Basic Genetics Studyguide

Document Sample
Basic Genetics Studyguide Powered By Docstoc
					                                        Name: _____________________________________________

 UNIT 3 - STUDY GUIDE – Genetics Basics                          Date: _______________
VOCABULARY

1. Define the following:
    Mitosis                                        Recessive
      _______________________________                _______________________________
      _______________________________                _______________________________
      _______________________________                _______________________________
    Cancer                                         Homozygous
      _______________________________                _______________________________
      _______________________________                _______________________________
      _______________________________                _______________________________
    Apoptosis                                      Heterozygous
      _______________________________                _______________________________
      _______________________________                _______________________________
      _______________________________                _______________________________
    Meiosis                                        Sex Chromosome
      _______________________________                _______________________________
      _______________________________                _______________________________
      _______________________________                _______________________________
    Nondisjunction                                 Codominance
      _______________________________                _______________________________
      _______________________________                _______________________________
      _______________________________                _______________________________
    Dominant                                       Incomplete dominance
      _______________________________                _______________________________
      _______________________________                _______________________________
      _______________________________                _______________________________
    Allele                                         Multiple Alleles
      _______________________________                _______________________________
      _______________________________                _______________________________
      _______________________________                _______________________________
    Trait                                          Sex-Linked Trait
      _______________________________                _______________________________
      _______________________________                _______________________________
      _______________________________                _______________________________
    Phenotype                                      Monohybrid
      _______________________________                _______________________________
      _______________________________                _______________________________
      _______________________________                _______________________________
    Genotype                                       Dihybrid
      _______________________________                _______________________________
      _______________________________                _______________________________
      _______________________________                _______________________________
CELL DIVSION

  1. As a cell grows, its __ __ __ __ __ __ increases more than its
     __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __.
  2. What occurs during each of the following phases of the cell cycle:
        a. G1 –

        b. S –

        c. G2 –

  3. Describe the events of each stage of mitosis.
        a. Prophase –

        b. Metaphase –

        c. Anaphase –

        d. Telophase –

        e. Cytokinesis –

  4. The longest phase of mitosis is __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __.

  5. The shortest phase of mitosis is __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __.

  6. __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ are substances that cause cancer.

  7. Explain the relationship between cancer cells and the cell cycle.



  8. Explain how crossing over in meiosis results in genetic variation.



  9. Compare and contrast mitosis and meiosis in the space below:
INHERITANCE

Be able to complete and interpret a punnett square for the following types of traits
             o   Simple Mendelian Inheritance
             o   Incomplete Dominance
             o   Codominance
             o   Multiple Alleles
       o         Sex-linked traits
SAMPLE PROBLEMS:
  1. .
             KEY:                                    Use the information in the key below to write the
                                                       PHENOTYPE for each GENOTYPE given
R = Round               F = Freckles present      Rr =                        GG =
r = flat               f = no freckles present    rr =                         Gg =
G = Green                                            Use the information in the key below to write the
g = yellow                                         possible GENOTYPES for each PHENOTYPE given
                                                  Freckles =           Homozygous Round =
                                                  Yellow =               Heterozygous for Freckles =
   2. SIMPLE MENDELIAN INHERITANCE EXAMPLE PROBLEM
         In humans, free earlobes are dominant over attached earlobes.

a. Create a key        b. Show a cross between a male who is     c. What are the phenotypes and genotypes
 for your cross     heterozygous for free earlobes with a female of the offspring?
  in the space       who has attached ear lobes. In the punnett
provided below                     square below:

    KEY:                                                        d. In what percentage would EACH
                                                                genotype and phenotype occur?




   3. INCOMPLETE DOMINANCE EXAMPLE PROBLEM
         In a type of snapdragon flower, red and yellow petal colors are incompletely dominant to one
         another. They will blend in the HETEROZYGOUS organism to produce orange. Use R to represent
         the petal color alleles.

a. Create a key      b. Show a cross between a red snapdragon   c. What are the phenotypes and genotypes
 for your cross       and an orange snapdragon in the punnett   of the offspring?
  in the space                     square below:
provided below

    KEY:                                                        d. In what percentage would EACH
                                                                genotype and phenotype occur?
   4. CODOMINANCE EXAMPLE PROBLEM
        In a breed of rabbits, brown and white coat colors are codominant. BOTH brown and white fur will
        appear as spots in the HETEROZYGOUS organism, producing a rabbit with brown and white spots.

a. Create a key    b. Show a cross between a brown rabbit and            c. What are the phenotypes and genotypes
 for your cross    a rabbit that is spotted (brown and white) in         of the offspring?
  in the space               the punnett square below:
provided below

    KEY:                                                                 d. In what percentage would EACH
                                                                         genotype and phenotype occur?




   5. MULTIPLE ALLELE EXAMPLE PROBLEM
        a. What are the two genotypes possible for a person who as type A blood? ______________ OR _____________
        b. What genotype does a person with type AB blood have? _______________
        c. What genotype does a person with type O blood have? _____________
        d. What are the two genotypes possible for a person who as type B blood? ______________ OR _____________

           e. A man with type AB blood is married to a woman with heterozygous type B blood.
                                                     What blood types will their children have AND in
                                                     what percentages?




   6. SEX-LINKED TRAIT EXAMPLE PROBLEM
        For this scenario, let’s assume that eye color is a SEX-LINKED trait and that blue eyes are recessive
        to green eyes (Use a the letter “G” to represent eye color and be sure you account for the father being
        MALE and the mother being FEMALE)

a. Create a key    b. Show a cross between a green eyed father           c. What are the phenotypes and genotypes
 for your cross        and a blue eyed mother in the punnett             of the offspring?
  in the space                     square below:
provided below

    KEY:                                                                 d. In what percentage would EACH
                                                                         genotype and phenotype occur?

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:16
posted:11/9/2012
language:Unknown
pages:4