Ha onbiTHOCTII1 111 nocne.QHee yc11111111e Hay4Horo reHII1fl. Ta-
      Koe yc11111111e cMor c.Qenarb 3HaMeHII1Tbllll nonbCKII1111 y4eHbllll H111Konalll Konep-
          HII1K. OH noHflll, 4TO o6bfiCHII1Tb crpaHHble AB111>KeHII1fl nnaHeT MO>KHO, ec11111
            f'e     npe,Qn0110>KII1Tb, 4TO nllaHeTbl 111 3eM1lfl ,QBII1>KYTCfl BOKpyr C011H4a.
          t
~rn~~~~:.:~lloqe~          Kor,Qa 3eM1lfl HeCeTCfl MII1MO nllaHeTbl, KOTOpafl ,QBII1>KeTCfl Me,Q-
                       :P/Jy.~ lleHHee Hee, HaM Ka>KeTCfl, 4TO nllaHeTa ,QBII1>KeTCfl B o6-
                             <t'~    parHyiO cropoHy.
                                 c>~~     Tbl Ha61110,Qa11 nO,Q06HOe fiB1leHII1e OTHOCII1TellbHO-
                                     '      ro AB111>KeHII1fl. npe,QCTaBb, 4TO Bbl c .QpyroM e,QeTe
                                         ~~ Ha MaWII1Hax napannellbHbiMII1 KYPCaMII1 c O.QII1-
                                          ~   HaKOBOIII CKOpOCTbiO. B.Qpyr Tbl BblpbiBaeWbCfl
                                               snepe.Q. Te6e Ka>KercH, 4TO .Qpyr or.QanHercH or
                                                 Te6fl, TO eCTb Clle,Qyer B npOTII1BOn0110>KHOM OT
                                                 re6H HanpasneHII1111. Ha caMoM .Qene, oH npo-
                                   ,,.~~~~ "~~    ,QOil>KaeT ,QBII1raTbCfl OTHOCII1TellbHO 3eM11111
                                                   B TOM >Ke HanpaB1leHII1111, 4TO 111 Tbl, TOilbKO
                                                    Me.QileHHee.    A ec11111 rsolll .Qpyr BblpbiBaercH
                                                     snepe.Q - orcraewb or Hero Tbl. Bor 111 no-
                                                     11Y411111Cfl 3111r3ar, nOXO>KII1111 Ha TOT, KOTOpbllll
                                                     p111CYIOT Ha He6e 3Be3,Qbl. 3Be3,Qbl TO>Ke
                                                    AB111>KYTCfl ,na pan11e11 bH biMII1        KYPCaMII1'~
                                                    TOilbKO no Kpyry.
                                                       B c111creMe M111pa KonepH111Ka B 4eHrpe
                                                   BceneHHOIII HaXO.QII1TCfl Co11H4e, a nnaHeTbl
                                                   BpaLl..\aiOTCfl BOKpyr Hero no KpyraM. TaKYIO
                                                  CII1CTeMy M111pa Ha3biBaiOT re1111104eHTp1114eC-
                                                  KOIII (or rpe4.   HAtoc;- Co11H4e 11111ar. centrum-
                                                 4eHrp). lii.Qell1 KonepH111Ka 6bl11111 HaCTOilbKO
                                               peB0111041110HHbiMII1, 4TO ero KHII1ry ,0 BpaLl..\e-
                                            HII1111 He6ecHbiX cQ>ep" 3anper11111111 B    1616-1828 ro-
                                         .Qax. 0,QHaKO 3anpeTII1Tb 111,Qel0, KOTOpafl npaBII11lbHO
                                     orpa>Kaer fiB1leHII1fl np111pO.Qbl, HeB03MO>KHO. Or Konep-
                                  HII1Ka Ha4111HaeT CBOIII OTC4eT Hay4HOe M111pOB033peHII1e
                            Hosoro speMeHII1. Bnocne.QCTBII1111 Bbi.Qai0Ll..\111111cfl HeMe4KII1111 _.....
                      y4eHbllll llloraHH Kennep .QOKa3a11, 4TO nnaHeTbl AB111>KYTCfl BOKp r , , ,
           Co11H4a no 31111111nTII14eCKII1M op6111raM.                                                  {         ~

         np111MepHO B
                             t\efel-l£\A 0
                           1609
                                                            rMUt\ee
                                  ro,Qy B apceHalle acTpOHOMOB nOfiBII111Cfl 111HCTpyMeHT, 0
                                                                                                              I




     KOTOpOM MOr/1111 TOilbKO Me4TaTb nrolleMelll, Kennep, KonepH111K. TenecKon 2
     cosepw11111 peso1110411110 s co3HaHII1111 lliO.Qelll. no 3aMbiC1ly, 3TO ycrQolllcrso =;t-c::i.........---....
     *CHcTeMa MHpa IlToJieMex: IIJiaHeTa ,n;BH:>KeTcx no 3nHIJ;HKJiy, u;eHrp KOToporo ,n;BH-
    :>KeTcx no .n;e<PepeHry (n)'HKTHpHhle JIHHHH).
AOn>KHO 6blnO cny}KVITb soeHHbiM. Ho VITanbfiHCKVIVI aCTpOHOM ranVIneo ranVIneVI
CKOHCTpyVIposan co6CTseHHYIO MOAenb TenecKona Anfl Vl3y4eHVIfl He6a. C ero no-
MOLl.lbiO ranVIneVI OTKpbln 4eTblpe CnYTHVIKa, spaLl.laiOLl.IVIeCfl SOKpyr IOnVITepa. Pa3-
se 3TO He nOATSep*AeHVIe renVIOL.J,eHTpV14eCKOVI CVICTeMbl MVIpa? TaK nOfiSVInVICb
Heonposep}KVIMble AOKa3aTenbCTSa: He see SO BceneHHOVI spalllaeTCfl SOKpyr 3eMnVI.
    lt1 Kennep, VI ranVIneVI 6blnVI cmpoHHVIKaMVI renVIou,eHTpV13Ma. Ho TaKVIe
S3rnf1Abl S Te speMeHa MOrnVI nosne4b 3a co6oVI HenpVIfiTHOCTVI, Aa*e CMepT-
       Ka3Hb. KorAa ranVIneVI HanVIcan Hay4HYIO pa60Ty, s KOTOpoVI nOAAep}Kan
  Ma5IillHUR             S3rnf1Abl KonepHVIKa, ero 6pOCVInVI S TIOpbMy, VI nOA yrpo-
    TyRo,                30111 nbiTOK 3aCTaSVInVI npV13HaTb, 4TO 3eMnfl- HenOASVI}KHa.
                         CornacHo nereHAe, nOKVIAafl 3an cyAa, y4eHbiVI npoweman:
                         ,Ill BCe-TaKIII, OHa Bpa~aeTCJI! 11



                                   KpaCVISOe (nOTOMY 4TO nPOCTOE!) VI 6e3oro-
                                  sop04HOe AOKa3aTenbcTso spallleHVIfl 3eMnVI
                                    SOKpyr csoeVI OCVI npeAnO}KVIn npVIMepHO
                                     160 neT Ha3aA cppaHU,Y3CKVIVI cpV13VIK VI aCTpO-
                                      HOM neoH <DyKO. 8 fiHSapfl 1851 r0Aa,
                                       3KCnepV1MeHTV1pyfl S nOASane C06CTSeHHO-
                                        ro AOMa S napVI}Ke, SASa 4aCa H04VI OH CAe-
                                        nan 3noxanbHYIO 3anVICb s pa6o4eM *YP-
                                        Hane - CKOHCTpyVIposaHHbiVI VIM npV16op
                                        (S VICTOpVIIO HayKVI OH SOVIAeT KaK MafiTHVIK
                                        <DyKo) HarnfiAHO AeMOHCTpVIpyeT, 4TO 3eM-
                                          nfl spaLl.laeTCfl. npocTafl (Aa}Ke npVIMVITVIS-
                                                     Hafl!) ycTaHOSKa COCTOflna Vl3 nfi-
                                                     TVI KVInOrpaMMOSOrO naTyH HOro
                                                              noAseweHHoro K noTon-
                                                                 KY Ha ASYXMeTposoVI
                                                                 cTanbHoVI nposonoKe.
                                                              nnoCKOCTb Ka4aHVIVI Ma-
                                                          fiTHVIKanosopa4VISanaCb.HO
                                                      3TO HeS03MO}KH0 no 3aKOHaM
                                                  cpV13VIKVI! TpeTbero cpespanfl <DyKo
                                               npoAeMOHCTpVIposan csoVI Mam-
                                               HVIK S napVI}KCKOVI o6cepsaTOpVIV1
                                                aKaAeMVIKaM, KOTOpble nony4VInVI
                                                    VICbMa cneAYIOLllero COAep*aHVIfl:
                                                       ,npVIrnawaiO sac noHa6niO-
                                                        AaTb 3a spallleHVIeM 3eMnVI':
       AKa,qeMIIIKIII Ha6mo,qanlll3a .QBIII>KeHIIIeM MaCCIIIBHoro MafiTHIIIKa, no,qseweHHO-
ro K nOTOnK}' B naHTeOHe. Ecn111 6bl 3eMnfl He Bpa~anacb, HIII>KHIIIVi3aOCTpeHHblt1
KOHel...l MafiTHIIIKa npOXO,QIIIn 6bl no O,QHOMY Ill TOMY >Ke CaMOMY MeCTy. Ho Ma-
fiTHIIIK piiiCOBan BCe HOBble Ill HOBble cne,Qbl, 04eHb Me,qneHHO Ill paBHOMepHO
OTKnOHflfiCb OT niiiHIIIIII, HaMe4eHHOVi B Ha4ane ,QBIII>KeHIIIfl. Bnocne,QCTBIIIIII y4eHble
BblfiCHIIInlll, 4TO yron nOBOpOTa MafiTHIIIKa 3aBIIICIIIT OT WlllpOTbl: Ha nO/liOCaX 3eM-
nlll   OH COCTaBnfleT 360° B CYTKIII, a Ha 3KBaTOpe - 0° (nnOCKOCTb He Bpa~aeTCfl).
       E.QIIIHCTBeHHbiVI B YKpaiiiHe MafiTHIIIK Cl>yKo yCTaHosneHHbiVI B KllleBcKoVI no-
niiiTeXHIIIKe. Ecn111 ,QOnro Ha6JliO,QaTb 3a HIIIM, TO MO>KHO 3aMeTIIITb, 4TO nnOCKOCTb
ero KOne6aHIIIfl CMe~aeTCfl. nocKOnbK}' no 3aKOHaM cj>III3111KIII nnOCKOCTb MafiT-
HIIIKa COXpaHfleTCfl Heiii3MeHHOVi, TO OCTaeTCfl npe,qnonO>KIIITb, 4TO CMe~aeTCfl
non 3,QaHIIIfl, r,qe ycTaHOBneH MafiTHIIIK, a, cne,QOBaTenbHO, Ill BeCb 3eMHOVi wap.
       ,[J.a>Ke BO BpeMeHa nToneMefl MO>KHO 6bln0 CKOHCTPYIIIPOBaTb 3TOT HeXIIITpbiVI
np1116op. Ho noHRTb npeMy.Qpble 3aKOHbl ero .QBIII>KeHIIIfl y4eHble cMornlll
niiiWb B XIX seKe.


                     }.Ap0fA,-OfU?t WAJ.YHUWKU
                                                      Onbnn cpylio goma
                 Te6e noHaA06111TCR: ManeHbKOe R6noKo unu anenbCUH; moHeHbKOR
nanol.fKa unu cnul.fKa; npoLfHOR HUmb; wnunbKa; npo6Ka, 3 aunKu; mapenKa; zopcmb
MyKu unu caxapHou nyopbl.
 • npoTKHI.1 Kpyrnoe R6noKo 1.1111.1 aneJlbCI.1H nocpe,q1.1He
TOHeHbKOiil nall04KOiil. K KOHI...\Y na1104KI.1 np1.1BR>KI.1 HI.1Tb.
3TO- MaRTHI.1K.
  • BTOpolil KOHel...\ nano4KI.1 np1.1BR>KI.1 K ronosKe wnl.11lbKI.1,
a wnl.11lbKY BOH31.1 B npo6Ky. 3aKpenl.1 npo6KY Ha Tpex Bl.11l-
Kax, KOTOpble On1.1pa10TCR Ha KpaR Tape11KI.1. ,l\111<1HY HI.1TKI.1
no,q6ep1.1 TaK, 4T06bl HIII>KH1.1Iil KOHel...\ naJl04KI.1, KOTOpbllil
BOTKHYT B R61lOKO, BO BpeMR K01le6aH1.1Iil e,qsa KaCallCR Ta-
pe11KI.1 1.1 npoBO,QI.11l TOHKYIO 111.1HI.110 Ha ,qsyx ropKax MYKI.1.
  • JlerKI.1M TOJ14KOM Bb1Be,QI.1 MaRTHI.1K 1.13 COCTORHI.1fl paB-
HOBeCI.1R 1.1 3acTaBb ero Kone6aTbCR. TapenKa (BblnOJlHReT
no4eTHYIO pOilb 3eMJ11.1) HenO,QBI.1>KHO CTOI.1T Ha MeCTe, a
KOHel...\ naJl04KI.1 ,QBI.1>KeTCR no O,QHOiil TpaeKTOp1.11.1, KaCafiCb O,QHOiil1.1 TOll! >Ke 6op03,Qbl.
  • OcTOpO>KHO Bpall.lalil TapellKY (1.1MI.1T1.1pyR Bpall.leHI.1e 3eMJ11.1 BOKpyr CBOelil OCI.1 TaK,
KaK 6y,qTo 6bl MaRTHI.1K HaXO,QI.1TCfl Ha non10ce). MaRTHI.1K coxpaHReT nnocKOCTb Kone-
6aH1.1Iil, o6pa3yR c Ka>K,QbiM Kone6aHI.1eM see HOBble 6opo3,Qbl, nocKOilbKY Mbl spa111aeM
TapellKY 1.1 nO,QCTaBJlReM no,Q MaRTHI.1K HOBble MeCTa.
   "'TO Ha6niOABeM: MaRTHI.1K KOJle6JleTCR B O,QHOM 1.1 TOM >Ke HanpaBJleHI.11.1, a Ha Ta-
pellKe nORBJlRIOTCR HOBble 6op03,Qbl.

ZliHTaii: o TenecKorre cTaThH B xcypHanax ,KonocoK" N!! 1, 2/2012.
        Hay4Hbllll           4eHTP ,KonepHlllK"               -
  OAlllH       L-13         KpynHeiiiWlllX      Hay4HbiX
  4eHTpOB             B nonbwe ll1           BocT04HOIII
  Espone. OH pacnono>KeH Ha caMoM
  6epery BlllCJlbl. B UeHTpe co6paHbl
  YHlllKallbHble              3KcnoHaTbl,       c    noMo-
  Ll.lbiO      KOTOpbiX           noceTlllTeJll-1       MO-
  ryT       CaML-1     npOBOAlllTb       <j>ll13ll14eCKllle
  ll1   Xli1Mll14eCKllle         OnbiTbl,     Bbl3biBaTb
  nplllpOAHble fiBlleHlllfl             ll1 OCBalllBaTb
  lllHHOBa4lllOHHble ll13o6peTeHLI1R. Bbl




VA
l 1 K''                     MO>KeTe Oll.IYTlllTb Ha ee-

                            6e nRTLI16anllbHOe 3eM-
                            neTpRceHllle, no6eraTb
                            B yBeJlll14eHHOIII KOnllll-1
  KOJleCa, B KOTOpOM AOMa 6eraiOT XO-
  Mfi4Klll,     Bbi3BaTb          MOJlHL-110,       BbiAYTb
  rlllraHTCKllle MblllbHble ny3blplll, no-
  CMOTpeTb cneKTaKJlb, rllaBHble pOlll-1
  B KOTOpOM lllCnOJlHRIOT po60Tbl.
        3AeCb MO>KHO nlllCaTb lllepOrlllll<j>a-
  ML-1, ynpaBJlfiTb orpOMHbiM aBTOM0-
  6lo1JleM C KOllEkaML-1               pa3HbiX 3nOX,
  KaCaTbCfl           ll1    HIOXaTb   npeAMeTbl              ll1
  >KlllBOTHbiX. n106L11Mbllll 3KCnOHaT nO-
  CeTlllTellelll- B011We6Hbllll KOBep. Ero
  nOAHlllMaeT B03AYWHaR nOAYWKa, KO-
  TOpaR BbiAep>KlllBaeT rpy3 AO                     150 Kr.
        ~AeR C03AaHLI1R UeHTpa nplllHaA-
  ne>Kana        npe3L11AeHTY nonbwl-1                nexy
  Ka4li1HbCKOMy, KOTOpbllll Tparll14eCKLI1
  norl-16 B aslllaKaTacTpo<j>e.
     •.... .
    .•••••• .·~1{A[ UA
    • ·:
             •       •
                      :.
     • • •           • ••     _jt.ll-
            •••••
        •    •••         •                              ,aopozou ,KOflOCOK"!
                                             MeHf! 30BYT ,lJ,~Ma, MHe 10 neT.   >K~By   B

    •
                                        r. XapbKOBe. B wKone Y4YCb xopowo,        np~-~
                                        H~MaiO y4aCT~e B OJl~Mn~aAaX. 04eHb 11106-
•                                        1110 4~TaTb KH~r~, XO>Ky B 6acce~H. neTOM
•                                        OTAbiXaiO B AepeBHe y 6a6ywK~, TaM fl Ka-
•                                         TaiOCb Ha Be110C~neAe, XO>KY C AeAYWKO~
                                         noB~Tb pb16y. Y MeHf! MHoro APY3e~, HO
                                         11y4w~~ MO~   APYr- ApMaH.
                                                Mbl c H~M ~rpaeM B waxMaTbl, XOA~M
                                          rynf!Tb.
                                                       Co6onea ,llMumpuu, z. XapbKOB




            ,aof)pbiU deHb, yaa)KaeMbiU
                • ,KOflOCOK"!
                 •
             MeHf! 30BYT M~xeesa EsreH~fl.
        Y4ycb B AHTpa4~TOBCKO~ OOW NQ1
        Haw He6onbwo~
        4eCTb ymfl - 11Y4Wero BO BCeM
        M~pe. ( HeTepneH~eM >KAY Ka>KAbl~
        HOBbl~ HOMep >KypHa11a, nOCTOf!H-
        HO np~H~MaiO yl.laCT~e B Me>KAyHapOAHOM ~HTepaKT~BHOM KOHKypce
        ,KOnOCQK", no11y4~11a HeCKOJlbKO ,cepe6pf~HbiX" cepT~<J>~KaTOB.
             04eHb 111061110 n~caTb CT~x~. OA~H ~3 H~x - o MOeM 11106~MOM w;yp
         • •
               •
               ·~~KOJJ.OCOK"- JIC)lpHa.n.  qiKaBui1,
           • • Ko.n.&opoeuii, pi3no6apeHuii.
         •     nuwym& mym npo ace Ha ceimi,
       •
     •         t{y:HCe .ll.l0611Jlmb uozo atmu.
     •
         ••
                   "KOJJ.OCOK"- moBapuw Cl>.11.opu,
                   PoanoBicm& npo ifJayHy MopR.
                   BiH eci etanoeiat aHae
                    ....
                   H atffl.II.QXQM aonoMazae!

                                                     Muxeeea EezeHWl,


                                                                   .
                                                  c. EoKoeo-Illlamoeo,

                                                           .,
                                         z. AHmpa14um, JlyzaHCK~.Il..




                                                                         ••
                                                                          •
•
•
    • • •
                           MOE CPM5HE
              H >K~BY B >K~Bon~CHOM     nod~11Ke Cp~6He B
         4epH~rOBCKOIIJ 06JlaCT~. Y Hero ,qaBHflfl ~CTOp~fl.
         CaM nocenoK Haxo,q~Tcfl Ha B03BbiWeHHOCT~,
         a 611~3/le>Ka~~e cena - B .Q01l~He. KTo snep-
         Bble n06biBa11 y HaC, cpaBH~BaeT MeCTHOCTb
         co Wsellll...lap~elll: xo11Mbl ~ H~3~Hbl npoH~3a- .     1




         Hbl He601lbW~M~ peKaM~ ~ 03epaM~; pa3110-
         r~e neca; pa36pocaHHble nonfl, ~3pe3aHHble
         osparaM~.


              Eaaamo .Micm npeKpacHux Ha BKpai"Hi,             "-----...,..,.._~-. . . . . . -~
              l.J.yaoeux ci.11 i ce.llUUI, xymopie,
              Ta ae 6 He 6ye, 3aaembCR i ao HUHi,
              3a piaHe Cpi6He Kpallle He 3Haiiwoe.
              H Y4YCb B 8 KJlacce MeCTHOIII WK01lbl.     YB1le4eH~III y MeHfl MHOro, HO
         cpe,Q~ H~X CTO~T OTMeT~Tb K0111leKI...I~OH~pOBaH~e            MOHeT - KaK   ,QpeBH~X,

         TaK ~ cospeMeHHbiX, HO ,qpyr~x CTpaH. TaK>Ke fl ~HTepecyiOCb ecTeCTBeHHO-
         MaTeMaT~4ecK~M~ ,Q~CI...I~nll~HaM~. n1061110 nyTeWeCTBOBaTb, XO,Q~Tb B
         Typ~cT~4eCK~e noxo,Qbl. B 3TOM ro,qy fl np~H~Mall y4aCT~e B oceHHeM
         ,KOnOCKE". Ka>K,Qbllll MeCfll...l C HeTepneH~eM >KAY n04Ta1lbOHa, KOTOpbllll
          np~HOC~T >KypHan,KOnOCOK'~
    •   • "      H>K~BY Ha Yll~l...le WeB4eHKO, KOTOpafl ,Qilfl MeHfi-11Y4Wafl B noceJlKe.
              Be.Qb co MHolll MOfl y11~1...1a paCTeT, xopoweeT, oHa nposo>KaeT MeHfl B
               WK01ly, BCTpe                 B ~ nOe3,QOK.

                                                                       mP•nn1,.,P,.,Kn Bumanuii,
                                                                     'le,,Hti208Ct<raR o6nacm&•



•
•                                                                                                  --
                                                                              ~~-=
                                                                              • •
                                                         •••••• •      •
                                                           •••• • • • •••
                                                         • • •• •• ••
                                  30flOTAR MELITA        • •• • • • • ••••
                         3opaacmayume, yaa>KaeMaR peoaKL(U     ••••
                                                              • ••
                MeHR 30BYT K1t1p10x1t1Ha B1t1KTOplt1R. .fl >Kit1BY B ropo,Qe Map1.1ynone 1t1 ycb
                                                                                        •
        B 8 Knacce o6~eo6pa3oBaTenbHO~ wKonbl NQ 68, a TaK>Ke B MY3biKanbHOil
        WKOne NQ 3 (KnaCC <j>opTenlt1aHO lt1 BOKana). nplt1Hit1Ma10 y4aCTit1e B pa3nlt14HbiX
                                                                                                   •
                                                                                                       •
        KOHKypcax: ,KO/lOCOK'~ ,PyccKit1~ Me,QBe>KOHOK'~ ,KeHrypy". Ho 6onbwe scero
        MHe HpaBIIITCfl ,KO/lQ(QK': B KOTOpOM fl y4aCTBYIO C nRTOrO Knacca. Y MeHfl
                                                                                                           •
        y>t<e ecTb ,QBa cepTIII<j>IIIKaTa ,Cepe6pRHbl~ KO/lOCOK'~ 3TOT KOHKYP~.Qa i!!T MHe                 •
        MHoro HOBbiX 3HaHIII~. Me4Ta10 nony4111Tb cepTIII<j>IIIKaT ,3onoTo~ KOJlOCO . Ha               •
        2011 ro,Q R o<j>opM1t1na no,Qnlf1CKY Ha >KypHan 1t1 o4eHb
        BHit1MaTenbHO 1t1 c ysne4eHIIIeM 4111Tana Ha npoTR>KeHit11t1
        ro,Qa. Y3Hana MHoro lt1HTepecHoro 1t1 no3HasaTenbHoro.
        ..      Mo1t1 lt1HTepecbl: o4eHb n106n10 Y3HaBaTb o paCTe-
       } -11t1RX 111 oKpy>KaiO~e~ cpe,Qe, 1113y4al0 aHrniii~CKIII~
     • •f13biK, aCTpOHOMIIIIO Ill eCTeCTBeHHble HayKIII.
  ••             E~e n106n10 neTb 111 lt1rpaTb Ha <j>opTenlllaHo.
•       5onbwoe cnac1116o 3a Baw TPYA·
•
    •
                                   Kup10xuHa
                       2. Mapuynon&, tloHeqKaR oo.na1cm

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:2
posted:11/9/2012
language:Unknown
pages:48