NAPOLEON BONAPARTE: HISTORY�S ULTIMATE SELF-MADE MAN by 3ueQJA6

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									NAPOLEÓN BONAPARTE:
 HISTORY’S ULTIMATE
   SELF-MADE MAN


        Jim Werbaneth
  La Roche College HIST1014
       14 October 2011
    The Early Life of Napoleone di
             Buonaparte
• Born in Corsica 15 August 1769.
• Family origins were in the minor Italian nobility.
• Commissioned in the French royal army in 1785.
• Problematic early career, fighting sometimes for,
  and sometimes against, anti-French Corsican
  rebels.
• Lengthy leaves of absence from the French
  army.
The Making of Napoleón Bonaparte
• French Revolution 1789.
• Republican sympathies, and connections with
  the Robespierre family; recommended to
  Maximilien Robespierre by his brother in 1793.
• Planned French victory in Siege of Toulon,
  September-December 1793.
• “A whiff of grapeshot” in defense of the National
  Assembly against a Royalist mob, 3 October
  1795.
Napoleón’s First Italian Campaign
 Napoleón’s First Italian Campaign
• Napoleón assigned to Army of Italy in
  1795 in order to consign him to obscurity.
• Army in terrible condition when Napoleón
  took command.
• Conducted brilliant campaign to drive
  Austria out of northern Italy and threaten
  Vienna.
Napoleón’s Egyptian Adventure
• Invaded Egypt in 1798.
• Defeated Mamelukes at the Battle of the
  Pyramids
• Fleet destroyed by Horatio Nelson in the Battle
  of the Nile.
• Abortive invasion of Syria.
• Abandoned his army on 24 August 1799 to
  return to France and seize power.
• Failures in Middle East spun to look like victory.
    The General’s Home Life
• Married to older woman, Joséphine de
  Beauharnais.
• Incapable of bearing more children.
• Loved her, but unfaithful.
• She was unfaithful to him.
    The First Consul and Ruler of
               France
• Seized power in Paris on 9 November 1799.
• Major accomplishments:
  – Invention of Egyptology ― Brought scientists,
    scholars and artists to Egypt.
  – Legal reformation and the Napoleonic Code.
  – Institution of metric system.
  – Emancipation of Jews.
  – Second Italian Campaign and Battle of Marengo in
    1800.
Empereur Napoleón 1er
Empereur Napoleón 1er
     Empereur Napoleón 1er
• Crowned himself Emperor of the French
  on 2 December 1804 in Notre Dame de
  Paris.
• Emperor of the French, NOT Emperor of
  France.
• Placed himself on an equal footing as the
  oldest dynasties of Europe, as a self-made
  monarch.
       Napoleón the Warlord
• Years of Victory
  – 1805: War with Austria and Russia, Victory at
    Austerlitz.
  – 1806: War with Prussia, Victories at Jena and
    Auerstadt.
  – 1807: Polish Campaign against Russia and
    Prussian refugee units ― Meeting with
    “Brother Emperor” Alexander I at Tilsit.
• Continually opposed, to the end of his
  career and even his life, by Britain.
       Napoleón the Warlord
• Years of Decline
• 1808: War with Austria, Battle of Wagram
  – Divorce of Empress Joséphine
  – Marriage to Marie Louise ― Now son-in-law
    of Emperor Joseph I of Austria
  – Birth of “King of Rome” and establishment of
    dynasty
• Start of Peninsular War 1807-1814.
       Napoleón the Warlord
• Years of Decline
  – 1812: The Russian Campaign
  – 1813: The War of German Liberation: Conflict
    with Russia, Prussia, Austria
  – 1814: Campaigns in northeastern France
    • Fall of Paris 31 March 1814
    • Abdication and exile to Elba
       The Emperor Returns
• Return from exile 1 March 1815.
• Return to power 20 March 1815.
• Declared an international outlaw on 13
  March.
• Battle of Waterloo 19 June 1815.
 The Emperor In Exile ― Again
• Sent to British island of St. Helena in the
  South Atlantic.
• Isolated from European affairs and family
  ― Marie Louise and young son taken to
  her family in Vienna.
• Died 5 May 1821.
  – Natural causes?
  – Murder?

								
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