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					                    Solar Energy
                                     1




Bruce Logue and Robert Chou
The University of Texas at Austin
Department of Chemical Engineering
Fall 2006
                  Overview
• How Solar Energy Works
• Types of Photovoltaic Systems
   – Flat-plate and Concentrator
• Current Applications
• Solar Economics
   – Price Trends
   – Costs
   – The Energy Payback Time
• Advances in Technology
   – Thin-film
   – PV roofing panels
   – Nanomaterials
 How does solar energy work?
                           2


• The Photoelectric
  effect


                               3


• The PV cell layered
  with positive and
  negative charged
  semiconductor
  material
        Photovoltaic Systems
                                                      4


• System is constructed of
  Arrays
• There are two types of
  systems                                         5

  – Flat Plate Systems
     • System can be in a fixed position or
       moving
     • Makes use of Direct and Diffuse sun
       light
  – Concentrator Systems                      6

     • Moves relative to the sun
     • Requires less PV cell material
         Current Applications
7                                    9
                       8




    10            11            12
          Solar Energy Economics
• The cost of PV cells has been on decline since 70’s.
• Decline due to advancements in efficiency and
  manufacturing techniques
• Residential equipment costs can range from 10K to
  100K




                                                    14


     13
   Energy Payback Time (EPBT)

• EPBT is length of time PV system takes to
  generate amount of energy put into
  system.
• Three factors determine the EPBT:
  – Amount of illumination received by PV cells
  – Conversion efficiency of PV cell
  – Manufacturing technology used to make PV
    cell
        Manufacturing Methods
• There are three methods to produce PV cells
   – Process cells on wafers sawed from silicon ingots
       • Ingots are either single or multicrystalline
   – Process cells on silicon wafers cut from multicrystalline ribbons
   – Deposition of non-crystalline silicon on inexpensive substrates

              Single-           Non-ribbon         Ribbon             Cheap
              crystal           multicrystalline   Multicrystalline   Substrate
              silicon           silicon            silicon            (Cadmium
                                                                      Telluride)

EPBT          2.7               2.2                1.7                1.0
(Years)
       15
       Technological Advances
• Thin-Film Technology                16

   – PV cells are continually
     processed on a sheet
     consisting of much less
     material than the typical
     PV cells.
• Copper Solar Cells
                                 17
   – Thin-Film PV cells are
     made with Cu to
     increase efficiencies
     greater than 12%
     compared to silicon
     Technological Advances
• Solar Roof Panels
  – Shingles are combined with          18


    PV cells creating insulation
    that generates electricity
• Nanomaterials
  – Solar cells incorporating      19



    nanomaterials are stronger,
    more flexible, and more
    efficient.
                                   References
•   Fast Solar Energy Facts. 14 Nov. 2006 <http://www.solarbuzz.com/
       FastFactsIndustry.htm>.
•   Harlin, Kevin. "Building new power panels." The Times Union. LexisNexis
       Academic. LexisNexis. 20 Nov. 2006 <http://web.lexis-nexis.com/
       universe>.
•   Konarka, Textronic to Develop Solar Thin-fil PV Fabric. (2005, September 29). Renewable Energy Access.
    Retrieved November 19, 2006, from http://www.renewableenergyaccess.com/rea/news/productstory?id=37
•   "Nanomaterials and Cost-effective Manufacturing Technologies Hold Key to
       Development of Photovoltaic Technologies." PR Newswire US. LexisNexis
       Academic. LexisNexis. 20 Nov. 2006 <http://web.lexis-nexis.com/
       universe>.
•   PV Markets. 20 Nov. 2006 <http://www.ece.umr.edu/power/Energy_Course/energy/
       Renewables/pv/French_site/pvmark.html>.
•   Recent Advancements in Solar Panel Technology by Shell Solar. 20 Nov. 2006
       <http://www.solarexpert.com/PVadvancements.html>.
•   Residential Solar Power Costs & Savings. 15 Nov. 2006
       <http://www.borregosolar.com/home/solar-power-costs-savings.php>.
•   Solar Energy Technologies Program. (2006,April 13). Retrieved November 10, 2006, from U.S. Department of
    Energy Web site:       http://www1.eere.energy.gov/solar/photovoltaics.html
                                         Images
•   Images Courtesy of
        1 – www.google.com
        2 – www.faqs.com
        3 - http://www1.eere.energy.gov/solar/
        4 - http://www1.eere.energy.gov/solar/
        5 - http://www1.eere.energy.gov/solar/
        6 - http://www1.eere.energy.gov/solar/
        7 - http://www.solarserver.de/solarmagazin/anlage-e.html
        8 – www.windturbine-1.com
        9 – www.treehugger.com
        10 - http://www.jaxa.jp/missions/projects/sat/astronomy/solar_b/index_e.html
        11 – www.palacefarm.com
        12 - http://howto.altenergystore.com
        13 - http://www.che.utexas.edu/course/che379&384/Topic8_3.pp
        14 - http://www.ece.umr.edu/power/ Energy_Course/energy/Renewables/pv/French_site/overview.html
        15 - http://www1.eere.energy.gov/solar/
        16 - http://www.renewableenergyaccess.com/rea/news/productstory?id=37
        17- http://www.solarexpert.com/PVadvancements.htm
        18- http://www.solar-components.com/pvshingl.htm
        19- http://newsroom.spie.org/x4436.xml

				
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