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					        The Secessionist Exodus
   South Carolina
   Alabama, Mississippi, Florida, Georgia,
    Louisiana, and Texas followed in the next six
    weeks.
   Jefferson Davis as president.
        The Secessionist Exodus
    President Buchanan did nothing to force the
    confederacy back into the Union
   He believed that as President he did not have the
    authority to stop the rebellion.
          The Secessionist Exodus
    Forts along the southern coast are surrendered
    to the Confederacy
   But not Fort Sumter
       Lincoln sends supplies
       Ships are fired on
       Fort Sumter is fired on…starts Civil War
   Lincoln calls for 75,000 volunteers for 90 days
   Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee, and North
    Carolina join the CSA
   The capital of the Confederacy was moved from
    Montgomery to Richmond.
                    Advantages
            North                   South
   Population              Clear War Aim
   Material                Defensive War
   Logistics               Cotton?
                            Lee
                              Plans
         NORTH                                  South
   Anaconda Plan                        Defensive War
       Blockade the South                   Make the North attack
       Take the Mississippi                  the South
       Take Richmond                        Didn’t have to win
       Later                                 every battle…just had
                                              to hang on
       Divide South again
                                             Get help from Europe
            Sherman’s March to the
             Sea                                  England
                              Plans
         NORTH                                  South
   Anaconda Plan                        Defensive War
       Blockade the South                   Make the North attack
       Take the Mississippi                  the South
       Take Richmond                        Didn’t have to win
       Later                                 every battle…just had
                                              to hang on
       Divide South again
                                             Get help from Europe
            Sherman’s March to the
             Sea                                  England
            Battle of Bull Run
          NORTH                      South
   Gen. McDowell leads      Gen. Johnston's
    30,000 men                22,000 Southern
   Crush the                 troops
    enemy…take               Stop the
    Richmond                  enemy…pursue to
                              Washington DC
   Early success…then       “Stonewall” Jackson
    are routed                holds the line
   Plan to complicated      Unable to pursue
   McDowell Replaced

     End the myth that the war will be short
Ft. Henry & Ft. Donelson (1862)
   Gen. Grant captures two forts on the
    Tennessee and Cumberland Rivers.
   Confederates forced out of Kentucky and yield
    much of Tennessee
Ft. Henry & Ft. Donelson (1862)
   Gen. Grant captures two forts on the
    Tennessee and Cumberland Rivers.
   Confederates forced out of Kentucky and yield
    much of Tennessee
    Monitor vs. Merrimac (1862)
   First ironclad battle in history ends in a draw
       USS Monitor
       CSS Virginia (Merrimac)
       Merrimac withdraws after daylong exchange of fire.
        Union blockade of South is maintained
    Shiloh & New Orleans (1862)

   Farragut seizes New Orleans for Union after
    boldly attacking Southern position. 11 Southern
    ships sunk
    Shiloh & New Orleans (1862)
   Grant overcomes Southern forces with heavy
    losses for each side: 13,000 Union casualties,
    11,000 for South
   Farragut seizes New Orleans for Union after
    boldly attacking Southern position. 11 Southern
    ships sunk
                Antietam (1862)
   Gen. Lee (Army of Northern Virginia) invades
    North…pressure on Union % to influenced
    England
   Heavily outnumbered, Lee's troops face
    McClellan in bloody fighting. Over 23,000
    casualties (more than all previous American
    wars combined). Lee retreats to Virginia
   Lincoln gives Emancipation Proclamation
       Frees only those slaves in states “in rebellion.”
       Makes Slavery a war aim
       Forces European nations to recognize that choosing
        sides in the Civil War is to take a stand on slavery
                Antietam (1862)
   Gen. Lee (Army of Northern Virginia) invades
    North…pressure on Union % to influenced
    England
   Heavily outnumbered, Lee's troops face
    McClellan in bloody fighting. Over 23,000
    casualties (more than all previous American
    wars combined). Lee retreats to Virginia
   Lincoln gives Emancipation Proclamation
       Frees only those slaves in states “in rebellion.”
       Makes Slavery a war aim
       Forces European nations to recognize that choosing
        sides in the Civil War is to take a stand on slavery
        Fredericksburg (1862)
   Gen. Burnside attacks Lee's fortified position
    and suffers 10,000 casualties (to Lee's 5000).
            Vicksburg (1863)
   After a long siege, Vicksburg surrenders to
    Grant.
   All of Mississippi River is now in Union control
            Vicksburg (1863)
   After a long siege, Vicksburg surrenders to
    Grant.
   All of Mississippi River is now in Union control
          Gettysburg            (1863)
   Lee invades North (again) to put pressure on
    Washington DC
   After three days of fighting, Lee retreats,
    leaving 4,000 dead Confederates.
   Over 165,000 soldiers participate in the largest
    battle in the Western Hemisphere
   Total casualties: 23,000 Union, 28,000
    Confederates
Gettysburg   (1863)
Gettysburg   (1863)
Gettysburg   (1863)
Gettysburg   (1863)
          Gettysburg            (1863)
   Lee invades North (again) to put pressure on
    Washington DC
   After three days of fighting, Lee retreats,
    leaving 4,000 dead Confederates.
   Over 165,000 soldiers participate in the largest
    battle in the Western Hemisphere
   Total casualties: 23,000 Union, 28,000
    Confederates
    Grant promoted to Lt. General and given
     command of all Union troops (1864)
   Grant prepares for assault on Richmond.
   When Lincoln's Cabinet complains that Grant is
    a drunk and seeks to interfere with his
    command
   Lincoln gives him unconditional support and
    asks not to notified of his plans.
Grant vs Lee (1864-1865)
    Wilderness & Spotsylvania (1864)
   Grant goes on the Offensive…pressures Lee
   Lee stops Union troops at the Wilderness
   Grant suffers huge losses (55,000 to 31,000)
       Some call him “Butcher Grant”
   Does not retreat…continues the attack!
   Grant states "I propose to fight on this line if it
    takes all summer“
       Grant knows that he can replace lost men…Lee
        can’t
    Petersburg June 1864--April 1865
   Grant focuses on important railroad junction
    and communication south of Richmond.
   Long siege of Petersburg begins with troops
    living in trenches which stretched for 50 miles
Petersburg June 1864--April 1865
Petersburg June 1864--April 1865
Petersburg June 1864--April 1865
Petersburg June 1864--April 1865
       Battle of the Crater
Petersburg June 1864--April 1865
       Battle of the Crater
Sherman’s March to the Sea (1864)
      Sherman’s March to the Sea (1864)
   Gen. Sherman attacks toward Atlanta
   destroys Atlanta and then sends troops on 300
    mile destructive march to the sea.
   Railroads torn up, buildings destroyed, crops
    burned in an attempt to break the will of the
    South
Sherman’s March to the Sea (1864)
             Richmond Falls (1865)
   Grant takes Petersburg
   Richmond falls shortly thereafter
   Lee moves west…chased by Grant...with
    Sherman’s army coming up from the south
       Kind of Ironic that a Union army would be advancing
        from the south!
             Lee surrenders (1865)
   Appomattox Court House, Virginia
    refusing to see his troops suffer any further,
    Lee surrenders to Grant.
   Southern troops given generous terms of
    surrender
       None of them would be held as prisoners
       Officers would be allowed to keep their side arms
       They would be able to keep the privately owned
        horses
       They must take an oath of parole
               Results of War
   Country is one
    again…or is it?
   Republicans will be in
    power until mid 1870s
   Southern cities
    destroyed…crops
    ruined…economy in
    shambles
                 Results of War
   Union Statistics:       Confederate Statistics:
    2.9 million men          1.2 million men
    served                   served

    630,000 casualties       340,000 casualties
    360,000 killed in        250,000 killed in
    action or died of        action or died of
    disease                  disease
             Results of the War
   North Won! The Union has been
    preserved
       So now we all get along…or do we?
   Slavery is over
       Freedmen (former slaves) are now equal…or
        are they?
   What happens now?

				
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