Business Objects Enterprise FAQs-2

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					Business Objects Enterprise FAQs-2
182. Denied rights and granted rights, which rights has higher
precedence?
Denied rights take precedence over granted rights. This can cause
seemingly contradictory results when inheritance is enabled. Suppose
that the “View objects” right is explicitly denied to a Sales group for a
particular folder of reports. For the same folder, the “View objects”
right has been explicitly granted to a Manager user, and the “Respect
current security by inheriting rights from parent groups” check box is
selected.
The Manager user is a member of the Sales group. In this scenario, the
Manager user is both granted and denied the “See object” right to
the folder. Because denied rights take precedence, the Manager user is
effectively denied the ability to see the folder, so long as the user
account inherits rights from its parent group (Sales). To remedy this
situation, you could clear the “Respect current security by inheriting
rights from parent groups” check box on the Advanced Rights page for
the Manager user, or you could remove the Manager user from the Sales
group. Rights that are not specified are denied by default. On
the Advanced Rights page for any object, the Inherited Rights column
may label certain rights as “Not Specified.” This entry denotes rights that
are neither granted nor denied by inheritance. To prevent possible
security breaches, Crystal Enterprise automatically denies rights that are
not specified.

183. What are General object management concepts?
General object management concepts apply to all objects, such as
moving, copying, and deleting objects ex: how to search for objects,
how to modify object properties, and how to set object rights for users
and groups.

184. What are the Report object management concepts?
Managing report objects includes applying processing extensions,
specifying alert notification, changing database information, updating
parameters, using filters, and working with hyperlinked reports.

185. What are the Program object management concepts?
Program object management concepts includes program object
configuration, and security considerations for program objects.
186. What are object package management concepts?
Object package management concepts include managing object
packages and instances, and how to manage them through the Crystal
Management Console (CMC). Additionally, this also includes how to
create an object package and how to add objects to an object
package.

187. What are report objects?
A report object is an object that is created using a Crystal designer
component (such as Crystal Reports or Crystal Analysis). Report objects
contain report information (such as database fields). When you schedule
a report, Crystal Enterprise generates an instance or instances of the
object. A report object can be made available to everyone or to
individuals in selected user groups.
Note: When you publish a report object to Crystal Enterprise, only the
structure of the report (the template information) is saved; that is, the
published report object contains no saved data.

188. What are report instances?
Crystal Enterprise creates report instances from report objects—that
is, an instance is created when a report object is processed by the
Report Job Server. Essentially, an instance is a report object that
contains report data that is retrieved from one or more databases.
Each instance contains data that is current at the time the report or
query is processed.

189. How to set a report object’s refresh options?
To set a report object’s refresh options
1 In the Objects management area of the CMC, select a report object
by clicking its link.
2 On the Properties page, click the Refresh Options link.
3 Choose the report elements that you want to refresh from the source
report file.
4 Click Refresh Report.

190. What is the purpose of report viewing options available in
Crystal Enterprise?
The report viewing options available in Crystal Enterprise allow you to
balance users’ need for up-to-date information with the need to
optimize data retrieval times and overall system performance.
Crystal Enterprise allows you to enable data sharing, which permits
different users accessing the same report object to use the same data
when viewing or refreshing a report. Enabling data sharing reduces the
number of database calls, thereby reducing the time needed to generate
a report instance for subsequent users of the same report, while greatly
improving overall system performance under load.
You can control data sharing settings on either a per-report or a perserver
basis. If you specify which servers a report uses for viewing,
you can use per-server settings to standardize data sharing settings for
groups of reports, and centrally administer these settings. Per- report
settings permit you to specify that particular reports will not share
data. They also allow you to tailor the data sharing interval for each
report to meet the needs of that report’s users. In addition, per- report
settings enable you to decide on a report-by-report basis whether it is
appropriate to allow users to access the database whenever they
refresh reports.
Data sharing may not be ideal for all organizations, or for all reports. To
get full value from data sharing, you must permit data to be reused for
some period of time. This means that some users may see “old” data
when they view a report on demand, or refresh a report instance that
they are viewing.

191. Explain the default report viewing options available in Crystal
Enterprise?
The default report viewing options for Crystal Enterprise emphasize data
freshness and integrity. By default, when you add a report to Crystal
Enterprise it is configured to use per-server settings for report sharing.
The default server settings ensure that users always receive up-to-date
information when they refresh a report, and guarantee that the oldest
data given to any user is 0 minutes old. If you choose to enable perreport
settings, the default settings allow data sharing, allow a viewer
refresh to retrieve fresh data from the database, and ensure that the
oldest data given to a client is 5 minutes old.

192. How to set a report viewing options for a report?
To set report viewing options for a report
1 In the Objects management area of the CMC, select a report by
clicking its link.
2 Click the Process tab.
3 In the “Data Refresh for Viewing” area, click “Use report specific
viewing settings.” Then select the options that you want to set for this
report.
4 Click Update.

193. What is alert notification?
Alerts are custom messages, created in Crystal Reports, that appear
when certain conditions are met by data in a report. Alerts may
indicate action to be taken by the user or information about report
data. If the alert condition (as defined in Crystal Reports) is true, the
alert is triggered and its message is displayed.

194. What transport mechanism Crystal enterprise uses for
notification?
In Crystal Enterprise, you can choose to send alert notification when
scheduling a report. If you enable alert notification, messages are sent
through an SMTP server.
You can configure email delivery options, specify the “To,” “Cc,” and
“From” fields for the email, add subject and message information, set a
URL for the viewer you want the email recipient to use, and set the
maximum number of alert records to send.
Note:
• The Alert Notification link is available only if the report object
contains alerts.
• Alerts are triggered in the report object even if you disable alert
notification.
• To enable alert notification, you must also ensure that the Report Job
Server’s SMTP Destination is enabled and configured.
195. How to set filters?
In the Filters page, you set the default selection formulas for the
report. Selection formulas are similar to parameter fields in that they
are used to filter results so that only the required information is
displayed. Unlike parameters, end users will not be prompted for
selection formula values when they view or refresh the report.
When users schedule reports through a web-based client such as the
Crystal Enterprise web desktop, they can choose to modify the
selection formulas for the reports. By default, if any formulas are set in
the CMC, they will be used by the web-based client.
In addition to changing selection formulas, if you have developed your
own processing extensions, you can select the processing extensions
that you want to apply to your report. When you use filters in
conjunction with processing extensions, a subset of the processed data
is returned. Selection formulas and processing extensions act as filters
for the report.

196. What is the purpose of hyperlinked reports?
Crystal Reports lets you use hyperlinks to navigate from one report
object to another. You can move to a Report Part within the report itself,
to other report objects or their parts, or to specific instances of reports
or Report Parts. This navigation is available only in the new script-based
DHTML viewers (zero-client, server-side viewers) included in Crystal
Enterprise 10. By linking directly from one object to another, the
required data context is passed automatically so that you navigate to
the object and data that is relevant.
Initially, when you add hyperlinks between reports in Crystal Reports,
you create a link from one file directly to another. However, when you
publish linked report files simultaneously to the same object package,
the links are modified to point to managed report objects. (Each link is
changed, so that it references the appropriate destination report by
Enterprise ID, rather than by file path.) Also, the modified links become
relative inside the object package. When you schedule the object
package, Crystal Enterprise processes its reports, and again modifies
hyperlinks within each report instance: hyperlinks between report
objects in an object package are converted to hyperlinks between report
instances in a specific instance of the object package.
To view hyperlinked reports, you must publish both the home and
destination reports to the same Crystal Enterprise system. (A home
report is one that contains a hyperlink to another report: the
destination report.)

197. What are program objects?
A program object is an object in Crystal Enterprise that represents an
application.

198. What are the advantages of publishing a program object to
Crystal Enterprise?
Publishing a program object to Crystal Enterprise allows you to use
Crystal Enterprise to schedule and run the program object and to
manage user rights in relation to the program object.
When you publish a program object or its associated files to Crystal
Enterprise, they are stored in the File Repository Server (FRS). Each
time a Crystal Enterprise program runs, the program and files are
passed to the Program Job Server, and Crystal Enterprise creates a
program instance. Unlike report instances, which you can view in their
completed format, program instances exist as records in the object
history.
Crystal Enterprise stores the program’s standard out and standard
error in a text output file. This file appears when you click a program
instance in the object History.

199. What are the types of applications that can be published to
Crystal Enterprise as program objects?
Three types of applications can be published to Crystal Enterprise as
program objects:
• Executable
Executable programs are binary files, batch files, or shell scripts. They
generally have file extensions such as: .com, .exe, .bat, .sh. You can
publish any executable program that can be run from the command line
on the machine that runs the Program Job Server.
• Java
You can publish any Java program to Crystal Enterprise as a Java
program object. For Java program objects to have access to Java SDK
objects, your class must implement the IProgramBase interface from
the Crystal Enterprise Java SDK
(com.crystaldecisions.sdk.plugin.desktop.program.IProgramBase).
• Script
Script program objects are JScript and VBScript scripts. They are run
on Windows using an embedded COM object and can—once
published—reference the Crystal

200. How to set Authentication for program objects?
Be aware of the potential security risks associated with the publication
of program objects. As the administrator, you must protect the system
against abuse. The level of file permissions for the account under which
a program object runs will determine what modifications, if any, the
program can make to files.
You can control the types of program objects users can run, and you
can configure the credentials required to run program objects.

201. How to enable or disable a type of program object?
Enabling or disabling a type of program object
As a first level of security, you can configure the types of program
objects available for use. To enable or disable a type of program
object
1 In the Objects management area of the CMC, click Object Settings.
2 Click the Program Objects tab.
3 Select the type or types of program objects you want users to run.
202. How to set authentication for Java programs ?
Crystal Enterprise allows you to set security for all program objects. For
Java programs, Crystal Enterprise forces the use of a Java Policy File,
which has a default setting that is consistent with the Java default for
unsecure code. Use the Java Policy Tool (available with the Java
Development Kit) to modify the Java Policy File, to suit your specific
needs.
The Java Policy Tool has two code base entries. The first entry points to
the Crystal Enterprise Java SDK and allows program objects full rights to
all Crystal Enterprise JAR files. The second code base entry applies to all
local files. It uses the same security settings for unsecure code as the
Java default for unsecure code.

203. What are object packages?
Object packages function as distinct objects in Crystal Enterprise.
Think of them as folders you can schedule, along with all of their
contents.
Object packages can be composed of any combination of report and
program objects that are published to the Crystal Enterprise system.
(Non-Crystal Enterprise objects, such as Excel, Word, Acrobat, Text,
Rich Text, PowerPoint, and Hyperlink objects, cannot be added to
object packages.)

204. What are Object components?
The objects within an object package are called object package
component objects. Placing multiple component objects in a single
object package allows you to schedule them simultaneously. For
reports, object packages allow users to view synchronized data across
reports. Component objects are not autonomous. They have more
limited configuration options than other objects, and they do not
appear in the list of all objects on the first page of the Objects
management area of the CMC. Rather, you can only view them by
opening their object package.

205. What are Object package instances?
Crystal Enterprise creates an object package instance each time it runs
an object package. The object package instance contains individual
instances of each of its component objects. Component instances are
tied to object package instances, rather than to component objects.
For example, if you run an object package, and thereby create an
instance, then remove a report object from the object package, the
existing object package instance does not change; it still contains the
report instance from the report object that you removed. Future
instances of the object package, however, will reflect the change.
For hyperlinked report instances in object package instances, the
hyperlinks point to the other report instances in the same object
package instance.

206. Explain the authentication options available for object packages?
Object packages simplifies both Enterprise and database authentication.
You enter your Enterprise authentication only once to schedule the
object package, including all of its component objects. Consequently,
you must have scheduling rights for each of the objects inside the object
package. If you attempt to schedule a package that contains one or
more component objects to which you do not have schedule rights, the
component instance(s) fail(s).
For database authentication, you specify database logon information for
each report component object in the object package. (If you copied the
report into the object package, it initially inherits the database logon
information of the original report.)

207. What is the purpose of scheduling an Object?
Scheduling an object lets you run it automatically at specified times.
You can schedule report objects, program objects, and object
packages.
When you schedule an object, Crystal Enterprise generates an instance
that contains information that is captured when the object is run. Report
instances contain relevant database information; for example, instances
for program objects contain the standard out and standard error
produced by that instance of the program. Your instance uses all of the
settings that you have set in the CMC for the original object.

208. What are the various types of scheduling options available in
Crystal Enterprise?
Scheduling Systems
You can specify the servers that objects use for scheduling, and you
can create calendars to provide your users with sets of common
scheduling dates.
Scheduling objects
You can schedule objects in various ways, such as scheduling objects
on demand, daily or monthly, in batches, or with events.

209. How to Manage Calendars?
Calendars make it easy for you to schedule complex recurring jobs
efficiently. A calendar is a customized list of run dates for scheduled
jobs. When users schedule objects, they can use a calendar to run the
job on a predefined set of dates. By providing calendars for your users,
you can create more complex processing schedules than you can with
the standard scheduling options.
Calendars are particularly useful when you want to run a recurring job
on an irregular schedule, or if you want to provide users with sets of
regular scheduling dates to choose from. Calendars also allow you to
create more complex processing schedules, combining unique
scheduling dates with recurring ones.
For example, if you want a report object to run every business day
except for your country’s statutory holidays, you can create a calendar
with the holidays marked as “non-run” days, on which the report object
cannot be run. Crystal Enterprise will run the job every day you have
specified as a “run” day in your calendar.

210. Is there any limitation for number of calendar events to
schedule in Crystal Enterprise?
No. You can set up as many calendars as you want in Crystal
Enterprise. Calendars you create appear in the Calendar selection list
available when you choose to schedule an object using a calendar.
When you apply the calendar to a job, Crystal Enterprise runs the job
on the run dates as scheduled.
You can apply calendars to any object that can be scheduled, including
report objects, program objects, and object packages.

211. Can the access level be specified for Calendar ?
You can grant or deny users and groups access to calendars.
Depending how you organize your calendars, you may have specific
sets of dates that you want to be available only for certain employees
or departments.
For example, your finance team may use a series of financial tracking
dates that aren’t useful for other departments. Users will only be able to
see the calendars they have the rights to see, so you can use rights to
hide calendars that aren’t applicable to a particular group.

212. How to grant access to a calendar?
To grant access to a calendar
1 Go to the Calendars management area of the CMC.
2 Select the calendar you want to grant access to.
3 Click the Rights tab.
4 Click Add/Remove to add users or groups that you want to give
access to the selected calendar.
The Add/Remove page appears.
5 In the Select Operation list, select Add/Remove Groups, Add Users,
or Remove Users.
6 Select the user or group you want to grant access to the specified
calendar.
If you have many users on your system, select the Add Users
operation; then use the “Look for” field to search for a particular
account.
7 Click OK.
8 On the Rights tab, change the Access Level for each user or group,
as required.
9 To choose specific rights, choose Advanced.
For complete details on the predefined access levels and advanced
rights, see “Rights and Access Levels” on page 413.
10 Click Update.

213. Is it possible to schedule Objects in batches ?
Yes. You can schedule objects in batches using the object packages
feature. Object packages function as distinct objects in Crystal
Enterprise. They can be composed of any combination of report and
program objects published to the Crystal Enterprise system. (Other
types of objects, such as Excel, Word, Acrobat, Text, Rich Text,
PowerPoint, and Hyperlink objects, cannot be added to object
packages.)
Using object packages to schedule batches of objects simplifies
authentication. In terms of reports, it allows users to view
synchronized data across report instances.

214. Scheduling an object with events ?
When you schedule an object with events, the object will be run only
when the additional condition (that is, the event) occurs. You can tell
an object to wait for any, or all of the three event types: file-based,
custom-based, and schedule-based.
If you want a scheduled object to trigger an event, you must choose a
schedule based event.
Note: A file-based event is triggered upon the existence of a specified
file. A
custom-based event is triggered manually. A schedule-based event is
triggered by another object being run.
When you schedule an object that waits for a specified event, the
object will run only when the event is triggered, and only when the
rest of the schedule conditions are met. If the event is triggered before
the start date of the object, the object will not run.
If you have specified an end date for this object, and if the event is not
triggered before the end date occurs, the object will not run because not
all of the conditions will have been met. Also, if you choose a weekly,
monthly, or calendar schedule, the object will have a specified time
frame in which it can be processed.
The event must be triggered within this specified time for the object to
run. For example, if you schedule a weekly report object that runs every
Monday, the event must be triggered within the 24-hour period on
Monday; if the event is triggered outside of the 24-hour period, then the
report will not run.
You can also schedule an object which triggers a schedule-based event
upon completion of the object being run. When the object is run,
Crystal Enterprise will trigger the specified event. For a schedule-based
event, if the event is based on the instance being run successfully, for
example, the event won’t be triggered if the instance fails.

215. Does FTP scheduling supported?
Yes. Crystal Enterprise enables you and your users to schedule an
object to a File Transfer Protocol (FTP) server. To connect to the FTP
server, you must specify a user who has the necessary rights to
upload files to the server.
Note: You must have this destination feature enabled in the Job Server
in order to schedule an object to an FTP server
216. Does SMTP scheduling supported?
Yes. With Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) mail support, you and
your users can do the following:
• Send an object as an attachment in the email.
• Specify the “To,” “Cc,” and “From” in the email.
• Add subject information.
• Include additional information in the body message, which will
accompany the object that is being delivered.
Crystal Enterprise supports Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions
(MIME) encoding.
Note: You must have this destination feature enabled and configured
in the Report Job Server in order to schedule an object to be sent via
email.

217. What are the supported formats a report instance can be saved?
The following formats are supported:
• Crystal Report
• Excel
• Excel (Data Only)
• Word
• Acrobat
• Rich Text
• Plain Text
• Paginated Text
• Tab-separated Text
• Tab-separated Values
• Character-separated Values
For Excel, Paginated Text, Tab-separated Values, and Characterseparated
Values, you specify certain formatting properties for the
report. For example, if you select Character-separated Values, you can
enter characters for the separator and delimiter; you can also select the
two check boxes: “Same number formats as in report” and “Same date
formats as in report.”

218. Does viewing the history of instances supported ?
Yes. The History page displays all of the instances for a selected
object. The Instance Time column displays the title of the instances
and the date of the last update for each instance. The Status column
displays the status of each instance. The Run By column indicates
which user scheduled the instance.
For report objects, the Format column displays which format the report
is, or will be stored in and the Parameters column indicates what
parameters were or will be used for each instance. For program objects,
the Arguments column lists the command-line options that were or will
be passed to the command line interface for each
instance.
Crystal Enterprise creates instances from objects. That is, a report
instance is created when a report object is scheduled and run by the
Report Job Server.
Essentially, a report instance is a report object that contains report
data that is retrieved from one or more databases. Each instance
contains data that is current at the time the report is processed. You
can view specific report instances on the History page of the report
object.
Crystal Enterprise creates a program instance each time that a
program object is scheduled and run by the Program Job Server.
Unlike report instances, which can be viewed in their completed
format, program instances exist as records in the object history.
Crystal Enterprise stores the program’s standard out and standard
error in a text output file. This file appears when you click a program
instance in the object History.
219. How to schedule notification for an object’s success or failure ?
You can set scheduling options that automatically send notification
when an object instance succeeds or fails. You can send notification
using audit or email notification. You can also combine multiple
notification methods, and provide different notification settings for
successful and failed instances.
For example, you may have a large number of reports that run a new
instance every day. You need to check each instance to make sure it
ran properly, and then send out emails to the users who need to know
that the new report is available.
With thousands of reports, it would take too much time to manually
check the reports and contact the users who need the information.
Using notification settings in Crystal Enterprise, you can set each
object to automatically notify you when the report fails to run properly,
and you can automatically inform users when new report instances run
successfully.

220. How Crystal Enterprise determines success or failure for Report
Objects?
A report instance runs successfully if it doesn’t encounter any errors
while processing the report or accessing the database. A report
instance may fail if the user does not provide the correct parameters
or logon information.

221. How Crystal Enterprise determines success or failure for
Program Objects?
For program objects, the program must run in order to succeed. If the
program does not run, the instance is considered a failure. If the
program runs, but does not perform the tasks it is supposed to, it is still
considered a successful instance because the program object ran.
Crystal Enterprise does not monitor problems with the program object’s
code.

222. How Crystal Enterprise determines success or failure for Object
Packages?
An object package may fail if one of its components fails. To change
this setting, click the object package’s Properties tab and clear the
“Scheduled package fails upon individual component failure” option.
You can also set scheduling options for individual objects within an
object package.
Note: You cannot set audit or email notification for object packages, but
you can set any type of notification for the individual objects in the
object package. You can also schedule object packages with events on
the Schedule tab.

223. Explain about Object level notification?
You can set notification at the object level, and you can apply it to all
objects that can be scheduled in Crystal Enterprise. You can select
unique notification options for each object, sending different types of
notification for different conditions. For object packages, you can set
only event notification, which will trigger an event based on success or
failure of the object package.
To monitor object successes and failures from a more general
perspective, use the auditing functionality within Crystal Enterprise. If
notification fails, then the object instance fails. For example, if an
email notification sends a message to an invalid email address, then
the notification fails and the object instance is recorded as a failure in
the object’s history.
224. What are the types of Notification options available in Crystal
enterprise?
The types of notification options available are
• Audit notification
• Email notification
• Event notification

225. How to use Audit Notification?
To use audit notification, you must configure the auditing database
and enable auditing for the servers. If you use auditing to monitor
your Crystal Enterprise system, you can use audit notification.
When you select audit notification, information about the scheduled
object is written to the auditing database. You can choose to have a
notification sent to the auditing database when the job runs
successfully, when it fails to run, or both.
Note: For the Crystal Report Server and the Crystal Program Server,
you can also set audit notification on the Auditing tab.

226. How to use Email notification?
You can send an email as a notification of an object instance’s success
or failure.
You can choose the sender and recipients of the email message. You
can send an email when the instance fails and when it succeeds. For
example, you could send your administrator an email if the report
fails, but when the report succeeds you can automatically send a
notification to everyone who needs the report to let them know it is
now available.

227. How to use Event notification?
You can choose a Crystal Enterprise event that will be triggered based
on the completion of the object instance.
Note: Notification of a scheduled object’s success or failure is not the
same as alert notification. Alert notification must be built into the
design of the report. For example, alert notification can send an email
to you whenever a specific value in the report exceeds $1000000. In
this case, the notification has nothing to do with the contents of the
report - it’s just about whether or not the report object instance has
failed or succeeded.

228. What is Crystal Repository?
The Crystal Repository is a database in which you manage shared
report elements such as text objects, bitmaps, custom functions, and
custom SQL commands. When you save any Business View, it is also
saved to the Crystal Repository.You can refresh a report’s repository
objects with the latest version from your Crystal Repository when you
publish reports to Crystal Enterprise. Alternatively, you can refresh a
report’s repository objects on demand over the Web.
The Crystal Repository is now hosted by the Crystal Management
Server (CMS) system database. Before publishing reports that
reference repository objects, move your existing Crystal Repository to
the Crystal Management Server (CMS) database.

229. Can the data from one repository be copied to another
repository?
Yes. Crystal Enterprise enables you to copy the contents of one Crystal
Repository database into another database. This procedure is also
referred to as migrating a Crystal Repository database. You can migrate
repository data from a different repository database (from version 9 of
Crystal Reports, or version 9 of Crystal Enterprise) into your current
CMS database. Or, you can migrate the repository data from your
current CMS database into a different data source.

230. What is the purpose of Event based Object scheduling?
Event-based scheduling provides you with additional control over
scheduling objects: you can set up events so that objects are processed
only after a specified event occurs. Working with events consists of two
steps: creating an event and scheduling an object with events. That is,
once you create an event, you can select it as a dependency when you
schedule an object. The scheduled job is then processed only when the
event occurs.

231. How many types of events can be created in the Events
management area of the Crystal Management Console (CMC)?
You can create three kinds of events:
- File events
- Schedule events
- Custom Events

232. How to create a file-based event?
When you define a file-based event, you specify a filename that the
Event Server should monitor for a particular file. When the file appears,
the Event Server triggers the event. For instance, you might want to
make some reports dependent upon the regular file output of other
programs or scripts.

233. How to create a schedule-based event?
When you define a schedule-based event, you select an object whose
existing recurrence schedule will serve as the trigger for your event. In
this way, schedule-based events allow you to set up contingencies or
conditions between scheduled objects. For instance, you might want
certain large reports to run sequentially, or you might want a
particular sales summary report to run only when a detailed sales
report runs successfully.

234. How to create Custom events?
When you create a custom event, you create a shortcut for triggering an
event manually. Basically, your custom event occurs only when you or
another administrator clicks the corresponding “Trigger this event”
button in the CMC.

235. What is the process that occurs after creating File-based events?
File-based events wait for a particular file (the trigger) to appear before
the event occurs. Before scheduling an object that waits for a file-based
event to occur, you must first create the file-based event in the Events
management area of the CMC. Then you can schedule the object and
select this event. File-based events are monitored by the Event Server.
When the file that you specify appears, the Event Server triggers the
event. The Crystal Management Server (CMS) then releases any
schedule requests that are dependent on the event.
For instance, suppose that you want your daily reports to run after
your database analysis program has finished and written its automatic
log file. To do this, you specify the log file in your file-based event, and
then schedule your daily reports with this event as a dependency. When
the log file appears, the event is triggered and the reports are
processed.
Note: If the file already exists prior to the creation of the event, the
event is not triggered. In this case, the event is triggered only when
the file is removed and then recreated. If you want an event to be
triggered multiple times, you must remove and recreate the file each
time.

236. What is the process that occurs after creating Schedule-based
events?
Schedule-based events are dependent upon scheduled objects. That is, a
schedulebased event is triggered when a particular object has been
processed. When you create this type of event, it can be based on the
success or failure of a scheduled object, or it can be based simply on the
completion of the job.
Most importantly, you must associate your schedule-based event with
at least two scheduled objects. The first object serves as the trigger for
the event: when the object is processed, the event occurs. The second
object is dependent upon the event:
when the event occurs, this second object runs. For instance, suppose
that you want report objects R1 and R2 to run after program object P1
runs. To do this, you create a schedule-based event in the Events
management area. You specify the “Success” option for the event,
which means that the event is triggered only when program P1 runs
successfully. Then, you schedule reports R1 and R2 with events, and
select your new schedule-based event as the dependency. Schedule
program P1 with events, and set program P1 to trigger the schedulebased
event upon successful completion.
Now, when program P1 runs successfully, the schedule-based event is
triggered, and reports R1 and R2 are subsequently processed.

237. What is the process that occurs after creating Custom events?
A custom event occurs only when you explicitly click its “Trigger this
event” button.
As with all other events, an object based on a custom event runs only
when the event is triggered within the time frame established by the
object’s schedule parameters.
Custom events are useful because they allow you to set up a shortcut
that, when clicked, triggers any dependent schedule requests.
For instance, you may have a scenario where you want to schedule a
number of reports, but you want to run them after you have updated
information in your database. To do this, create a new custom event,
and schedule the reports with that event. When you update the data in
the database and you need to run the reports, return to the event in the
CMC and trigger it manually. Crystal Enterprise then runs the reports.

238. Can a custom event be triggered multiple times?
Yes. You can trigger a custom event multiple times. For example, you
might schedule two sets of event-based program objects to run daily—
one set runs in the morning, and one set runs in the afternoon. When
you first trigger the related custom event in the morning, one set of
programs is run; when you trigger the event again in the afternoon, the
remaining set of programs is run. If you neglect to trigger the event in
the morning and trigger it only in the afternoon, both sets of programs
run at that time.

239. How can the metrics be viewed. What is the information metrics
consist of?
The CMC allows you to view server metrics over the Web. These metrics
include general information about each machine, along with details that
are specific to the type of server. The CMC also allows you to view
system metrics, which include information about your product version,
your CMS, and your current system activity.

240. How to view current server metrics?
The Servers management area of the CMC displays server metrics that
provide statistics and information about each Crystal Enterprise server.
The general information displayed for each server includes information
about the machine that the server is running on—its name, operating
system, total hard disk space, free hard disk space, total RAM, number
of CPUs, and local time. The general information also includes the time
the server started and the version number of the server.

241. For Input and Output File Repository servers what kind of
metrics will be listed?
The Metrics tab of each File Repository Server lists the root directory
of the files that the server maintains, indicates the maximum idle time,
and displays the number of active files and active client connections. It
also lists the total available hard disk space, as well as the number of
bytes sent and received.
Each File Repository Server also has an Active Files tab, which lists the
filename, the number of readers, and the number of writers for each
active file.

242. For Web Component Servers what kind of metrics will be listed?
The Metrics tab of the Web Component Server (WCS) includes statistical
data about the requests that it handles. It lists the total number of
requests, the current number of requests, the total number of bytes
sent, the average bytes per request, the total time taken, and the
average time taken per request. This information is useful in
determining how efficiently the WCS is handling the requests that are
sent to it.

243. For Cache servers what kind of metrics will be listed?
The Metrics tab of the Cache Server displays the maximum number of
processing threads, the maximum cache size, the minutes before an
idle job is closed, the minutes between refreshes from the database,
whether or not the database is accessed whenever a viewer’s file
(object) is refreshed, the location of the cache files, the total threads
running, the number of requests served, the number of bytes
transferred, the cache hit rate, the number of current connections, and
the number of requests that are queued.
The Metrics tab also provides a table that lists the Page Servers that
the Cache server has connections to, along with the number of
connections made to each Page Server.

244. For Event server what kind of metrics will be listed?
The Metrics tab of the Event Server contains statistics on the files that
the server is monitoring. This tab includes a table showing the file name
and the last time the event occurred.

245. For Page Server what kind of metrics will be listed?
The Metrics tab of the Page Server contains information on how the
server is running.
It lists the maximum number of simultaneous report jobs, the location
of temporary files, the number of minutes before an idle connection is
closed, the minutes before a report job is closed, the maximum number
of database records shown when previewing or refreshing a report, the
oldest processed data given to a client, whether a viewer refresh always
hits the database, and the setting for the Report Job Database
Connection.
It also shows the number of current connections, the number of
requests queued, the current number of processing threads running,
the total number of requests served, and the total bytes transferred.

246. For Report Application Server what kind of metrics will be listed?
The Metrics tab of the Report Application Server (RAS) shows the
number of reports that are open, and the number of reports that have
been opened. It also shows the number of open connections, along with
the number of open connections that have been created.

247. For Report Job Server what kind of metrics will be listed?
The Metrics tab of the Job Server lists the current number of jobs that
are being processed, the total number of requests received, the total
number of failed job creations, the processing mode, and the location of
its temporary files.

248. For Program Job Server what kind of metrics will be listed?
The Metrics tab of the Program Job Server lists the current number of
program objects that are being processed, the total number of
requests received, the total number of failed program object creations,
the processing mode, and the location of its temporary files.

249. For Crystal Management Server what kind of metrics will be
listed?
The Metrics tab of the CMS lists only the general information about the
machine it is running on. The Properties tab, however, shows a list of
users who have active sessions on the system. Click any user’s link to
view the associated account details.

250. How to view Server metrics?
To view server metrics
1 Go to the Servers management area of the CMC.
2 Click the link to the server whose metrics you want to view.
3 Click the Metrics tab.

251. How to view System metrics ?
Viewing system metrics
The Settings management area of the CMC displays system metrics
that provide general information about your Crystal Enterprise
installation. The Properties tab includes information about the product
version and build. It also lists the data source, database name, and
database user name of the CMS database.
The Metrics tab lists current account activity, along with statistics
about current and processed jobs.
The Cluster tab lists the name of the CMS you are connected to, the
name of the CMS cluster, and the names of other cluster members.

252. Does Crystal Enterprise supports clustering CMS and failover
support?
Yes. If you have a large or mission-critical implementation of Crystal
Enterprise, you will probably want to run several CMS machines
together in a CMS cluster.
A CMS cluster consists of two or more CMS servers working together to
maintain the system database. If a machine that is running one CMS
fails, a machine with another CMS will continue to service Crystal
Enterprise requests.
This “failover” support helps to ensure that Crystal Enterprise users
can still access information when there is equipment failure.

253. What are the clustering requirements to meet to add a new CMS
server to a cluster?
You must meet the following clustering requirements:
• For best performance, the database server that you choose to host
the system database must be able to process small queries very
quickly. The CMS communicates frequently with the system database
and sends it many small queries. If the database server is unable to
process these requests in a timely manner, Crystal Enterprise
performance will be greatly affected.
• For best performance, run each CMS cluster member on a machine
that has the same amount of memory and the same type of CPU.
• Configure each machine similarly:
• Install the same operating system, including the same version of
operating
system service packs and patches.
• Install the same version of Crystal Enterprise (including patches, if
applicable).
• Ensure that each CMS connects to the CMS database in the same
manner:
whether you use native or ODBC drivers, ensure that the drivers are
the
same on each machine, and are a supported version.
• Ensure that each CMS uses the same database client to connect to
its system database, and that it is a supported version.
• Check that each CMS uses the same database user account and
password to connect to the CMS database. This account must have
create, delete, and
update rights on the system database.
• Run each CMS service/daemon under the same account. (On
Windows, the
default is the “LocalSystem” account.)
• Verify that the current date and time are set correctly on each CMS
machine (including settings for daylight savings time).
• Ensure that each and every CMS in a cluster is on the same Local
Area
Network.
• If you wish to enable auditing, each CMS must be configured to use
the same auditing database and to connect to it in the same manner.
The requirements for the auditing database are the same as those for
the system database in terms of database servers, clients, access
methods, drivers, and user IDs.

254. How to set root directories and idle times of the File Repository
Servers?
The Properties tabs of the Input and Output File Repository Servers
enable you to change the locations of the default root directories. These
root directories contain all of the report objects and instances on the
system. You may change these settings if you want to use
different directories after installing Crystal Enterprise, or if you
upgrade to a different drive (thus rendering the old directory paths
invalid).

255. Hoe to modify the performance settings for the Report
Application Server?
The Server tab of the Report Application Server (RAS) in the Crystal
Management Console allows you to modify the number of minutes
before an idle connection is closed, and the maximum number of
simultaneous processing threads.

256. What is “Minutes Before an Idle Connection is Closed” setting?
The “Minutes Before an Idle Connection is Closed” setting alters the
length of time that the RAS waits for further requests from an idle
connection. Before you change this setting, it is important to
understand that setting a value too low can cause a user’s request to
be closed prematurely, and setting a value that is too high can affect
the server’s scalability (for instance, if the ReportClientDocument
object is not closed explicitly, the server will be waiting unnecessarily
for an idle job to close).

257. What is the “Maximum Simultaneous Report Jobs” setting?
The “Maximum Simultaneous Report Jobs” setting limits the number of
concurrent reporting requests that a RAS processes. The default value is
acceptable for most, if not all, reporting scenarios. The ideal setting for
your reporting environment, however, is highly dependent upon your
hardware configuration, your database software, and your reporting
requirements.

258. What is the procedure to modify performance settings for the
RAS?
To modify performance settings for the RAS
1 Go to the Servers management area of the CMC.
2 Click the link to the RAS whose settings you want to change.
3 Make your changes on the Server tab.
4 Click Apply to submit changes and restart the server so that the
changes take effect immediately.

259. How to set the email destination?
Setting the default email (SMTP) destination
1 Go to the Servers management area of the CMC.
2 Click the link to the Job Server whose settings you want to change.
3 On the Destinations tab, click the Crystal Enterprise.Smtp link.
4 On the Properties tab, complete the required fields with the
information that corresponds to your SMTP server.

260. What are the required fields for SMTP server ?
• Domain Name
Enter the fully qualified domain of the SMTP server.
• Server Name
Enter the name of the SMTP server.
• Port
Enter the port that the SMTP server is listening on. (This standard
SMTP port is 25.)
• Authentication
Select Plain or Login if the Job Server must be authenticated using one
of these methods in order to send email.
• SMTP User Name
Provide the Job Server with a user name that has permission to send
email and attachments through the SMTP server.
• SMTP Password
Provide the Job Server with the password for the SMTP server.
• From
Provide the return email address.
In this example, the SMTP server resides in the crystaldecisions.com
domain.
Its name is EMAIL_SERV and it is listening on the standard SMTP port.
Plain text authentication is being used, and an account called
CrystalJobAccount has been created on the SMTP server for use by the
Report Job Server.

261. What is the purpose of Auditing?
Auditing allows you to monitor and record key facts about your Crystal
Enterprise system. Having information about who is using your system
and which objects they are accessing allows you to answer systemlevel
questions like “which groups within the company use our Crystal
Enterprise system the most?” or “how many concurrent user licenses
are we using at any given time?”.
Auditing also allows you to better administer individual user accounts
and reports by giving you more insight into what actions users are
taking and which reports they are accessing.
This information lets you be more proactive in managing the operation
and deployment of your Crystal Enterprise system, while helping you
better evaluate the value that Crystal Enterprise provides to your
organization.

262. How does auditing work?
The Crystal Management Server (CMS) acts as the system auditor,
while each Crystal Enterprise server that controls actions that you can
monitor is an auditee.
To audit an action in Crystal Enterprise, you must first determine
which server controls that action. Then you must enable auditing of
that action in the Servers management area of the Crystal
Management Console. As the auditee, the Crystal Enterprise server will
then begin to record these audit actions in a local log file.
As the auditor, the CMS controls the overall audit process. Each server
writes audit records to a log file local to the server. At regular intervals
the CMS communicates with the auditee servers to request copies of
records from the auditee’s local log files. When the CMS receives these
records it writes data from the log files to the central auditing database.
The CMS also controls the synchronization of audit actions that occur
on different machines. Each auditee provides a time stamp for the audit
actions that it records in its log file. To ensure that the time stamps of
actions on different servers are consistent, the CMS periodically
broadcasts its system time to the auditees. The auditees then compare
this time to their internal clocks. If differences exist, they make a
correction to the time stamp they record in their log files for
subsequent audit actions.
Once the data is in the auditing database you can run pre-configured
reports
against the database or design custom reports to suit your own needs.

263. Which actions can I audit?
You can use auditing to track the actions of individual users of Crystal
Enterprise as they log in and out of the system, access data, or create
file-based events. You can also monitor system actions like the success
or failure of scheduled objects.
For each action, Crystal Enterprise records the time of the action, the
name and user group of the user who initiated the action, the server
where it was performed, and a variety of other parameters. Once you
have collected this data, you can use a custom or pre-configured report
to view the raw data, or to answer more complex queries such as “how
many concurrent licenses are we using at a given time?”.

264. What are the list of audit actions for folders?
Folders
A folder is created. CMS
A folder is deleted.
A folder is modified.
(The name, location, or description of a folder is modified.)

265. What are the list of audit actions for Reports?
Reports
A report has been viewed successfully.
Cache Server report could not be viewed.
A report is opened successfully using:
• the Web Report Design Wizard.
• the Advanced DHTML viewer.
• a custom application that uses RAS SDK.

266. What are the list of audit actions for Report Application Server?
RAS
A report fails to open.
A report has been created successfully using:
• the Web Report Design Wizard.
• a custom application that uses the RAS SDK.
Or
A report has been saved successfully using the Web Report Design
Wizard.
A report fails to be created.
Or
A report fails to save (using the Web Report Design Wizard).
A report is saved successfully (using a custom application based on the
RAS SDK).
A report fails to save using a custom application based on the RAS API.

267. What are the list of audit actions for Users?
Users
A concurrent user logon succeeds.
CMS
A named user logon succeeds.
A user logon fails.
A user’s password is changed.
User logs off.

268. How CMS controls the synchronization of audit actions?
Controlling synchronization of audit actions
The CMS controls the synchronization of audit actions that occur on
different machines. The CMS periodically broadcasts its system time to
the auditees in UTC (Coordinated Universal Time). The auditees
compare this time to their internal clocks, and then make the
appropriate correction to the time stamp (in UTC) they record for
subsequent audit actions. This correction affects only the time stamp
that the auditee records in its audit log file. The auditee does not adjust
the system time of the machine on which it is running.
By default, the CMS broadcasts its system time every 60 minutes.

269. What are the various command-line options available to change
the interval of Audit actions?
-AuditeeTimeSyncInterval minutes
You can turn off this option by setting minutes to zero. This built-in
method of time synchronization will be accurate enough for most
applications. For more accurate and robust time synchronization,
configure the auditee and auditor machines to use an NTP (Network
Time Protocol) client, and
then turn off internal synchronization by setting
-AuditeeTimeSyncInterval 0
Tip: If you have a CMS cluster, apply the same command-line options
to each server. Only one CMS in the cluster acts as the auditor.
However, if this CMS fails, another CMS takes over auditing. This CMS
will apply its own command-line options. If these options are different
than those of the original auditor, audit behavior may not be what you
expect.

270. How to identify the audit action recorded in Crystal Enterprise
System database?
The auditing database collects records of all auditable actions that
occur in your Crystal Enterprise system. There are two ways of
identifying which kind of action each database record represents: the
numeric AuditID and the text-based AuditString.
Knowing the audit IDs and the exact audit strings can help you
construct queries for particular actions in your custom reports. Some
audit strings are the same every time they are generated. For
example, if a user changes their password, the audit string is always
“User password has been changed.” Other audit strings vary because
they include additional information about the action. For example, if a
user logon fails, the audit string includes a section that describes the
reason for the failure.
When a logon fails because the user mistyped a user name, the
complete audit string is “User logon failed. Reason:
Unknown user.” If a logon fails because the user entered the wrong
password, the complete audit string is “User logon failed. Reason:
Invalid password.”

271. What does the CMS audit id and string “65537 Concurrent user
logon succeeded” represents?
65537 Concurrent user logon succeeded.
The user logged on successfully, using a concurrent user license.
272. What does the CMS audit id and string “65538 Named user
logon succeeded” represents?
65538 Named user logon succeeded.
The user logged on successfully, using a named user license.

273. What does the CMS audit id and string “65540 User logged off”
represents?
65540 User logged off the enterprise system.

274. What does the CMS audit id and string “65541 User password
changed” represents?
65541 User password has been changed.

275. What does the CMS audit id and string “65539 User logon failed”
represents?
65539 User logon failed.
Reason: VariableString No valid license key found.
Logon failed because there was no valid license key available.
Only guest and administrator can logon in Standard mode.
In Standard mode, the only valid user names are guest and
administrator.
The logon failed because the user attempted to log on using a different
user ID.
Unknown user. Logon failed because the user entered a user name
that is not valid on this system.
User account disabled. Logon failed because the user’s account is
disabled.
Concurrent user limit reached.
Logon failed because all concurrent user licenses are already in use.
Invalid password. Logon failed because the user entered an invalid
password.

276. What does the folder audit id and string “65542 New folder
created” represents?
65542 New folder created. A new folder is created, or an existing folder
is copied. Note that this audit string will not be recorded when a new
user account is created, even though creating a user creates a user
folder.

277. What does the folder audit id and string “65543 Folder
VariableString deleted from path” represents?
65543 Folder VariableString deleted from path VariableString2
VariableString1 contains the folder name A folder is deleted.
Note that this audit string will be recorded when a user account
(and therefore the user’s folder) is deleted.
VariableString2 contains the folder’s path

278. What does the folder audit id and string “65544 Folder modified”
represents?
65544 Folder modified. The name, location, or description of the folder
was changed.
279. What does the folder audit id and string “65545 Job failed.
Reason: VariableString unresponsive Job Server Child process”
represents?
65545 Job failed. Reason: VariableString unresponsive Job Server
Child process.
A scheduled report or scheduled program failed to run because
communication with the running instance was lost, and the scheduled
time for running the job expired.
Note: This action must be audited by the CMS as Job Servers are not
aware of losing communications with a job.

280. What does the Cache Server audit id and string “65545 Job
failed. Reason: VariableString unresponsive Job Server Child process”
represents?
65545 Job failed. Reason: VariableString unresponsive Job Server
Child process. A scheduled report or scheduled program failed to run
because communication with the running instance was lost, and the
scheduled time for running the job expired.
Note: This action must be audited by the CMS as Job Servers are not
aware of losing communications with a job.
281. What does the Cache Server audit id and string “196609 Report
with VariableString data viewed successfully” represents?
196609 Report with VariableString data viewed successfully. saved User
successfully viewed a report that has saved data. live User successfully
viewed a report that has live data.

282. What does the Cache Server audit id and string “196610 Report
viewed unsuccessfully” represents?
196610 Report viewed unsuccessfully. Reason VariableString Many
options User attempted to view a report object, but was not successful
for the reason listed in the variable section of the audit string.

283. What does the following Job Server audit id and string
represents?
327681 Job successful. Elapsed time: VariableString seconds. Elapsed
time in seconds
The object ran as scheduled and the job completed successfully within
the indicated time.

284. What does the following Job Server audit id and string
represents?
327682 Job failed Elapsed time: VariableString seconds.
The scheduled job did not complete successfully. The attempt
took the indicated amount of time.

285. What does the following Job Server audit id and string
represents?
327683 Job failed. Elapsed time: VariableString seconds. Job will be
retried by the CMS.
The scheduled job did not complete successfully. The attempt
took the indicated amount of time. The job will will be retried by the
CMS at a later time.

286. What does the Job Server audit id and string “262145 Event
registered” represents?
262145 Event registered User creates a file-based event that can be
used to schedule objects.

287. What does the Job Server audit id and string “262146 Event
unregistered” represents?
262146 Event unregistered User deletes a file-based event.

288. What does the Job Server audit id and string “262147 Event
updated” represents?
262147 Event updated Event object was modified by a user, or
by the system. Events are updated when a user modifies the name or
description of the file-based event.

289. What does the Job Server audit id and string “262148 Event
triggered” represents?
262148 Event triggered File-based event was initiated.

290. What does the Report Application Server audit id and string
“458753 Report was opened for viewing and/or modification”
represents?
458753 Report was opened for viewing and/or modification User
opened a report for viewing or modification.
Note: In a few cases, this audit string may be generated when the
report opens but cannot be viewed. This may occur when:
• There are problems with the database setup for the report. For
example, you may see this message when the database driver for the
report is not present on the client machine
• A processing extension associated with the report aborts viewing, or
fails.
• The report used Business Views and the user did not have
permissions to refresh the underlying data connections.
• The machine running the RAS ran out of space in its temporary
directory.

291. What does the Report Application Server audit id and string
“458754 Report was saved to the CMS” represents?
458754 Report was saved to the CMS. An existing report was saved.
Note: This AuditID is generated when a custom application created
using the RAS SDK saves a report (using the Save method).

292. What does the Report Application Server audit id and string
“458755 Report was created and saved to the CMS” represents?
458755 Report was created and saved to the CMS A new report was
created and saved.
Note:
• This AuditID is generated when a custom application created using
the RAS SDK saves a new report (using the Save As method).
• This AuditID is also generated when an existing report is saved using
the Web Design Report Wizard.

293. What does the Report Application Server audit id and string
“458756 Report could not be opened” represents?
458756 Report could not be opened. Reason: VariableString Many
options The report could not be opened by the RAS, for the reason
listed in the variable section of the audit string.

294. What does the Report Application Server audit id and string
“458757 Report could not be saved to the CMS” represents?
458757 Report could not be saved to the CMS.
Reason: VariableString
Many options An existing report could not be saved by RAS, for the
reason listed in the variable section of the audit string.
Note: This AuditID is generated when a custom application created
using the RAS SDK cannot save a new report (using the Save As
method).

295. What does the Report Application Server audit id and string
“458758 Report could not be created in the CMS” represents?
458758 Report could not be created in the CMS.
Reason: VariableString
Many options A newly created report could not be saved by RAS, for
the reason listed in the variable section of the audit string.
Note: This AuditID is also generated when an existing report fails to
save from the Web Design Report Wizard.

296. What are Server Groups in the context of Crystal Enterprise
System?
Server groups provide a way of organizing your Crystal Enterprise
servers to make them easier to manage. That is, when you manage a
group of servers, you need only view a subset of all the servers on
your system. More importantly, server groups are a powerful way of
customizing Crystal Enterprise to optimize your system for users in
different locations, or for objects of different types.
If you group your servers by region, you can easily set up default
processing settings, recurrent schedules, and schedule destinations that
are appropriate to users who work in a particular regional office. You can
associate an object with a single server group, so the object is always
processed by the same servers. And you can associate scheduled objects
with a particular server group to ensure that scheduled objects are sent
to the correct printers, file servers, and so on.
Thus, server groups prove especially useful when maintaining systems
that span multiple locations and multiple time zones. If you group your
servers by type, you can configure objects to be processed by servers
that have been optimized for those objects. For example, processing
servers need to communicate frequently with the database containing
data for published reports. Placing processing servers close to the
database server that they need to access improves system performance
and minimizes network traffic.
Therefore, if you had a number of reports that ran against a DB2
database, you might want to create a group of Page Servers that
process reports only against the DB2 database server. If you then
configured the appropriate reports to always use this Page Server group
for viewing, you would optimize system performance for viewing these
reports.
After creating server groups, configure objects to use specific server
groups for scheduling, or for viewing and modifying reports. You can
change the status, obtain metrics, and configure your servers in the
Server Groups management area—just as you would in the Servers
management area. The only difference is that you see only the servers
that you added to the server group.

297. What are Server SubGroups in the context of Crystal Enterprise
System?
Working with server subgroups
Subgroups of servers provide you with a way of further organizing
your servers. A subgroup is just a server group that is a member of
another server group.
For example, if you group servers by region and by country, then each
regional group becomes a subgroup of a country group. To organize
servers in this way, first create a group for each region, and add the
appropriate servers to each regional group. Then, create a group for
each country, and add each regional group to the corresponding
country group.
There are two ways to set up subgroups: you can modify the
subgroups of a server group, or you can make one server group a
member of another. The results are the same, so use whichever
method proves most convenient.

298. Explain the One-machine setup configuration?
One-machine setup
This basic configuration separates the Crystal Enterprise servers from
the rest of your reporting environment and from your web server, and
installs all Crystal Enterprise servers on a single machine.
This grants the Crystal Enterprise servers their own set of processing
resources, which they do not have to share with database and web
server processes. These are the general steps to setting up this
configuration for the default Windows installation of Crystal Enterprise:
• Install all of the Crystal Enterprise servers on a single, dedicated
machine.
• Install and configure the Web Connector on your web server
machine.
• Run the CMS database on your database server.
If you are still using the MSDE CMS database on Windows, migrate the
CMS database to a supported database server. See the Platforms.txt file
included with your product distribution for a list of supported database
servers.
For a UNIX installation (or for a Windows installation that uses the
Crystal Enterprise Java SDK), install your Crystal Enterprise servers on
the same machine as your Java web application server and the Web
Component Adapter.

299. Explain the Three-machine setup configuration?
Three-machine setup
This second configuration divides the Crystal Enterprise processing
load in a logical manner, based on the types of work performed by
each server. In this way, you prevent the server components from
having to compete with each other for the same hardware and
processing resources. In addition, this scenario prepares your system
for further expansion to provide redundancy.
Note: It is recommended that you use three multi-processor machines
(dual-CPU or better), with at least 2 GB RAM installed on each
machine.
These are the general steps to setting up this configuration for the
default Windows installation of Crystal Enterprise:
• Install the CMS and the Event Server on one machine.
Tip: Here, the Event Server is installed on the same machine as the
CMS. In general, however, the Event Server should be installed on the
machine where your monitored, file-based events occur.
• Install the WCS and the Cache Server on the second machine.
• Install the Page Server, the Job Server, the Report Application
Server (RAS), and the Input and Output File Repository Servers on the
third machine.
For a UNIX installation (or for a Windows installation that uses the
Crystal Enterprise Java SDK), install the Java web application server
and the Web Component Adapter on the same machine as your Cache
Server.
Note: As with the one-machine setup, install your Crystal Enterprise
servers on machines that are separate from your web server and
database servers. This grants the Crystal Enterprise servers their own
set of processing resources, which they do not have to share with
database and web server processes.

300. Explain the Six-machine setup configuration?
Six-machine setup
This third configuration mirrors the three-machine setup. You maintain
the logical breakdown of processing based on the types of work
performed by each server, but you increase the number of available
machines and servers for redundancy and fault-tolerance. For
instance, if a server stops responding, or if you need to take one or
two machines offline completely, you need not interrupt Crystal
Enterprise requests in order to service the system.
This tested configuration is designed to meet the reporting
requirements of 85% of all deployment scenarios. If you have further
requirements or more advanced configuration needs, contact your
Crystal Decisions sales representative for additional assistance.
Note: It is recommended that you use six multi-processor machines
(dual-CPU or better), with at least 2 GB RAM installed on each
machine.
These are the general steps to setting up this configuration for the
default
Windows installation of Crystal Enterprise:
• Install the three-machine setup first. Verify that Crystal Enterprise is
functioning correctly.
• Install a second CMS/Event Server pair on the fourth machine. This
machine must have a fast network connection (minimum 10 Mbps) to
the CMS that you have already installed.
Cluster the two CMS services, so they share the task of maintaining
the CMS
database. Ensure that each CMS accesses the CMS database in exactly
the same manner (the same database client software, the same
database user name and password, and so on).
• Install a second WCS/Cache Server pair on the fifth machine.
Modify your Web Connector configuration to ensure that the Web
Connector communicates with the two distinct WCS hosts.
or
Install a second Java web application server and Web Component
Adapter on the fifth machine, along with a second Cache Server. Consult
your web application server documentation for information on loadbalancing
and clustering your application servers. Ensure that the
web.xml file is configured correctly for each WCA.
• Install a second Page Server, Job Server, and RAS on the remaining
machine, along with a pair of Input and Output File Repository Servers.
Ensure that all Page Servers and Job Servers can access your
reporting database in exactly the same manner. Install and configure
any required database client software similarly on each machine, along
with any ODBC DSNs that are required for your reports.
Note: As with the one-machine setup, install your Crystal Enterprise
servers on machines that are separate from your web server and
database servers. This grants the Crystal Enterprise servers their own
set of processing resources, which they do not have to share with
database and web server processes.
301. How to increase the over all system capacity to be more
scalable?
As the number of report objects and users on your system increases,
you can increase the overall system capacity by clustering two (or
more) Crystal Management Servers (CMS).
You can install multiple CMS services/daemons on the same machine.
However, to provide server redundancy and fault-tolerance, you
should ideally install each cluster member on its own machine.
CMS clusters can improve overall system performance because every
Crystal Enterprise request results, at some point, in a server component
querying the CMS for information that is stored in the CMS database.
When you cluster two CMS machines, you instruct the new CMS to
share in the task of maintaining and querying the CMS database.

302. How to increase the over all scheduling reporting capacity to be
more scalable?
All Crystal reports that are scheduled are eventually processed by a
Report Job Server. You can expand Crystal Enterprise by running
individual Report Job Servers on multiple machines, or by running
multiple Report Job Servers on a single multi-processor machine.
If the majority of your reports are scheduled to run on a regular basis,
there are several strategies you can adopt to maximize your system’s
processing capacity:
• Install the Report Job Server in close proximity to (but not on the
same machine as) the database server against which the reports run.
Ensure also that the File Repository Servers are readily accessible to all
Report Job Servers (so they can read report objects from the Input FRS
and write report instances to the Output FRS quickly). Depending upon
your network configuration, these strategies may improve the Report
Job Server’s processing speeds, because there is less distance for data
to travel over your corporate network.
• Verify the efficiency of your reports. When designing reports in Crystal
Reports, there are a number of ways in which you can improve the
performance of the report itself, by modifying record selection formulas,
using the database server’s resources to group data, incorporating
parameter fields, and so on.
• Use event-based scheduling to create dependencies between large or
complex reports. For instance, if you run several very complex reports
on a regular, nightly basis, you can use Schedule events to ensure that
the reports are processed sequentially. This is a useful way of minimizing
the processing load that your database server is subject to at any given
point in time.
• If some reports are much larger or more complex than others,
consider distributing the processing load through the use of server
groups. For instance, you might create two server groups, each
containing one or more Report Job Servers. Then, when you schedule
recurrent reports, you can specify that it be processed by a particular
server group to ensure that especially large reports are distributed
evenly across resources.
• Increase the hardware resources that are available to a Report Job
Server. If the Report Job Server is currently running on a machine along
with other Crystal Enterprise components, consider moving the Report
Job Server to a dedicated machine. If the new machine has multiple
CPUs, you can install multiple Report Job Servers on the same machine
(typically no more than one service/ daemon per CPU).

303. How to increase the on-demad viewing capacity to be more
scalable?
When you provide many users with View On Demand access to reports,
you allow each user to view live report data by refreshing reports
against your database server. For most requests, the Page Server
retrieves the data and performs the report processing, and the Cache
Server stores recently viewed report pages for possible reuse.
However, if users use the Advanced DHTML viewer, the Report
Application Server (RAS) processes the request.
If your reporting requirements demand that users have continual
access to the latest data, you can increase capacity in the following
ways:
• Increase the maximum allowed size of the cache.
• Verify the efficiency of your reports. When designing reports in Crystal
Reports, there are a number of ways in which you can improve the
performance of the report itself, by modifying record selection formulas,
using the database server’s resources to group data, incorporating
parameter fields, and so on.
• Increase the number of Page Servers that service requests on behalf
of any single Cache Server. You can install additional Page Servers on
multiple machines, or you can run multiple Page Servers on a single
multi-processor machine (typically no more than one service/daemon
per CPU).
• Increase the number of Page Servers, Cache Servers, and Report
Application Servers on the system, and then distribute the processing
load through the use of server groups. For instance, you might create
two server groups, each containing one or more Cache Server/Page
Server pairs along with one or more Report Application Servers. You can
then specify individual reports that should always be processed by a
particular server group.

304. How to improve the web response speeds to be more scalable?
Because all user interaction with Crystal Enterprise occurs over the
Web, you may need to investigate a number of areas to determine
exactly where you can improve web response speeds. These are some
common aspects of your deployment that you should consider before
deciding how to expand Crystal Enterprise:
• Assess your web server’s ability to serve the number of users who
connect regularly to Crystal Enterprise. Use the administrative tools
provided with your web server software (or with your operating system)
to determine how well your web server performs. If the web server is
indeed limiting web response speeds, consider increasing the web
server’s hardware and/or setting up a “web farm” (multiple web servers
responding to web requests to a single IP address).
• Take into account the number of users who regularly access your
system. If you are running a large deployment, ensure that you have
set up a CMS cluster. If you find that a single application server (that
is, the WCS or the Java web application server) inadequately services
the number of scripting requests made by users who access your
system on a regular basis, consider the following options:
• Increase the hardware resources that are available to the application
server. If the application server is currently running on the web server,
or on a single machine with other Crystal Enterprise components,
consider moving the application server to a dedicated machine. If the
new machine has multiple CPUs, you can install multiple WCS
services/daemons or Java application servers on the same machine
(typically no more than one per CPU).
• If you are using the default Windows installation of Crystal
Enterprise, set up two (or more) WCS machines to take advantage of
the dynamic load balancing that is built into the Web Connector
components. The Web Connector distributes the processing load evenly
across WCS hosts: each new Crystal Enterprise session is sent to the
least used WCS. This also provides you with the benefits of being able
to take one WCS machine offline for service, without bringing down the
entire system.
• If you are using the UNIX installation of Crystal Enterprise (or have
configured your Windows installation to use the Crystal Enterprise Java
SDK), consider setting up two (or more) Java application servers.
Note: Crystal Enterprise does not support the session-replication
functionality provided by some Java web application servers.

305. How to configure the web farm for load balancing?
Configuring your web farm for load balancing
A web farm is a group of two or more web servers working together to
handle browser requests. If you are using the default installation of
Crystal Enterprise on Windows, the Web Connectors that reside on each
of the web servers need to be configured so they are aware of the Web
Component Servers they should communicate with.
Note: Crystal Enterprise supports web farms with and without affinity
masks.
After the connectors have been configured, they can load-balance
requests between the Web Component Servers. When a web server
establishes a connection with a Web Component Server, it uses a
round robin algorithm to identify the next available Web Component
Server.
The only exceptions to this occur when a web server uses a CGI web
connector, or if a session state was created on a previous request to
the Web

306. How to utilze the existing resources more efficiently ?
One of the most effective ways to improve the performance and
scalability of your system is to ensure that you get the most from the
resources that you allocate to Crystal Enterprise.
Optimizing network speed and database efficiency
When thinking about the overall performance and scalability of Crystal
Enterprise, don’t forget that Crystal Enterprise depends upon your
existing IT infrastructure.

307. What are the bandwidth considerations to be more scalable?
Crystal Enterprise uses your network for communication between
servers and for communication between Crystal Enterprise and client
machines on your network.
Make sure that your network has the bandwidth and speed necessary
to provide Crystal Enterprise users with acceptable levels of
performance. Consult your network administrator for more information.

308. How to use the appropriate processing server to be more
scalable?
When users view a report using the Advanced DHTML viewer, the
report is processed by the Report Application Server rather than the
Page Server and Cache Server.
The Report Application Server is optimized for report modification. For
simple report viewing you can achieve better system performance if
users select the DHTML viewer, the Active X viewer, or the Java viewer.
These report viewers process reports against the Page Server.
If the ability to modify reports is not needed at your site, you can
disable the Advanced DHTML viewer for all users of Crystal Enterprise.

309. How to disable the Advanced DHTML viewer ?
Disabling the Advanced DHTML Viewer
1 In the Crystal Management Console, select Crystal Applications.
2 Select Web Desktop.
3 On the Preferences tab, go to the Viewers area. Clear the option
labeled Allow users to use the Advanced DHTML Viewer.
4 Click Update.

310. How to Optimize Crystal Enterprise for report viewing ?
Optimizing Crystal Enterprise for report viewing
Crystal Enterprise allows you to enable data sharing, which permits
different users accessing the same report object to use the same data
when viewing a report on demand or when refreshing a report. Enabling
data sharing reduces the number of database calls, thereby reducing the
time needed to provide report pages to subsequent users of the same
report while greatly improving overall system performance under load.
However, to get full value from data sharing, you must permit data to be
reused for some period of time. This means that some users may see
“old” data when they view a report on demand,
or refresh a report instance that they are viewing.

311. What is a firewall?
A firewall is a security system that protects one or more computers
from unauthorized network access. A firewall restricts people to
entering and leaving your network at a carefully controlled point. It
also prevents attackers from getting close to your other defenses.
Typically, a firewall protects a company’s intranet from being
improperly accessed through the Internet. A firewall can enforce a
security policy, log Internet activity, and be a focus for security
decisions. A firewall can’t protect against malicious insiders or
connections that don’t go through it. A firewall also can’t set itself up
correctly or protect against completely new threats.

312. What are TCP/IP and packets?
TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) is the
communications protocol used on the Internet. The units of data
transmitted through a TCP/IP network are called packets. Packets are
typically too small to contain all the data that is sent at any one time, so
multiple packets are required, each containing a portion of the overall
data. When data is sent by TCP/IP, the packets are constructed such
that a layer for each protocol is wrapped around each packet.
Typically, TCP/IP packets have the following layers:
• Application layer (for example, FTP, telnet, and HTTP).
• Transport layer (TCP or UDP).
• Internet layer (IP).
• Network Access layer (for example, ethernet and ATM).
At the application layer, the packet consists simply of the data to be
transferred. As the packet moves through the layers, each layer adds a
header to the packet, preserving the data from the previous level.
These headers are used to determine the packet’s destination and to
ensure that it arrives intact. When the packet reaches its destination,
the process is reversed: the layers are sequentially removed until the
transferred data is available to the destination application.

313. What are Ports?
Ports are logical connection points that a computer uses to send and
receive packets. With TCP/IP, ports allow a client program to specify a
particular server program on a computer in a network.
High-level applications that use TCP/IP have ports with pre-assigned
numbers. For instance, when you visit a typical HTTP site over the
Web, you communicate with the web server on port 80, which is the
pre-assigned port for HTTP communication.
Other application processes are given port numbers dynamically for
each connection. When a service or daemon initially is started, it binds
to its designated port number. When any client program wants to use
that server, it must also request to bind to the designated port
number. Valid port numbers range from 0 to 65536, but ports 0 to
1024 are reserved for use by certain privileged services.

314. What are the various types of Firewalls?
Firewalls primarily function using at least one of three methods:
packet filtering, Network Address Translation (NAT), and proxy
services. Crystal Enterprise works with these firewall types.
Packet filtering rejects TCP/IP packets from unauthorized hosts and
rejects connection attempts to unauthorized services. NAT translates
the IP addresses of internal hosts to hide them from outside
monitoring.
NAT is also called IP masquerading. Proxy services make high-level
application connections on behalf of internal hosts to completely break
the network layer connection between internal and external hosts.
Packet filtering
Packet filtering deletes packets before they are delivered to the
destination computer.

315. What are the conditions packet filtering uses to delete the
packets?
Packet filtering can delete packets based on the following:
• The address the data is coming from.
• The address the data is going to.
• The session and application ports being used to transfer the data.
• The data contained within the packet.

316. What are the types of packet filtering firewalls will work with
Crystal Enterprise ?
Typically there are two types of packet filtering:
stateful and stateless.
Stateful packet filters remember the state of connections at the network
and session layers by recording the established session information that
passes through the filter gateway. The filter then uses that information
to discriminate valid return packets from invalid connection attempts.
Stateless packet filters do not retain information about connections in
use; instead, they make determinations packet-by-packet based only
on the information contained within the packet.
Firewalls that employ packet filtering will work with Crystal Enterprise.

317. What is the purpose of Network Address Translation?
Network Address Translation
Network Address Translation (NAT) converts private IP addresses in a
private
network to globally unique, public IP addresses for use external to that
network.
The main purpose of NAT is to hide internal hosts. As outgoing packets
are routed through the firewall, NAT hides internal hosts by converting
their IP addresses to an external address. Once the translation is
complete, the firewall sends the data payload on to its original
destination; thus, NAT makes it appear that all traffic from your site
comes from one (or more) external IP addresses.
The firewall maintains a translation table to keep track of the address
conversions that it has performed. When an incoming response arrives
at the firewall, the firewall uses this translation table to determine which
internal host should receive the response. Because this type of firewall
essentially sends and receives data on behalf of internal hosts, NAT can
also be described as a simple proxy.

318. What are the various types of Network Address Translation?
There are two basic types of NAT:
• Static translation (port forwarding) grants a specific internal host a
fixed translation that never changes. For example, if you run an email
server inside a firewall, you can establish a static route through the
firewall for that service.
• Dynamic translation (automatic, hide mode, or IP masquerade)
shares a small group of external IP addresses amongst a large group
of internal clients for the purpose of expanding the internal network
address space. Because a translation entry does not exist until an
internal client establishes a connection out through the firewall,
external computers have no way to address an internal host that is
protected using a dynamically translated IP address.
Note: Some protocols do not function correctly when the port is
changed.
These protocols will not work through a dynamically translated
connection.
Crystal Enterprise and static translation NAT can be configured so that
they work together.

319. Describe SOCKS and SOCKS proxy servers?
SOCKS proxy servers
SOCKS is a networking protocol that enables computers on one side of a
SOCKS server to access computers on the other side of a SOCKS server
without requiring a direct IP connection. A SOCKS server redirects
connection requests from computers on one side of it to computers on
the other side of it.
A SOCKS server typically authenticates and authorizes requests,
establishes a proxy connection, and relays data between the internal
and external networks. Crystal Enterprise supports and works with
SOCKS servers. SOCKS servers work by listening for service requests
from internal clients. When an external request is made, the SOCKS
server sends the requests to the internal network as if the SOCKS
server itself was the originating client. When the SOCKS server
receives a response from the internal server, it returns that response to
the original client as if it were the originating external server. This
effectively hides the identity and the number of clients on the internal
network from examination by anyone on the external network.

320. What are the typical firewall scenarios applicable for Crystal
Enterprise system?
Typical firewall scenarios
If all users of your Crystal Enterprise system are on your internal
network, there is no need to perform any special configuration of your
firewalls or of Crystal Enterprise.
Simply place all Crystal Enterprise components on computers inside
your firewall.
However, if you need to provide access to Crystal Enterprise to
external users, you must consider where to place each Crystal
Enterprise component, and how to configure both Crystal Enterprise
and your firewalls in order to provide this access.
Web Connector separated from the WCS by a firewall
In most cases, clients access protected information through a web
server running in a Demilitarized Zone (DMZ). A DMZ is a network
area that is neither part of the internal network nor directly part of the
Internet. Typically, the DMZ is set up between two firewalls: an outer
firewall and an inner firewall.
The only Crystal Enterprise component that needs to provide direct
service to external clients is the Web Connector, which must be
installed on the web server.
The most logical and secure way to position the web server and the Web
Connector is to place them in the DMZ. All the other Crystal Enterprise
components can then be placed on the internal network. Application tier
separated from the CMS by a firewall You may chose to place your
application server in the Demilitarized Zone (DMZ), while placing the
Crystal Management Server (CMS) and all other Crystal Enterprise
servers on the internal network.
Crystal Enterprise requires that the CMS and the remaining server
components are not separated from one another by firewalls. In a
Windows installation of Crystal Enterprise, the Web Component Server
(WCS) acts as an application server. So this scenario also covers the
case where the WCS is in the DMZ.
Note:
• Placing your application server in the DMZ is less secure than placing it
on your internal network. For maximum security, you may prefer to
place your Crystal Enterprise application server on your internal
network.
• The issues raised by separating the web server (and Web Connector)
from the WCS by a firewall are independent of the issues raised by
firewalling the WCS from the CMS. If you have a firewall in each
location, you must consider the configuration issues for each firewall
independently, and perform both sets of configuration.
Thick client separated from the CMS by a firewall
You can publish reports or analytic objects to Crystal Enterprise by
saving these objects to Crystal Enterprise from within Crystal Reports
or Crystal Analysis, or by using the Crystal Import Wizard or Crystal
Publishing Wizard. However, if there is a firewall between the computer
running one of these thick clients and the Crystal Management Server
(CMS), this operation fails. You must configure your CMS, your File
Repository Servers, and your firewall if you want to support this
network configuration.

321. How to configure the Network Address Translation?
Configuring for Network Address Translation
If you use Network Address Translation (NAT) only on the outer firewall
of the DMZ, then no special configuration is required for Crystal
Enterprise to communicate properly. However, if you separate Crystal
Enterprise components using NAT, you need to configure these
components to communicate properly through the firewall.
Note: You can configure Crystal Enterprise to communicate properly
across NAT firewalls that use static IP translation; however, Crystal
Enterprise cannot communicate across a firewall whose IP translation
is dynamic.
Web Connector separated from the WCS by NAT
When the Web Connector (WC) is in the DMZ, you must configure the
Web Connector to make initial contact with the Web Component Server
(WCS) using a specific hostname and port number.
Next you must configure the WCS to respond appropriately to
communications from the Web Connector.
This is accomplished using the following command
-port FQDN:6401 -requestport fixed
The -port command configures the WCS to listen for contact from the
WC on the specified port (6401 is the default value). If a value is
specified, -port also configures the WCS to send the WC an externally
routable, fully qualified domain name (FQDN) for the WC to use when
communicating with the WCS in subsequent interchanges. You must
specify this FQDN when the Web Connector and the WCS are separated
by a firewall that uses Network Address Translation. Otherwise the
WCS sends the WC an internal address for subsequent
communications, and the WC cannot communicate with the WCS
through the firewall.
The -requestport command is used to configure the WCS to use a fixed
port number for all subsequent communications with the WC. When
the WC and WCS are separated by a firewall that uses NAT, you must
specify this port number. You can use any free port number for fixed.
Finally, you must configure your firewall to allow communications that
use the addresses and ports that you’ve specified.

322. How to configure the web connector on Windows?
To configure the Web Connector on Windows
1 Start the CCM.
2 Stop the World Wide Web Publishing Service.
3 On the toolbar, click Configure web connector.
4 In the Web Component Servers area, click Add.
If your WCS Host Name is already listed, select it and click Edit.
5 In the WCS Host Name field, type the name of the machine that is
running the WCS. This machine must be routable from the web server
that is running the Web Connector.
6 If you have customized the WCS so that it listens on a port other
than the default, type your new port number in the Port field.
Otherwise, ensure that the default port number (6401) appears.
7 Click OK twice to return to the CCM.
8 Start the World Wide Web Publishing Service.
323. How to configure the Web Connector on UNIX?
To configure the Web Connector on UNIX
If your web server is running on UNIX, stop the web server and then
set the WCSHOST or WCSHosts variable to the name of the machine
that is running the WCS. This machine must be routable from the web
server that is running the Web Connector.
The WCSHOST or WCSHosts variable is defined in the configuration file
that corresponds to your web server.

324. How to configure the WCS?
To configure the WCS
1 Start the CCM.
2 Stop the Crystal Web Component Server.
3 On the toolbar, click Properties.
4 In the Command box, add the following option:
-port FQDN:6401 -requestport portnum
For the -port command, replace FQDN with either the fully qualified
domain
name of the machine that is running the WCS. This machine must be
routable from the web server that is running the Web Connector.
In the -requestport command, substitute any valid free port number
for portnum.
5 If you want to customize the WCS so that it listens on a port other
than the
default, substitute your new port number for the default value of 6401.
Tip: If you change the default port number of the WCS you must
perform
additional system configuration. Before changing the port number, see
“Changing the default server port numbers” on page 321.
6 Click OK to return to the CCM.
7 Start the Crystal Web Component Server.
325. What are the key points to be considered while troubleshooting?
In general, consider the following key points when troubleshooting:
• Ensure that client and server machines are running supported
operating systems, database servers, database clients, and
appropriate server software.
For details, consult the Platforms.txt file, included with your product
distribution.
• Verify that the problem is reproducible, and take note of the exact
steps that cause the problem to recur. On Windows NT/2000, use the
sample reports and sample data included with the product to confirm
whether or not the same problem exists.
• Determine whether the problem is isolated to one machine or is
occurring on multiple machines. For instance, if a report fails to run on
one processing server, see if it runs on another.
If the problem is isolated to one machine, pay close attention to any
configuration differences in the two machines, including operating
system versions, patch levels, and general network integration.
• If the problem relates to connectivity or functionality over the Web,
check that Crystal Enterprise is integrated properly with your web
environment
• If the problem relates to report viewing or report processing, verify
your database connectivity and functionality from each of the affected
machines.
Use Crystal Reports to verify that the report can be viewed properly. If
the Job or Page Servers are running on Windows, open the report in
Crystal Reports on the server machine and check that you can refresh
the report against the database Error detected by database driver When
a processing server receives an unknown message from the database
driver, an error message similar to the following appears: Error
Detected By Database DLL
326. How to troubleshoot database driver errors?
To troubleshoot database driver errors
1 Verify the database drivers for consistency.
Ensure that the database driver (ODBC or native) used when the
report was designed in Crystal Reports matches the database driver
that is installed on the Job Server, Page Server, and RAS.
If the Job Server or the Page Server is installed on UNIX, then the
database driver will not match exactly (the UNIX version will be a .so
file instead of a .dll). However, the Windows/UNIX versions of each
driver should correspond in regards to version numbers or driver
release.
2 Disable the report’s “Use Indexes or Server for Speed” option.
Open the report in Crystal Reports and, on the File menu, click
Options. On the Database tab, clear the “Use Indexes or Server for
Speed” option. Disabling this option may resolve database driver
errors.
3 Verify the report’s SQL statement and ensure that it has not been
edited manually.
Open the report in Crystal Reports and, on the Database menu, click
Show SQL Query. Copy the query into a text editor; then use your
database server’s query tool to run the query.
If the option appears in Crystal Reports, click Reset in the Show SQL
Query dialog box. Compare the regenerated query with the version
displayed in your text editor. If the queries differ, save the report so it
uses the regenerated SQL query.
Note: If you need to edit a report’s SQL statement, do so with a stored
procedure, rather than by editing it manually. If you have developed a
web application that modifies the SQL statement through code, ensure
that only the WHERE clause is changed.
4 Ensure that null values are not being passed to subreports.
If the report contains one or more subreports, open it in Crystal
Reports and, on the File menu, click Report Options. Select the
“Convert Database NULL Values to Default” check box and the
“Convert Other NULL Values to Default” check box.
5 If the report is based off on ODBC driver, enable tracing to obtain
more information about the error.
On Windows, ODBC tracing can be started through the ODBC Data
Source Administrator. On UNIX, similar tracing can be enabled in the
system information file (.odbc.ini).
Once you enable tracing, run the report again from a browser to
generate the tracing log. After you run the report, disable tracing and
review the log file for additional “Error” or “Busy” messages. Tracing
may provide additional details that allow you to troubleshoot the
problem.
6 If the report is based off Informix 7.3, check the database driver.
If a report that uses the Informix database driver (Windows version)
causes a database driver error, modify the report to use the Crystal
Reports “CR
Informix” driver.
7 Verify the table definition of the database that the report is based
off.
If your web application dynamically changes a report’s data source at
runtime, ensure that the schema of each database matches the
schema of the database that the report was originally designed for.
Rather than running the same report against diverse data sources,
consider designing a separate report for each database.
8 Verify the data type of parameter values passed through code.
If your web application passes parameter values to a report, ensure
that you are casting the correct data type for the parameter value. It
is always a good idea to cast values to ensure they are of the correct
type. For specific details, see the function reference for your
development language.
327. How to ensure that server resources are available on local
drives?
Ensuring that server resources are available on local drives
When the Crystal Enterprise servers are running on Windows, many can
be configured to use specific directories to store files. For example, you
can specify the root directory for each File Repository Server, the
temporary directories for the Cache and Page Servers, or the directory
from which the Job Servers load processing extensions. In all cases, the
directory that you specify must be on a local drive (such as C:\InputFRS
or C:\Cache).
Do not use Universal Naming Convention (UNC) paths or mapped
drives.
Although some Crystal Enterprise servers can recognize and use UNC
paths, do not configure the servers to access network resources in this
manner. Use local drives instead, because UNC paths can limit
performance due to limitations in the underlying protocol.
328. What are the benefits of accessible reports ?
Benefits of accessible reports:
As more business and government leaders adopt new standards for
delivering web content to people with disabilities, accessible design is
becoming critical to information management and delivery.
Accessible design provides many benefits:
• Accessible reports are easier for everyone to use.
Many accessibility guidelines result in improved usability. An accessible
report must provide logical and consistent navigation. Its content must
be clearly written and easy to understand.
• Accessible reports are more compatible with a variety of
technologies, new and old.
Accessible content is easier to export to simple formats that are more
compatible with mobile phone browsers, personal digital assistants
(PDAs), and other devices with low-bandwidth connections.
Some people may not have a keyboard or a mouse. They may have a
text-only screen, a small screen, or a slow Internet connection.
Accessible design makes it easier for people with limited technology to
access information.
• Accessible content is easier to reuse for other formats.
In the viewers, accessible reports are more accurately copied or
exported to other formats.
• Accessible reports improve server efficiency.
You may reduce the number of HTTP requests on the server, by
providing clear navigation so people can find what they need faster.
Providing text-only
alternatives can reduce the number of graphics, which take up
valuable bandwidth.
• Creating accessible reports is easier than modifying existing reports
to make them accessible.
If you build accessible features into your reports now, it will be
significantly
less expensive than to redesign existing reports later.
329. How to adapt the accessibility guidelines for accessibility
reports?
The most comprehensive accessibility guidelines are the Web Content
Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG), developed by the international World
Wide Web Consortium (W3C). The WCAG is widely considered the
definitive set of recommendations for delivering web content to people
with disabilities.
The WCAG has influenced the development of similar web content
standards around the world.
Organizations and governments worldwide are adopting the
accessibility recommendations of the W3C.
• Content must be easy to understand and navigate.
• Text equivalents or alternatives should be provided for non-text
objects.
• Objects should be logically organized to clarify relationships between
objects.
• Reports must not rely on any one specific type of hardware, such as a
mouse, a keyboard, or a color screen.
330. How to improve the report accessibility of Crystal Enterprise
system?
To begin improving the accessibility of your Crystal reports, start with
accessibility guidelines that are quick and easy to implement. A small
change in your design conventions or company template may have a
significant impact on accessibility. Simple navigation and clearlywritten
content are critical for accessibility, but they are easy to
implement and useful for all report users.
331. What are the general guidelines to follow when placing objects
on a report?
There are a few general guidelines to keep in mind when you place
objects on a report.
Organizing objects logically
When you place objects on reports, make sure their placement is clear
and logical, especially when you need to imply a relationship between
two objects in a report. For example, if you include a text description of
a chart, ensure that it is close enough to the chart to make the
connection clear.
Many assistive technologies read from left to right and from top to
bottom; therefore, if you include a text description and title for a
chart, you should decide which one you want the user to read first.
This will ensure that the objects in a report are read in the correct
order.
Placing objects in order
When you publish a report to Crystal Enterprise, the HTML version
organizes the objects in the report according to the consecutive order
that you added them in Crystal Reports, not according to where they
were positioned on the report. The report appears the same on the
screen, but the underlying HTML code lists the reports objects in the
order they were inserted. Instead of reading the report from right to left
and top to bottom, screen readers and other assistive devices may
follow the order specified in the HTML. To make a report accessible, you
must add objects to reports in the order that you want a screen reader
to read them.
Therefore, to create accessible reports, you must plan the order of your
report before you begin working in Crystal Reports. Plan it on paper.
Make sure you know which objects you want to add and where you
want them. Include all calculations, images, and charts on your plan.
When you create a new report based on your plan, you can start adding
objects from the upper left corner and work your way to the
bottom right corner of the report. Once the objects are placed, you can
make changes to them afterwards without affecting their order.
Note: If you create a text-only alternative of your report, add it to
your report as a subreport and, most importantly, add the subreport
before you add any other object to your report.
After you add all objects to the report, you can test their placement
order by tabbing through the objects.
332. How to test the placement order of objects in a report ?
To test the placement order of objects in a report
1 Make sure no objects in the report are selected.
2 Press the Tab key.
Crystal Reports selects the object that was placed on the report first.
3 Tab through the remaining objects.
The order that Crystal Reports uses to tab through the objects is the
same order adopted by a screen reader that views the published
version of the report.
The most common accessibility issue encountered by report designers
is also one of the easiest to resolve: providing text-only versions of
non-text objects. A non-text object is an object that conveys meaning
through a picture or sound. Non-text objects include pictures, charts,
graphical buttons, graphical representations of text, sounds,
animations, and audio or video clips.
People who use assistive technologies are accustomed to text-only
substitutes and, therefore, will respond well to the text-only
alternatives you provide.
There are a number of ways you can use text to substantially improve
your reports’ accessibility:
• Provide text equivalents for objects in reports.
• Provide text alternatives for reports.

• Ensure that text is written and formatted clearly.
Text is a useful tool for creating accessible reports. Most assistive
technologies require text input, including screen readers, speech
synthesizers, and Braille displays. You can easily resize and format
text, and text is the most flexible medium for import and export.
Providing text equivalents
When you create reports, there are many opportunities to use text
equivalents to clarify non-text objects.
• Place a descriptive text object next to a non-text object, and be sure
to add them to the report in consecutive order. Whenever possible, a
text equivalent should communicate the same information as its
corresponding object in the report. If a report displays data in a pie
chart, for example, include a text box next to the chart that
summarizes its contents.
Describe the purpose of the non-text object. For example, if an image
performs an action when you click it, describe the action. For a button
that opens your web site, provide a text box labeled “Click to view our
web site.”
• If a report includes audio links, provide a transcript for significant
audio clips.
• If a report links to a multimedia or video presentation, provide a
transcript.
You may also want to provide captioning for the audio portion and an
audio
description of the visual portion. Captioning should be synchronized
with the
audio.
333. How to add the text only alternative to a sub report?
To add a text-only alternative to a subreport
1 Create a text-only version of the report and save it.
2 Open a new report.
3 On the Insert menu, click Subreport.
4 In the Insert Subreport dialog box, select Choose an existing report
and click Browse to locate the report you created in step 1.
5 Click the subreport, then choose Format Subreport from the Format
menu.
6 In the Format Editor, on the Subreport tab, select On-demand
Subreport.
7 To hide the subreport link, on the Font tab, choose the color that
matches the background color of the report.
Note: Instead of hiding the subreport link, you can conditionally
suppress the section that contains the subreport.

				
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Description: Business Objects Enterprise FAQs-