Name _______________________________                       Date ________________
               Chapter 1: Many Cultures Meet (Prehistory-1550)
         Chapter 2: Europeans Establish Colonies (1492-1752) section 1&2
                    Important Vocabulary Terms and Topics
Directions: Circle terms or topics you remember and write a statement to show your

Aztecs           Incas              Mayas             Mesoamerica        Beringia Land
Renaissance      Reformation        Printing Press    Prince Henry       Columbian
                                                      the Navigator      Exchange
Ferdinand        Christopher        Hernan Cortes     Conquistador       Mestizo
Magellan         Columbus
Missionaries     Northwest          Samuel de         Quebec             French-fur
                 Passage            Champlain                            traders

               CHAPTER 1: Many Cultures Meet (Prehistory-1550)

Ch. 1, Section 1
   1. What was the frozen strip of land between Asia and Alaska during the last Ice
       Age called?
   Beringia Land Bridge; It allowed for many of the settlers to travel across to America
   on foot.

   2. What did the earliest Americans lived by hunting?
   Big game, of such animals as woolly mammoths, mastodons, caribou, bison,

   3. What was the first food of ancient Americans?
   Maize (corn)

   4. Who started a civilization on the Yucatan Peninsula? Define.
   Maya—Mesoamerican civilization, noted for the only known fully developed written
   language of the pre-Columbian Americas, as well as for its art, architecture, and
   mathematical and astronomical systems.

   5. Who lived in Mexico during the 1200’s? Define.
   Aztec—Mesoamerican civilization, lived in the Valley of Mexico, known as powerful
   warriors that built a beautiful and prosperous city Tenochtitlan which was conquered
   by Hernan Cortes and Spanish Conquistadors

Ch. 1, Section 2
   1. Define Renaissance.
   A period in European history lasting from the fourteenth to the sixteenth century,
   which ushered in more secular age and encouraged freedom of thought, the
   importance of the individual, and renewed interest in classical learning.

   2. Who was Prince Henry the Navigator?
   Prince Henry the Navigator (Portugal) set up School of Navigation—students learned
   how to use new ships and instruments that would develop trade with Africa and Asia.
   He directed Portuguese efforts to sail into the Atlantic, spread Christianity, and
   outflank Muslim domination of trade.

Ch. 1, Section 3
   1. How was West African’s location import to its role as a trade center?
   West Africa was located at important trading routes that linked Europe with Asia and
   the Mediterranean regions.

   2. How did slavery in West Africa differ from the slavery that later developed in the
   Enslaved people in West Africa were usually adopted by the families into which they
   were sold. They could marry and their children did not inherit the status of slaves.
   Furthermore, slavery was not based on the idea of racial superiority or inferiority.

   3. How did the Portuguese benefit from the slave trade?
   The Portuguese benefited from the slave trade by selling enslaved people for money
   and using them to work on sugar plantations.

Ch. 1, Section 4
   1. What was Christopher Columbus’ purpose in sailing west across the Atlantic?
   Columbus sailed west to find a route to China. Gold (valuable jewels and wealth
   from the lands); Glory (a desire to state claim and fame to new lands of America);
   and God (the spreading of the religious faith…Christianity).

   2. Who sponsored Christopher Columbus’ trips to the New World?
   Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand due to competing with Portugal for trade routes
   and wealth.

   3. What elements helped the Spanish overcome the Aztec and Inca empires they
   The Spanish had the advantage of mounted soldiers, superior weapons, frightening
   technology, and the introduction of diseases deadly to the native peoples.

   4. Who was Hernan Cortes? What role did he play in Spanish Mexico?
   Cortes was a Spanish conquistadors who led Spanish forces and overwhelmed the
   Aztec empire, capturing their major city Tenochtitlan and killing their Aztec king
   5. What diseases did Europeans bring to Native Americans? What role did disease
       play in the defeat of native populations of the Americas?
   Diseases (small pox, influenza, typhus, measles, malaria, etc. Diseases such as small
   pox and diphtheria sickened and killed many Native Americans, greatly reducing
   their ability to withstand European challenges to their lands and cultures.

   6. Explain the Columbian Exchange. What items did the Americans share with the
       Europeans? What items did the Europeans bring to the Americas?
   The transfer of plants, animals, and disease (microbes) from Europe to the Americas
   It began with Columbus’ first voyage and continues today. The transfer of plants,
   animals, and diseases between the Western hemisphere (New World) to the Eastern
   hemisphere (Old World).
   Americans to Europeans: Pumpkin, squash, sweet potatoes, corn, avocado, peanuts,
   potato, tomato, tobacco, pineapple, cacao bean, beans, vanilla, peppers. Turkey
   Europeans to Americas: Coffee beans, onion, olives, Citrus fruits (oranges, etc),
   bananas, grapes, peach, pear, turnips, Sugar cane, Grains (wheat, rice, barley, oats);
   Livestock (cattle, sheep, pig, horse).

        Chapter 2: Europeans Establish Colonies (1492-1752) section 1&2

Ch. 2, Section 1
   1. What factors enabled the Spaniards to conquer the Native Americans?
      • Superior weaponry—guns/horses provided the Spanish with an important
         military advantage over the Native Americans.
      • Alliances forged with certain Native American groups against other Native
         Americans helped the Spanish win battles.
      • European diseases wiped out a large number of Native Americans,
         weakening them militarily.
      • The Spanish belief in the superiority of their culture and religion allowed
         them to impose their own way of life on Native American people.

   2. Name the large population which resulted from the intermarriage of Spanish and
      Native American.
      Mestizo—mix between Spanish and Native Americans.

Ch. 2, Section 2
   1. Explain the Northwest Passage.
      It was a water route to Asia through the cold waters of present day Canada. They
      probed the eastern coastline of North America from present-day North Carolina to

   2. How did France’s American colonies differ from Spain’s American colonies?
      Unlike the Spanish colonies, the settlement of New France reflected the beneficial
      relationship that developed between Native Americans and the French, who
      required the Native Americans cooperation to carry on the fur trade.
3. Where was the French colony? Who founded the territory?
   Quebec, it was the first permanent European (French) settlement in Canada. The
   French built a fortified trading post in Quebec along the St. Lawrence River in
   1608. It was founded by Samuel de Champlain, who traded furs/animal skins
   with the Native Americans.

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