Chapter 1 -
- Naming system that was developed by the Swedish naturalist Carolus
- Separated animals and plants according to certain physical
similarities and gave identifying names to each species
- Scientific classification uses Latin and Greek words to give
each animal and plant two names (similar to a first and last name)
- Does the Latin word mean something?
-Yes. It is usually a description of the characteristic the
animals have in common.
Ex. Chordata means to have a backbone
A vertebrate is any animal with a skull and backbone.
Ex. - fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals.
Make up the
majority of the
Most animal species
do not have a
Linnaeus’s System classified plants and
animals on seven levels
Classification of Several Mammals
Name Humans Lion Blue Whale
Kingdom Animalia Animalia Animalia
Phylum Chordata Chordata Chordata
Subphylum Vertebrata Vertebrata Vertebrata
Class Mammalia Mammalia Mammalia
Order Primates Carnivora Cetacea
Family Hominidae Felidae Balaenopteridae
Genus Homo Panthera Balaenoptera
Species sapiens leo musculus
Homo sapiens Panthera leo
Kingdom Animalia animals
Phylum Chordata has a backbone
Class Mammalia has a backbone and
nurses its young
Order Primates has a backbone, nurses its
young, highly developed brain,
complex social behavior
Family Hominidae and two footed primates
Genus Homo humans
Species sapiens 100,000 BC
1. In groups, devise your own system of classifying everyday objects around
the room. You should use at least four levels of classification.
2. You should end up with a two-part name for each of the several objects in
3. Use Linnaeus's system as a model, starting out with one classification level
that divides all the objects in the room into two major categories. For
example, the two “phyla” could be “natural” (made of natural materials) and
“artificial” (made of artificial materials); or “useful” and “decorative.” The two
major categories combined should include all objects in the room, and the
final “genus” and “species” names should exclude all objects but the one
4. You may use descriptive phrases rather than single words.
Kingdom - Grocery
Phylum – Cold Foods
Class - Fresh
Order - Dairy
Family - Liquid
Genus - Milk
Species – 1%
Latin Name – Milkus Onepercentus
Major Phyla and subgroups of the
Animal Kingdom or specific species
Animals Chapter 1 –
Section 1 Part 2
What is this?
An Embryo is an organism in the
earliest stage of development.
•Animals have specialized parts.
•When the fertilized egg divides the cells specialize.
These specialized cells arrange
themselves to form tissues.
Most animals also have organs,
which are a combination of
All animals, including the shark shown, have different organs
to do different jobs!
Chapter 1, Section 2:
Why do animals move?
To stalk for food
Fighting for territory
List some ways animals find food and
Owl swooping on a mouse
Bees fly to get nectar from a flower
Koala bears climb trees to get to eucalyptus leaves.
and lasso prey.
Chimpanzee uses tools.
How to avoid being eaten?
•At any given moment, an animal
diner can become another animals
•What does that mean?
Animals looking for food often have to think
about other things besides which food looks
or tastes the best.
• They have to pass up a good meal if getting it is too
dangerous. It’s important to be cautious and careful.
Some animals hide out.
• A rabbit freezes
Some Mimic Mimics a
or Blend rock
as a twig!
Mimics the leaves
Mimic the environment
Can you find me?
Some are ‘In Your Face Defenses’
Spines of a porcupine
Horns of a bull
These signal trouble to a potential predator!
Some animals defend themselves with
List some examples below:
Animals with a chemical defense
Bees, ants, & wasps inject a powerful acid
into their attackers.
Some have deadly toxins
Black-headed Pitohui bird
Poison dart frogs
The pitohui is one of the few poisonous birds.
This is not the only unusual thing about this
colorful, foul-smelling bird, however. The poison
that the bird emits is the same poison made by
the New World strawberry dart-poison frog.
How can two species that are
so different produce the same
poison? Scientists are now
exploring the mystery!!
Many times animals with chemical defenses use
color to WARN predators of their poison.
Predators will avoid
animals with colors and
patterns that they
associate with pain,
illness or an unpleasant
Most common warning colors are vivid red, yellow,
orange, and black with white.
When animals learn about warning coloration through
experience or observation of another animal this is
called learned behavior.
What Kind of Behavior ?
• They are influenced by our
A Fly is born to fly.
Our ability to
Behavior that is not learned or
observed is innate behavior.
Baby whales have the ability to swim.
Innate behavior can be modified by learning.
Birds are born with the ability to sing, but it takes
time for the skill to develop
•Learning can modify an innate behavior
•We inherit the ability to speak, but the
language we speak is learned.
Many animals learn by watching their parents.
Section 2 Part 2 - Seasonal
Many places animals
must deal with winter
• Many animals migrate
due to scarce food
because of winter or
Whales, salmon, bats, and
• Migration is to move
even chimpanzees migrate
from one place to
• Nesting grounds
• Some animals deal with
shortages by hibernating. • During this time, animals
• This is a period of inactivity survive on stored body fat!
and a decrease in body
temperature that some
animals experience in
and skunks all
• Winter is not the only
time resources can be
• Many desert squirrels
and mice experience a
similar slow down in the
heat of the summer
Rhythms of Life
• Animals do not read
calendars, but they
need to know when
to fly south for the
• The internal clocks
that trigger them
are called biological
Animals may use clues
from their surroundings
such as the length of
the day and the
temperature to set their
• Some biological
clocks keep track of
very small amounts
of time while
others control daily
cycles. • An example is
when animals wake
• These daily cycles up and go to sleep at
are called circadian about the same time
How do animals find their way?
When it is time to migrate, how do animals, such as
the arctic tern know which way to go?
How do animals find their way?
Coast line can be a
Many animals, including humans use
landmarks to navigate.
Landmarks are fixed objects that an animal
uses to find its way.
Bees and Pigeons have a
mental map of landmarks
of their home territory.
What are some other
examples of natural
• Animals use the
position of the sun
and stars as a map.
• Some migratory
birds find their way
with the Earth’s
Earth’s core acts as a giant magnet,
with magnetic north and south poles.
The strength and direction of the
Earth’s magnetic field varies from
place to place, and many birds use
this variation as a map. Some
migratory birds have tiny magnetic
crystals of magnetite in their heads
above the nostrils. Biologists think
that the crystals somehow move or
stimulate nerves so that a bird knows
What lies on the forest floor, 100
feet in the air??
A dead Centipede!