Nicaragua Revised FA 2 Dec 2011 ENG by HC121109043746

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									COVER PAGE
1.                  EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ................................................................................................................... 1
         Table I.  Summary of Requirements – By Cluster/Sector – with funding status of each (to be inserted by
         CAP Section) ................................................................................................................................................. 3
         Table II. Summary of Requirements – By Organization – with funding status of each (to be inserted by
         CAP Section) ................................................................................................................................................. 3
2.                  CONTEXT AND HUMANITARIAN CONSEQUENCES ..................................................................... 4
     2.1     CONTEXT AND RESPONSE TO DATE ..................................................................................................... 4
     2.1.1 FOOD SECURITY ........................................................................................................................................ 4
     2.1.2 WASH ........................................................................................................................................................ 4
     2.1.3 HEALTH ..................................................................................................................................................... 5
     2.1.4 SHELTER ................................................................................................................................................... 5
     2.1.5 EARLY RECOVERY ..................................................................................................................................... 6
     KEY FACTS AND FIGURES OF RESPONSE TO DATE ............................................................................................ 6
3.                  NEEDS ANALYSIS .......................................................................................................................... 11
4.                  COMMON HUMANITARIAN ACTION PLAN .................................................................................. 12
     4.1      SCENARIOS ........................................................................................................................................ 12
     4.2      STRATEGIC OBJECTIVES FOR HUMANITARIAN ACTION ...................................................................... 12
     4.3      CRITERIA FOR SELECTION AND PRIORITIZATION OF PROJECTS......................................................... 14
     4.4      LOGICAL FRAMEWORK OF THE COMMON HUMANITARIAN ACTION PLAN ............................................ 15
     4.5      CLUSTER/SECTOR RESPONSE PLANS ................................................................................................ 17
     4.5.1 FOOD SECURITY ...................................................................................................................................... 17
     4.5.2 WASH ...................................................................................................................................................... 19
     4.5.3. HEALTH .................................................................................................................................................. 21
     4.5.4 SHELTER ................................................................................................................................................. 23
     4.5.5 EARLY RECOVERY ................................................................................................................................... 25
     4.6      ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES .......................................................................................................... 27
ANNEX I.            LIST OF PROJECTS ....................................................................................................................... 28
     PROJECTS GROUPED BY SECTOR/CLUSTER WITH FUNDING STATUS OF EACH (TO BE INSERTED BY CAP
     SECTION).......................................................................................................................................................... 28
     PROJECTS GROUPED BY ORGANIZATION WITH FUNDING STATUS OF EACH (TO BE INSERTED BY CAP
     SECTION).......................................................................................................................................................... 29
ANNEX II.           (I.E. RED CROSS ANNEX, MAPS, TABLES)… ............................................................................. 30
ANNEX III.          ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS ............................................................................................. 31




Please note that appeals are revised regularly. The latest version of this document is available
                            on http://www.humanitarianappeal.net.

         Full project details can be viewed, downloaded and printed from www.reliefweb.int/fts.




                                                                                    iii
COUNTRY OR SITUATION MAP




           iv
1.    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

During the last two weeks of October 2011, heavy rains associated with Tropical Depression 12 E
caused flooding and landslides throughout Nicaragua. According to the latest assessment (October 28)
by the Government, 87 of 153 municipalities suffered damage, while 148,530 people were affected.
The most affected departments of the country are Estelí, Chinandega, Madriz, Nueva Segovia,
Jinotega, Matagalpa and Managua. The affected population suffered damages to their property,
agricultural crops and other livelihoods, while vital infrastructure and the environment were also
severely damaged.
The President declared a state of disaster throughout the country on October 17; and the magnitude
of the damage caused by the flooding was such that the Government requested the United Nations
System in Nicaragua to activate the mechanisms of international assistance.
Data from needs assessments conducted by the government with UN agencies indicate that, 50 days
after Tropical depression 12E struck Nicaragua; more than 100,000 people remain in need of
humanitarian and early recovery assistance.
According to official data provided by the Government through the National System for Prevention,
Mitigation and Attention to Disasters (SINAPRED), the value of the damages and losses amount to
more than US$445 millions, which equals 6,8% of the BNP in 2010. The greater part of the damages
is concentrated in infrastructure, housing and agricultural production.
Initial efforts were focused on the provision of
emergency aid (food and non-food items, safe water
                                                         Nicaragua revised Flash Appeal
and health assistance) to the affected population,
especially to people who had to be evacuated to                  Key parameters
shelters following the disaster. Despite shortages of
                                                         Duration        6 months
funding, some projects in the Flash Appeal are being
successfully implemented and assistance is being
provided to the affected population.                                     100,000 people food
                                                         Affected        insecure
Analysis based on the various needs assessments          population      4,500 people remain in
                                                                         camps
conducted, shows that the sectors that demand more
attention in the coming months are Food Security,
                                                                         Principally in 4 most affected
Early Recovery and Water-Sanitation-Hygiene.                             departments: Chinandega,
However, it is necessary to mention that the needs       Areas
                                                                         León, Managua, Estelí, but
persist in some affected communities and in the          targeted by
                                                                         also interventions in
                                                         Flash Appeal
remaining shelters that require continued assistance                     Matagalpa, Nueva Segovia
and comprehensive response actions including the                         and Madriz
Health and Shelter sectors where they must engage                        Food security, WASH,
                                                         Key sectors
in activities related to protection of women, children                   Health, Shelter and Early
                                                         for response
and adolescents.                                                         Recovery
                                                                         -   100,000 for food security
The revised Flash Appeal seeks requirements for          Key target      -   25,000 for WASH
                                                         beneficiaries
$14,833,270 to continue to support the Government                        -   92,000 for health
                                                         (approximate
of Nicaragua efforts in response to up to a 100,000                      -   4,500 for shelter
                                                         figures)
most vulnerable populations during the emergency                         -   3,400 for Early Recovery
response and the early recovery period. This amount          Total funding        Funding requested
aims at supporting the needs of the affected                  requested             per beneficiary
population up until April 2012.
                                                            $14,833,270           Approximately $150




                                                  1
Humanitarian and development indicators for Nicaragua

                                          Basic fact table Nicaragua
 Population                                                                       5,888,945
 Under-five mortality rate (per 1.000)                                            35.0
 Life expectancy (years)                                                          74.5
 Prevalence of undernourishment in total population (%)                           19.0
 Gross national income per capita (US$)                                           1,077.70
 Population living on less than $1.25 per day – purchasing power parity (%)       5.5
 Population without sustainable access to an improved drinking water source (%)   65.0
 ECHO Vulnerability Index score                                                   Medium
 ECHO Crisis Index score                                                          High
 Human Development Index score                                                    0.57
 Population growth                                                                1.2
 Maternal mortality                                                               60.6
 Infant mortality                                                                 29.0
 Population with HIV/AIDS (accumulated)                                           4,742




                                                       2
Table I. Summary of Requirements – By Cluster/Sector – with funding status of each (to be inserted by
                                          CAP Section)



Table II. Summary of Requirements – By Organization – with funding status of each (to be inserted by
                                          CAP Section)




                                                 3
2.    CONTEXT AND HUMANITARIAN CONSEQUENCES

2.1   CONTEXT AND RESPONSE TO DATE

The emergency response has been led by the Government of Nicaragua, establishing priorities for
intervention and needs´ requirements. The United Nations System, at the Government’s request, has
activated its mechanisms for mobilizing resources for the emergency response under a cluster
approach.

In order to elaborate more consistent interventions, the sector/cluster leaders have held coordination
meetings and conducted joint field assessments with international agencies, the Government and
organizations belonging to the Humanitarian Network established in the country. The main objective of
the sector/cluster work is focused on the visibilization of the impact of the humanitarian response and
the identification of gaps in order to establish sector strategies and partnerships to alleviate human
suffering, increasing the impact of humanitarian action and the commitment to improve coordination
and participation of all humanitarian actors.


2.1.1 FOOD SECURITY
Food availability and access has been affected as results of the significant damages to crops. An
initial emergency food security assessment was conducted during the last half of October by WFP,
FAO, the Ministry of Agriculture, the Ministry of Health and SINAPRED, covering nine (9) departments
of the affected area. There is a shortage of food in the affected municipalities due to the isolated
conditions of many communities. In addition, local stores and markets have been unable to replenish
stocks. This situation coupled with crop losses has led to local rising food prices. Families that work as
daily agriculture wage laborers were unable to work during the heavy rains representing loss of
income. The need for agricultural labor will be reduced as a result of the damages to crops. Surveys
carried-out by humanitarian actors and authorities show that the impact of the rain and floods is not
localized but distributed irregularly between communities and families.

Most of the affected communities suffer from chronic vulnerability and the population´s response
capacity is low. The effect of El Niño or La Niña on the up-coming planting season is uncertain. There
are no specific alternatives for crop and seeds conservation. Further, the bean exportation market at
regional level represents a threat for the availability of seeds for the coming season.

No specific intervention has been carried-out by the humanitarian and state actors to assist the
“Apante” sowing period. Due to the rains, few farmers have had the capacity to produce during that
period.

A follow-up rapid emergency food security assessment initiated on 20 November and field data
collection will conclude on 28 November. In total, 5 teams have been dispatched to the field to visit
125 communities in 27 municipalities. Results are expected the first week of December.

The humanitarian response to address food insecurity caused by Tropical Depression 12E has been
focused on the delivery of food assistance to affected families and the rehabilitation of infrastructure
through food-for-work activities.

2.1.2 WASH
Cluster coordination meeting have been carried out on a regular basis, with the participation of
SINAPRED and other governmental institutions and local and international NGOs involved in the
response. A joint assessment has been organized and carried out after the launch of the Flash Appeal,
through several field visits and meetings with local authorities at municipal level in order to obtain
updated information about WASH affectations. According to the figures obtained, a higher number of
Water and Sanitation facilities have been damaged compared with the initial data provided by the
Government: in the most affected Departments (Chinandega, Leon, Estelí and Managua) around
1,100 wells were damaged, flooded or contaminated and around 10,800 latrines were damaged or


                                                    4
flooded. In the low lands (especially in the most affected municipalities of Leon, Chinandega and
Managua Departments) floods remained for several weeks and this caused severe health problems
related with water sources contamination, lack of water and sanitation facilities, worsened by the poor
hygiene habits within the population.

Humanitarian response to date in WASH sector was limited to delivery of safe water and disinfection
means (chlorine) as well as hygiene promotion activities, in shelters (during the first two weeks) and in
some of the most affected communities, by local Ministry of Health. Other activities such as cleaning,
disinfection and rehabilitation of water sources (wells) and rehabilitation of sanitation facilities (latrines
and others) as well as delivery of water storage means and hygiene promotion, have been planned
and their implementation is starting, in close coordination among the mentioned actors, in the frame of
WASH cluster activities supporting local government leadership.

2.1.3 HEALTH
The strategy employed in support of Health Sector through the Ministry of Health (MoH) consist of
direct counseling with the following components: visits to the local health clinics - SILAIS (Sistema
Local de Atención Integral en Salud) which planned actions to perform in each of the affected
municipalities, determine the resources that are employed; carry out technical field visits to the
municipalities for example: supply and installation of radios station in 4 municipalities of SILAIS Estelí.
Field visits are made to explain the amount of resources that are supplied for each type of activity to
health officials. The above mentioned strategy is giving good results.

To keep functioning health services in shelters and communities affected by heavy rains and floods,
support should be given to ensure access to health services and safe water and to contribute to
strengthening local capacities in the monitoring, early warning and rapid response to outbreaks.

According to the registry of epidemiological surveillance of the Ministry of Health, during the month of
October there was an increase in the number of cases of Acute Diarrheic Disease (ADD), and Acute
Respiratory Infection (ARI) in the 4 most affected SILAIS. Furthermore, an increase in the number of
pneumonia in the SILAIS of León and Managua has been reported. On the other hand, an increase in
suspected cases of classic dengue in the SILAIS of Estelí, Chinandega and León has been registered
in the health clinics. There is no suspicious increase in cases of leptospirosis in the SILAIS of León
and Managua, in Estelí, there is a declining trend, while in Chinandega tendency is to a slight increase.

The goals in support of the health sector have been with the provision of resources and direct advice
to health officials. The programmed goals are being achieved. The most important lesson learned is
that the health sector must work in the organization of communities in the protection of its inhabitants
and safeguarding health.

The health sector has been supported by donations from the Government of the Federal Republic of
Brazil, the Government of the Netherlands, the Government of Canada, and regular resources of the
Pan-American Health Organization/World Health Organization (PAHO-WHO).

2.1.4 SHELTER
According to official figures, the emergency resulted in 16 deaths and initially more than 10,146 people
(46% adults and 54% children) were located in 102 emergency shelters. However some IDPs sought
shelter in schools, communal centers and churches, and an unknown number were are in private
homes, organized as “solidarity houses”. The IDPswere concentrated in the departments of Estelí,
Managua, Leon, Chinandega, Madriz, Matagalpa and Nueva Segovia.

Nevertheless, at the moment there are only 12 active shelters remaining; 10 in Managua and 2 in the
municipality of San Franscisco Libre. A total of 900 families (approximately of 4,500 people) are still in
shelters, 60% of which are from the last year’s emergency and 40% are from the current emergency.
Some IDPs and families who are able to return to their homes will be assisted.

The Government has distributed Non-food Items (NFI), food, comfort kits and water with the support of
NGOs and bi-lateral donors. International agencies have supported with NFI, hygiene, kitchen and
comfort kits.


                                                      5
2.1.5 EARLY RECOVERY
The total number of houses affected by the Tropical Depression 12-E were 10,812 (12,275 families).
About 8924 homes are flooded, 318 in high-risk sites, 335 completely destroyed and 1235 partially
destroyed. As part of the support to affected families, the Government announced the immediate
disbursement of 358 million 600 thousand Córdoba’s to meet the emergency, which provides for the
repair, rehabilitation and construction of houses damaged by the rains. Furthermore, the Government
has implemented the following activities:

           Rehabilitation of bridges, secondary roads and highways, in order to ensure national
            connectivity.
           Assessments of damage and losses on the infrastructure of roads, bridges and housing, in
            order to establish accurately the requirements of rehabilitation.

To date, Habitat for Humanity has delivered 8,500 Kit for emergency cleaning and minor flood repairs.
UNDP obtained approval for $206,938 (CERF) for housing rehabilitation and reconstruction and
generation of temporary employment. HEMCO contributed $200,000 for the construction of supportive
homes. ACTED presented food for work for the repair of roads in Achuapa. Chile Government
provided through the UNDP $22,500 for construction of 15 Basic dwellings in el Crucero, Managua
and Chinandega.

Early recovery actions will concentrate on: income generation for the affected populations,
improvement, rehabilitation and housing construction, training in safe self-construction methods, basic
equipment such as tools and belongings to facilitate reconstruction and economic recovery activities.

KEY FACTS AND FIGURES OF RESPONSE TO DATE

                                                           WASH
 Main achievements to date                                           Challenges and gaps in response
    Cluster     coordination      activities among
     governmental institutions, NGOs and UNICEF,
     allowing an affective planning process.

        Information and coordination meetings are being
         carried out on a regular basis and reaching a
         planning of the response that includes
         CERF/Flash Appeal and other sources funds
                                                                        Difficult access to affected communities
         (NGOs own funds, ECHO, IFRC, etc.).
                                                                        Delay and difficulties to get detailed and reliable
        Government in coordination with UNICEF and
                                                                         data and information about damages and needs;
         local/international NGOs, assessing the needs of
         affected communities and planning intervention                 High number of NGOs are interested in intervene
         in: rehabilitation of water sources; water                      in WASH sector, making more complex the
         disinfection,     storage      and      distribution;           coordination effort.
         rehabilitation/construction of sanitation facilities;
                                                                        Continue the rehabilitation of wells and latrines.
         hygiene promotion and waste disposal.

        A plan is being implanted under the coordination
         of the Government for the rehabilitation and
         construction of latrines, the disinfection and
         reparation of wells, distribution of filters and
         chlorine for potable water, and training on water
         and sanitation and vector control.

                                                     FOOD SECURITY
 Main achievements to date                                           Challenges and gaps in response
    The government has distributed 315 metric tons                    Distributions to isolated communities have been
     of food of their own funds for the care of                         challenging. Several modes of transport were
     approximately 50,000 people for 15 days.                           required, including improvised artisanal vessels,
                                                                        horses and in some cases food was delivered
        Additionally, WFP has delivered 727 metric tons
                                                                        “canopy style”.
         (MTs) of food to date, including fortified food

                                                                 6
    rations to assist 14,000 affected families in the           WFP cereal stocks in country were depleted by
    three departments of the country. Food                       mid-November;    on-going     local   purchases
    assistance delivery is on-going to an additional             enabled WFP to quickly replenish stocks.
    five departments.
                                                                Funding is urgent in order to meet the food needs
   FAO has received funding from CERF for                       of the affected population for the next 150 days in
    immediate assistance to prevent food losses,                 order to prevent further deterioration of
    restore food production and livelihoods.                     malnutrition in the affected areas with population
                                                                 prone to chronic or acute malnutrition.
   The government has implemented measures to
    stabilize prices of basic consumer products and             Funding is required to expand food-for-work
    applied zoo-sanitary immediate plans for disease             activities in 60 communities in urgent need of
    prevention and rodent control in affected areas              agricultural and infrastructure rehabilitation.

   NGOs such as the Humboldt Center, Lutheran                  Food assistance is required for 1,960 families.
    World Federation, CAFOD and OXFAM have
                                                                Seeds production is a priority as well as post
    provided food assistance and assistance to
                                                                 harvest inputs and technical assistance to meet
    restoration of productive areas.
                                                                 next production season.
   Welthungerhilfe and ACTED have supported
                                                                Backyard economies affected should be
    rehabilitation of infrastructure and roads through
                                                                 addressed to provide households with and
    food-for-work activities.
                                                                 alternate source of food and diversify diet.
   World Vision has delivered 15-day food packages
    for 992 families in 24 shelters

                                                  SHELTER
Main achievements to date                                    Challenges and gaps in response
   Since the beginning of the emergency, the
    government has provided to affected families in
    shelter NFI, comfort, kitchen and hygiene kits.
    This support has been channeled through
    government grants as Venezuela, Brazil,
    Ecuador, Cuba, Canada and some NGOs.

   Coordination meetings between the Ministry of
    Family and IOM, UNFPA and UNICEF
                                                                Improve response data shelters and people
   Better communication with shelter sector group
                                                                 affected by SINAPRED
    and SINAPRED
                                                                Lack of training to staff shelters.
   Local authorities provide information on the
    damages and needs.                                          Families living in “solidarity homes” are not
                                                                 receiving the necessary support needed to better
   The coordination with UN agencies and NGOs in
                                                                 identify how many families there.
    the shelter sector is very good
                                                                Lack of psychological support to families who
   Many of the families that had been living in
                                                                 have suffered loss of their homes
    temporary shelters, such as schools and
    community centers, or with host families had                It is very important to adapt shelters that are not
    started to return to their homes                             schools or churches.

   Some NGOs as INTER, Habitat for Humanity,                   Implementation of the project “Support for
    Word Vision, ADRA, Save the Children, Shelter                collective centre management, shelter and NFI
    Box and Nicaraguan Red Cross had supported                   distribution for flood affected populations in
    with NFI, water kitchen, hygiene and comfort kits,           Nicaragua” with IOM
    blankets, mattress, plastic barrels, cloth for
    affected families.

   Many schools, churches and community centers
    have been used for shelters. It is planned to
    improve the few shelters in place and do work
    together with the SINAPRED and COMUPRED in
    shelter management, training and psychological
    support to the affected families.


                                                         7
                                                     HEALTH
 Main achievements to date                                      Challenges and gaps in response
    The government, through the ministry of health
     carried out the following activities: safe water
     distribution in few shelters and communities in
     the immediate days after the crisis; chlorine
     distribution in shelters and most affected
     communities; hygiene and health promotion in
     shelters and most affected communities.
                                                                   Roads and bridges damaged by floods which
    Restoration of the health services in most
                                                                    complicate access. Vehicles used by health
     affected communities. Medical care of 90% of the
                                                                    personnel and Ambulance are not good
     population affected, and prophylactic medication
                                                                    conditions.
     in communities with a history of leptospirosis.
                                                                   Continue with the restoration of health services in
    Surveillance and disease control and vector
                                                                    affected communities.
     control activities, especially in relation to dengue
     in the capital.                                               Disinfection and monitoring of drinking water in
                                                                    shelters and health centers.
    Improved access to safe water and sanitation
                                                                   Purchase and repair of equipment to fight
    Containment of vector-borne diseases, through
                                                                    epidemics.
     disease surveillance and control of outbreaks;
                                                                   Late funding for emergency
    The permanent coordination and established
     working relationship between the sector lead, the
     Ministry of Health and the SILAIS has facilitated
     the activities.

    The most important lesson learned is that the
     health sector must work closely with the
     communities.

                                               EARLY RECOVERY

 Main achievements to date                                      Challenges and gaps in response

    Allocation of funds by the Government for the
     rehabilitation of bridges, roads and highways.
                                                                   Generate       employment      and        recuperate
    Assessments of damages to infrastructure                       livelihoods.
     (roads, bridges and homes), in order to establish
                                                                   Develop social housing projects.
     the precise requirements of rehabilitation.
                                                                   Housing rehabilitation and construction
    Habitat for Humanity - 8,500 emergency kit
     cleaning and minor repairs to flood                           Cleaning and repair of public infrastructure.

    UNDP-CERF $ 206.938 for housing rehabilitation                Provide national and local authorities with
     and reconstruction and temporary employment                    technical assistance in developing sustainable
     generation                                                     human settlements.

    HEMCO ($ 200,000) and government of Chile                     Training and capacity         building     in   safe
     ($ 22.500) for housing construction                            construction techniques.

    ACTED-Food for work to repair roads in Achuapa




Other responses to the emergency (i.e. Government, bilateral, Red Cross)
                                                 GOVERNMENT
 Other main achievements to date
    Provision of health services, with the support of donor agencies and the effort of health workers.

    Inter-agency coordination for health care to the population.



                                                            8
        Individual and joint assessment of damages in the affected areas by teams from sector groups.

        Food distribution in shelters and population housed in solidarity homes.

        Provisioning of aid (mats, plastic, hammocks, and blankets).

        Massive water distribution.

        Monitoring and follow-up of information.

        Reception, storage and distribution of international aid.

        Evaluation of the population at risk.

        Shelter management and administration.

        Care and psycho-social support.

 Challenges and gaps in response
        The challenge is to achieve and maintain a good coordination at cluster level, with all planned response
         activities. To do this, is important to maintain the coordination with SINAPRED, supporting it in its leading
         role.


Funding Analysis

After the Flash Appeal for $14,289,736 was launched on October 28, the Emergency Relief
Coordinator approved $2,030,597 in rapid response grants from the CERF, as well as $30,000 as an
emergency cash grant for relief items and logistical support. The revised Flash Appeal seeks revised
requirements of $14,933,270 to continue to support the most vulnerable populations.

Apart from the CERF and the Emergency Cash Grant, the Flash appeal has received funding from:

                       Donor                               Funding        % of Grand
                                                              USD               Total
Central Emergency Response Fund (CERF)                     2,030,597            48.5%
Brazil                                                       606,959            14.5%
Australia                                                    451,671            10.8%
Spain                                                        368,606                8.8%
Allocation of unearmarked funds by UN agencies               251,256                6.0%
Canada                                                       221,106                5.3%
Italy                                                        129,224                3.1%
Luxembourg                                                   123,305                2.9%
Nicaragua                                                        1,171              0.0%
Grand Total:                                            4,183,895             100.0%

To date, 28% of the appeals revised requirements have been covered. However, there are significant
imbalances between clusters, and also between donors. This is hampering key humanitarian
assistance operations being implemented by the humanitarian network and the Government of
Nicaragua. As of this revision, CERF grants represented most (48%) of the total funding for the Appeal.
Additionally, the Government of Nicaragua has received donations (cash and in kind) amounting to 5.7
million USD.




                                                             9
                              Original            Revised          Funding*         Unmet          %
                            requirements       requirements                      requirements    Covered
                                USD                USD               USD             USD
                                  A                  B                C              B-C           C/B
FOOD SECURITY                 10,606,470         10,530,473        2,995,560       7,534,913       28%
EMERGENCY SHELTER              797,506            767,037           239,386         527,651        31%
EARLY RECOVERY                1,350,000           1,900,000         206,938        1,693,062       11%
HEALTH                         785,760            785,760           323,105         462,655        41%
WASH                           750,000            850,000           418,906         431,094        49%

Grand Total:                 14,289,736         14,833,270        4,183,895       10,649,375       28%


The government, the UN and the humanitarian network are working to ensure that all urgent
humanitarian actions, early recovery and medium-term development programs are synchronized to
augment Nicaragua’s resilience to future shocks. Regrettably, with 71% of the appeal’s revised budget
unfunded and with significant sector imbalances in the funding provided, this strategy is under threat,
at the risk of continued suffering and loss of human and economic capital.

The consequences of under-funding will be:

      Food security: Some 11,000 families will be left with no food assistance until the next harvest
       as most of them have little or no food reserves after massive flooding destroyed their crops,
       reserves and homes. This could jeopardize the lives of the most vulnerable groups or
       deteriorate their nutritional status increasing their risk of becoming acutely or chronically
       undernourished. Failure to reactivate agriculture in affected areas will compound the negative
       effects on the ongoing food insecurity situation.

      WASH: Failure to secure funding to address this sector, will result in a lack of safe water
       availability, sanitation facilities improvement and hygiene promotion in some of the most
       affected communities, which could cause an increase of waterborne diseases (diarrhea and
       acute respiratory infections) which affect mostly children under-five..

      Early Recovery: The actions proposed in the Recovery Cluster still have very little funding.
       This situation puts at risk the speedy return to normality of affected families, since this lack of
       funding hinders the filling of the gap between humanitarian assistance and reconstruction
       activities

      Health: Limited funding in support of the Health Cluster puts at high risk most vulnerable and
       unattended population (children, pregnant women, the elderly, and persons living with disability).

      Shelter: Poor shelter management will increase level of gender-based violence. A safe and
       secure shelter environment will facilitate well being, and facilitate their return home when
       conditions are right.




                                                    10
3.    NEEDS ANALYSIS

The main needs more than 50 days after the rain started are primarily related to Food Security, Early
Recovery and Water and Sanitation measures. Needs are also identified in the Health and Shelter
sectors.

Population in affected communities still have limited access to safe water, sanitation, and hygiene
practices, thus maintaining the risk of illnesses and outbreaks amongst the most vulnerable groups.
According to the figures obtained from joint assessments, a higher number of water and sanitation
facilities have been damaged compared with the initial data provided by the Government. In the low
lands floods remained for several weeks and this caused severe health problems related with water
sources contamination, lack of water and sanitation facilities, worsened by the poor hygiene habits
within the population. It is therefore urgent for UN agencies and the humanitarian network to provide in
the most affected communities: cleaning and disinfection of wells in order to ensure access to safe
water for human consumption; rehabilitation and construction of latrines; promotion of adequate
hygiene practices (key messages on safe water, hand washing, excreta disposal, etc.).

Shelters still in use need to be strengthened to meet basic needs. Particular attention must be given to
strengthening the shelters’ management abilities, including their capacity to prevent gender based
violence and to assure conditions that guarantee protection and psycho-social rehabilitation in a timely
manner

The Health sector has identified needs with regard to primary health care attention to the affected
populations and control of outbreaks and recovery of infrastructure in health care facilities. These
priorities respond to ensure nutrition adequate stocks while the early recovery of the local agriculture
activities are carried out at the same time attention is guaranteed comprehensive health through the
mobilization of medical brigades to the affected areas that carry out promotion and prevention
activities in community health.

According to the EFSA, some 55,000 people that lost crops and livelihoods will suffer from food
scarcity during the next 4 to 10 months, when the next harvest will take place. Nevertheless, most
households and infrastructure, heavily damaged by the most recent disasters, could require up to
several years to recover, thus increasing the vulnerability of the population to new shocks.

As families begin to relocate and look for work, it is critical that their livelihoods are saved, restored
and protected. Therefore, the challenge is to re-establish agricultural activities and to search for
economic resources to fund proposals to respond with income generation opportunities during the
period of highest need from October onwards to ensure a speedy recovery and help them return to
their normal activities.

The Early Recovery sector plays an integral and consequential role in the revised Flash Appeal. Early
recovery actions and activities will primarily focus on: income generation for the affected populations,
improvement, rehabilitation and construction of housing, training in safe construction techniques and
self-construction methods, basic equipment such as tools and belongings to facilitate reconstruction
and economic recovery activities. It is worth noting that children are returning to schools and families
are returning to their homes even though school facilities and housing infrastructure remain damaged
or are in poor conditions due to their use as shelters during the peak of the emergency.

It is worth mentioning that access to populations in need is still hampered by damaged or destroyed
rural roads, bridges and even primary roads. The necessary repair of this infrastructure is an
opportunity to generate temporary employment, which will help boost the local economy.




                                                   11
4.       COMMON HUMANITARIAN ACTION PLAN

4.1      SCENARIOS
Although the rainy season is over, the level of Lake Managua persists at critical levels. This generates
a series of interventions in relation to controlling potential sources of vectors caused by stagnant water.
Diarrheal diseases, leptospirosis and dengue are being monitored by the Ministry of Health, through
medical brigades and medical attention in the SILAIS.

Currently, most water supply systems in rural areas continue to be treated through chlorination, while
cleaning of wells has begun in some communities. However, in the most affected communities, further
action is required in order to ensure safe water availability on a regular basis to provide sanitation
facilities and to spread hygiene promotion messages.,.

As for the loss of crops, small scale farmers hope to get the seeds to harvest in the next season and
succeed in restoring subsistence food chain. Food insecurity in rural areas for the upcoming months
will require food assistance interventions aimed primarily at the most vulnerable groups, as well as
assistance to small farmers with the delivery of certified seeds and agricultural inputs to ensure
productive reactivation. An important element to be taken into account is the improvement of access
roads to rural communities, since the current conditions of roads aggravates the delivery of aid, as
well as the marketing of the agricultural production.

Most likely scenario

        Rain patterns will discontinue as the country is approaching the end of the rainy season
        Diminished opportunities for income-generating activities for food-insecure families who have no
         food reserves left.


                Core elements                      Effects on humanitarian needs and aid operations

       Slow rehabilitation/reconstruction       Increase burden on already overspent Government
        of damaged houses and provision           budget
        of alternative shelter.                  Increase in food insecurity
       Livelihoods of the most                  Population at risk of disease outbreaks of vector
        vulnerable population have been           transmission, such as dengue, malaria and at risk for
        affected, which could worsen their        outbreaks of leptospirosis, a disease transmitted
        food security.                            through water contaminated by urine and feces of
       Losses suffered by households             livestock and infected rodents and other water born
        on food stocks, property and              diseases.
        income and the possibility of            Disruption in the early recovery process and critical
        rising food insecurity in the             services
        coming months could lead to              Most vulnerable IDP households exposed to longer-
        more malnutrition problems                than-necessary displacement and not able to return in
        among children under five.                safety and dignity to places of origin.
       An important part of the safe            Loss of livestock and seeds could impair restarting
        water sources (wells) and                 agricultural production in the 2011/12 season and this
        sanitation facilities are likely to       may affect food security for the next agriculture season.
        remain in bad condition.
       Stagnant water bodies left after
        the flood are likely to persist.




4.2      STRATEGIC OBJECTIVES FOR HUMANITARIAN ACTION

The Flash Appeal outlined strategic objectives agreed upon by the Government, UN system and the
humanitarian network, from the onset of the emergency. The strategic objectives of this revised Flash
Appeal have only changed slightly. It should be noted that the objectives for food aid and agricultural

                                                      12
livelihoods have been united to one objective related to food security. Furthermore, one objective has
been added with regard to strengthening of coordination capacities (objective 6).


Key indicators                                                 Target                 Monitoring Method


    Objective: To reach vulnerable groups and communities whose food and nutrition security has been adversely
1
    affected by Tropical Depression 12E
     Number of women, men, girls and boys receiving
                                                                                       Distribution lists of families receiving food
    emergency food rations as a percentage of planned          100%
                                                                                      assistance vs. planned figures
    figures.
     Quantity of food distributed, by type, as percentage of                           Routine field monitoring of food distributed
                                                               100%
    planned distribution                                                              vs. planned figures
                                                                                       Field verification of number of assets
    Number of assets created or restored by unit of
                                                               At least 80&           created or rehabilitated by type and unit of
    measure
                                                                                      measure vs. planned figures

Key indicators                                                 Target                 Monitoring Method


    Objective: Prevent morbidity and mortality caused by unsafe water consumption, inadequate sanitation and poor
2
    hygiene practices in the most affected communities.
                                                                                      Initial assessment (base line) about no. of
    Percentage of population in the targeted communities
                                                               At least 50%           persons accessing safe water, compared
    improves their access to safe water.
                                                                                      with final assessment.
                                                                                      Initial assessment (base line) about no. of
    Percentage of population in the targeted communities
                                                               At least 30%           families with basic sanitation facilities,
    improves their sanitation conditions.
                                                                                      compared with final assessment.
                                                                                      List of attendance of awareness group
                                                                                      sessions; Awareness home visits forms
    Percentage of population in the targeted communities
                                                               At least 50%           signed; Evidence in MoH activities record
    receives hygiene promotion messages.
                                                                                      system; Awareness material delivered to the
                                                                                      communities population;
    Objective 1. To improve living conditions for evacuated families temporarily residing in shelters, and guarantee their
3
    dignity and provide better comfort
    Number of Women in emergency shelters, victims of                                 Record drugs delivered and people served in
    gender based violence, receiving medical and legal         At least 250 women     the medical and legal intervention; Follow-up
    attention during the intervention                                                 reports
    Number of institutional contingency plans that respond     At least three         Contingency Plan finalized; Follow up and
    to the problem of gender based violence within one         contingency plans      monitoring reports for the preparation of
    month.                                                     within one month       contingency plans
    Number of Emergency shelters in Managua organized
    and physically modified for the prevention, monitoring                            Shelter Situation Report; Interviews with
                                                               6 emergency shelters
    and reporting of cases of gender based violence within                            affected people in shelter; Final report
    one month
    Number of People have been trained in the
                                                                                      Support list; Training Presentations; Training
    management of shelters (10,300 people indirectly have      100 people
                                                                                      Report
    benefited)
    Number of people that have been trained in Minimum
                                                                                      Support list; Training Presentations; Training
    Standards for Education in Emergencies, Chronic            100 people
                                                                                      Report
    Crises and Early Reconstruction.
                                                                                      Support list; Training Presentations; Training
    Number of People have been trained in sphere project       100 people
                                                                                      Report; Monitoring and follow up

    Shelters rebuilt in coordination with SINAPRED and                                Report of coordination meetings with
                                                               At least 10 shelters
    MIFAN                                                                             partners; Visit Report

    Number of shelters organizing psychosocial                                        List of rehabilitated children, and school
                                                               At least 6 shelters
    rehabilitation and educative activities for children                              reinforcement activities; Materials distributed
    Number of children under 6 years participating in
                                                                                  List of participants¸ Materials delivered to
    spaces of “ Amor para los más Chiquitos” in shelters  At least 150 children
                                                                                  children
    and communities affected
    Objective: Ensure that the population affected by floods in the 4 prioritized SILAIS enjoy health care, hygiene
4   education, consume safe water with appropriate service and benefit from appropriate measures of surveillance and
    control of outbreaks
                                                                                  Records continued medical assistance
    Percentage of population affected in 4 prioritized                            (service output) by community, municipalities
                                                          At least 80%
    SILAIS enjoys health and health education.                                    and SILAIS; Report of people who attend
                                                                                  educational talks.


                                                               13
                                                                                      Reporting the results of el monitoring
      Percentage of population affected in 4 prioritized
                                                              At least 80%            bacteriological and chemical physicist of
      SILAIS enjoy safe water
                                                                                      water samples
      Percentage of SILAIS prioritized as a result of the                             Epidemiological surveillance, endemic
      floods have capacity for monitoring and responding to   100%                    channel report. Number of dwellings
      outbreaks                                                                       sprayed; Report focus controls
      Objective: Improved living condition in social, economic and physical terms of 610 families that were affected by the
5
      Tropical depression 12E
       Number of persons/families who improved their
      economic and social conditions as part of the           610 families            Support list;
      emergency response.
       Number of municipalities, communities or
      neighborhoods that improved their capacities related to 2 municipalities        Support list;
      the prevention, mitigation and attention to disasters.
       At least 40% of persons benefiting from the early                              List of attendance of awareness group
                                                              At least 40%
      recovery strategy are women                                                     sessions;

      Objective: Strengthening the capacity of sector coordination, leadership and partnerships among humanitarian
6
      actors
                                                              At least three
                                                              coordination meetings   agendas, minutes of meetings, list of
      Effective sector leadership by SINAPRED
                                                              between SINAPRED        participants
                                                              and each sector lead
                                                              At least three
      The sector lead consolidates and coordinates            meetings with           strategic cluster plan, agendas, minutes of
      effectively the sector response plan                    implementing            meetings, list of participants
                                                              partners
                                                              At least three
                                                              coordination meetings
      Participation and dialogue between humanitarian                                 agendas, minutes of meetings, list of
                                                              between SINAPRED
      actors and government                                                           participants
                                                              and the humanitarian
                                                              network




4.3      CRITERIA FOR SELECTION AND PRIORITIZATION OF PROJECTS
A.       SELECTION

Based on the strategic objectives for humanitarian action agreed on by the humanitarian network
comprising both the sector leaders, NGOs and the government, the projects selected for this revised
appeal meet one or more of the following criteria related to relevance, impact and scope:

1. Projects relevant to save lives;
2. Projects that provide immediate alleviation of suffering of affected populations or ease the
   transition from response to recovery phase, promoting the use of resources without duplicating
   efforts among humanitarian actors;
3. Projects with an adequate scope, with relation to the timeline in which the proposed activities are
   implemented and geographic coverage.

B.       PRIORITIZATION

The response for the remaining five months of the Flash appeal until April 2012 retains a primary
humanitarian dimension with the continuation of the relief efforts, but equally important in the response
will be tackling key early recovery activities as essential actions that will have to be carried out during
the humanitarian phase. These activities are critical as they set the basis to prevent unnecessary
prolongation of humanitarian assistance, as well as laying out foundations for the recovery of
livelihoods and coping mechanisms of the population.

The projects presented in the revised Flash Appeal for Nicaragua, focus on the immediate provision of
vital services such as access to safe water, livelihoods recovery, repair of damaged housing, food aid
and health in the most affected areas, in support of the Government's response. The initial response
focused on helping people and communities hosted isolated by floods.




                                                               14
In order for the prioritization of projects be carried out objectively and framed to address sector gaps, a
humanitarian context analysis and an analysis of gaps related to humanitarian aid was performed.
Since the elaboration of the initial Flash Appeal, one month ago, the humanitarian context has
changed largely due to the effective response by the Government, the discontinuation of the rain and
the return of many families to their homes. It should be emphasized that although many families have
returned to their homes, they still lack the necessary conditions for decent living. Added to this, the
damage to crops in the rural areas has had a significant impact on food security and livelihoods.
Another problem considered for prioritization has been sanitation and water quality in the affected
areas. Field assessments carried out highlight the need to provide assistance in the WASH sector to
ensure access to safe water.

Priority needs and sectors have been identified in consultation within the sector and through a review
of available assessment data and the humanitarian response to date. Based on an updated
assessment of the situation, the humanitarian response for the next five months should be focused
accordingly to the following categorization:

      A. Urgent needs: Life-saving interventions and urgent early recovery actions in the most affected
         areas related to food insecurity exacerbated by the loss of crops or loss of livelihoods, access
         to clean water and adequate sanitation.

      B. Critical needs: Early recovery and protection related actions that promote a safe and dignified
         life. Projects related to the rehabilitation of housing, adequate health services, protection and
         capacity building activities in shelters.

It is important to state that the categorization chosen (A, B) does not imply a qualitative assessment of
the projects, and only reflects the priority in terms of “Urgent” and “Critical” needs.

                                                         % of total                Funding
      Category             No. of projects                                                                % of funding
                                                         projects                 requested
          A                         13                       59%                   11,380,473                  77%
          B                          9                       41%                    3,452,797                  23%
         Total                      22                      100%                   14,833,270                  100%



4.4     LOGICAL FRAMEWORK OF THE COMMON HUMANITARIAN ACTION PLAN



                     Key indicators                          Cluster      Corresponding cluster response plan objectives

        Objective: To reach vulnerable groups and communities whose food and nutrition security has been adversely
1                                              affected by Tropical Depression 12E
     Number of women, men, girls and boys receiving                      To reach vulnerable groups and communities whose
    emergency food rations as a percentage of planned          Food      food and nutrition security has been adversely
    figures.                                                  security   affected by Tropical Depression 12E
                                                                         To reach vulnerable groups and communities whose
     Quantity of food distributed, by type, as percentage      Food      food and nutrition security has been adversely
    of planned distribution                                   security   affected by Tropical Depression 12E
                                                                         To reach vulnerable groups and communities whose
     Number of assets created or restored by unit of           Food      food and nutrition security has been adversely
    measure                                                   security   affected by Tropical Depression 12E

      Objective: Prevent morbidity and mortality caused by unsafe water consumption, inadequate sanitation and poor
2                                      hygiene practices in the most affected communities.
                                                                          Prevent morbidity and mortality caused by unsafe
    Percentage of population in the targeted communities                  water consumption, inadequate sanitation and poor
    improves their access to safe water.                       WASH       hygiene practices in the most affected communities.
                                                                          Prevent morbidity and mortality caused by unsafe
    Percentage of population in the targeted communities                  water consumption, inadequate sanitation and poor
    improves their sanitation conditions.                      WASH       hygiene practices in the most affected communities.
                                                                          Prevent morbidity and mortality caused by unsafe
    Percentage of population in the targeted communities                  water consumption, inadequate sanitation and poor
    receives hygiene promotion messages.                       WASH       hygiene practices in the most affected communities.



                                                              15
   Objective: To improve living conditions for evacuated families temporarily residing in shelters, and guarantee their
3                                                 dignity and provide better comfort
  Number of Women in emergency shelters, victims of                         To improve living conditions for evacuated families
  gender based violence, receiving medical and legal                        temporarily residing in shelters, and guarantee their
  attention during the intervention                             Shelter     dignity and provide better comfort
  Number of institutional contingency plans that                            To improve living conditions for evacuated families
  respond to the problem of gender based violence                           temporarily residing in shelters, and guarantee their
  within one month.                                             Shelter     dignity and provide better comfort
  Number of Emergency shelters in Managua organized
  and physically modified for the prevention, monitoring                    To improve living conditions for evacuated families
  and reporting of cases of gender based violence                           temporarily residing in shelters, and guarantee their
  within one month                                              Shelter     dignity and provide better comfort
  Number of People have been trained in the                                 To improve living conditions for evacuated families
  management of shelters (10,300 people indirectly                          temporarily residing in shelters, and guarantee their
  have benefited)                                               Shelter     dignity and provide better comfort
  Number of people that have been trained in Minimum                        To improve living conditions for evacuated families
  Standards for Education in Emergencies, Chronic                           temporarily residing in shelters, and guarantee their
  Crises and Early Reconstruction.                              Shelter     dignity and provide better comfort
                                                                            To improve living conditions for evacuated families
  Number of People have been trained in sphere                              temporarily residing in shelters, and guarantee their
  project                                                       Shelter     dignity and provide better comfort
                                                                            To improve living conditions for evacuated families
  Shelters rebuilt in coordination with SINAPRED and                        temporarily residing in shelters, and guarantee their
  MIFAN                                                         Shelter     dignity and provide better comfort
                                                                            To improve living conditions for evacuated families
  Number of shelters organizing psychosocial                                temporarily residing in shelters, and guarantee their
  rehabilitation and educative activities for children          Shelter     dignity and provide better comfort
  Number of children under 6 years participating in                         To improve living conditions for evacuated families
  spaces of “ Amor para los más Chiquitos” in shelters                      temporarily residing in shelters, and guarantee their
  and communities affected                                      Shelter     dignity and provide better comfort
      Objective: Ensure that the population affected by floods in the 4 prioritized SILAIS enjoy health care, hygiene
   education, consume safe water with appropriate service and benefit from appropriate measures of surveillance and
4                                                        control of outbreaks
                                                                            Ensure that the population affected by floods in the 4
                                                                            prioritized SILAIS enjoy health care, hygiene
                                                                            education, consume safe water with appropriate
  Percentage of population affected in 4 prioritized                        service and benefit from appropriate measures of
  SILAIS enjoys health and health education.                     Health     surveillance and control of outbreaks
                                                                            Ensure that the population affected by floods in the 4
                                                                            prioritized SILAIS enjoy health care, hygiene
                                                                            education, consume safe water with appropriate
  Percentage of population affected in 4 prioritized                        service and benefit from appropriate measures of
  SILAIS enjoy safe water                                        Health     surveillance and control of outbreaks
                                                                            Ensure that the population affected by floods in the 4
                                                                            prioritized SILAIS enjoy health care, hygiene
  Percentage of SILAIS prioritized as a result of the                       education, consume safe water with appropriate
  floods have capacity for monitoring and responding to                     service and benefit from appropriate measures of
  outbreaks                                                      Health     surveillance and control of outbreaks

      Objective: Improved living condition in social, economic and physical terms of 610 families that were affected by
5                                                   the Tropical depression 12E
     Number of persons/families who improved their                        Improved living condition in social, economic and
    economic and social conditions as part of the               Early     physical terms of 610 families that were affected by
    emergency response.                                       Recovery    the Tropical depression 12E
     Number of municipalities, communities or
    neighborhoods that improved their capacities related                  Improved living condition in social, economic and
    to the prevention, mitigation and attention to              Early     physical terms of 610 families that were affected by
    disasters.                                                Recovery    the Tropical depression 12E
                                                                          Improved living condition in social, economic and
     At least 40% of persons benefiting from the early          Early     physical terms of 610 families that were affected by
    recovery strategy are women                               Recovery    the Tropical depression 12E

      Objective: Strengthening the capacity of sector coordination, leadership and partnerships among humanitarian
6                                                         actors


    Effective sector leadership by SINAPRED                       All       All

    The sector lead consolidates and coordinates
    effectively the sector response plan                          All       All

    Participation and dialogue between humanitarian
    actors and government                                         All       All



                                                               16
4.5   CLUSTER/SECTOR RESPONSE PLANS

4.5.1 FOOD SECURITY

 Cluster lead agency               WFP and FAO
 Implementing agencies             RE.TE, ACTED, Welthungerhilfe, CARE, World Vision
 Number of projects                5
                                   To reach vulnerable groups and communities whose food and
 Revised cluster objectives        nutrition security has been adversely affected by Tropical
                                   Depression 12E
 Beneficiaries                     Up to 100,000 people
 Funds requested                   USD 10,255,258
 Contact information               mariaelena.velazquez@wfp.org; daniel.chillonolmos@fao.org


                                         Affected population               Beneficiaries (if different)
          Category
                                  Female       Male         Total       Female     Male             Total
Affected people                     51,000      49,000       100,000


Needs analysis

EFSA results show that a total of 23 municipalities in 9 departments of the country are affected; the
largest number of affected population is concentrated in the departments of Leon, Chinandega, Estelí
and Managua. The evaluation team found that 94 communities were isolated due to damage to
infrastructure and total isolated population is estimated at more than 50,000 people. By the end of
October, a total of 4,445 people were living in emergency evacuation shelters. Further, damage to
crops was significant; 20 percent of beans and 12 percent of maize crops were lost and yields will be
reduced by 30 percent. Loss of beans ascended 60 percent and between 22 to 35 percent in
Managua, León and Chinandega and losses in some municipalities was even higher. The municipality
of Achuapa in León suffered 100 percent loss of its rice production.

Hunger gaps in the first half of 2012 will increase in the most affected areas due to the loss of crops,
poor access to the communities and few available coping strategies. Vegetable gardening and
preparation for the next sowing period must be prioritized, in addition to access to alternative sources
of income and food. Access to irrigation facilities, seeds and inputs is necessary to increase the
availability of vegetables in the first half of the coming year. Improved availability to quality beans, corn
seeds and root crops is required in order to prepare the next sowing period. Post-harvest conservation
methods and facilities must be improved in order to mitigate risks of additional crops losses.
Immediate access to income or food may be enhanced by food distribution or food and cash for work
activities. Small cattle production should be promoted as a source of food and income.

Information on the nutritional situation of children and the most vulnerable groups directly and
indirectly affected must be improved through nutritional surveys, in coordination with Health Ministry
and WHO.

Proposed strategy
In order to improve food consumption and support the re-habilitation of livelihoods the humanitarian
actors in the food security sector will coordination with local municipal authorities, SINAPRED and
COMUPRED. NGOs, WFP and FAO will work in a complimentary and coordinated manner in order to
prevent a duplication of interventions.

Interventions will focus on:

Food assistance: General Food Distribution (GFD) activities will be implemented in areas directly
affected by floods and shelters for the first three months. To the extent possible, GFD will transition
into short term food-for-work/assets focusing on recovery activities, including clean-up activities and


                                                     17
restoration of livelihoods of the affected communities. Activities will help rehabilitate community
infrastructure and agricultural productive capacities. Further, children under 2 will receive an additional
ration of fortified foods through supplementary feeding.

Early recovery: Activities will promote and support the re-habilitation and establishment of livelihoods
in communities that have suffered from high crop losses. Technical assistance and inputs will
contribute to recover food production, enhance seeds and food conservation capacities and re-store
community infrastructure. Preparation for the next harvest season will be prioritized.


 Objective:
 To reach vulnerable groups and communities whose food and nutrition security has been
 adversely affected by Tropical Depression 12E
 Outcomes                         Indicator               Activities
                                       Number of women, men, girls
                                       and boys receiving emergency
                                       food rations as a percentage
 Improved food consumption over                                              General food distribution,
                                       of planned figures.
 assistance period for target                                                supplementary feeding and
 emergency-affected households                                               food-for-work
                                       Quantity of food distributed, by
                                       type, as percentage of
                                       planned distribution
 Improved household food security                                            Distribution of agricultural
                                       Number of assets created or
 by strengthening the livelihoods                                            inputs and provision of
                                       restored by unit of measure
 of small scale farmers                                                      technical assistance.


Table of proposed coverage per site
              SITE / AREA
                                                                    ORGANIZATIONS
Managua Department
                                           PMA, FAO, RE.TE, Visión Mundial
Chinandega Department
                                           PMA, FAO, DWWH-ACTED, CARE, Visión Mundial
Leon Department
                                           PMA, FAO, DWWH-ACTED, CARE, Visión Mundial
Madriz Department
                                           PMA, FAO
Nueva Segovia Department
                                           PMA, FAO
Matagalpa Department
                                           PMA, FAO, CARE, DWWH-ACTED, Visión Mundial
Estelí Department
                                           PMA, FAO, CARE, DWWH-ACTED, Visión Mundial




                                                      18
4.5.2 WASH

 Cluster lead agency                    UNICEF
                                        Save the Children, World Vision International, NRC, BUSF (OXFAM and
 Implementing agencies
                                        CARE with other sources funds)
 Number of projects                     4
                                        Prevent morbidity and mortality caused by unsafe water consumption,
 Revised cluster objectives             inadequate sanitation and poor hygiene practices in the most affected
                                        communities.
                                        At least 25,000 people, including:
 Beneficiaries                                12,000 children
                                                7,000 women
 Funds requested                        USD 850,000
 Contact information                    amarro@unicef.org

Needs analysis

With the participation of SINAPRED and other governmental institutions and local/international NGOs,
a joint assessment has been organized and carried out after the launching of Flash Appeal, through
several field visits and meetings with local authorities at municipal level in order to obtain updated
information about WASH affectations. According to the figures obtained, a higher number of Water
and Sanitation facilities have been damaged compared with the initial data provided by the
government: in the most affected Departments (Chinandega, Leon, Estelí and Managua) around 1,100
wells were damaged, flooded or contaminated and around 10,800 latrines were damaged or flooded.

Due to the contamination of water sources and the lack of proper hygiene practices among the
population, a significant increase in the prevalence of diarrheal and respiratory diseases has resulted.
Shelters have been deactivated in most communities and people went back to their home.

The most relevant needs are, at community level: restore water services, treatment, storage and
distribution facilities; rehabilitation of sanitation facilities and solid waste disposals in public places;
implementing education and awareness raising activities about basic hygiene habits.

Proposed strategy
In order to improve health condition, the proposed strategy consists of:
- Cleaning, disinfection and rehabilitation of water sources (wells) and basic rehabilitation of water
    systems.
- Provide means of purification, storage and handling of safe water, including instructions for proper
    usage.
- Rehabilitation/construction of adequate sanitation means for safe excreta disposal; support solid
    waste disposals, at least in public places.
- Promote actions and good practices for hygiene promotion.

Revised cluster objectives

 Objective:
 Prevent morbidity and mortality caused by unsafe water consumption, inadequate sanitation and poor hygiene
 practices in the most affected communities.
 Outcomes                                   Indicator                           Activities
                                                                                Cleaning, disinfection and
                                                                                rehabilitation of water sources
 Improved access to safe water for                                              (wells) and basic rehabilitation of
                                            At least 50% of the population in
 population    affected  by   floods,                                           water systems.
                                            the targeted communities
 prioritizing the most vulnerable
                                            improves his access to safe         Provide means of purification,
 populations (children, pregnant and
                                            water.                              storage and handling of safe
 breastfeeding women).
                                                                                water, including instructions for
                                                                                proper usage.
                                                                                Rehabilitation/construction of
 Improve sanitation conditions and          At least 30% of the population in
                                                                                adequate sanitation means for
 solid waste disposal, for population       the targeted communities
                                                                                safe excreta disposal; support
 living in the most affected                improves his sanitation
                                                                                solid waste disposals, at least in
 communities.                               conditions.
                                                                                public places.

                                                         19
 Affected communities and families
 receiving key hygiene messages         At least 50% of the population in   Hygiene promotion campaign in
 (including hand washing, sanitation    the targeted communities            coordination with MoH, directed to
 and water treatment and storage)       receives hygiene promotion          promote actions and good
 aimed to promote good practices and    messages.                           practices.
 reduce high risk health hazards.



Table of proposed coverage per site

       SITE / AREA                                           ORGANIZATIONS
Chinandega Dept.
 Somotillo Municipality     Save the Children, BUSF (OXFAM with other source’s funds)
 Villa Nueva Municipality   Save the Children, BUSF, NRC
Leon Dept.
 El Sauce Municipality      Save the Children
 El Jicaral Municip.        Save the Children, BUSF
 Santa Rosa Peñon Mun.      Save the Children
 Achuapa Municip.           Save the Children, World Vision International
 Malpaisillo Municip.       Save the Children
Estelí Dept.
 Condega Municip.           NRC

Managua Dept.
 Tipitapa Municip.          NRC
 El Crucero Municip.        NRC




                                                      20
4.5.3. HEALTH

                                    PAN AMARICAN            HEATH     ORGANIZATION      –    WOLRD       HEALTH
 Cluster lead agency
                                    ORGANIZATION
 Implementing agencies              PAHO - WHO
 Number of projects                 Three (3)
                                        To keep functioning health services in shelters and communities
                                        affected by heavy rains and floods
                                        Improve access and use of safe drinking water with emphasis in
 Revised cluster objectives             shelters and health centers to reduce incidence of water-related
                                        diseases to levels below those initially found.
                                        Contribute to the strengthening of local capacities for monitoring,
                                        early warning and response to outbreak control.

                                    Up to 92,216
 Beneficiaries


 Funds requested                    USD 724,771.00

 Contact information                Guillermo Guevara


                                 Affected population                      Beneficiaries (if different)
Category
                                 Female       Male          Total         Female      Male          Total
Affected                         68,268       65,590        133,858       47,016      45,200        92,216


Needs analysis

The health sector has identified needs with regard to primary health attention to the affected
populations and control of outbreaks, efforts to ensure safe water for drinking and sanitation, recovery
of infrastructure in health care facilities and drinking water systems. These priorities corresponds to
the need to ensure adequate nutrition while the early recovery of agricultural activities are carried out,
Furthermore, comprehensive health attention should be guaranteed through the mobilization of
medical brigades to the affected areas to carry out promotion and prevention activities in community
health.

Populations affected by the floods are located in areas of high poverty, which increases the risk of
outbreak of disease. To ensure comprehensive care to the populations affected, response actions
should be cross-sector and inter-institutional, represented by the sectors of health, education,
environment, agriculture and the organized community.

The specific needs identified are:
 Ensure the quality of water for human consumption as a consequence of the damage in many mini
   aqueducts in rural communities of the affected SILAIS;
 The containment of outbreaks of dengue since the conditions are conducive to the proliferation of
   the vector is a challenge.
 The mobilization of health personnel to provide the services in the communities.

Proposed strategy

Strategy to bring health services to the most vulnerable are through visits of the integrated health
brigades in communities, which provides medical care and training to villagers. The rapid response
brigades would be mobilized in case of outbreaks of disease. They will furthermore train villagers in
the use of chlorine to ensure water for human consumption.

Revised sector objective


 Objective: Ensure that the population affected by floods in the 4 prioritized SILAIS enjoy health care, hygiene
 education, consume safe water with appropriate service and benefit from appropriate measures of surveillance
 and control of outbreaks


                                                       21
Outcomes                                  Indicator                           Activities
                                          At least 80% of the population      Brigades of health in response to
8    thousand      people  receiving
                                          affected in 4 prioritized SILAIS    the population prioritized in the 4
improved health care and education;
                                          enjoys    health   and     health   SILAIS
Health services guaranteed at least
                                          education.                          With the brigades of health
during the project period.
                                                                              educating the population in
                                                                              hygiene and sanitation.

                                                                              Centers      and     health   posts
                                                                              delivered and trained in the
                                                                              proper use of chlorine to families
8 thousand have water service, such
                                                                              affected in the 4 SILAIS.
as continuity, quantity and quality
                                                                              Population by making correct
8 thousand people make proper use         At least 80% of the population
                                                                              chlorine use and apply hygiene
of water service, such as efficiency      affected in 4 prioritized SILAIS
                                                                              measures.
and hygienic behavior                     enjoy safe water
                                                                              Health personnel monitors water
Minor incidence of water-related
                                                                              quality and supports people in the
diseases at least along the project
                                                                              use     of    chlorine    and   the
period.
                                                                              implementation of better hygiene
                                                                              practices


                                                                              Community surveillance for the
SILAIS         mostly affected by the
                                                                              active pursuit of suspected cases
intense rains, have basic capability to
                                                                              and referral to care centers
respond to outbreak control and
                                          100% Of the SILAIS prioritized as   Mobilization of fast response
surveillance.
                                          a result of the floods have         teams (RRT) for outbreak control
100% of SILAIS most affected by
                                          capacity for monitoring and         Acquisition of equipment and
intense rains initiated alert and
                                          responding to outbreaks             supplies      for     entomological
response actions for outbreak control
                                                                              surveillance and vector control.
in the first 48 hours



     SITE / AREA                                             ORGANIZATIONS
                     2      MoH
SILAIS León, 820 Km
SILAIS Chinandega 686       MoH
   2
Km
                       2    MoH
SILAIS Estelí 2,229 Km
SILAIS Managua 289          MoH
   2
Km




                                                       22
4.5.4 SHELTER

 Cluster lead agency                International Organization for Migration IOM
 Implementing agencies              UNFPA, UNICEF, WORLD VISION, BUSF
 Number of projects                 4
                                    To improve living conditions for evacuated families temporarily
 Revised cluster objectives         residing in shelters, and guarantee their dignity and provide better
                                    comfort
 Beneficiaries                      4,500 persons (900 families)
 Funds requested                    $ 767,037.00
 Contact information                czepeda@iom.int


                                           Affected population                   Beneficiaries (if different)
          Category
                                  Female         Male         Total        Female         Male           Total
IDPs                                    3,500      1,000           4,500

Needs analysis

With the flooding, product of the rains of the Tropical Depression 12E, affected people have been
relocated to emergency shelters as Strengthening the shelters’ management abilities, including their
capacity to prevent gender based violence and protect children.

Based on current working in active shelters, a need to assure to children and adolescents, conditions
that guarantee their protection and psycho-social rehabilitation in a timely manner in order to avoid
situations that threatens their rights or have repercussions in their mental and physical and emotional
health present and future has been identified. The risks of psycho-social stress, sexual and gender
violence, physical violence and abuse and separation of their families are latent

Gender based violence is a social problem that is aggravated during emergencies. The protection of
women and children during emergencies requires a concerted response against violence, including:
the determination of the zones and factors that facilitate gender based violence, the establishment of
participative management systems that guarantee the protection and increased access of victims of
gender based violence to medical and psychological attention.

Need to train community leaders, officers of MIFAN and Teachers in management of shelter in
emergencies and Minimum Standards for Education in Emergencies,

Proposed strategy

The number of active shelters has declined to about 12 shelters with approximately 900 families. The
sector will support families who are in shelters and some families living with solidarity families in some
departments. Shelter sector has made few changes. The UNFPA project has not being changed.
BUSF cut costs and made changes to activities related to training. IOM expanded its activities with
child protection and included as a counterpart to UNICEF. With World Vision has only made changes
in its objectives that are related to issues of protection to children. In conclusion, the main objective of
the sector is: Strengthening the shelters’ management abilities, including their capacity to prevent
gender based violence and protect children.

Revised cluster objectives

     Objective:
         1. To improve living conditions for evacuated families temporarily residing in shelters, and guarantee
             their dignity and provide better comfort
 Outcomes                                   Indicator                        Activities
        Nicaraguan Authorities will           Number of Women in               In coordination with
     gain a better understanding for the        emergency shelters,               SINAPRED, Municipal
     needs of IDPs during displacement.         victims of gender based           Authorities, COMUPRED, UN


                                                        23
         The      harmonization       of        violence, receiving medical       partner Agencies and NGOs,
     conditions will improve the quality         and legal attention during        establish coverage for mainly
     of the IDPs stay in the shelters.           the intervention                  affected areas, select priority
         Coordination mechanisms and           Number of institutional           locations and respond to
     shelter management strengthened             contingency plans that            primary needs.
     at national and local levels.               respond to the problem of        Complete assessment of
                                                 gender based violence             needs and beneficiaries in
                                                 within one month.                 selected locations/areas
                                                Number of Emergency               including the analysis of
                                                 shelters in Managua               situations and risks for gender
                                                 organized and physically          based violence
                                                 modified for the                 Evaluate preliminary impact
                                                 prevention, monitoring and        and further needs at the end
                                                 reporting of cases of             of an initial 3-month period.
                                                 gender based violence            Complete an architectural
                                                 within one month                  assessment of the shelters
                                                Number of People have             and establish a rebuilding and
                                                 been trained in the               rehabilitation action plan.
                                                 management of shelters           Induction workshops in
                                                 (10,300 people indirectly         coordination with SINAPRED
                                                 have benefited)                   for shelter managers including
                                                Number of People have             training of Shelter Committees
                                                 been trained in Minimum           to establish participative
                                                 Standards for Education in        management systems for the
                                                 Emergencies, Chronic              prevention, monitoring and
                                                 Crises and Early                  reporting of cases of gender
                                                 Reconstruction.                   based violence
                                                Number of People have            Analysis of situations and
                                                 been trained in sphere            risks for gender based
                                                 project                           violence in shelters and
                                                Shelters rebuilt in               modification of the physical
                                                 coordination with                 space of the shelters to
                                                 SINAPRED and MIFAN                reduce opportunities for
                                                Number of shelters                violence.
                                                 organizing psychosocial          Modification of the physical
                                                 rehabilitation and                space of the shelters to
                                                 educative activities for          reduce opportunities for
                                                 children                          violence
                                            -   Number of children under 6        Revision of contingency plans
                                                years participating in             of participating institutions to
                                                spaces of “ Amor para los          assure fair and common
                                                más Chiquitos” in shelters         standards of protection and
                                                and communities affected           assistance for victims of
                                                                                   gender based violence.
                                                                                  Training promoters (Provision
                                                                                   educative materials), teachers
                                                                                   and other communitarian
                                                                                   leaders to provide protection,
                                                                                   rehabilitation psychosocial
                                                                                   and safe spaces for learning
                                                                                   to children and adolescents
                                                                                  Monitoring and evaluation



Table of proposed coverage per site
       SITE / AREA                                            ORGANIZATIONS
Nueva Segovia               BUSF
Madriz                      BUSF
Estelí                      BUSF
Chinandega                  IOM
Leon                        WVI, BUSF
Managua                     IOM, UNFPA, WVI, BUSF
Masaya                      WVI
Jinotega                    BUSF
Matagalpa                   BUSF




                                                       24
4.5.5 EARLY RECOVERY

 Cluster lead agency                UNDP
                                    SINAPRED, Habitat for Humanity, German Agro-Action, World Vision and
 Implementing agencies
                                    UN-HABITAT
 Number of projects                 1
                                    Improved living condition in social, economic and physical terms of 610
 Revised cluster objectives
                                    families that were affected by the Tropical depression 12E
                                    At least 3,445 people, including:
 Beneficiaries                             1,722 children
                                            800 women
 Funds requested                    USD 1.900.000
 Contact information                Leonie.arguello@undp.org


Needs analysis

SINAPRED and other governmental institutions and local/international NGOs organized and carried
out a joint assessment after the launching of Flash Appeal, According to official figures 133,858
people were affected nationwide. 10,812 were the total number of houses affected by the Tropical
Depression 12-E (12,275 families). About 8924 homes are flooded, 318 in high-risk sites, 335
completely destroyed and 1235 partially destroyed.

The most relevant needs are, at community level:
                                                          Rehabilitation,
        implementing education and awareness raising activities about respond to natural disasters
more effectively.

Proposed strategy
In order to improve living condition, the proposed strategy consists of:

       Promote an emergency Income for Work Program (cash, food and social services) Jobs will
        include repair and rehabilitation of water systems, roads, schools, health centers and
        household considering
       Disaster Risk Reduction and provision of materials and tools for infrastructure rehabilitation
       Strengthened capacities of local authorities and people to respond to natural disasters more
        effectively.

Revised cluster objectives

 Objective: Improved living condition in social, economic and physical terms of 610 families that were affected
 by the Tropical depression 12E
 Outcomes                                Indicator                           Activities

                                                                             1.1Establish coordination and
                                         At the end of the programme,        delimit functions between the
                                         1,700 men and women have            different strategic partners.
                                         benefited from the money scheme     1.2.Select beneficiaries and
                                         for work.                           elaborate the work distribution
                                                                             plan under the scheme “Money
 1.-Contribute to generate incomes,
                                                                             for Work”
 under “money-for-work” mechanisms,
                                                                             1.3. Support the debris removal
 during the housing rehabilitation and
                                                                             process, cleaning and waste
 construction process and the
                                                                             disposal, rehabilitation and
 cleaning and repair of public
                                                                             reconstructions of public
 infrastructure.
                                                                             infrastructure through Money for
                                                                             work scheme.
                                                                             1.4. Train at least 2 people per
                                                                             family in housing self-construction
                                                                             techniques. Actions will be
                                         -610 (Estelí and Chinandega)        coordinated with INATEC in order
                                         families who have suffered          to facilitate instructors and
                                         damage to their houses benefit      training materials.


                                                      25
                                        from improvement project and          1.5. Provide tool kits, relief and
                                        housing construction.                 livelihood materials to facilitate
                                                                              the economic reactivation
                                                                              process.
                                                                              1.6. Improve the infrastructure of
                                                                              415 houses (478 families).
                                                                              1.7. Build 115 new houses (132
                                                                              families).
                                                                              2.1Develop analysis of sites in
                                                                              order to select safe settlement
                                        Number of sites identified as safe    locations, in coordination with
                                        for the establishment of              SINAPRED, Urban and Rural
                                        sustainable human settlements.        Housing Institute (INVUR),
 2.-Strengthened capacities of local
                                          Number of local authorities and     municipalities and affected local
 authorities and people to respond to
                                        committees involved in                communities.
 natural disasters more effectively.
                                        prevention, mitigation and            2.2 Provide risk management
                                        attention to disasters. At least 15   workshops and strengthen the
                                        developed workshops.                  committees of the districts for the
                                                                              prevention, mitigation and
                                                                              attention to disasters.




Table of proposed coverage per site

      SITE / AREA                                            ORGANIZATIONS
Chinandega Dept.


Estelí Dept.




                                                      26
4.6     ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES
The national response is led by the SINAPRED which coordinates the National System for Disaster
Prevention and Mitigation. The system articulates the State Sectors and Institutions, supported during
emergencies by the Operation Department in charge of the Emergency Operation Center (EOC). At
sub-national level, there are COMUPRED Commissions in all departments, and most of the
municipalities.

From the Government side, the response is organized in Sector working Commissions:

Sector Work Commission                            Government Leaders
Supplies Commission                               Ministry of Family (MIFAM)
Health Commission                                 Ministry of Health (MINSA)
Sub Commission of water and sanitation            Nicaraguan Aqueduct and Sewers Company (ENACAL)
Special Operations Commission                     Nicaragua Army (Civil Defense)
Security Commission                               Ministry of Government
Infrastructure Commission                         Ministry of Transport and Infrastructure (MTI)
Education and Information Commission              Ministry of Education and Culture
Natural Phenomena Commission                      Nicaraguan Institute for Territorial studies (INETER)
Environment Commission                            Ministry of Environment (MARENA)
Consumer Protection Commission                    Ministry of Finance and Commerce (MIFIC)

This arrangement partially overlaps with the clusters promoted by the Humanitarian Country Team
lead by the UN and described below, which will be in charge of the proposed strategy. The activated
sector commissions activated are:

      Cluster     Sector lead        Governmental               Other humanitarian stakeholders
                                responsible institution
Food             FAO            Ministry of agriculture   ACTED, ACH, Lutheran Federation, and Agro
Security                        MAGFOR                    Acción Alemana.
Food             WFP            SINAPRED
Assistance
Collective       IOM            Ministry of the Family    World Vision, ADRA, Nicaraguan Red Cross,
Centers/                        MIFAN                     Save the Children
Emergency
Shelter
Health           OPS            Ministry   of   Health    World Vision, RE-TE, Nicaraguan Red Cross
                                (MINSA)
WASH             UNICEF         Nicaraguan    Aqueduct    CARE, Nicaraguan Red Cross, ACH, ASB,
                                and Sewers Company        World Vision, Christian Aid, Save the Children,
                                ENACAL                    Lutheran Federation, ACTED.
Housing          PNUD           INVUR                     Save the Children, CARE, World Vision,
                                                          Intervida

Sectors are designed to support the National System, particularly in coordinating the international
humanitarian partners’ response. Upon declaration of emergency, most humanitarian partners
gathered as a Humanitarian Network as a first step in coordinating their response in line with the
strategic national orientation. It is the main forum for strategic and policy discussions amongst
international actors on how to support and complement the Government’s efforts to respond to the
emergency. An interagency technical group coordinated by the UN Emergency Technical Team
(UNETT) is also gathering sector information. An inter-agency assessment is running with participation
of national authorities and WFP and FAO.

The HCT ensures that cross-cutting issues are fully incorporated into its strategic response planning
and activities. All national technical sector commissions have met and discussed priorities with
humanitarian partners in order to elaborate funding proposal and operational response.




                                                 27
ANNEX I.    LIST OF PROJECTS

PROJECTS GROUPED BY SECTOR/CLUSTER WITH FUNDING STATUS OF EACH (TO BE INSERTED BY
CAP SECTION)




                                       28
PROJECTS GROUPED BY ORGANIZATION WITH FUNDING STATUS OF EACH (TO BE INSERTED BY
CAP SECTION)




                                        29
ANNEX II.   (I.E. RED CROSS ANNEX, MAPS, TABLES)…




                                 30
ANNEX III.   ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS

ADRA             Adventist Development and Relief Agency
CERF             Central Emergency Response Fund
COMUPRED         Comité Municipal para la Prevención, Mitigación y Atención
                 de Desastres
COREPRED         Comité Regional para la Prevención, Mitigación y Atención
                 de Desastres
ECHO             European Commission Humanitarian Office
ENACAL           Nicaraguan Aqueduct and Sewers Company
FAO              Food and Agriculture Organization
IDP              Internally Displaced People
INETER           National Institute for Territorial Studies
INVUR            Urban and Rural Institute
IOM              International Organization for Migration
MAGFOR           Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry
MARENA           Ministry of Natural Resource
MIFIC            Ministry of Finance, Industry and Commerce
MINSA            Ministry of Health
MOH              Ministry of Health
MTI              Ministry of Transport and Infrastructure
NGOs             Non-Governmental Organizations
PAHO             Pan American Health Organization-WHO Regional Bureau
RC               United Nations Resident Coordinator
SILAIS           Comprehensive Health Service Systems (Sistemas de Atención
                 Integral de Salud)
SINAPRED         National System for Attention, Mitigation and Prevention of Disasters
UNS              United Nations System
UNCT             United Nations Country Team
UNDAC            United Nations Disaster Assessment and Coordination
UNDMT            United Nations Disaster Manager Team
UNDP             United Nations Development Programme
UNETT            United Nations Emergency Team
UNFPA            United Nations Population Fund
UNICEF           United Nations Children’s Fun
USAID            United States Agency for International Development
WFP              World Food Programme
WHO              World Health Organization




                                        31
                                Consolidated Appeal Process (CAP)

The CAP is a tool for aid organisations to jointly plan, coordinate, implement and monitor their
response to disasters and emergencies, and to appeal for funds together instead of competitively.

It is the forum for developing a strategic approach to humanitarian action, focusing on close
cooperation between host governments, donors, non-governmental organisations (NGOs), the
International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, International Organization for Migration (IOM),
and United Nations agencies. As such, it presents a snapshot of the situation and response plans,
and is an inclusive and coordinated programme cycle of:

     Strategic planning leading to a Common Humanitarian Action Plan (CHAP);
     Resource mobilisation leading to a Consolidated Appeal or a Flash Appeal;
     Coordinated programme implementation;
     Joint monitoring and evaluation;
     Revision, if necessary;
     Reporting on results.

The CHAP is the core of the CAP – a strategic plan for humanitarian response in a given country or
region, including the following elements:

     A common analysis of the context in which humanitarian action takes place;
     An assessment of needs;
     Best, worst, and most likely scenarios;
     A clear statement of longer-term objectives and goals;
     Prioritised response plans, including a detailed mapping of projects to cover all needs;
     A framework for monitoring the strategy and revising it if necessary.

The CHAP is the core of a Consolidated Appeal or, when crises break out or natural disasters strike, a
Flash Appeal. Under the leadership of the Humanitarian Coordinator, and in consultation with host
Governments and donors, the CHAP is developed at the field level by the Humanitarian Country Team.
This team includes IASC members and standing invitees (UN agencies, the International Organization
for Migration, the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, and NGOs that belong to
ICVA, Interaction, or SCHR), but non-IASC members, such as national NGOs, can also be included.

The Humanitarian Coordinator is responsible for the annual preparation of the consolidated appeal
document. The document is launched globally near the end of each year to enhance advocacy and
resource mobilisation. An update, known as the Mid-Year Review, is presented to donors the
following July.

Donors generally fund appealing agencies directly in response to project proposals listed in appeals.
The Financial Tracking Service (FTS), managed by the United Nations Office for the Coordination of
Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), is a database of appeal funding needs and worldwide donor
contributions, and can be found on www.reliefweb.int/fts.

In sum, the CAP is how aid agencies join forces to provide people in need the best available
protection and assistance, on time.
O FFI CE FO R THE C O O RDI N ATI O N O F HUM ANI T ARI AN AF F AI RS
                               (OCHA)

              UNITED NATIONS          PALAIS DES NATIONS
         NEW YORK, N.Y. 10017         1211 GENEVA 10
                         USA          SWITZERLAND

								
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