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					    HAWK: An unmanned mini
Helicopter-based Aerial Wireless Kit
          for localization

       Zhongli Liu, UMass Lowell
      Yinjie Chen, UMass Lowell
      Benyuan Liu, UMass Lowell
 Chengyu Cao, University of Connecticut
       Xinwen Fu, UMass Lowell
Outline
   Introduction

   HAWK - a mini Helicopter-based Aerial
    Wireless Kit

   Evaluation

   Conclusion


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Wireless Localization

 Infrastructure:         Target:            Infrastructure:
 GPS Constellation     smartphone         WiFi Access Points




   Self-positioning: target calculates its own position
   Infrastructure positioning: the infrastructure
    calculates the target’s position
   Third party wireless localization of target
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Third Party Localization
   Localization via received signal strength (RSS)
   Broad applications in public safety, cyber
    forensics, network management




                                                      4
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Outline
   Introduction

   HAWK - a mini Helicopter-based Aerial
    Wireless Kit

   Evaluation

   Conclusion


                                            5
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Problem Definition and Basic Idea

Problem Definition: How
to locate a wireless target
device by HAWK


Basic idea: Use the
location where HAWK
senses the strongest signal
strength sending from target
device as the location of the
target

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Issues

  1. What is the flight route for the helicopter?


  2. How to ensure a target will be detected?


  3. How to implement reliable waypoints?


  4. What is target location?

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1. What is the flight route for the helicopter?
  Moore space filling curve can be used as a flight route

  Reasons:
   It is a space-filling curve
   A level n Moore curve
    covers all unit squares
    with the shortest
    distance
   It begins and ends at
    the same point

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2. How to ensure a target will be detected?
 Principle 1: During the flight in a unit square, HAWK
  senses at least one packet from target in that unit square
 Principle 2: To save battery power, a proper level of Moore
  curve is critical while satisfying Principle 1
 Proper level: flight speed v,
  square side width d,
  transmission radius R and
  transmission interval t
         d       2
          n 
         2
                    R
                2        (1)
         
          d  vt
          2n
                                                          9
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3. How to implement reliable waypoints?
 Moore curve is a direct application of the waypoints
  functionality
 Factors such as wind may affect helicopter’s movement
  during flight
 Three parameters of the mini helicopter, pitch, roll, and
  yaw can be adjusted
 PI-control law is written as:
                                     t
               u  k p e(t )  ki  e(t )dt   (2)
                                    0



                  Proportional    Integral
                                                              10
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4. What is target location?

 We use the location where
  the strongest RSS is
  sensed as the target
  device’s location

 A target device may be
  located in the unit square
  where the strongest RSS
  from the target is sensed or
  one of its eight surrounding
  unit squares
                                 11
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Outline
   Introduction

   HAWK - a mini Helicopter-based Aerial
    Wireless Kit

   Evaluation

   Conclusion


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Prototype of HAWK
   Helicopter: Draganflyer X6 with GPS
   Wireless sniffer: Nokia N900
   Handheld controller: emergency controller
   Software controller on a laptop: control takeoff and flight
    and receive telemetry including GPS from helicopter
   Locator on the laptop: show route on Google map in real
    time, and download data from N900 for location calculation




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 Example Flight
 Mini helicopter, with
  sniffer, flied over
  buildings

 Sniffer ran Kismet

 HAWK identified APs

 Google Map showed
  flight route and APs’
  locations


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Real World Experiments
Experiments to locate 12          Result:
smart phones on track field
                                      Five meters localization
 One Nokia N900 with Kismet           accuracy on average for
 Warwalking on the tracks and three   a level 3 Moore curve
  different flight routes




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Demo http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ju86xnHbEq0




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Related Work
Disadvantages of W.A.S.P (Wi-Fi Aerial Surveillance
Platform):

 A mini airplane that has to
  fly at a relatively high
  speed in order to float in
  the air
 Limited localization and
  surveillance capability
  because W.A.S.P cannot
  satisfy Formula (1)

                                                      17
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Outline
   Introduction

   HAWK - a mini Helicopter-based Aerial
    Wireless Kit

   Evaluation

   Conclusion


                                            18
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Conclusion
  Developed a fully functional Mini Helicopter-based Aerial
   Wireless Kit (HAWK)
  Proposed a suite of theories for HAWK conducting
   accurate localization
      Moore curve based flight route, considering flight
       velocity, target transmission interval and target
       transmission range
      Customized PI control laws for reliable navigation
  Conducted extensive real-world experiments to validate
   the feasibility of HAWK for localization
                                                            19
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Student Research Competition Silver Medal
at Mobicom 2011




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     Thank
      you!
             21/15
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Evaluation – Simulation by ns2
Simulations to validate the hot area (nine unit squares) theory




                                                             22
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Related Work
Disadvantages of W.A.S.P (Wi-Fi Aerial Surveillance
Platform):

 A mini airplane that has to
  fly at a relatively high
  speed in order to float in
  the air
 Limited localization and
  surveillance capability
  because W.A.S.P cannot
  satisfy Formula (1)

                                                      23
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Comparison of localization strategy for accuracy




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