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```									    HAWK: An unmanned mini
Helicopter-based Aerial Wireless Kit
for localization

Zhongli Liu, UMass Lowell
Yinjie Chen, UMass Lowell
Benyuan Liu, UMass Lowell
Chengyu Cao, University of Connecticut
Xinwen Fu, UMass Lowell
Outline
   Introduction

   HAWK - a mini Helicopter-based Aerial
Wireless Kit

   Evaluation

   Conclusion

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Wireless Localization

Infrastructure:         Target:            Infrastructure:
GPS Constellation     smartphone         WiFi Access Points

   Self-positioning: target calculates its own position
   Infrastructure positioning: the infrastructure
calculates the target’s position
   Third party wireless localization of target
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Third Party Localization
   Broad applications in public safety, cyber
forensics, network management

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Outline
   Introduction

   HAWK - a mini Helicopter-based Aerial
Wireless Kit

   Evaluation

   Conclusion

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Problem Definition and Basic Idea

Problem Definition: How
to locate a wireless target
device by HAWK

Basic idea: Use the
location where HAWK
senses the strongest signal
strength sending from target
device as the location of the
target

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Issues

1. What is the flight route for the helicopter?

2. How to ensure a target will be detected?

3. How to implement reliable waypoints?

4. What is target location?

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1. What is the flight route for the helicopter?
Moore space filling curve can be used as a flight route

Reasons:
 It is a space-filling curve
 A level n Moore curve
covers all unit squares
with the shortest
distance
 It begins and ends at
the same point

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2. How to ensure a target will be detected?
 Principle 1: During the flight in a unit square, HAWK
senses at least one packet from target in that unit square
 Principle 2: To save battery power, a proper level of Moore
curve is critical while satisfying Principle 1
 Proper level: flight speed v,
square side width d,
transmission interval t
d       2
 n 
2
R
2        (1)

 d  vt
 2n
                                                 9
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3. How to implement reliable waypoints?
 Moore curve is a direct application of the waypoints
functionality
 Factors such as wind may affect helicopter’s movement
during flight
 Three parameters of the mini helicopter, pitch, roll, and
 PI-control law is written as:
t
u  k p e(t )  ki  e(t )dt   (2)
0

Proportional    Integral
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4. What is target location?

 We use the location where
sensed as the target
device’s location

 A target device may be
located in the unit square
from the target is sensed or
one of its eight surrounding
unit squares
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Outline
   Introduction

   HAWK - a mini Helicopter-based Aerial
Wireless Kit

   Evaluation

   Conclusion

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Prototype of HAWK
   Helicopter: Draganflyer X6 with GPS
   Wireless sniffer: Nokia N900
   Handheld controller: emergency controller
   Software controller on a laptop: control takeoff and flight
and receive telemetry including GPS from helicopter
   Locator on the laptop: show route on Google map in real

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Example Flight
 Mini helicopter, with
sniffer, flied over
buildings

 Sniffer ran Kismet

 HAWK identified APs

flight route and APs’
locations

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Real World Experiments
Experiments to locate 12          Result:
smart phones on track field
 Five meters localization
 One Nokia N900 with Kismet           accuracy on average for
 Warwalking on the tracks and three   a level 3 Moore curve
different flight routes

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Related Work
Disadvantages of W.A.S.P (Wi-Fi Aerial Surveillance
Platform):

 A mini airplane that has to
fly at a relatively high
speed in order to float in
the air
 Limited localization and
surveillance capability
because W.A.S.P cannot
satisfy Formula (1)

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Outline
   Introduction

   HAWK - a mini Helicopter-based Aerial
Wireless Kit

   Evaluation

   Conclusion

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Conclusion
 Developed a fully functional Mini Helicopter-based Aerial
Wireless Kit (HAWK)
 Proposed a suite of theories for HAWK conducting
accurate localization
 Moore curve based flight route, considering flight
velocity, target transmission interval and target
transmission range
 Customized PI control laws for reliable navigation
 Conducted extensive real-world experiments to validate
the feasibility of HAWK for localization
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Student Research Competition Silver Medal
at Mobicom 2011

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Thank
you!
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Evaluation – Simulation by ns2
Simulations to validate the hot area (nine unit squares) theory

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Related Work
Disadvantages of W.A.S.P (Wi-Fi Aerial Surveillance
Platform):

 A mini airplane that has to
fly at a relatively high
speed in order to float in
the air
 Limited localization and
surveillance capability
because W.A.S.P cannot
satisfy Formula (1)

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Comparison of localization strategy for accuracy

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