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					Westfield Premier’s Education Scholarship
             Report 2005 –

Examination of Best Practice in Scotland to
Assist Human Rights Capacity Building and
Anti-Racist Teaching in Formal Education In
             Western Australia




            Jeannie Stevenson

               March 2006
                                                        Table of Contents

               Abstract                                                                                 Pages 3 – 4



               Research Objectives, Background, Plan                                                    Pages 5 – 6



               Ethical Considerations                                                                   Page 6



               Activities Undertaken                                                                    Pages 6 – 25



               Implementation of the Findings                                                           Pages 26 – 28



               Acknowledgement                                                                          Page 29




Westfield Premier’s Education Scholarship Report 2005 – Best Practice in Scotland to assist Human Rights Capacity Building and Anti-Racist   2
                                         Teaching in Formal Education In Western Australia –. Jeannie Stevenson
               Abstract
               Human rights education is a vibrant, innovative idea, which provides a stimulating
               teaching/learning environment. I have long had a strong interest in promoting human
               rights in the classroom and developing anti-racist teaching methods. Winning a
               Westfield Premier’s Education Scholarship in 2005 enabled me to undertake a research
               and study tour to examine international best practice in Scotland where a major culture
               change since devolution and the creation of the new Parliament and Executive (July,
               1999) had enabled the overhaul of its system along human rights principles. I increased
               my knowledge and understanding of human rights and anti-racism teaching methods
               and discovered new ways to nourish tolerance, diminish prejudice and encourage
               respect. I witnessed remarkable co-operation between organisations as well as the
               political will to make a difference. Although clearly important morally and legally, the
               practical issue of promoting human rights and race equality through the curriculum is
               challenging and there is no absolute way to achieve it. Yet its adherence to these
               principles exemplifies Scotland’s wholehearted willingness to claim education’s power to
               liberate people and reinforce positive societal values. Applied to the Australian context,
               human rights education and anti-racist teaching will mean a greater possibility of
               acknowledging Indigenous Australians and celebrating multicultural Australia. Moreover,
               students with this global dimension to their education are more likely to have a voice,
               speak their minds and recognise the importance of taking part in society, whatever their
               capacity.

               Human Rights provide an excellent framework of underlying values for an Australian
               democratic society built on tolerance, respect and the celebration of difference. Being
               universally applicable, they promote empowerment, participation, equality and diversity
               as well as accountability and transparency. They foreground the rule of law and the
               respect for human dignity, upon which they are predicated, provides the balance
               between individual rights and the general interest of society: the individual’s rights are
               always to be exercised against a duty to respect the rights of others. A precondition for
               a just and humane society, human rights education is anti-racist, anti-sectarian and anti-
               bullying.

               In the Scottish system I was inspired by the possibility of broadening the parameters of
               Human Rights beyond the traditional governance by politicians and advocacy by
               lawyers. Educators there recognised the need to be proactive to meet global citizenship
               challenges. Legislative provision mandated anti-racist teaching and human rights
               principles became a powerful means of transferring skills essential in a democracy.
               Giving voice to the voiceless, these principles improved classroom climate, social
               competence, resilience and autonomy. Increased engagement in students was mirrored
               in teachers who led this culture-change. Greater importance was placed on practitioner
               research and stakeholders sought opportunities to network and undertake continuing
               professional development from registered providers. Resources were readily available
               either as web-based resources and tool kits or centrally housed in centres like the
               Development Education Centres. The views of all stakeholders who recognised that
               empowerment in society is mirrored in inclusive classrooms were canvassed. The
               voluntary and charitable sector enthusiastically lent their support. Due importance was


Westfield Premier’s Education Scholarship Report 2005 – Best Practice in Scotland to assist Human Rights Capacity Building and Anti-Racist   3
                                         Teaching in Formal Education In Western Australia –. Jeannie Stevenson
               given to life stories in capturing and demonstrating the essence of human rights and to
               storytelling as a means to empower the voiceless.

               I wish to energise the discussion on Human Rights in education and anti-racist teaching
               in Western Australia so I investigated across the whole Scottish system. This included
               the Parliament and Executive, the Scottish Executive Education Department (SEED),
               The Department for International Development (DfiD), Teaching/ Learning Scotland,
               The Scottish Further Education Unit, teacher training and teacher development bodies,
               Local Education Authorities, schools, expert and international outlook organisations,
               special interest groups, voluntary and charitable organisations. I participated in
               campaigns and attended the Scottish International Storytelling Festival to workshop with
               a visiting child and adolescent psychotherapist at the Medical Foundation for the Care of
               Victims of Torture, London. I learned story, drama therapy and psychodrama techniques
               that will help me engage (the-all-too-numerous) students who suffer from the impact of
               violence, scapegoating, separation and loss. With a narrative learning exponent,
               (presented and supported by the Danish Cultural Institute as part of the bi-centenary
               celebration of Hans Christian Andersen), I road-tested a pioneering multi-media
               narrative learning CD-rom for learners with severe personal challenges). I believe the
               Westfield Premier’s Education Scholarship has enabled me to increase my capacity to
               provide effective leadership in human rights education and anti-racist teaching.




Westfield Premier’s Education Scholarship Report 2005 – Best Practice in Scotland to assist Human Rights Capacity Building and Anti-Racist   4
                                         Teaching in Formal Education In Western Australia –. Jeannie Stevenson
               Research
               a. Research Objectives
               To locate and disseminate research and practice in order to develop active citizenship
               capacity building in students, particularly culturally and linguistically diverse students, in
               Western Australia using human rights in education and anti-racist teaching
               methodology.

               b. Background
               I celebrate those students with whom I have been honoured to work during my nine
               years teaching with the Department of Education and Training who have brought so
               many issues to the fore in my reflective journal. Posing more questions than it answers,
               my journal has laid the foundations for this research. My first entry concerned the
               thirteen-year-old indigenous Australian boy who took those precious programmes and
               worksheets I had asked him to distribute and threw them out the window! Unbeknown to
               both of us then, this was the best beginning I could have had to my teaching career and
               I am forever in his debt. My last entry concerns a young man who yesterday showed me
               photographs of his detention on Christmas Island. We wept together as he told me how
               much that birthday cake, baked by a teacher, meant to him. Immediately I recognised it
               to be a symbol of education’s great ability to heal and rehabilitate, provide structure and
               a sense of normalcy and give a sense of hope and stability.

               A sample of the kinds of questions raised in my reflective journal will set the context for
               my research. How do you support an ex-detention centre refugee in his aspiration to
               become a good citizen in his new country? How do you encourage a nineteen year old
               victim of political violence from Afghanistan, who has never been to school and never
               been asked her opinion, to develop the necessary voice to live a full life in a
               democracy? How do you educate a brutalised child soldier for a life of dignity in a
               peaceful country? What is the best way to celebrate the rule of law with people who
               have known only arbitrariness and chaos? How do we ensure due respect for
               Indigenous Australians from all of us, newcomers, to this ancient land and make the
               prevailing education system more relevant to them? What can we do to nourish
               empathy, diminish prejudice and encourage respect for diversity?

               c. Research Plan
               I used action research methodology to examine how students are prepared for
               citizenship in Scotland using human rights in education and anti-racist teaching
               strategies. Although this research originated with entries in my reflective journal,
               reflection occurred at all stages of the project. During the design phase, I established
               critical reference groups (mainly from the education community) in Scotland. I arranged
               to interview them and, on arrival, further networking led to other valuable connections
               being forged. The Westfield Premier’s Education Scholarship enabled me to complete
               the fieldwork phase in Scotland. I interviewed key stakeholders across a broad section
               of the Scottish Education system. I administered questionnaires, listened, had
               conversations, conducted interviews with key players, surveyed exemplary schools,
               attended workshops, and professional development sessions, participated in


Westfield Premier’s Education Scholarship Report 2005 – Best Practice in Scotland to assist Human Rights Capacity Building and Anti-Racist   5
                                         Teaching in Formal Education In Western Australia –. Jeannie Stevenson
               campaigns, meetings and an international storytelling festival. I observed while work
               shadowing, explored and collected resources and established international connections.
               I clarified contextual factors both educational and individual that influenced such
               education in both the Scottish and Australian situations. These included the historical,
               socio-political, economic, administrative and cultural contexts. I considered local issues
               including educational provision in remote areas and sustainability. This was a
               collaborative process but I also maintained excellent records and kept my reflective
               journal. The analysis and conclusions phase is ongoing and will generate more
               observations, insights, themes, trends and understandings that may, in turn, generate
               theories, explanations and analyses of best practice. The establishment of the web site
               (currently under construction) and dialogue with Western Australian stakeholders will be
               crucial here. Feedback has been sought from and given to those being
               researched/evaluated in order to clarify understandings and this process will continue.
               Critical reference groups will continue to review and clarify the challenges met and their
               resolution. There have been and will continue to be informal discussions about the
               research chiefly around questions of plausibility and omission. The findings are being
               tested on those I seek to influence/inform (students, peers, administrators). I have been
               given great encouragement so far. Due consideration will be given to options for
               implementation, change and improved practice and recommendations will be effected. I
               have begun what I set out to do. So much more is to be done, however, particularly in
               the sharing of resources, experiences, theoretical underpinnings and inspirations. I am
               confident that the website, presently under construction, will carry this work forward.

               d. Ethical Considerations
               Ethical considerations have and will continue to centre on the personal information of
               students and the procedural considerations for organisations. Being mindful of issues of
               harm, breach of confidentiality and privacy I have omitted names of specific students
               and practitioners unless with express consent. Supervision and adherence to
               regulations and guidelines and copyright requirements have been and will continue to
               be adhered to.

               e. Activities Undertaken
               A whole system approach was adopted which involved visiting many stakeholders,
               examining policy makers and practitioners alike. The following are some of the best
               practice exemplars, which I was privileged to study:

               (i)       The Scottish Parliament
                         “Wisdom”, “Justice”, “Integrity” and “Compassion” are the four words on the
                         Scottish Mace and fuel the reform process in Scotland. The Parliament has
                         adopted the key principles of sharing power, accountability, openness,
                         accessibility, participation and promoting equal opportunities. It has an excellent
                         community education programme “Making your voice heard in the Scottish
                         Parliament”. Two legislative measures particularly address (race) discrimination
                         in education. The Race Relations Act (UK) 1976 defined discrimination (direct
                         and indirect) and racism (skin colour, race, ethnic and national origin and
                         nationality) and established the Commission for Race Equality. The Race


Westfield Premier’s Education Scholarship Report 2005 – Best Practice in Scotland to assist Human Rights Capacity Building and Anti-Racist   6
                                         Teaching in Formal Education In Western Australia –. Jeannie Stevenson
                         Relations (Amendment) Act 2000 goes further by imposing a general duty on
                         public authorities to eliminate unlawful discrimination and harassment. It imposes
                         specific duties on Education Authorities and schools to have Race Equality
                         Policies and monitor the impact of policies on minority ethnic groups.


                                                                        The Scottish Parliament – not
                                                                        just a working legislature but
                                                                        also a work of art. Constructed
                                                                        on a world heritage site, it won
                                                                        the prestigious Stirling Prize for
                                                                        architecture in October, 2005.
                                                                        Wisdom, Justice, Integrity and
                                                                        Compassion are its guiding
                                                                        principles.




               (ii)      The Scottish Executive that is the devolved government for Scotland,
                         responsible inter alia for education has instituted a culture-change program that
                         attempts to incorporate outward looking and power-sharing techniques. It has
                         commissioned a staff-development resource on anti-racism and includes
                         religious and moral education on the National Grid for Learning (NGfL). It has
                         introduced important measures to address inequalities and (race) discrimination
                         in education. The Executive’s overarching national campaigns which target
                         young people include the following:
                             One Scotland a campaign designed to tackle racism in Scotland.
                             Show Racism the Red Card is an anti-racism charity that produces a range
                              of educational resources, harnessing the power of high profile professional
                              footballers to combat racism. The Scottish Executive funds this charity.
                             Kiddiesville is an interactive website targeted at 3 to 8 year which has been
                              launched by the Scottish Executive.
                             Young Scot is a national youth information service for young people

                         Recent research commissioned by the Scottish Executive includes the following:
                           Minority Ethnic Pupils Experiences of Scottish Schools
                           Experience of Asylum Seekers and Refugees in Scottish Schools
                           Gender inequality in attainment
                           Minority pupils’ attainment patterns.

                         Executive commissioned resources are available in all schools. I particularly
                         scrutinized the following:
                         (i)    Anti-racist toolkit (2002), a web-based resource for schools and teachers
                                to enable them to find out more about race equality and how to implement
                                good practice in race-related issues
                         (ii)   Anti-sectarian resource (2005) a web resource to provide teachers and
                                youth workers with material they can use to raise awareness of sectarian


Westfield Premier’s Education Scholarship Report 2005 – Best Practice in Scotland to assist Human Rights Capacity Building and Anti-Racist   7
                                         Teaching in Formal Education In Western Australia –. Jeannie Stevenson
                                   and religious intolerance and encourage better mutual understanding. It is
                                   being used at Education Authority Seminars. Drama lessons are being
                                   developed and a DVD produced as a tool to support the resource.
                         (iii)     A Holocaust teaching pack (2005) an education resource to get people
                                   thinking and participating responsibly in issues that reflect their political,
                                   economic, social and cultural lives. Currently drama workshops are being
                                   developed to tour schools in support of the resource.
                         (iv)      HM Inspectorate of Education (HMIE) recently released “Promoting
                                   Race Equality”, a good practice publication for schools and Education
                                   Authorities and through (“How Good is our School” - HGIOS) a self-
                                   evaluation support document for promoting race equality.




                                                    The Scottish Executive, the devolved government of Scotland,
                                                    which has instituted a culture-change programme, underscored by
                                                    Human Rights and Anti-Racism principles.




               (iii)     The Scottish Executive Education Department (SEED) is responsible for
                         (School) Education in Scotland. It funds the Centre for Education for Racial
                         Equality in Scotland (CERES) whose aim is to promote race equality in Scottish
                         Education. Activities have included:
                         a. Developing materials (even lesson plans) for teachers to include anti-racism
                            into the teaching of drama and, working in partnership with Education
                            Authorities, providing support to classroom teachers.
                         b. Conducting a seminar series for education authorities, school management
                            teams, head teachers and teachers to become better informed about the
                            practical requirements of the Race Relations (Amendment) Act 2000
                         c. Established a Race Relations (Amendment) Act officer network meeting for
                            Education Authority equality officers
                         d. Studied how race equality has been mainstreamed into the work of eight
                            education authorities.

                         SEED also funds the Scottish Traveller Education Programme (STEP) whose
                         aim is to promote traveller and gypsy issues within education.

                         Current SEED human rights work centres on resources and research. Resource
                         development has included the anti-racist toolkit, the anti-sectarian resource and
                         the holocaust teaching pack. The most recent research includes:
                         a. The experiences of asylum seekers and refugees in Scottish schools (findings
                            expected to be published in early 2006).




Westfield Premier’s Education Scholarship Report 2005 – Best Practice in Scotland to assist Human Rights Capacity Building and Anti-Racist   8
                                         Teaching in Formal Education In Western Australia –. Jeannie Stevenson
                         b. The strategies used by schools to address imbalance in gender attainment
                            levels. This report was expected early December 2005 and will widely
                            disseminate findings to Education Authorities and schools.

                         Seven long-term, inter-linked projects carry the SEED’s equality work:
                           A project looking at guidance for schools on dealing with racist incidents. The
                            aim is to ensure that schools have sufficient awareness, resources and
                            effective procedures in place to identify and address racist incidents. The
                            project began in April 2005 and will continue through to 2006/07.
                           A project looking for guidance for schools on dealing with homophobic
                            incidents. The aims are to ensure that schools have sufficient awareness,
                            resources and effective procedures in place to identify and address
                            homophobic incidents. The project commenced in February 2005, and will
                            run through to 2006/07.
                           A project, which seeks to develop a model/resource for staff training and
                            development on equality, commenced in April 2005 and will conclude in
                            March 2007.
                           A project looking at mainstreaming anti-discrimination into the curriculum
                            commenced in April 2005 and will continue until March 2007.
                           A project looking at assisting schools and Education Authorities with their
                            Race Relations (Amendment) Act commenced in April 2005 and will run
                            through to 2006/07.
                           Three phases of research on equality work within education are to have
                            research papers delivered by January 2007.
                           Promoting the educational interests of Gypsy and Traveller pupils is
                            expected to run throughout 2006/2007.

               (iv)      Department for International Development (DfID)
                         This department funds the Enabling Effective Support for the global dimension in
                         Scottish Education to support schools in embedding active global citizenship in
                         their policy and practice. The vision is to develop an active and informed network
                         of individuals and organisations with the skills, knowledge attitudes and values to
                         work supportively with teachers in Scotland to ensure that global citizenship is
                         integral and clearly perceptible in Scottish education. There are four strategic
                         objectives:
                         a. Engage with and seek to influence key players
                         b. Ensure that support providers are aware of and have the capacity to respond
                             to the needs of schools
                         c. Ensure that support for the global dimension is accessible to schools colleges
                             and universities across Scotland
                         d. Create a structure to facilitate and develop countrywide activity and
                             encourage creative and innovative practice.

                         They commissioned International Development Education Association of
                         Scotland (IDEAS) to carry out research in 2003 in which critical audits enabled



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                                         Teaching in Formal Education In Western Australia –. Jeannie Stevenson
                         the identification of key issues and concerns from a range of stakeholders and
                         indicated favoured approaches. The main points were:
                             To build on existing voluntary –statutory partnerships, their strengths and
                              successes
                             That there should be whole school including cross-curricular, subject-specific
                              and extra-curricular approaches to global citizenship
                             There needs to be opportunities for teachers to work creatively within and
                              across different schools
                             Primary-secondary links and cross-phase continuity should be established
                              possibly from S1/2 (WA Year 8 and 9) to P6/7 (WA Year 6 and 7) in the first
                              instance
                             Relevant Continuing Professional Development (CPD) ought to be offered
                              based upon teachers’ needs, concern and interests
                             Statutory – voluntary sector networking and information-sharing is to be
                              encouraged
                             Equality of provision is to be maintained across rural and urban areas
                             Consultation with and involvement of young people in the planning and
                              operational process is paramount

               At the development and implementation phase they established a steering group, a
               local co-ordinating group and effective systems for communication, monitoring and
               evaluation and promotion. They identified partnerships, local priorities and national
               agendas and considered what each stakeholder was achieving separately which added
               to the bigger picture. They then developed local programmes and initiatives to feed into
               a National Support Strategy, the Continuing Professional Development Programmes for
               teachers, a resources strategy and several ad hoc working groups to see the process
               through. I attended a mini-grants workshop and was able to witness this process first
               hand.

               (v)     Learning and Teaching Scotland
               Its brief is to actively promote a climate of innovation, ambition and excellence
               throughout the inclusive Scottish education system. It advises on ways to build capacity
               and supports the delivery of first class education that is recognised as such nationally
               and internationally. It offers publications, websites and software.

               (vi)  Scottish Further Education Unit (SFEU)
               This unit is respected for its work in capacity building in Literacy and Numeracy but
               especially for an inclusion project funded by the European Union.

               (vii)    Teacher Training Institutions
               I investigated how they incorporate human rights education and anti-racist teaching in
               their pre-service programmes. Scottish Universities are taking up the human rights
               challenge in initial teacher education but an outstanding example of Continuing
               Professional Development Programmes is that of Glasgow University. Its aim is to
               produce informed, resourced and confident teachers. It provides a speaker service,



Westfield Premier’s Education Scholarship Report 2005 – Best Practice in Scotland to assist Human Rights Capacity Building and Anti-Racist   10
                                         Teaching in Formal Education In Western Australia –. Jeannie Stevenson
               offers quality online resources and maintains the Glasgow University Global Education
               Unit.




                                                                             Glasgow University
                                                                             Outstanding Continuing Professional
                                                                             Development (CPD) Programmes are
                                                                             offered to Teachers. It also houses the
                                                                             Scottish Centre for Research in
                                                                             Education (SCRE).


               (viii) Teacher professional bodies
               The National Association for Language Development in the Curriculum (NALDIC),
               representing English as an Additional Language (EAL) is very active. Inter alia NALDIC
               has published a common core of knowledge, skills and understandings necessary for
               the specialist EAL teacher based on collaborative practice with mainstream colleagues
               in a range of teaching contexts and a diversity of EAL learners, raising achievement of
               ethnic minority learners, standards, work on the integration of culturally and linguistically
               diverse students, checklists of inclusive practice, literacy hour methodology, effective
               local practice, establishing partnerships and developing classroom vignettes.




                    “We can give you the finest
                    raw materials on the planet”
                    Advertisement poster on
                    Aberdeen train station
                    It highlights the central role
                    of Teaching in preparing the
                    best human resources.




               (ix)   Education Authorities
               Edinburgh launched its Race Equality Education Policy (2004) and all its schools have
               now put in place their own revised guidelines and pro forma for recording discriminatory
               incidents. Highlands incidents are logged electronically allowing trends to be picked up
               and Council-wide action to be more readily identified It generates advice to all
               stakeholders in the form of the three Don’ts (Don’t say there is no bullying or racism in


Westfield Premier’s Education Scholarship Report 2005 – Best Practice in Scotland to assist Human Rights Capacity Building and Anti-Racist   11
                                         Teaching in Formal Education In Western Australia –. Jeannie Stevenson
               your school. Don’t say “Go Away, I’m too busy just now”. Don’t make assumptions
               based on previous incidents or misbehaviour.

               The staff at one school in Argyll and Bute have been trained in restorative justice and
               are using these skills to provide support for students. In South Lanarkshire “Active
               Breaks” have been developed where trained youth workers go into schools at intervals
               and lunchtimes and before and after school to work with students potentially involved in
               bullying as either perpetrators or victims. Glasgow has held training events for school
               staff addressing the issue of homophobic bullying and participated in the development
               of a guide for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Youth, aimed at increasing
               teachers’ competence and confidence in these matters.

               (x)     Schools
               Scottish Schools have a strong emphasis on “taking part in” and in the development of
               “voice”. It is well recognised there that giving students leadership roles, choices and a
               share of responsibilities and opportunities for decision-making, fosters active
               participation and a sense of ownership in the learning process.

               Since schools see their vital role in preparing young people to be active participants in a
               democratic society, citizenship education questions the nature of democracy in schools.
               Schools are asked to report on how students are participating in classrooms, student
               councils and local organisations. Are they making real decisions about real issues of
               concern? Since self-determined learning cannot be nurtured in an oppressive climate,
               do teachers model democratic processes in their relationships with colleagues, their
               dealings with parents and the way they teach pupils? The benefits of a real democracy
               are not just taught but also experienced so a prerequisite is that all members of the
               school community should be able to participate in meaningful decision-making. What
               should it mean to practise democracy in schools? More than a curriculum that outlines
               political democracy, it needs to pervade the whole life and operation of the system. To
               learn about human rights students need to exercise them and participation in school
               governance is a powerful beginning. This means that curriculum has to relate to a
               student’s social context and is truly educational where students learn more, gather and
               weigh evidence, work through what might constitute the good reasons for believing
               something, come to understand and appreciate why others might hold a different view.
               They envisage a form of schooling that more fully embodies principles of democracy,
               promotes democratic skills and dispositions and shares power with students who need
               to be active in all aspects of their education. Teachers ask students what should be
               learned, what education is for, how the classroom should be structured and what
               constitutes fairness. They discuss current issues, provide input on school procedures,
               and encourage students to take on real and meaningful roles around educational and
               community issues. The Scottish system is a vibrant educational community, with strong
               links to parents and society (nationally and internationally). Rooted in open-ness and
               mutual trust it is what future citizens need. There is a realisation that rapid changes in
               social conditions are changing the way we need to think about democracy and
               schooling. Although a better-educated population leads to more demands on institutions
               and a greater desire for political participation, this is offset by a significant decline in


Westfield Premier’s Education Scholarship Report 2005 – Best Practice in Scotland to assist Human Rights Capacity Building and Anti-Racist   12
                                         Teaching in Formal Education In Western Australia –. Jeannie Stevenson
               trust for institutions, political processes and professionals. Moreover, the increasing
               recognition of diversity in the population has not been accommodated in institutions and
               political processes. On the other hand the changing role of women has meant they are
               increasingly active in governance and political processes especially at community level.
               Economic and social inequality is rising – high levels of child and family poverty produce
               stresses on schools exacerbated by a reduced scale and scope of government funding
               for many public services.

               I visited schools selected on the basis of their excellence. This is determined by the
               “How Good is our School” (Self-Evaluation) and the HM Inspectorate of Education
               Best Practice Guide.




                                                                          Andersen High
                                                                          Shetland Islands
                                                                          An international Centre of
                                                                          Excellence




               An outstanding example was Andersen High (Shetland Islands) an International Centre
               of Excellence. Students are aware of their place in “the global village” as well as their
               role in their own (remote) community. “The Learning School”, a groundbreaking initiative
               has been established there involving student self-evaluation on a global scale. Students
               become chroniclers of their own overseas learning thereby moving from passive
               recipients to active evaluators, creating the knowledge about overseas education
               programmes for teachers to consume! A verbal report by an ex- school inspector at a
               seminar given by a participant in the learning school indicates how powerful this can be:

               “It would have been impossible to have been unmoved by the students’ graphic description of life
               in a South African township…It would have been impossible to be unmoved by their accounts of
               the juxtaposition of corrugated shacks with the grandeur of the Olympic stadium, travelling daily
               between the extreme poverty of township people and the affluence of the white and “coloured”
               South Africans. They discovered how unique their insights were into these two worlds when white
               South Africans told them, that despite living in Cape Town all their lives, they had never ventured
               into the townships… They educated white and coloured South Africans whose knowledge vacuum
               was filled with racist stereotypes…”



               Some whole-school system initiatives include:
               Eco-Schools
               These schools have developed to fulfil the UN Conference on Environment and
               Development (Earth Summit – Rio de Janeiro, 1992) identified need for youth
               involvement in finding solutions to environmental and sustainable development issues at


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                                         Teaching in Formal Education In Western Australia –. Jeannie Stevenson
               the local level. Presently 2000 schools are registered in this environmental management
               tool, learning resource and recognition award scheme.




                                                                             Eco-Schools
                                                                             Finding solutions to
                                                                             environmental and
                                                                             sustainable development
                                                                             issues at the local level
                                                                             Isle of Mull




               The Scottish Schools Ethos Network (SSEN) – was so successful that it brought about
               its own demise! A positive ethos permeates all policies and initiatives in all schools

               Strategies to address discrimination and promote equality in schools in Scotland
               Under the Standards in Scotland’s Schools Act (2000) every child has a right to the
               school education provided by an education authority. This act imposes the duty on
               Education Authorities to prepare and publish an Annual Statement of Improvement
               Objectives that describes how they will encourage equal opportunities and the
               observance of equal opportunities requirements. National Priority 3 focuses on
               promoting equality and inclusion, helping every pupil benefit from education. A Race
               Equality Advisory Forum (REAF) has been established by ministers to provide the
               Scottish Executive with advice across a range of race equality issues. The Equal
               Opportunities Parliamentary Committee Inquiry into Gypsy Travellers Report and the
               Executive’s Response were updated in 2004 with a substantial section on education.
               The Children’s Services Satellite Group – a sub-group of the Scottish Refugee
               Integration Forum was set up to look at education and children’s issues.

               (xi)      Voluntary Organisations and Charities
                                                      Aberdeen Volunteer Centre.
                                                      The voluntary sector and the Charities are a major force
                                                      in both the provision of services and the development of
                                                      community initiatives in Scotland. They have also
                                                      established partnerships with schools which enable
                                                      students to undertake valuable citizenship work there.



               (xii)     Expert Organisations
                         a. The Scottish Centre for Research in Education (SCRE)
                         Based at the University of Glasgow, SCRE conducts quality educational research
                         and supports the use of research outcomes through the dissemination of
                         findings. Relevant examples of research being disseminated and applied include:

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                                         Teaching in Formal Education In Western Australia –. Jeannie Stevenson
                         (i)   Evaluation of the Study Support Programme and Out of School Hours
                               Learning
                         (ii) The experience of black and minority ethnic young people following transfer
                               to secondary school
                         (iii) DAPPLE (Drama and Performance in Pleasurable Personal Learning
                               Environments). This is a new project website. It is especially geared to
                               narrative learning and the ways in which multiple representations can be
                               used to aid individual and collaborative learning.
                         It maintains a website with latest published research, “spotlight” briefings, project
                         news, “practitioner” research, “news alerts” and an online bookshop.

                         b. Centre for Education for Racial Equality in Scotland (CERES)
                         They advocate education for equality and acting against racism and have
                         developed a resource Challenging Sectarianism and Religious Intolerance with
                         its slogan “Don’t give it, don’t take it” for the Scottish Executive. Their online
                         resource provides teachers and youth workers with practical materials that can
                         be used to raise awareness of sectarianism and religious intolerance. This
                         resource addresses National Priorities 3 (Inclusion and Equality) and 4 (Values
                         and Citizenship) and “How Good is Our School” (5.3 – Promote Equality and
                         Fairness). It meets the purpose of the “Curriculum for Excellence”: to enable
                         young people to become responsible citizens with respect for others and a
                         commitment to participate responsibly in political, economic, social and cultural
                         life and be able to understand different beliefs and cultures. It includes examples
                         of current good practice as well as a broad range of class teaching, group work
                         materials, drama lessons, games and quizzes. Its primary aim is to promote anti-
                         discrimination and it can be used across the curriculum and in promoting wider
                         objectives. Material can readily be adapted to suit local needs and
                         teaching/learning styles.

                         c. Scottish Council Foundation
                         The Foundation specialises in “intractable challenges” requiring a new framing in
                         order to make progress, the creation of social capital and rethinking community.
                         The Director, Jim McCormack’s advice is to: “Think into a new way of acting. Act
                         into a new way of thinking”. His prime technique is to envision what is possible.
                         He co-ordinated “Possible Scotland” an outstanding project which integrated the
                         Public Health Institute of Scotland (PHIS) and The Health Education Board for
                         Scotland (HEBS) as a single organisation after extensive public consultation
                         reflecting “excluded”, “insecure”, “settled” and “affluent” Scotland. He highlighted
                         the importance of Non Government Organisations (NGOs) in building democracy
                         and human rights.

                         d. Fablevision
                         This group also helps organisations think and act in creative ways about
                         community regeneration and the development of social capital.




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                                         Teaching in Formal Education In Western Australia –. Jeannie Stevenson
                         e. The Scottish Workforce Empowerment for Lifelong Learning (SWELL)
                         This organisation promotes lifelong learning and diversity through exchange of
                         practice and ideas and joint development of toolkits and workshops.

                         f. CONNEXIONS
                         This group works in partnership with Save the Children to set up a network of
                         Personal Advisers for young asylum seekers and refugees.

               (xiii)    International Outlook Organisations
                         a. The British Council (Scotland)
                         This organisation explores shared and distinctive aspects of teaching human
                         rights while developing English Language proficiency with texts like “Rights in
                         Deed”. It also demonstrates best practice in participative democracy working with
                         European partners to develop innovative training programmes like Commenius.

                         b. McGrigors’ Rights
                         This international human rights capacity building consultancy, which “aims to
                         work with you to make human rights work for you” exemplifies the level of cross-
                         organisational support in Scotland. Director, Professor Alan Miller, is expert
                         advisor to the Global Leaders Initiative on Human Rights who are currently “road
                         testing” the UN Norms on Human Rights and Business. He leads a UN backed
                         project of the International Bar Association, training 650 Iraqi judges, prosecutors
                         and lawyers. He is consultant with the UN and British Council in capacity building
                         projects in the Sudan, China and Georgia. He advises clients in the energy and
                         financial services sectors on operationalising their human rights responsibilities in
                         Africa and Asia. He is the preferred trainer of Scottish Executive policy makers
                         and other public authorities including the State Hospital of Scotland and the
                         Scottish Executive Education Department.

                         c. The International Development Association of Scotland (IDEAS)
                         This is a coalition of 40 agencies working on Human Rights and development
                         education. Members meet regularly and undertake joint awareness-raising
                         projects aimed at working with and influencing those in all sectors of formal and
                         informal education and lifelong learning, including teachers, policy makers, youth
                         and adult education workers and a range of voluntary and statutory organisations
                         using community learning models. Members are committed to supporting diverse
                         community groups, organisations and networks to integrate global awareness
                         into their existing work and activities.




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                                         Teaching in Formal Education In Western Australia –. Jeannie Stevenson
                                                                The International Development
                                                                Association of Scotland (IDEAS)
                                                                and The Scottish Development
                                                                Education Centre (SCOTDEC) at
                                                                the University of Edinburgh.
                                                                A coalition of 40 agencies working
                                                                on Human Rights, Anti-Racism
                                                                and Development Education.




                         d. The Scottish Development Education Centre (SCOTDEC) and the regional
                              Development Education Centres (DECs)
                         I interviewed members of SCOTDEC at the University of Edinburgh on the day
                         before they were flying overseas with a group of teachers to observe in situ
                         human rights work. I work-shadowed in four Development Education Centres and
                         amassed so many ideas and resources there. The participatory methods were
                         particularly inspiring. In addition I attended the following:
                         - A Resources Workshop on “resources for Global Citizenship” (including
                              Human Rights and Anti-Racism) to raise awareness of the range of resources
                              available to explore global citizenship and other international issues.
                         - A Methods Marketplace exploring participatory methods for community
                              action. This included sessions on the Development Compass Rose, drawing
                              footprints, the supermarket bag game, embracing multiculturalism, an
                              introduction to global awareness and banner making to enhance ethos.
                         - A Learning Day “Global Links with Local Lives” which explored links with the
                              wider world as participants from statutory and voluntary organisations were
                              encouraged to think about the global links in community programmes and
                              took part in workshops on “Who’s a Real Scot?”, global images of childhood,
                              debt and poverty, linking and learning from others across the globe.
                         - The “Compass Rose” learning day was also very beneficial as the
                              Development Compass Rose is a framework which encourages us to ask a
                              range of questions about development issues in any place or situation.
                              Participants were introduced to how it is used in the community learning and
                              development setting. It uses the four points of the compass to explore the
                              natural environment, our society, our economy and the decision makers. It is
                              an excellent framework to show how these different factors have links across
                              the world and raises questions about our development and how we relate to
                              others. One group, Working Together for Change, used the Compass Rose to
                              explore links and differences in the lives of women in Scotland and
                              Nicaragua, how global issues affect women in both countries and to consider
                              what steps women can take to combat poverty. Drama was used to bring the
                              compass rose to life. A Scottish group created a short play in English and
                              Spanish focusing on presenting the audience with a problem in order to raise
                              questions about how we experience the world.


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                                         Teaching in Formal Education In Western Australia –. Jeannie Stevenson
                         e. Oxfam – A Curriculum for Global Citizenship:
                         This resource addresses the change and opportunities faced by young people,
                         including increasing inequality. It contrasts life between those enjoying a higher
                         standard of living than ever before and others facing life without sufficient food, a
                         home, freedom from violence, without the means to earn a living and without a
                         say in their future. Using the “self-interest” paradigm, it develops the argument
                         that poverty is not only morally unacceptable but also inefficient as it wastes
                         human talent, leads to conflict and unrest, and encourages the destruction of
                         scarce environmental resources. So that eradicating poverty is the only way to
                         ensure a secure and sustainable future for everyone. It demonstrates that as we
                         are all part of the problem of poverty, we need to be global citizens and become
                         part of the solution. It builds on predominant youth concerns about environment,
                         war and hunger to incorporate principles of global human rights to challenge
                         poverty and injustice. The emphasis is on taking effective action for change. The
                         global citizen is presented as someone aware of the wider world with a sense of
                         their role in it, who respects and values diversity, is willing to act to make the
                         world a more equitable and sustainable place and takes responsibility for their
                         actions. Building on existing good practice, the curriculum recommends the
                         knowledge, skills, values and attitudes which enable students to become global
                         citizens. Practitioners in multi-cultural, development, anti-racist or environmental
                         education will recognise many of these attributes but the curriculum builds on
                         these to offer a specific response to the challenge of poverty. Its key skill
                         elements are critical thinking, the ability to effectively argue and to challenge
                         injustice and inequalities, develop respect for people and things and to co-
                         operate and resolve conflict. The programme increases knowledge and
                         understanding of social justice and equity, diversity, globalisation,
                         interdependence, sustainable development, peace and conflict. Practitioners
                         using this resource report improved values and attitudes in the following
                         domains: sense of identity and self-esteem, empathy, commitment to social
                         justice and equity, value and respect for diversity, concern for the environment
                         and commitment to sustainable development and a belief that people can make a
                         difference.
               (xiv)     Special Interest Organisations
                         a. Anti – Bullying Network (ABN)
                         During its General Discussion Day on violence against children within the family
                         and within schools, September, 2001 – the UN Committee on the Rights of the
                         Child stated in its concluding remarks:
                         “… an alternate vision of the school and the family that represents the rights and dignity of
                         all, including children, parents and teachers, should guide all actions on the issue of
                         violence against children. The main strategy should be to galvanise actions around this
                         vision rather than using punitive measures. In this vision relations between and among
                         children and parents or teachers (as well as other family members or students) are
                         mutually respectful and the safety and security of all is promoted (Rec 702)
                         These concluding remarks inspire the ABN’s core belief that children and young
                         people have the right to live, play and learn in environments with a non-bullying


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                                         Teaching in Formal Education In Western Australia –. Jeannie Stevenson
                         ethos. Their work is widely advertised in schools, advice and resources are freely
                         available to adults working in and with schools and they are invited to share
                         information. They have contributed important work on anti-racism and
                         homophobia. They maintain an extensive database:
                         1. The Schools Ethos Database, a joint initiative of the Scottish Schools Ethos
                             network and the Anti-bullying network which are funded by the Scottish
                             executive. It aims to provide information about organisations, resources and
                             strategies that will assist teachers, academics, parents and educational
                             professionals in promoting a positive school ethos.
                         2. Extensive database providing questions and answers to many bullying
                             questions, including links to websites, research articles and videos
                         3. Online database enabling the search for anti-bullying strategies being
                             employed in schools throughout Scotland. Currently there is feedback from
                                                            over 480 schools and search is possible via local
                                                            authority, school or strategy.
                                                 .

                                                        Picture: Anti-Bullying Network at Edinburgh University

                                                  b. “Nil by Mouth” (Glasgow)
                                               This anti-sectarian charity, aims to challenge religious
                                               bigotry. “Respect religious belief” and “celebrate cultural
                                               diversity” are its twin maxims. It pressures the Scottish
                                               Executive to promote anti-sectarianism throughout the
                                               education system. It is a well respected charity which has
                                               even influenced football clubs (Rangers and Celtic) to
                                               announce measurable targets to reduce sectarian
                                               behaviour amongst supporters, employers to recruit and
                         employ free of sectarianism and bigotry, voluntary organisations, businesses and
                         public bodies to include a commitment to non-sectarianism in their constitutions,
                         mission statements and application form. It is a watchdog of how the Scottish
                         Parliament monitors police, Crown Office and Courts Application of Criminal
                         Justice (Scotland) Act (2003) Section 74 and encourages inter-faith respect.

                    c. The Centre for Political Song
                       Based within Glasgow Caledonian University, this highly acclaimed Centre
                       houses an extensive international collection (virtual and real) fostering
                       appreciation of the role of political song in social, political and cultural life. There
                       is a physical collection of 45s, tapes, CDs, lyric sheets, books and journals. A
                       website provides access to online searchable databases, news and research.

                    d. Theatrical Groups which use Boal’s Techniques
                       I was especially interested in Theatre of the Oppressed, Legislative Theatre and
                       Rainbow Theatre which involve audiences. Unfortunately I was not able to attend
                       any performances but did speak with practitioners about this powerful medium. I
                       interviewed “Visible Fiction” and the “7/84” Theatre Companies.


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                                         Teaching in Formal Education In Western Australia –. Jeannie Stevenson
                    e. Young People Speak Out
                       This organisation canvasses youth involvement in appropriate ways using the
                       media of film and television arts encouraging youth to explore, develop and share
                       thoughts, ideas and feelings on any subject of concern to them.

                    f. Show Racism the Red Card (SRTRC)
                       This is an anti-racist charity which aims to raise awareness among young people
                       about the dangers of, and issues surrounding racism in society. It campaigns to
                       stop racism, by making use of the powerful position of professional footballers as
                       role models to deliver the anti-racist message. It believes schools have a frontline
                       role to play in the fight against racism as young people are over-represented in
                       official statistics as both perpetrators and victims of racial harassment. All
                       schools need to address racism irrespective of their racial, ethnic or religious
                       intake. This charity believes that education is the key in the long term to breaking
                       down the cycle of stereotyping and prejudice that leads to racist attitudes and
                       behaviours in successive generations. It is currently devising new resources to
                       challenge new racist developments eg portrayal of asylum seekers in a negative
                       light, “gypsies”, Islamophobia”. This is a highly proactive group which gets
                       excellent media coverage as Scotland’s footballers back the campaign attending
                       events and doing interviews for the anti-racism cause. A concerted effort has
                       been successful in driving racism out of the stadiums and decreasing the number
                       of complaints received about racist incidents in the professional game. They offer
                       grants for community-based projects that can demonstrate the active involvement
                       of local black and minority ethnic population and indicate educational value
                       involving young people and inter-agency work. They are close to attaining their
                       goal of reaching every young person in Scotland with their educational resources.
                       They hold anti-racism presentations, get involved in local events (posters,
                       speakers and resources), contribute to equalities days at schools, youth
                       initiatives and grassroots sporting organisations and work in partnership with 16
                       of the 32 local councils in Scotland getting resources into schools. They have
                       formed a partnership with the Scottish Refugee Council in Glasgow where they
                       couple anti-racist education with football coaching by ex-professionals for young
                       people in targeted areas of high racial tension. They disseminate great slogans
                       like: “Let’s Kick Racism out of Scotland”, “Black or White we all have football
                       under our skin” and encourage local leagues to develop their own anti-racism
                       strategies including declarations and charters. School projects which challenge
                       racism, celebrate diversity and overcome exclusion while increasing community
                       participation, have included publishing a positive asylum-seeker story in their
                       local media, setting up local library displays, organising an anti-racist conference
                       at school, setting up an Anti-racist exhibition, running Arts-based events for
                       unemployed ethnic minorities and asylum seekers, highlighting Black and Asian
                       Role Models, showing the local impact of racial abuse, producing a local anti-
                       racist video, holding a multicultural music and food festival and a Muslim food
                       festival, visiting places of worship in a Religious Diversity Programme, painting
                       an anti-racist mural, producing and sending local anti-racist postcards and



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                                         Teaching in Formal Education In Western Australia –. Jeannie Stevenson
                         approaching local racial equalities officers at councils with their ideas and
                         existing projects to overcome racism.

                         I obtained some excellent resources from SRTRC:
                         (i)    Scotland “Show Racism the Red Card” Education Pack
                         (ii)   “A Safe Place” Education Pack a video to combat racist myths against
                                asylum seekers – the video features young asylum seekers talking about
                                their experiences of seeking asylum in UK juxtaposed with comments from
                                local football players
                         (iii)  “Red Card” – the Magazine of Show Racism the Red Card. In 2005,
                                70,000 were printed and distributed and a reprint organised.
                         (iv)   Annual Review which itemises the type of work being done the previous
                                year.
                         (v)    Wrist bands eg “Show Racism the Red Card” and “Racismban’d”

                    g. The Scottish International Storytelling Festival
                       The Scottish International Storytelling Festival opened with an “artistic
                       collaboration for peace on the frontiers of war”. I gained techniques in storytelling
                       and heard from people who had facilitated storytelling projects around focussed
                       goals such as transitions, festivals and celebrations, creative and critical thinking,
                       imagination and personal and social development. These all involved the growth
                       of affect, the delight of discovery and re-enchantment through the magic of the
                       imagination. I explored the steps for implementing a storytelling project, picking
                       up tips, key troubleshooting strategies and resources while observing the
                       outcomes of youth activities and participating in storytelling events.

                         Stone Storytelling Circle
                         Sandeman House, Edinburgh
                                                   I experienced extraordinary examples of digital
                                                   storytelling, a powerful means of narrative
                                                   generation, which focuses on the creative aspects
                                                   relating to, and the importance of, affect in
                                                   learning. Lisa Gjedde of Denmark presented a
                                                   pioneering multi-media narrative learning
                                                   programme for learners with severe personal
                                                   challenges thereby, powerfully challenging
                                                   conventional definitions of disability and
                                                   education.

                         I worked extensively with Shai Schwartz, Visiting Child and Adolescent
                         Psychotherapist at the Medical Foundation for the Care of Victims of Torture.
                         This is a Human Rights organisation with a holistic approach towards helping
                         survivors of torture and political violence, most of whom are asylum seekers and
                         refugees. Schwartz uses story, drama therapy and psychodrama techniques with
                         young survivors of political violence, all of whom suffer from the impact of
                         violence, scapegoating, separation and loss. He notes two specific therapeutic


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                                         Teaching in Formal Education In Western Australia –. Jeannie Stevenson
                         benefits. Firstly, that reconnection with the positive, formative aspects of
                         personal, family and community history, mythology and culture are consolidating
                         for survivors and a means of developing their identity and sense of creativity and
                         freedom after those traumatising experiences. Secondly, that story therapy helps
                         adolescents understand and more readily deal with those conflicting dualities
                         (which I have so often noted in my own students): vulnerability and resilience;
                         inhibition and creativity; being entitled to life and being expendable. Schwartz
                         generously shared the main influences behind his group work. His practice
                         facilitates interconnection through a process of personal language first, then the
                         development of dialogue and finally a sharing of central themes with the group.

                         Tragically, too many of my students have also experienced unbearable, extreme
                         and confusing emotions during overwhelming events which have fragmented
                         their world. Working with Schwartz I gained insights into phenomena I had
                         observed in young survivors of political violence: the blurring of past/present and
                         internal/external experience which has a huge implication for concrete versus
                         abstract thought upon which dichotomy so much of our education system is
                         predicated particularly at secondary level. I realised too how integration may
                         adversely affect the critical reconnection process. Ironically, the very survival
                         tactic of identifying with (even idealisation of) their new culture (the culture of
                         exile) often comes at the cost of denigrating their old culture. I had noticed this
                         phenomenon previously and attributed rejection of the home country, solely to
                         the pain of recollection.

                         Storytelling is a relational phenomenon which bonds teller and listener and can
                         help this reconnection process. Close attention to the stories that people choose
                         to tell can tell us so much about their inner world as aspects of their internal world
                         are displaced onto the characters and events and terrain in the story. Recently I
                         witnessed aspects of this process first hand in a Year 11 English class where
                         students were asked to “give a life” to people of diverse ethnic backgrounds
                         whose photographs I’d cut from magazines. One student who had arrived as a
                         victim of political persecution from “the middle east” labelled his photograph
                         “Terrorist” and gave his character appalling anti-social attributes and actions.
                         When presenting his character to the group, however, he added “but that is only
                         how the world sees him.” He then remembered “the terrorist’s” (and presumably,
                         his own) peaceful culture and ambition to become a doctor and save lives. This
                         photograph had been an opportunity for the student to address painful and
                         absent themes – he had displaced onto that character his own frustration at
                         being labelled “terrorist” because of his origin and his sense of loss (of culture, of
                         aspiration, of image, of peace). Teachers can present the safe, healing
                         relationship where these memories, grief and connections take place, thereby
                         helping students who feel they have lost their sense of identity at personal, family
                         and cultural levels. Restoring connections to strong development foundations
                         increases the personal capacity of students to value themselves and to relate to
                         others. This is a precondition for the necessary development of voice in a
                         democracy.


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                                         Teaching in Formal Education In Western Australia –. Jeannie Stevenson
                         The importance of storytelling in capturing the essence of human rights concerns
                         cannot be overestimated. It is also a means to ensure that the welfare of
                         minorities, including those that are easily identifiable (for example, some ethnic
                         minorities) and those not so (for example, victims of bullying) are not subjected to
                         the democratic will of the majority.

               15        Community Education Campaigns



                                                                             The powerful message during the
                                                                             community education campaigns
                                                                             was “solidarity”. We need to
                                                                             appreciate the struggles of one
                                                                             another. We need to get out of the
                                                                             fortress and be outward looking.

                                                                             This view from Edinburgh Castle,
                                                                             overlooking Princess Street
                                                                             Gardens.




                         I attended several community education campaigns, outstanding among which
                         were:

                         a. Actions and Ideas (Local Actions and Global Connections)
                         This used transformational education principles over six workshops to explore
                         human rights and anti racism principles:
                         (i)    Stereotypes: This was about changing people’s perceptions. It introduced
                                resource materials that can help change people’s attitudes and help break
                                down the barriers to inclusion. Activities in this session used a community
                                learning and development approach to help communities and learners
                                question their pre-conceptions and combat racism and discrimination. A
                                practical participatory session enabled participants to build their skills and
                                use the materials in their work. The wide participation was evidenced by
                                the participation of the police force.
                         (ii)   Literacy, participation and empowerment. This explored materials which
                                provided opportunities for improving literacy skills through stories of
                                people from across the world. It used poems, stories and newspaper
                                articles to invite learners to challenge injustice and to think about how they
                                can contribute to a more equal world.
                         (iii)  Conflict Resolution. This session was about learning to deal with conflict
                                and violence in a violent world. Using the resource “Creative Force” it
                                explored ways of using arts-based conflict resolution exercises in work
                                with young people and adult community groups.



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                                         Teaching in Formal Education In Western Australia –. Jeannie Stevenson
                         (iv)      “Just Bananas” was about making connections between consumers,
                                   traders and middlemen through the long supply chain of the banana
                                   business, by looking at the price, quality and health of Scotland’s favourite
                                   fruit.
                         (v)       “Credit where it’s due”. This examined a toolkit designed by Friends of the
                                   Earth to explore the international links of local, environmental and poverty
                                   issues. One aim was to build solidarity with communities across the globe
                                   and understand how individual lifestyle changes can be effective. In this
                                   interactive workshop people could set their work in context and explore
                                   these issues through discussion as well as to reflect on how the toolkit
                                   could be used with other different groups.
                         (vi)      Sleeping with Mosquitoes was a group activity using practical examples of
                                   community action from Scotland and overseas. It explored possibilities for
                                   action at local and global levels and encouraged participants to reflect on
                                   how they could take steps to make a better world.

                         b. Show Racism the Red Card (SRTRC)- Fortnight of Action
                         This included “red card” actions at games, players wearing SRTRC t-shirts during
                         warm-ups and at training sessions, anti-racist announcements, articles in match
                         programmes and on club websites, unveiling of anti-racist stadium hoardings,
                         involvement with local black and minority ethnic (BME) projects and fans anti-
                         racist initiatives. Anti-racist banners and flags were produced to use on match
                         days. Many events were organised at local clubs for school children. Clubs
                         worked with local black and ethnic minority community groups to increase BME
                         fan representation at games. Fans distributed leaflets translated into different
                         languages, and accompanied local asylum seekers to home games and clubs,
                         organised inclusion forums and set up multicultural leagues. Competitions were
                         organised in schools to support the anti-racism message.

                         “Taster Days”
                         I attended many of these including those on Fair Trade (“Fair Trade Day”, “Trade
                         for Life Workshops”, “Buying a Fairer World”, “Race to the Bottom”, “Paying our
                         Debts” and “Peeling Bananas”); Difference (“It’s a different world”, “Comenius”
                         (Exchange Programme)): Advocacy (“Speaking Out”, “The Future in Our Hands”)
                         and Global Connections (“Going Global” and “Right Connection”). “Your Place or
                         Mine? was about commitment to sustainable development. It raised concerns
                         about the effects of our lifestyles on people and the environment. It used land
                         issues in Scotland and in Southern Africa to look at rights and responsibilities,
                         sustainability and development, and empowerment and decision-making.


               Findings and their relevance to the classroom
               Human Rights Education and Anti-Racist Teaching can
                 position schools as local learning communities with global connections
                 heighten reflective practice
                 increase engagement


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                                         Teaching in Formal Education In Western Australia –. Jeannie Stevenson
                    enhance classroom co-operative strategies
                    develop resiliency and the students’ sense of personal worth
                    raise attendance and retention rates especially for school refusers
                    increase academic achievement as students develop critical thinking and cognitive
                     academic language proficiency using human rights in education and anti-racist
                     education methodologies.
                    diminish alienation (all belong, all matter, all are worthy) through valuing of all
                     students, their experiences and cultures
                    give voice to the voiceless
                    promotes life-long learning
                    facilitates workforce effectiveness
                    enhance the status of the teaching profession through bold, relevant and exemplary
                     practice.




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                                         Teaching in Formal Education In Western Australia –. Jeannie Stevenson
               Implementation of the findings in the classroom
               I have been mapping literacy and numeracy topics to human rights and anti-racism and
               developing excellent resources/activities that I maintain in a resource file. I am
               developing sample materials for adult literacy and numeracy learners, focussing on
               functional literacy and numeracy using human rights exemplars and language needed in
               everyday situations, thereby building citizenship capacity.

               I have developed strategies which I have implemented in my classroom.
               To address marginalisation and the lack of opportunity to participate, I have developed
               the means to hear the “unheard” voices through power-sharing techniques such as
               fishbowl, open-space, search conferences, consensus conferences and citizens juries. I
               am supporting the transition of post-compulsory culturally and linguistically diverse
               students into a democratic Australian community by encouraging the development of
               voice in conversation with their peers (and ultimately in critical discussions and debates
               with their community and nation). We are sharing stories, including Australian stories of
               adaptation, egalitarianism and democracy, and this has increased recognition and
               valuing of cultural traditions and histories.

               I have raised awareness and advocacy for culturally and linguistically diverse and
               indigenous Australian students in the context of citizenship education.
               I have been ensuring a higher level of outcomes for students by applying knowledge
               gained to foreground social equity through emphasis on civic values, equity, fairness
               responsible decision-making and participation.
               .
               I have been encouraging participation in the democratic process by the uptake of rights,
               entitlements and responsibilities.

               I involve students in the preparation, implementation, follow up and evaluation of
               programmes. I have consulted with students to develop individual education plans
               (IEPs) incorporating long-term aims, immediate aims, helpful strategies, difficulties
               anticipated and how to overcome them, study plans and planning reviews) around
               human rights and citizenship needs.
               I am developing other practical measures of civic engagement by students initially at the
               campus level (for example, “Diversity Books”, a second-hand bookshop, a peer
               befriending scheme for new arrivals, organising a display for Harmony Day, running a
               community awareness human rights programme for our Health Festival).

               I have examined new approaches to literacy and numeracy teaching for limited
               schooling, traumatised, ex-detention centre and refugee camp youth using methods of
               displacement gained from intensive workshopping with Schai Swartz.

               Disseminating findings to peers
               I have begun disseminating the findings to peers through:
                  A staff briefing at Cyril Jackson Senior Campus 30 November, 2005 making
                   material available to several interested staff members as a result;
                  Contributing programmes/resources for the new English Course of Study (Unit 1A);

Westfield Premier’s Education Scholarship Report 2005 – Best Practice in Scotland to assist Human Rights Capacity Building and Anti-Racist   26
                                         Teaching in Formal Education In Western Australia –. Jeannie Stevenson
                    Writing an abstract for the Australian Teacher Education Association Conference
                     2006 (with a view to presenting a paper there); and
                    I am currently mentoring, team-teaching and collaborating with other educators
                     desirous of following human rights in education and anti-racist teaching initiatives. I
                     am encouraging the development of a global perspective in both staff and students

               Projected Results
                    I intend taking up offers to write articles and present professional development
                     sessions to several organisations which have approached me.

                    I have begun identifying, with a view to engaging, specialist organisations and using
                     this specialist network as an external reviewer of materials developed. I am
                     exploring the means of seeking expertise from outside providers. I envisage that the
                     website (under construction) will broaden this search and facilitate new networks
                     and synergies with partners in educational fields, special interest groups (local,
                     national and international) as well as increase interagency collaboration and co-
                     operation.

                    I intend offering professional development sessions for teachers on anti-racist and
                     human rights focussed teaching methods.

                    I wish to be involved in the development and implementation of a best practice anti-
                     racism strategy thereby improving outcomes particularly for culturally and
                     linguistically diverse and Indigenous Australian students.

               Development of a web site
               Establishing and maintaining a Human Rights and anti-racist teaching web site will:
                  enable discussion of issues arising during the project;
                  create the means for the exchange of materials and information at campus, district,
                   state, national and international levels;
                  increase the range of technology-based meaningful learning opportunities;
                  incorporate links to the many electronic resources identified during the research;
                  showcase teaching techniques and learning opportunities that demonstrate the
                   most recent international practices and research findings;
                  review innovative practices; and
                  promote debate and discussion on the application of human rights in education.

               Establish a formal network of human rights educators
                  for sharing ideas, resources, inspiration and courage.
                  for engaging peers, administration, agencies and communities in dialogue with a
                   view to forging connections and partnerships that enable the generation of ideas,
                   information and resources

               I envisage an increased awareness of the central role of human rights in citizenship
               capacity building, including valuing diversity and protecting those most vulnerable to
               exclusion. This includes effectively mobilising our existing education and training


Westfield Premier’s Education Scholarship Report 2005 – Best Practice in Scotland to assist Human Rights Capacity Building and Anti-Racist   27
                                         Teaching in Formal Education In Western Australia –. Jeannie Stevenson
               infrastructure to deliver sustainable anti-racist teaching in a non-offensive way. By
               reflecting on contemporary international best practice and inspiring others to do
               likewise, I wish to energise human rights education and anti-racist teaching in Western
               Australia. I have gathered teaching materials including curriculum information, teaching
               aids and web addresses which will be of benefit to others. These files are too large to be
               downloaded here. In due course they will be available on the website currently under
               construction. If you wish to be part of this vision and join a formal network of human
               rights educators or you are seeking any information or contacts about any organisations
               or issues raised in this paper please contact me at giniscot@bigpond.net.au.


                                                                                       Open gate
                                                                                       Open road
                                                                                       Inspirational outlook
                                                                                       Let us journey
                                                                                       Fionnphort, Isle of Mull




Westfield Premier’s Education Scholarship Report 2005 – Best Practice in Scotland to assist Human Rights Capacity Building and Anti-Racist   28
                                         Teaching in Formal Education In Western Australia –. Jeannie Stevenson
               Acknowledgements:
                    Westfield Holdings Ltd and Ginger Max (Australasia) Pty Ltd for their sponsorship of
                     the Education Scholarship.

                    Ms. Emma Bright (Western Australian College of Teaching) and Mr. Ken Jones
                     (Department of the Premier and Cabinet) for administering the scholarship and their
                     helpful advice.

                    Ms. Lorraine Hams (Principal) and the Staff of Cyril Jackson Senior Campus for
                     their encouragement.

                    Magnificent students past and present for the reflections on human rights and anti
                     racism filling the pages of my journal.

                    On the website (under construction) formal acknowledgement will be made of all
                     people and organisations who informed this research.




Westfield Premier’s Education Scholarship Report 2005 – Best Practice in Scotland to assist Human Rights Capacity Building and Anti-Racist   29
                                         Teaching in Formal Education In Western Australia –. Jeannie Stevenson

				
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