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zmenkolosok_4_2012ros.indd_

VIEWS: 7 PAGES: 48

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np03pa4HbiX 311eKTpO,QOB Ha nOBepXHOeTL-1 3KpaHa. npLo1MeH~IOTe~ TaK>Ke Lo1
TeH30MeTpL-14eeKL-1e ,QaT4Lo1KLo1, pearL-1py10~Lo1e Ha nporL-16 eTeKJla MOHLo1TOpa, K KO-
TOpOMY Mbl npL-1KaeaeMe~.           8   HeKOTOpbiX npLo1-
6opax ML-1HLo1aT10pHa~           BL-1,qeoKaMepa ene,QL-1T
3a HaWL-1ML-1 pyKaML-1 L-1      onpe,qen~er   Meero npL-1-
KOeHoBeHL-1~. Tpy,qHo nepe4Lo1e11Lo1Tb Bee rex-
HonorL-1L-1, KOTOpble eeVI4ae L-1enOJ1b3YIOTe~ ,Q/1~
paen03HaBaHLo1~ npLo1KOeHOBeHLo1Vl - Lo1X 60J1bWe
,qee~TL-1, Lo1 y Ka>K,QOVJ eBOL-1 npeL-1My~eeTBa, He-
,QOeTaTKL-1, L-1 onpe,qeneHHa~ o6naerb npL-1Me-
HeHL-1~.   A rexHL-14eeKL-1VI    nporpeee po>K,qaer Bee
HOBble Lo1 HOBble Lo'l,QeL-1.
                      liCL~lC.CL   U mexHUlC.CL

                             BIIIKTOp MRCHIIIKOB




             t13 1113BeCTHbiX 118 XIIIMIIIlleCKIIIX 311              bKO
      22 OTHOCfiTCfl K HeMeTa/l/lllllleCKIIIM. 3TO- BO.QOpO.Q, re-
      lll'ILII, 6op, Yrnepo.o., A3oT, K111cnopo.o., CDTop, HeoH, KpeM-
      HIIILII, CDoccpop, Cepa, Xnop, AproH, MbiWbfiK, CeneH,
UJ     6poM, KplllnTOH, Tennyp, lllo.o., KceHOH, AcTaT 111 Pa.o.oH.
co
UJ
            v CaM biLl! pacnpocTpaHeHHbiLII XIIIMIIIlleCKIIILII 3/leMeHT
::0    so BceneHHOLII - Bo.o.opo.o.. Ha Hero npiiiXOP.IIITCfl npiii-
I
u     MepHo 88,6 % scex aTOMOB so BceneHHOLII. BTopoe
UJ
      MeCTO 3aHIIIMaeT re11111LII.
~
~              CaMbiLII pacnpocTpaHeHHbiLII XIIIMIIIlleCKIIILII 3/leMeHT
      B 3eMHOLII KOpe - KIIICilOpO.Q. Vl3 Ka>K.QbiX 100 aTOMOB
      3eMHOLII KOpbl 53 npiiiXOP.IIITCfl Ha K111cnopo.o..
               CaMbiLII pe.QKIIILII 31leMeHT s 3eMHoLII Kope - AcTaT.
      no O~eHKaM cne~llla/liiiCTOB, B C/lOe 3eMHOLII KOpbl TO/l-
       ~IIIHOLII .QBa.Q~aTb KlllllOMeTpOB Macca AcTaTa COCTaB-
      JlfleT scero 30 rpaMM.
               ra3006pa3Hble HeMeTaJlJlbl. Vl3 22-X HeMeTaJl/llll-
      lleCKIIIX 31leMeHTOB nOJlOBIIIHa o6pa3ytOT ra3006pa3Hble
      npOCTble Be~eCTBa: BO.QOpO.Q, re11111LII, a30T, KIIICilOpO.Q,
      cpTOp, HeOH, XllOp, aprOH, KplllnTOH, KCeHOH, pa.QOH.
      npllllleM, XIIIMIII4eCKIIILii31leMeHT KIIIC110pO.Q o6pa3yeT .QBa
      ra3006pa3HbiX npOCTbiX Be~eCTBa- KIIICilOpO.Q Ill 030H.
               CaMoe nerKoe ra3oo6pa3HOe Be~eCTBO - BOP.OPO.Q.
      3To ra3 6e3 ~BeTa 1113anaxa, nnoxo pacTsopiiiMbiLII B so.o.e.
      B CMeCIII C KIIICilOpO.QOM (B 06beMHOM OTHOWeHIIIIII 2:1)
      o6pa3yeT B3pbiBOOnacHytO CMeCb - rpeMyllytO CMeCb.
               E.QIIIHCTBeHHbiLII >KIIIP.KIIILII HeMeTann - 6poM. 3To ne-
      TYllafl KpacHo-6ypaH >KIIIP.KOCTb c pe3KIIIM HenpiiiHTHbiM
                                                                            (j
      3anaXOM, OlleHb fi.QOBIIIT, np111 COnpiiiKOCHOBeHIIIIII C KO-
      >Kelll o6pa3yeT o>Korlll. XpaHIIITCfl s 3anaHHHbiX aMnynax.
               CaMoe TBep.o.oe nplllpo.o.Hoe se~ecTBO - an-
      Ma3, KOTOpbiLII fiBJlfleTCfl a/l/lOTpOnHOLII MO.QIIIcpiii-
       Ka~lllelll yrnepo.o.a. Tsep.o.ocTb scex se~ecTB MO>K-
          o o~eHIIITb no .o.ecHTIII6anllbHOLII wKane Mooca 1:
     u mexHUlC.CL


   1 - TaJlbK (rpacpVIT VI CBVIHe'-');
   2 - rVInc (cmo,n.a, onoso);
   3 - Kallb'-'VIT (Me,D.b, cepe6po);
   4 - cpmoopVIT ('-'VIHK, >Kene3o);
   5 - anaTVIT (CTeKJlO);
   6 - OpTOKJla3;
   7 - KBap'-' (3aKaJleHHaH CTaJlb);
   7,5 - BOilbcppaM;
   8 - Tona3;
   8,5 - xpoM;
   9 - KopyH,D.;
    10 - anMa3.
       AnMa3 HBJlHeTcH TaK>Ke peKop,n.cMeHoM no caMolll
BbiCOKOIII CKOpOCTVI pacnpOCTpaHeHVIH 3ByKa (18 600 M/C} B
HeM, a CaMaH HVI3KaH CKOpOCTb pacnpOCTpaHeHVIH 3ByKa-
B >KVI,D.KOM rellVIVI (3,4 M/C npVI TeMnepaType -270,82 °(}.
     (aMaH HVI3KaH TeMnepaTypa KVIneHVIH y rellVIH. renVIIII
(V130Ton 3 He)- caMaH xono,n.HaH >KVI,D.KOCTb . .Qa>Ke B611VI3VI
a6contOTHoro HYilH (-273 °C) npVI HOpMallbHbiX ycnoBVIHX
OH OCTaeTCH B >KVI,D.KOM COCTOHHVIVI.
   u CaM bill! aKTVIBHbllll HeMeTann - cpTop. OH >Ke caM bill!
CVIJlbHbllll OKVICJlVITellb. Bo,n.opo,n., B3aVIMO,D.eiiiCTBYH C cpTO-
pOM, B3pb1BaeTCH ,D.a>Ke npVI 04eHb HVI3KVIXTeMneparypax.
B aTMoccpepe cpTopa ropVIT ,n.a>Ke so,n.a VI nnaTVIHa. B 4VI-
CTOM BVI,n.e 3TO 6ne,n.Ho->Ke11Tbllll ra3 c pe3KVIM 3anaxoM. B
MaJlbiX KOH'-'eHTpa'-'VIHX 3anax HanOMVIHaeT O,D.HOBpeMeH-
HO 030H VI xnop. 04eHb H,D.OBVIT. XpaHHT B cne'-'VIallbHbiX
annapaTax Vl3 HVIKellH VlllVI Vl3 cnnasos Ha ero ocHose.
     Oco6biMVI csolllcTBaMVI o6na,n.aeT 6enbllll cpoccpop.
3To - Tsep,n.oe se~ecTso 6enoro '-'BeTa c 6ne,n.Ho->Ke11TbiM
OTTeHKOM, 04eHb H,D.OBVITO. VIMeeT 4eCH04Hbllll3anax. ner-
KO pe>KeTCH HO>KOM, CaMOBOCnllaMeHHeTCH Ha TenllOM
B03,D.yxe VI CBeTVITCH B TeMHOTe CBeTJl0-3eJleHbiM CBe4e-
HVIeM. XpaHHT no,n. BO,D.OIII.
                                  npodOfl)f{eHUe cnedyem.
                          1
                           HeMe4KUil MUHepanoz CDpuapux Mooc
                       8 1811 zoay npeano>KUfl WKany meepaocmu.
                                                                C().,{,JU(,a da!Jiulh Jta ~~
                        K onVI4eCTBO conHe4HOIII3HeprVIVI, AOCTV1ra10~elll Haw ell! nnaHeTbl Ha npoTR-
              >KeH VI VI roAa, B 50 pa3 n peBbl waeT 3HeprV110, KOTopyiO MO>KHO 6bl110 6bl no11y4 VITb
                  Vl3 BCeX VI3BeCTHbiX MVIpOBbiX 3Hepr03anaCOB, VI B 300 Tb1Cfl4 pa3 npeBbiWaeT
              e>KeroAHOe noTpe6neH VIe 3HeprV1 VI 4enoBe4eCTBOM.           KTOMY >Ke Ha nosepxHOCTb
              3eM11VI nonaAaeT MeHee 50           % conHe4Horo noToKa, a ocTallbHaR conHe4HaR
              3HeprVIR nomo~aeTcR, OTpa>KaeTcR VI pacceV~saeTcR aTMoccl>epolll.
                        06ecne4VITb nOTpe6HOCTVI 4eJlOBe4eCTBa B 3JleKTp03HeprVIVI MO>KHO 6bl110
                  6bl TOJlbKO 3a ClleT (OJlHI...Ia. 3Ty 3HeprV110 MOrllVI 6bl Bblpa6oTaTb rellVIOYCTaHOB-
                        nllO~aAbiO 20 TbiC. KM , liTO COCTaBJlfleT Bcero 0,004 % 3eMHOIIJ nosepXHOC-
                                              2
                  KVI
              TVI. 0AHaKO 3HepreTVI4eCKVIe nOTpe6HOCTVI 4eJlOBe4eCTBa e>KerOAHO paCTyT.
                  no nporH03aM BceMVIpHoro 3HepreTVI4eCKOro CoBeTa B TelleHVIe ClleAYIO~VIX
                  25 JleT B MVIpe 6yAeT BBeAeHO B AeiiJCTBVIe 60JlbWe 3HepreTVI4eCKVIX 06beKTOB,
                  4eM 3a BeCb npOWJlbiiiJ BeK•

                        .7lize1Utlf~CJ!i8'a C('J.,{Jte'f,Jt(JU aiU!jtzeJhuJCU ~
                        (OJ1He4HYIO 3HeprVIIO MO>KHO npeo6pa30BbiBaTb B TenllOByiO, MeXaHVI-
                  l!eCKYIO VI 3JleKTpV14eCKYIO, VICnOJlb30BaTb B XVIMVI4eCKVIX VI 6VIOJlOrVI4eCKVIX
                  npOI...I~CCaX. (OJ1He4Hble yCTaHOBKVI npVIMeHRIOTCfl B CVICTeMaX OTOnJleHVIfl VI
-~-o!:i:::::,..
OX1la>K,QeHII1R >KII11lbiX 111 o6~eCTBeHHbiX 3,QaHII1111, 111Cn01lb3YIOT ,QilR Harpesa BO,Qbl,
onpecHeHII1R MOpCKOIII 11111111 MII1Hepa1111130BaHHOIII BO,Qbl, ,QilR CYWKII1 MaTepll1a1lOB
111 cenbCKOX03RIIICTBeHHbiX npo,qyKTOB. ConHe4HaR 3Hepr111R MO>KeT Henocpe,q-
CTBeHHo npeo6pa30BbiBaTbCR B MexaHII14eCKYIO (.QBII1raTe1lb CT111p11111Hra). Ec11111
B <j>OKYCe napa60111114eCKOrO 3epKa1la ,QII1aMeTpOM 1,5 M ycTaHOBII1Tb ,QII1HaMII1-
4eCKII1111 npeo6pa3oBaTe1lb MO~HOCTbiO 1 KBT, pa6oTal0~111111 no 4111K11y CT111p-
11111Hra, 3Hepr111111 XBaTII1T, 4T06bl e>K.eCeKyH,QHO nO,QHII1MaTb C my6111Hbl 20 MeTpOB
     3
2,QM BO,Qbl.
   ConHe4HaR 3Hepr111R o6na,qaeT MHOrii1MII1 npe111My~ecTBaMII1: OHa o6~e,qocryn­
Ha 111 npaKTII14eCKII1 Heii1C4epnaeMa, y C011He4HbiX yCTaHOBOK 60JlbWOIII CpOK ro,q-
HOCTII1, OHII1 Y11Y4WaiOT apX111TeKrypy 3,QaHII1111, o6ecne4111BaiOT 111X 3a~II1TY OT BO,Qbl,
Ten110- 111 3BYKOII13011RL\11110. 0HII1 He Tpe6yiOT 111CnOJlb30BaHII1R KaKII1X-Jlii160 BII1,QOB
TOn11111Ba, a TaK>K.e nO,QBII1>KHbiX 3JleMeHTOB, KOTOpble WYMRT 111 1113HaWII1BaiOTCR.

                                           J~ Co...tJleltltOU a~U!jatttt
   (OJ1He4HYIO 3Heprll110 111Cn01lb3YIOT ,QilR OCBe~eHII1R, Harpesa BO,Qbl, npOII13-
BO,QCTBa 31leKTp03Hepr111111. TepMOB03.QYWHble 31leKTpocTaH4111111 npeo6pa3yiOT
C011He4HYIO 3Heprll110 B 3Heprll110 B03.QYWHOrO nOTOKa, KOTOpbllll Bpa~aeT Typ-
6oreHepaTop; HarpesaTeilbHble nosepxHOCTII1 nomo~aiOT conHe4Hble ny4111 c
nocne,qy10~111M pacnpe,qeneHII1eM Tenna, <j>oKyc111posaHII1eM conHe4Horo 111311Y-
4eHII1R Ha eMKOCTII1 C BO,QOIII, 111Cn01lb30BaHII1e ee ,QilR OTOn1leHII1R 11111111 B napOBbiX
31leKTporeHepampax.
   ( nOMO~biO CBeTOBbiX KOilO,Q-
L\eB (p111C. 1) MO>KHO OCBe~aTb
nOMe~eHII1R ,QHeM. npoCTelllwaR
KOHCTPYK4111R TaKoro K0110.Q4a -
OTBepCTII1e B nOTOJlKe. (BeTOBble
KOilO,QL\bl np111MeHRIOT ,QilR OCBe-
~eHII1R nOMe~eHII1111 6e3 OKOH:
no,q3eMHbiX rapa>~<.elll, cTaH4111III
MeTpO, npOMbiWJleHHbiX COOpy-
>KeHII1111, CKJla,QOB, TIOpeM.
   ,lJ,IlR ,y1laB11111BaHII1R" COJ1He4-
HOIII 3Hepr111111 111Cn01lb3YIOT <t>o-
KYCII1PYIO~II1e K0111leKTOpb1. 3TII1
yCTpOIIICTBa,     COCTOR~II1e       1113   1------""'----..-.. . .______
3epKa1lbHbiX nosepxHocTelll c<j>ep1114ecKolll 11111111 napa6o111114ecKolll <j>opMbl, co-
6111pa10T 111 <j>OKYC111py10T C011He4Hble 11Y4111, B pe3y1lbTaTe 4ero TeMnepaTypa Te-
n110HOCII1Te11R ,qocTII1raeT 400-650        oc. O,qHaKo 3KcnnyaTa4111R     TaKolll CII1CTeMbl
OCilO>KHReTCR He06XO,QII1MOCTbiO T04HOrO pery11111p0BaHII1R CII1CTeM,
                                         oTcne>KV~BaiOT .QBVI>KeHV~e Co11H4a.     Con-
                                         He4Hble KOJllleKTOpbl MOryT npVIMeHRTb-
                                         CR ,Qllfl npVIrOTOBJleHVIR nVIll.IVI (pVIC.   2).
                                         TeMneparypa B cPOKYCe KOJllleKTOpa ,QO-
                                         CTVIraeT   150   oc. TaKV~e ,qeweBble K}'XHVI
                                         ,Qllfl npVIrOTOBJleHVIR nVIll.IVI MOryT npe,q-
                                         OTBpaTVITb Bblpy6KY       neca B pa3BVIBaiO-
                                         ll.IVIXCR CTpaHaX- cerO,QHR TaM aKTVIBHO
                                         V~cnonb3YIOT     APOBa.
                                            ConHe4HYIO       3HeprVIIO   V~cnollb3YIOT
                                            XVIMVI4eCKOL71     npOMbiWJleHHOCTVI        B
              ycmaHOBKQ
                                         TeXHOllOrVIVI nony4eHVIR 4VICTOrO 4VIH-
Ka. ):\llR 3TOrO OKCVI,Q L\VIHKa VI ,qpeBeCHbiLII yrOJlb HarpeBaiOT ,QO TeMneparypbl
1 200 °(,   KOH4eHTpV1pyR C011He4HYIO 3HeprV110 npVI nOMOll.IVI 3epKall Ha BepWVI-
He C011He4HOL71 6aWHVI. l..lVIHK repMeTVI4HO ynaKOBbiBaiOT VI TpaHCnOpTVIPYIOT K
MecTaM npoV13BOACTBa 3lleKTp03HeprVIVI, r,qe ero norpY>KaiOT B so,qy VI nony4a-
IOT BO,QOpO,Q VI OKCVI,Q 4VIHKa. 0KCVI,Q 4VIHKa MO>KHO CHOBa BepHYTb B C011He4HYIO
6aWHIO VI nOllY4VITb 4VICTbiL71 4VIHK.
   ConHe4Hble 3lleMeHTbl (<j>oT03lleMeHTbl) - 3TO 3lleKTpV14eCKVIe ycTpolllcTBa,
npeo6pa30BbiBaiOll.IVIe C011He4HOe Vl3lly4eHVIe B 3lleKTpV14eCKYIO 3HeprV110.
(011He4Hble <j>OT03lleKTpV14eCKVIe CTaH4VIVI VICn01lb3YIOTCR ,Qllfl OCBell.leHVIR,
nVITaHVIR BO,QOnO,QbeMHbiX HaCOCOB, Te1leKOMMYHVIKa4VIOHHbiX CVICTeM, KaTO,Q-
HOLII 3all.IVITbl Tpy6onposo,qos, s ,qoMaWHVIX xo3RLIICTBax, 6biTOBbiX npV~6opax
(KallbKYJlaTI',n::•v
Ha3Ha4eHII1R (c4eT4111Kax, ceHcopax, AeTeKropax, npeo6pa3osarenRx), norpe-
6nRIOLl..\111X MallO 3Hepr111111, 111 T. n.
    8   Mara3111HaX 31leKTpOTOBapOB MO>KHO np11106peCTII1 OCBeTII1TellbHble npll1-
6opb1 Ha conHe4HbiX 6arapeRx, 111CnOilb3YIOLl..\111X 31leKrpo3Hepr11110, Koropy10
OHII1 HaKan11111BaiOT B Te4eHII1e CBemoro BpeMeHII1 CYTOK. CI>OT031leMeHTbl RBilR-
IOTCR OCHOBHbiM 111CT04HII1KOM nii1TaHII1R cnyTHII1KOB Ha OK01103eMHOVI op6111re.                    8
OTAaneHHbiX paVIoHax <j>oro3neMeHTbl n111ra10r asroHOMHble 3HeproycraHOBKII1,
np01113BOA111Te11111 cep111VIHbiX 6biTOBbiX TOBapOB BCTpa111BaiOT <j>OT031leMeHTbl B
4aCbl, KallbKYilRTOpbl, MY3biKallbHYIO annaparypy.
   CI>OT031leMeHTbl Bblpa6aTbiBaiOT 31leKTp03Heprll110, KOTOpaR 111CnOilb3yeTCR
AllR 6oprosoro n111raH111R rpaHcnopTHbiX cpeACTB 11111111 AllR 31leKTPOAB111rareneVI,
KOTOpble 111X nii1TaiOT (p111C. 3).
    B   V1ra11111111, HnoHII1111 111 APYrll1x crpaHax <j>oro3neMeHTbl ycraHaB11111BaiOT Ha
KpbiWaX >Kelle3HOAOPO>KHbiX COCTaBOB. 0HII1 o6ecne4111BaiOT 31leKTp03Heprll110
AllR KOHA11141110HepOB, OCBell..\e-
HII1R 111 aBap111VIHbiX CII1CTeM.
   ,ConHe4Hble napyca" B 6e3-
B03AYWHOM npocrpaHCTBe npe-
Bpall..\aiOT 3Heprll110 C011He4HbiX
11y4eVI B KII1HeTII14eCKYIO 3Hep-
rll110 AB111>KeHII1R. 4ro6bl npeoA-
onerb      Me>K3Be3AHble          paccro-
RHII1R,    He06XOA111Mbl        60ilbWII1e
3anaCbl rop104ero. npeAOTBpa-
TII1Tb ,T111paHII110 rop104111M" MO>K-
HO,       111Cn01lb3YR       C011He4Hblill
napyc. Ha p111c.     4   Bbl B111A111Te MII1-
HII1-cnyTHII1K, KOTOpbiVI BbiBeAyT
Ha op6111ry Ha BbiCOTY              6onee       Puc. 4. LightSai/-7 Had 3eMneu (unmocmpa(.4UR Rick
800     KM HaA 3eMneVI.                                     Sternbach I Planetary Society)
    Ha raKII1X Bblcorax 6onbwoVI,
HO TOHKII1Vi 111 04eHb 11erK111VI napyc He 6yAeT 111CnbiTbiBaTb B11111RHII1R aTMOC<j>epbl
3eM11111. V13MeHeHII1R CKOpOCTII1 3TOro annapara 6YAYT np0111CXOA111Tb nOA B03AeVI-
CTBII1eM conHe4HOro csera.
    noTOK C011He4HOVI 3Hepr111111 Ha noBepXHOCTII1 3eM11111 Oll..\YTII1MO 3aBII1CII1T
or reorpa<j>ll14ecKoVI w111poTbl 111 K11111Mara.          B   pa3HbiX MeCTHOCTRX cpeAHee
K0111114eCTBO C011He4HbiX AHeVI B rDAY Cyll..\eCTBeHHO OT111114aeTCR, 4TO rpe6yer
111HA111B111AYallbHOro nOAXOAa 111 o6opyAOBaHII1R.
                                                                                    .ApbiHa KonMCHbiK




           HecKOJibKO CJIOB o
           A eliiCTBIIITeilbHO HeCKOilbKO, no cpaBHeHIIIJO c roliiiiiH<J>op-
       Mal..llllelll, KOTOpOIIJ 06/laAaJOT y4eHble 06 3TOM COeAI!IHeHI!IIII.
       PaccMoTplll Ha p111cyHKe             1 npocrpaHCTBeHHYJO crpyKrypy MO-
       neKyilbl ,QHK. 0Ha I!IMeeT BillA npaB03aKpy4eHHOiil cn111pa11111
       Ill COCTOIIIT 1113 ABYX nepenneTeHHbiX HIIITelil, COeAIIIHeHHbiX
       BOAOPOAHbiMIII             CBfl3fiMIII.   HI!ITIII   COCTOfiT         1113   4-X    TlllnOB
       crpyKrypHbiX eAIIIHIIII..\ - HyKneOTIIIAOB (ryaHII11lOBoro                         (r),   I..IIII-
       T111A111110Boro     (1..0, TIIIM111A111110BOro (T),     aAeHII1110BOro (A)).         B CO-
tilll'!!~ CTaB HYKileOTIIIAOB BXOAfiT Tplll KOMnOHeHTa: OCTaTKIII a30T-
       COAep>Kal1.\I!IX          reTepOI..\IIIK/11!14eCKIIIX    OCHOBaHI!IIIJ,        neHT03bl
       (Ae30KC111p111603bl) Ill OpTo<J>oc<J>opHOIIJ KIIIC/lOTbl (pi!IC.               2).
           0CHOBY          1..1enelll    ,QHK     o6pa3yJOT        Ae30KC111p111603bl                111
       OCTaTKIII       opro<J>oc<J>opHOiil          KIIIC/lOTbl,    KOTOpble              4epeAy-
       IOTCfl Ill TeCHO CBfl3aHbl KOBa/leHTHbiMIII CBfl3fiMIII (pi!IC.                             3).
       A30TCOAep>Kal1.\llle             rerep04111K111114eCKIIIe        OCHOBaHIIIfl             Hy-
       K/leOTIIIAOB o6e111x 1..1enelil o6pal1.\eHbl BHYfpb cnl!lpanl!l 111                                  Puc. 1. CmpyKmypHaR
       coeAIIIHeHbl            Me>KAy co6olll      BOAOPOAHbiMIII CBfl3fiMIII. 06-                           Mooenb MoneKYnbl
       paTI!I BHI!IMaHI!Ie, 4TO Me>KAY aAeHI!IHOM Ill TIIIMIIIHOM 06-                                              IJHK
       pa3yJOTCfl ABe BOAOPOAHble CBfl3111, a Me>KAy ryaHIIIHOM 111 4111T03111HOM - rp111.
       3TO - TaK Ha3biBaeMble KOMn/leMeHTapHble napbl HyK/leOTIIIAOB. no3TOMY K0-
       111114eCTBO OCTaTKOB A B MOileKY/le ,QHK BCerAa paBHO K0/11114eCTBY                                       T,   a COAep-
          OcmamoK                                                              >KaHI!Ie     r
                                                                                            COOTBeTCTByeT CO-
       opmoi/Joci/JopHoii 0                                                    Aep>KaHIIIIO U. 06Hapy>KIIIB 3TIII
          Kucnombl        II                                    OcmamoK
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KpaCHOrO rlllraHTa, KOTOpbllll 8nOC/le.QCT8111111 c6paCbl8aeT 060J104KY Ill npe-
8pall.\aeTCfl 8 6e110r0 Kap11111Ka. 3TIII npo'-'eCCbl npOIIICXO.QfiT 3Ha4111Te/lbHO
Me.QneHHee, 4eM Ha ConH'-'e.
   KpaCHbllll KaplliiiK -                     Ma/leHbKafl Ill OTHOCIIITe/lbHO XO/lO.QHafl 38e3.Qa
cneKTpallbHbiX Knacco8                       M      11111111 K (p111c.                 2).
   KpacHble KapniiiKIII o4eHb OT111114aiOTCfl oT .Qpyrlllx 38e3.Q. Vlx .QIIIaMeTp
Ill Macca He npe8biWaiOT TpeTIII C0/1He4HbiX, a TeMnepaTypa no8epXHOCTIII
e.Q8a .QOCTIIIraeT 3 300 °( (cpa8HIIITe: 3TO - TeMnepaTypa Cn111pa11111 JlaMnbl
HaKa111118aHIIIfl). 38e3.Qbl 3Toro Tlllna 11131ly4aiOT Mallo c8eTa, Tlllniii4Hoe 3Ha-
4eHIIIe 111x c8eTIIIMOCTIII cocTa8/lfleT 0,0001 c8eTIIIMOCTIII ConH'-'a. Bo.QOPOA 8
HIIIX cropaeT Me.Q/leHHO, n03TOMY OHIII >KIII8YT .QO/lrO- OT .QeCfiTK08 Mlll/l/llll-
ap.Q08 AO .QeCHTK08 Tp1111111IIIOH08                                   neT.
   Ec11111 Ha nnaHeTe 86111113111 KpacHoro KaplliiiKa 803HIIIKHeT npocTelllwas:~
cj>OpMa >KIII3HIII, TO 8epOfiTHOCTb TOrO, 4TO OHa .QOCTIIIrHeT 8biCOKOpa38111TOIII
CTa.QIIIIII Hecpa8HeHHO 8b1We, 4eM 86111113111 TaKIIIX 38e3.Q, KaK Hawe (O/lH'-'e.
3TO nOTOMy, 4TO 803HIIIKH08eHIIIe 8biCOKOOpraHIII308aHHbiX cj>OpM >KIII3HIII
Tpe6yeT Mlll/l/1111ap.Q08 /leT 380/110'-'111111.

                    IIIW'IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIr
                   nocKO/lbKY KpaCHble Kapll111KII1 111Me10T Ma11y10 CBeTII1MOCTb, TO op6111Ta
          nllaHeTbl, Ha KOTOpOV! B03MO>KHO 3apO>K.QeHII1e ,3eMHbiX" cj>opM >KII13HII1,
         .QOil>KHa 6b1Tb pacnono>KeHa 6111113KO K 3Be3.qe. Ho 1113-3a 3aMeTHoro B/1111-
          fiHIIlfl rpaB111Ta4111111 3Be3.Qbl n/laHeTa 6y.qeT nOCTOfiHHO noBepHyTa K HeVI
          O.QHOVI CTOpOHOVI. 3TO fiB/leHIIle Ha3biBaeTCfl op6111Ta/lbHbiM pe30HaHCOM.
         TaKafl op111eHTa4111H nnaHeTbl np111BO.QII1T K orpoMHOVI pa3HII14e TeMnepaTyp
          Ha H04HOM 111 .QHeBHOM nonywap111fiX, nOCKOilbKY Ha .QHeBHOVI CTOpOHe, KO-
          TOpafl BCer.qa noaepHyTa K 3Be3.Qe, BCer.qa TenllO, a Ha H04HOVI - TeMne-
          paTypa MO>KeT .QOCTIIlraTb -250                                                                 oc. TaKoVI nepena.q TeMnepaTyp Bbl3biBaeT
          nOCTOfiHHble ClllllbHble BeTpa B aTMOCcj>epe nllaHeTbl.
                   B He.qpax KpacHbiX Kapll111KOB HeB03MO>KHbl TepMOfi.QepHble peaK4111111 c
          y4aCTII1eM re/llllfl, n03TOMY OHII1 He MOryT npeapaTII1TbCfl B KpaCHbiX rlllraH-
          TOB. (O BpeMeHeM OHII1 C>KII1MaiOTCfl 111 BCe 60ilbWe HarpeBaiOTCfl, nOKa He
          noTpaTfiT aecb 3anac ao.qopo.qHoro TOnllii1Ba, 111 nocTeneHHO                                                                                                                           npeapa~aiOT­

          Cfl B rony6biX Kapll111KOB, a 3aTeM - B 6e/lbiX Kapll111KOB C re11111eBbiM fi.QpOM.
          KpacHble Kap11111KII1 -                                                caMble pacnpocTpaHeHHble o6beKTbl 3Be3.QHoro
          Tlllna BO Bce/leHHOVI. npoKCII1Ma UeHTaapa - 6/llll>KaVIwafl K (OilH4Y 3Be3-
         .qa - KpacHbiVI Kapll111K (cneKTpallbHbiVI K/lacc                                                                                              M) . .Qaa.q4aTb 1113 TP111A4aTII1
          611111>KaVIw111x K 3eMne 3Be3.Q- KpacHble Kap11111KII1. O.qHaKo 1113-3a 111x HII13KoVI
          CBeTII1MOCTII1, OHII1 MallO 1113y4eHbl.
                  Tll1nii14Hble KpaCHble Kapll111KII1: npoKCII1Ma UeHTaBpa; 3Be3.qa 5apHap.qa;
          Bonbcj> 359-                            (M6) Pocc 154; Pocc 248- (M6) Pocc 128.
                   rony6oVI Kapll111K - rll1nOTeTII14eCKII1Vi K/laCC 3Be3.Q, npO.QYKT cj>II1Ha/lbHOVI
          CTa.QII11113BOI1104111111 KpaCHbiX Kapll111KOB. nocKO/lbKY KpaCHble Kapll111KII1 C>KIIl-
          raiOT BO.QOpO.Q Me.Q/leHHO, Hill O.Q111H 1113 HII1X e~e He ycne/1 npeapaTII1TbCfl B
          rony6oro Kapll111Ka. Cy~ecTaoaaHIIle 3Toro Knacca 3Be3.Q cne.qyeT 1113 Teope-
          TII14eCKII1X MO.QelleVI. rony6ble Kap11111KII1 OTI11114aiOTCfl OT KpaCHbiX BbiCOKOVI
          TeMnepaTypoVI noaepxHOCTII1. nocne cropaHIIlfl ao.qopo.qa rony6ble Kap-
         11111KII1, BepOfiTHO, CTaHOBfiTCfl 6e/lbiMII1 Kapll111KaMII1.
                   Kop1114HeBble Kap11111KII1 • .Qo He.qaBHero apeMeHII1 B Knacc111cj>111Ka4111111
          acTpOHOMII14eCKII1X 06beKTOB 3111fl/la 60/lbWafl .Qblpa: CaMble 1113BeCTHble
          3Be3.Qbl 6blllll1 pa3 a 10 ner4e Co11H4a, a caMafl MacclllBHafl nnaHeTa -10nii1-
          Tep- B 1 000 pa3. Cy~ecTBYIOT 11111 B np111po.qe npoMe>KYT04Hble o6beKTbl
          (He 3Be3.Qbl 111 He nllaHeTbl) C MaccoV! OT 0,001 .QO 0,1 C0/1He4HOVI? 3TII1
          BOnpOCbl .QaBHO BO/lHOBa/1111 acTpOHOMOB, HO OTBeTbl Ha HII1X nOfiBII111111Cb
         11111Wb B cepe.Q111He 1990-x ro.qoa (p111c. 3).
'illllllllllllllllllllllllll lllllllll lllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll lllllllllllllllllll lllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll llllllllllllllllllllllllllll lllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll
                          3n1          CTpaHHble 06beKTbl - KOpL114HeBble Kap11LIIKLII - 6bi11LII npe,D,CKa3aHbl
                 TeopeTLII4eCKLII Lll LIIX LIICKaJlLII                                                30 JleT (pLIIC. 4). 0Ka3a110Cb,                                                      4TO TepMOR,D,epHble
                 peaKL..ILIILII B HLIIX He RBJlRIOTCR OCHOBHbiM LIICT04HLIIKOM 3HeprLIILII.                                                                                                                      B 1963 ro,D,y
                 MOilO,D,OIII aMepLIIKaHCKLIIIII acTpO<I>L113LIIK LIIH,D,LIIIIICKOrO npOLIICXO>K,D,eHLIIR WLIIB
                 KyMap paCC4LIITa11 MO,D,ellLII nerKLIIX 3Be3,D,. OH BbiRCHLIIJl: eCJlLII Macca KOC-
                 MLII4eCKOro TeJla npeBbiWaeT                                                                   7,5 %                 COJ1He4HOIII, TO TeMnepaTypa B ero
                 R,D,pe ,D,OCTLIIraeT HeCKOJlbKLIIX MLII1111LIIOHOB rpa,D,yCOB, Lll B HeM Ha4LIIHaiOTCR
                 TepMOR,D,epHble peaKLILIILII npespa~eHLIIR BO,D,OpO,D,a B re11L1111i. npLII MeHbWelll
                 Macce c>KaTLIIe                               npeKpa~aeTCR                                   paHbwe, 4eM TeMnepaTypa B 4eHTpe ,D,OCTLII-
                 raeT 3Ha4eHLIIR, He06XO,lJ,LIIMOrO ,D,IlR npoTeKaHLIIR peaKL..ILIILII CLIIHTe3a reJlLIIR. (
                 TeX nop 3TO KpLIITLII4eCKOe 3Ha4eHLIIe MaCCbl Ha3biBaiOT ,rpaHLIIL..Ielll B03ropa-
                 HLIIR BO,D,OpO,D,a'~ LllllLII npe,D,ellOM KyMapa. 4eM 611LII>Ke 3Be3,D,a K 3TOIII rpaHLIIL..Ie,
                 TeM Me,D,JleHHee npOLIICXO,D,RT B Hell! R,D,epHble peaKL..ILIILII.
                          nepBblill KOpL114HeBblill KapllLIIK B                                                                1995 ro,D,y HaWJla rpynna acTpOHOMOB
                 no,D, pyKoBO,D,CTBOM Pa<j>a311R Pe6o11o Lll3 V1HCTLIITyTa acTpo<j>LII3LIIKLII Ha KaHap-
                 CKLIIX OCTpOBaX.


            1111111111111111111111111111 1111111111111111111111111 1111111111111111111111111111111111111 11111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 111111111111111111111111111111 1111111111111111111111
.r--~~~--::11
                                     Puc. 5. AHUMGLfUR cfJomoccfJepbt
                                     KOpUlfHeBbiX U MQflUHOBbiX Kap-
                                     flUKOB pa3Hb/X cneKmpanbHbiX



                     Kop1114HeBble cy6Kapn111KIII (11111111 MalliiiHOBble KapniiiKIII) - xono.QHble
         rena, ner4e, 4eM KOp1114HeBble Kap11111KIII. Macca MalliiiHOBbiX Kap11111KOB
         MeHbwe                       13 Mace IOn111repa, HIII>KHflfl rpaH1114a MaCCbl noKa He onpe.qe-
         neHa. OHIII 6onbwe HanoMIIIHaiOT nnaHeTbl, 4eM 3Be3.Qbl. Ho, B OT111114111e
         OT nllaHeT, <l>opMIIIPYIOTCfl 1113 ra30BOrO npOT03Be3.QHOrO 06JlaKa, a He
         1113 ra30nbiJleBOrO .QIIICKa, KOTOpbiVi OKpy>KaeT HOBOpO>K.QeHHYIO 3Be3.Qy.
         AcTpOHOMbl .QO CIIIX nap He onpe.QeJliiiJliiiCb, 4TO Ba>KHee, KOr.Qa pe4b III.QeT
         o Bbl6ope craryca KapniiiKa 111 nnaHeTbl: IIICTOPIIIfl po>K.QeHIIIfl 11111111 Ha111114111e
         IIICT04HIIIKOB TepMOfi.QepHOrO CIIIHTe3a. Kop1114HeBble KaplliiiKIII Ill cy6Kap-
         JliiiKIII OTHOCfiTCfl K cneKrpallbHbiM KJlaccaM                           L, T, Y c reMneparypoVI                                                                                                                      no-
         sepxHOCTIII OT                              2 000 °( .QO 150 °( COOTBeTCTBeHHO (piiiC. 5).
                  4epHble KaplliiiKIII - OCTbiBWIIIe 6ellble KaplliiiKIII, KOTOpble npaKTIII4eCKIII
         He 11131ly4aiOT B BIII.QIIIMOM .QIIIana30He. 3TO- KOHe4Hafl CTa.QIIIfl 38011104111111
         6eJlbiX Kap11111KOB. CeVI4ac B acrpoHOMIII4ecKoVI JliiiTeparype repMIIIH
_        ,4epHbiVI Kap11111K': KaK npaBIIIJlO, He IIICnOJlb3yeTCfl.
~111111111111111111111111 111111111 11111111111111111111111111111111 11111111111111111111111111111111111111 111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 1111111111111111111111111 11111111111111111111111""
~                                06o seeM He1 cseme

l     DHETI'POrTE11'01>C~
   /'1ft, ~*@pDtM 20/12. ro.qa COCTOflllVICb KOMaH.QHble CO-
                                                   1
peBHOBaHI/Ifl Ha Ky6oK >KypHa/la 11 't.Df\0CO'tf cpe.QVI
y4e6HbiX 3ase.qeHVILII ropo.qa )J.HenponeTposcKa.
Y4aCTH 111 KOB copesHosa H111 VI roc Ten p111 VIM-
HO npVIHH/1 YBK NQ 148 r. )J.HenponeT-
poscKa ,nnaHeTa c4aCTbH". Copes-
HOBaHVIH npOXO.QVI/1111 B Tplll Typa.
B nepBOM Type y4aCTHVIKVI
6opo11111cb 3a 3BaHVIe ,ny4-
WVILII 4111TaTellb YKpaVIHbl
no sepc111111 >K,YpHana
 11 't.Df\OCO~ .
  Bonpocbl
3Toro Typa 6bllllll
COCTaB/leHbl no
MaTeplllanaM
                             1\0C
            B~o
11-•iii.,~ BTopoM rype AC'f'PO- fEO- 3K.o
          RJ:57\...C::N!:r;J.td1 4a ~K~ npOAeMOH-
       11
       CTp~poean~    CBO             K y4aC-
       T~IO B Me>KAyHapOAHOM ~          liiBHOM
       np~ ~OAOBeA4eCKOM KOH K>ffCe II     1\ -
       co~'- ~11\.'li\.-2.0/12. . Bonpocbl
       TpeTbero rypa npeAOCTaB~nlll 4neHbl
        >KIOPIII TYPHlllpa.

            no6eaumenu mypHupa u o6naaamenu
       DOflbWOZO K}'6Ka - KOMaHaa COW Ng 74 B
       cocmaee:
          lfy6Ko EKamepuHa, 5 Knacc; Cmenb-
       Max /ltzopb, 5 KnQCC; neKapCKUU BnaauMup,
       6 Knacc; MaXbiHR BnaaucnaB, 6 Knacc; rya-
       KOB MaKCUM, 6 Knacc; PoMaH(.40B MaKCUM,
       6Knacc.
          PyKoeoaumenb KOMaHabt - ,[JoH Hama-
       nbR BnaauMupoBHa, Y'Wmenb xuMuu u 6u-
       onozuu.

           06naaamenu Manozo K}'6Ka u 3BaHuR
       ny1.1wux 1.1umameneu Hawezo )K}'pHana B zo-
       poae ,[JHenponempoecKe - KoMaHaa "nna-
       Hema c1.1acmbR" B cocmaee:
           rpuzopbeBa AHHQ, 6 Knacc; KapneHKO
       ,[JapbR, 5 Knacc; OBI.IUHHUKOBa 3MunuR,
       6 Knacc; PaauHoBcKaR MapuR, 6 Knacc;
       CaeuHa ,[JapbR, 6 Knacc; lfepeaKo Onez,
       6Knacc.
           PyKoeoaumenb KOMaHabt - Kpy1.4 HenR
       AneKcaHapoeHa, y11umenb 6uonozuu.

           06naaamenu Manozo K}'6Ka - KOMaHaa
       COW~ 83     B cocmaee:                                                           ·tt111s .L0111Hed.D
           lfepHbiU MaKCUM, 6-6 Knacc; nambtWeB      -odu:>ed ·g "III.Ddam oJa a 1111Dodot1o9 "L
       ,[JMumpuu, 6-A Knacc; Llfep6aKoBa EKame-      "1111/lllla£ ott ehHIIO) .LO ai!IHI10.D:>ed .LIIItl
       puHa, 5-6 Knacc; Topo>KUU RHa, 6-A Knacc;     -oxodu .Las:> 111111ads O.LE e£ ·g ·eH>IOI/08
       Pbt6anKa RHuHa, 6-A Knacc; ManuHuHa           alqH:>asadtl .Laes1qdEed deu '11:>.Lal1deu:>lll
       CocjJuR,S-6 Knacc.                            OHSIII:>Ha.LHIII lqHIII:>asadtJ Elll I:!JI:!I/8 11111Had
           PyKoeoaumenb KOMaHabt - HuKoHeHKO         -oJ 111111ads 09 ·s ·que.D 111 H,uAh ·-v ·.<tto9 "E
       BuKmopuR 6opucoBHa, y11umenb 6uonozuu.        ·quo) ·z: "111!1Hesl!ld.Laslqs al!ls.Dtlall:>8 · L
                                                          "llldOI>t< aoHallh .Lo 1q:>oduo9 ·1q.Las.LQ
                                                               •
       #h. Bo MHor~x paV!oHax HaweV!    nnaHeTbl BCTpe4a-
     tO~ HTepecHble cj>opMbl penbecj>a. KaK B03H~Kll~ 3T~
     cj>eHOMeHbl nplllpOAbl?
      6 KorAa-To 3Ta ropHas:~ nopoAa l..leHI!'IJlacb Ha sec
      ~a. CeV!4aC OHa AeWeBas:l, HO ee MeCTOpo~eH~s:l
     30
     OAH~X CTpaHax ~CTO~atOTCs:l, B APYr~x- ee A06bl4a ..,~'OAA.N-'
     po>KaeT. 0 KaKoVI nopoAe ~AeT pe4b?


                              ~
       6 KaKoe Be~eCTBO neoHapAO            Aa   BIIIH4~ Ha3BaJl
     ,C~M >K~3H~ Ha 3eMne"?
            ~noAKOBa Ha 3TOM cj>oTo- ~3 yH~KallbHoro
          na~ KOBaHbiX cl>~ryp B ,D,oHei..IKe. Ha30B~Te ABa
          OCHOBHbiX CnJlaBa >KeJle3a, ~3 KOTOpbiX ~3rOTaBJl~­
          BatOT TaK~e Be~~ KY3Hel...lbl scex cTpaH M~pa .

...........
  Q    Bee M0114111T,- ny4111Ha c TpecKoM,
     w
  Wi b rOpiiiT 6arpOBbiM 6neCKOM.
  (A. A. <DeT ,MeTellb")
  no4eMy ropeHIIIe conposmK,qaeTOI TpecKoM?


                           ~
  ~ COJ1H4e. 8 MIIIHyT. KaK          CBH3aHO He6eCHOe CBeTIIIJlO Ill
3T~pOMe~yTOKBpeMeHIII?

                               vt0/\0ivt51
  ~         4To ,qenaeT neH111B4es 3eneHbiMIII 111 H   1


Alii lliiiCTbeB ,qepesbes?


 f& nno,qaMbl BIIIWHIII naKOMHTCHIII sopo6blll, 111 ran Kill. Horan-
K~o ,qenaeT C 60JlbWOVI        nOJlb30VI ,QJlfl BIIIWHIII. KaKytO nOJlb3Y
npiiiHOCIIIT raJlKa, noe,qafl nJlO,Qbl BIIIWHIII?
        A8CJ178 SJlAJ17E,   i>~p~GAS1    pEi>AI<UuS1!
      aoByT Chi"tl ,ll;aHHHJI H .H y-qych B        3   KJiacce.
        KJiaCCHHKaMH JII06HM CO"t!HH.HTh CTHXH -
  H He rrpocThie, a aKpocTHXH! CTHXH -             aara;t:t:f~
COCTaBHJI ,li;Ba aKpOCTHXa K CBOeMy HMeHH.



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                    r . CoKaJI:&, JI:&BOBCKaH
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