Bayerisches Staatsministerium für Landwirtschaft und Forsten Agriculture and Forestry in Bavaria Facts and Figures 2006 www.landwirtschaft.bayern.de www.forst.bayern.de Contents 1. Agriculture as an economic sector 4 2 Gross output 4 Value added 4 Agricultural productivity 4 Employment in agriculture and forestry 4 Bavaria’s food industry 4 Dairy structure 4 Slaughterhouse structure 4 2. Bavarian foreign trade in food and agricultural products 5 Bavarian exports of food and agricultural products by recipient countries 5 Bavarian exports of food and agricultural products by food groups 5 Agricultural imports 6 Consumer spending 7 Food supply in Bavaria 7 3. Agricultural employment in Bavaria 8 4. Structural changes in Bavarian agriculture 8 Full-time holdings 8 Part-time holdings 9 Leasehold farming 9 5. Economic situation of farm holdings in Bavaria 10 6. Agricultural advisory services and administration 11 Organisation and responsibilities 11 Use of IT in agricultural administration 11 7. Professional education in agriculture 12 8. Agrarian social policy 12 9. Plant production 13 Land distribution 13 Integrated crop management 13 Organic farming 13 10. Land use in Bavaria 14 Cereals 14 Potatoes 14 Sugar beet 14 Hops 15 Oil-producing crops 15 Fodder crops and permanent grassland 15 Alpine farming and mountain pasture 15 Wine 16 Horticulture 16 Fruit 16 11. Animal products industry 17 Production and marketing 17 Cattle farming 17 Milk production and supply 18 Dairy products 18 Pig farming 18 Sheep farming 18 Poultry farming 19 Horse farming 19 Fisheries 19 12. Rural development through land consolidation and village renewal 20 13. Non-food utilisation of biomass 21 Publisher: Biomass for energy use 21 Bayerisches Staatsministerium für Landwirtschaft und Forsten, Material use 21 Postfach 22 00 12, 80535 München, Germany Trends 21 firstname.lastname@example.org; www.stmlf.bayern.de; 14. Funding of agro-political measures 22 www.landwirtschaft.bayern.de; www.forst.bayern.de Support measures 22 RB No. 08/07/23, November 2006 State subsidies 22 Editorial content: Office for Public Relations, State, federal and EU financing for all agro-political measures 22 Office for Agricultural Statistics Photographs: StMLF archive 19, 20, 26; Günter 27; Lehr 1, 13, 16 15. Forestry and the timber industry 23 Data: Bayerisches Landesamt für Statistik und Forest area and social functions of forests 23 Datenverarbeitung – Bayerischer Agrarbericht 2006 Forest damage, forest conservation and research 24 Graphics: Sainer Werbeagentur GmbH, 82166 Gräfelfing Organisational structure, personnel, education 25 Translation: Patricia Langfelder Management of state-owned forest 25 Printing: KKW-Druck GmbH Heisinger Strasse 17, 87437 Kempten Privately owned and communal woodland 25 Timber and timber markets 26 Paper made from certified sustainable forestry products 16. Hunting 27 Introduction With its many different types of farm holding, agricultural products and 3 businesses, Bavaria is one of the biggest core agricultural regions in Europe. This importance is also reflected in the wide public interest in current developments in agriculture and forestry, and in rural areas. At the same time, the economic and political environment is becoming more and more difficult for our farmers. Political decision makers, the farming community and society as a whole are constantly being confronted with new political and social issues and changes. This makes it all the more important to have reliable, well-researched information about structures, production, market opportunities and support measures in this sector. This brochure contains a selection of facts and figures from the Agriculture Report 2006. Together they provide an insight into the current situation of the agricultural and forestry sector in Bavaria. These data also underscore the high priority set on farming and forestry by people who live in and visit Bavaria. In addition to producing foodstuffs of a very high quality, the farming community in Bavaria plays a major role in maintaining the rich diversity of the man-made landscapes so valued by the people who live in Bavaria and by holiday-makers and other visitors from around the world. Our forestry businesses have an additional economic and environmental contribution to make. For me the central task of our Bavarian agricultural policy is therefore to ensure the sustainability and competitiveness of the farming, forestry and food production sectors in Bavaria. If we are to strengthen the competitiveness of our agricultural businesses and to achieve continuing rural development, we need open, well-informed discussions at a political level, and in society as a whole, which are characterized by solidarity with family businesses in the countryside and which take due note of the value of the service that they perform for all of us. This brochure also provides an insight into the diverse activities of the farming community and their contribution to the well-being of society as a whole. Josef Miller Bavarian State Minister for Agriculture and Forestry 1. Agriculture as an economic sector 4 ■ Gross output Chart 1 The agricultural gross output value (excluding forestry and Shares in agricultural gross output in Bavaria in 2004 (K 9 billion) fisheries) in Bavaria in the year 2004 was approx. H 9 billion. Of this amount, 49 % was generated by animal products Milk 24.6 % and 46 % by crop products. Milk accounts for the largest Other plant products 1.3 % amount, followed by wheat, feed crops and cattle. Other animal products 1.9 % Eggs and poultry 1.7 % >>> Chart 1 Flowers and ornamental plants 2.3% ■ Value added Wine, fruit and vegetables 3.7 % The Bavarian agriculture and forestry gross value added Commercial crops 3.4 % in 2005 amounted to H 3.6 million. This figure does not Root crops 4.6 % Services and ancillary include decoupled direct payments. activities 5.6 % Pigs 8.4 % >>> Chart 2 Cattle, incl. calves 12.2 % ■ Agricultural productivity Cereals 16.4 % Feed crops 13.8 % The number of farm holdings in Bavaria has decreased continuously over the past few decades. At the same time, there has been a huge increase in agricultural productivity. >>> Chart 3 Chart 2 ■ Employment in agriculture and forestry Gross value added of Bavarian agriculture, forestry and fisheries in 2005 (K 3.60 billion) The number of people engaged in agriculture in Bavaria, which has been decreasing steadily in recent decades, Agriculture: K 2.90 billion stood at 190,000 in 2005. This corresponds to 3.0 % of the working population. Forestry: One in nine jobs in Bavaria depends directly or indirectly K 0.67 billion on the agricultural sector. This means that roughly 11 % of the working population are employed in agriculture or Fisheries: forestry or in upstream or downstream segments. K 0.032 billion ■ Bavaria’s food industry In 2005, the Bavarian food industry, including industry and artisan segments, posted sales of H 26.8 billion and employed around 195,000 people. The Bavarian food manufacturing and processing segments account for three quarters of food industry sales. Within Bavaria, more than half of the food industry’s workforce is Chart 3 employed in artisan food segments (bakers, butchers, etc.). Productivity In 2005, 95,000 employees generated annual food-trade A Bavarian farmer supplied … people with food sales of H 5.4 billion. 120 115 >>> Table 4 105 100 80 ■ Dairy structure 66 60 51 By the end of 2005, there were 84 companies managing 40 37 120 dairy enterprises. 28 20 By supporting sustainable investment in the dairy business 0 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2005 to improve marketing and processing of agricultural products, Bavaria is strengthening the economic viability and competitiveness of the companies in this sector. Table 4 ■ Slaughterhouse structure Bavarian food industry In the year 2005, there were 49 slaughterhouses with EU Category Number Total Sales in of businesses employees billion euro licences in Bavaria. In addition, there are another 3,000 1995 2005 1995 2005 1995 2005 small slaughterhouses supplying national and regional Manufacturing/ markets. processing enter- By supporting sustainable investment in the slaughter- prises with 20 or more employees 997 994 89,830 97,209 17.10 20.93 house business to improve marketing and processing of Fewer than agricultural products, Bavaria is strengthening the economic 20 employees 475 511 2,856 2,908 0.43 0.46 viability and competitiveness of the companies in this Food trades 10,287 • 114,062 94,536 6.15 5.41 sector. Total food industry 11,759 • 206,748 194,653 23.68 26.80 2. Bavarian foreign trade in food and agricultural products Since 1970, Bavaria’s agricultural and food industry has 5 Chart 5 increased its exports by 800 %. Food of animal origin accounts for the major part of this increase, while the Bavarian agricultural exports by commodity classes in million euro export of live animals has decreased significantly. 5,103 >>> Charts 5 and 11 (see page 6) 5,000 4,711 In 2005, the provisional total for agricultural exports from 4,000 Bavaria (excluding trade between the German states) was 3,461 H 5.3 billion. The final figure for 2004 agricultural exports 3,000 was H 5.1 billion. 2,673 2,151 2,235 Bavaria accounts for 15.5 % of Germany’s total agricultural 2,000 1,948 1,520 1,545 exports. 1,319 905 Exports to other parts of the European Union (EU 25) still 1,000 827 749 523 339 account for the largest single share of Bavaria‘s agricultural 299 85 129 136 exports; in 2005 this was H 4.56 billion, or roughly 86 %. 0 193 1980 1990 2000 2004 Overall, almost one of six jobs in the Bavarian agriculture Live animals Beverages and tobacco Total and forestry depends on agricultural exports. Food of Food of animal origin vegetable origin ■ Bavarian exports of food and agricultural products by recipient countries Bavaria’s major agricultural trading partners are Italy (31 % of exports), Austria (12 %) and France (10 %). Chart 6 Of Bavaria’s non-EU trading partners, the USA was the Bavarian exports of agricultural and food products most important recipient country in 2004, followed by in 2004 by major export markets Switzerland, Russia and Japan. Bavaria exported agri- Italy 31.4 % cultural and food products to 181 countries in 2004. >>> Chart 6 Austria 11.6 % France 9.8 % ■ Bavarian exports of food and agricultural products by food groups Netherlands 7.0 % The major agricultural exports of animal origin were Spain 4.7 % cheese (18.9 %), other dairy products including fresh milk United Kingdom 4.7 % (17.3 %) and meat and meat products (13.7 %). These three Belgium food groups accounted for some 50 % of total agricultural Luxembourg 3.9 % exports. Miscellaneous foodstuffs of vegetable origin Greece 2.4 % accounted for 6.8 %. Other important export products included sugar, beer and hops. Other countries 24.5 % >>> Chart 7 Chart 7 Bavarian exports of agricultural and food products in 2004 by major agricultural products Cheese 18.9 % Milk 17.3 % Meat and meat products 13.7 % Miscellaneous foodstuffs of vegetable origin 6.8 % Sugar 3.4 % Beer 3.3 % Hops 2.2 % Preserved fruit and vegetables, juice, etc. 2.4 % Wheat 1.5 % Other agricultural products 30.5 % 6 ■ Agricultural imports Chart 8 In 2004, Bavaria imported agricultural goods to the value Bavarian agricultural imports by commodity classes in million euro of roughly H 5 billion. The major agricultural import 5,035 products were fruit (including fruit juices and tinned fruit 5,000 and vegetables), meat products, other plant-based food 4,366 products and vegetables. EU countries were the source of 4,000 83 % of the imports. 3,002 >>> Chart 8 3,000 2,794 2,458 The main suppliers of agricultural imports to Bavaria in 2,000 1,887 1,804 2004 were Italy, France and Austria. 1,508 >>> Charts 9 and 10 1,198 1,172 771 1,000 708 684 469 385 215 42 27 25 32 0 1980 1990 2000 2004 Live animals Beverages and tobacco Total Food of Food of animal origin vegetable origin Chart 9 Chart 10 Bavarian agricultural and food imports in 2004 Bavarian agricultural and food imports in 2004 by major supplier countries by major products Italy 20.3 % Fruit, excl. tropical and citrus 9.0 % France 13.1 % Preserved vegetables and fruit, fruit juices 6.7 % Austria 11.6 % Meat and meat products 8.8 % Netherlands 11.2 % Miscellaneous foodstuffs of vegetable Belgium origin 8.2 % Luxembourg 5.4 % Vegetables and culinary herbs 8.0 % Spain 5.0 % Cheese 7.4 % Denmark 2.7 % Milk 6.9 % Tobacco products 6.2 % Poland 2.6 % Wine 5.4 % Greece 2.6 % Fish and fish products 4.3 % Ireland 2.3 % Other agricultural products and foodstuffs 29.1 % Other countries 23.2 % In 1970, the Bavarian agricultural and food industry exported goods to the value of roughly H 600 million. By 2005, the value of such exports had reached H 5.3 billion. >>> Chart 11 Chart 11 Bavarian agricultural exports/imports in million euro 6,000 I 5.3 billion 5,000 I 5.1 billion 4,000 3,000 2,000 1,000 0 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005* Agricultural exports Agricultural imports * provisional ■ Consumer spending 7 Chart 12 The share of their budget that consumers spent on food decreased sharply during the 1990s. In all households, Breakdown of consumer spending on food % share food and drink (excluding canteen meals and eating out) 20 18.5 accounted for only 15.3 % of private spending. Spending 16.5 15.3 on food and non-alcoholic drinks accounted for only 11.7 % 15 12.8 of private spending. 11.2 11.7 10 >>> Chart 12 4.9 4.9 4.5 The proportion of agricultural income attributable to 5 consumer spending on food has been decreasing steadily, 0 1991 1995 2004 from 50 % in 1970 to some 40 % in 1985 and 25 % in 2005. Food >>> Chart 13 Food, beverages, tobacco products combined Catering services ■ Food supply in Bavaria Whereas food self-sufficiency has largely been achieved in the EU for the most important food groups, Bavaria is dependent on imports of pork and poultry, eggs, wine, fruit and vegetables. There are substantial surpluses of cheese, milk, beef and veal as well as sugar. >>> Chart 14 Chart 13 Share of consumer food spending accruing to agricultural producers % share 1980/81 2004/05 (provisional) 80.2 80 70.5 64 56.8 48 43.0 41.5 38.6 45.2 39.7 32 26.3 16 15.2 14.5 3.5 0 Eggs Milk/milk Meat and Sugar beet/ Potatoes Cereals/ products meat products sugar cereal products Chart 14 Self-sufficiency levels for various food groups 2003/2004 in % Fruit Vegetables Cereals Sugar Milk Pork Poultry Beef and veal Cheese 0 40 80 120 160 200 240 280 320 100 EU Germany Bavaria 3. Agricultural employment in Bavaria 4. Structural changes in Bavarian agriculture 8 In 2005, 332,000 people were employed full-time or part- In 2005, there were 5,407 farm holdings of under 2.0 ha time on Bavarian farm holdings. Of these, farmers and utilised agricultural area (UAA). The total number of record- their families accounted for 280,000 (84 %), while 52,000 ed holdings (including special crops) was 129,747 ha UAA. (16 %) were non-family farm workers. In Bavaria, 97 % of all holdings are sole enterprises, which The agricultural workforce in Bavaria has decreased by manage nearly 92 % of UAA. 60 % since 1975, while the number of farm holdings has Bavarian agriculture is also experiencing far-reaching decreased by half. The decline in labour input per 100 ha structural changes. Since 1975, the number of holdings has is equally pronounced. Currently, there are 1.2 labour units more than halved. per farm holding, which translates as 4.6 labour units >>> Chart 17 per 100 ha. This reduction has been made possible by an The average UAA of the remaining farms has been enormous increase in the productivity of the workforce. increasing continuously. In 1990, the average holding >>> Charts 15 and 16 (> 2 ha UAA) was 16.9 ha. By 2005, it was 26.1 ha UAA. The pattern of expansion has been differed in different farm-size categories. The cut-off point is at around 50 ha. The number of holdings above 50 ha UAA is increasing whereas the number of farm holdings below this size is decreasing. >>> Chart 18 ■ Full-time holdings In 2005, full-time holdings accounted for 46 % of all farms (sole enterprises) and 76.6 % of UAA with an average holding size of 37.9 ha. Chart 15 Labour in agricultural holdings Holdings (2 ha or more UAA) Labour units in 1,000 600 514.1 500 400 362.6 329,245 300 268,937 279.1 223,762 200 167,760 179.1 124,340 131.9 100 0 1965 1975 1985 1995 2005 Chart 16 Chart 17 Labour units per 100 ha UAA Number of holdings in Bavaria (with 2 ha or more UAA) 16.0 15.2 400,000 14.0 301,999 12.0 300,000 10.9 243,372 10.0 8.8 200,000 198,765 8.0 5.8 149,057 140,425 6.0 124,340 4.6 4.0 100,000 2.0 0 1970 1980 1990 1999 2001 2005 1965 1975 1985 1995 2005 Chart 18 Farm holdings by size classes in Bavaria (ha) Holdings 1979 1989 2005 80,000 79,077 70,000 63,391 61,026 60,000 49,234 46,794 50,000 40,000 36,864 34,441 33,044 32,004 30,000 21,445 19,740 20,307 19,740 20,000 18,638 15,998 16,515 10,000 3,523 5,794 0 2 to below 5 5 to below 10 10 to below 20 20 to below 30 30 to below 50 50 or more ■ Part-time holdings 9 Chart 19 In 2005, 54 % of farm holdings and 28.4 % of UAA in Bavaria were run on a part-time basis. Share of leasehold land in Bavaria Share of leasehold ha of leasehold Since 1987, Bavaria has had more part-time than full-time land in % UAA land per holding 50 18.0 holdings. 16.0 40 14.0 >>> Chart 22 12.0 30 Part-time holdings play a very important role in Bavaria in 10.0 8.0 the conservation of cultivated (man-made) landscapes and 20 6.0 especially in the conservation of ecologically valuable 10 4.0 2.0 grasslands. 0 0 1981 1991 2001 2005 In 2005, the average size of part-time holdings was 12.8 ha. ■ Leasehold farming Chart 20 In 2005, 83,100 holdings leased 1.5 million ha UAA. On average, farmers leased 17.5 ha of additional UAA per Purchase price for agricultural land euro/ha holding (full-time holdings: 20.9 ha, part-time holdings: 40,000 7.3 ha). 32,599 31,686 28,909 Leasing was the method of choice for increasing holding 30,000 24,619 22,550 size, purchasing was seldom resorted to. In consequence, 20,000 20,488 the proportion of land held under lease has increased, and 10,654 now accounts for some 44.6 % of UAA. 10,000 >>> Chart 19 0 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2004 The high demand for leasehold land has driven up rents to a relatively high level. The average price for leasehold land is H 229 per hectare. There is a marked difference between rents for arable land Chart 21 and grassland. Grassland can be leased for H 166 per ha, Purchase price variation in Bavarian administrative districts in 2004 whereas arable land costs H 259 per ha. This is H 93 or 56 % euro/ha UAA above the grassland rent price. 40,000 30,957 The number of farmland sales in 2004 stood at 3,407. This 30,000 26,201 24,091 corresponds to roughly 5,000 ha UAA. 20,961 20,000 18,009 The price of farmland is influenced not only by its prod- 14,670 14,689 uctivity but also by non-farming factors. There are large 10,000 regional differences within Bavaria. 0 >>> Charts 20 and 21 Upper Lower Upper Upper Central Lower Swabia Bavaria Bavaria Palatinate Franconia Franconia Franconia Chart 22 Development of full-time and part-time holdings (as a percentage of all farm holdings) 60 53.9 % 50 46.1 % 40 1971 1974 1979 1983 1985 1987 1991 1995 1999 2001 2003 2005 Full-time holdings Part-time holdings 5. Economic situation of farm holdings in Bavaria 10 In the 2004/2005 financial year, the average profits of the Table 23 full-time holdings were H 31,258 per holding. This was Income for full-time holdings 2004/2005 Indicator Unit Business year 10 % above the 5-year average. 2004/2005 >>> Table 23 Farm size ha UAA 44.10 This above-average profit was mainly due to improved Farm labour AWU/farm 1.61 crop yields and to higher prices for pork and beef. of whom: family labour AWU/farm 1.48 Disparity % 32 Location, holding size and labour supply lead to a variety Profit euro/ha UAA 709 of organisational structures for the different enterprises. Profit euro/family AWU 21,124 Depending on the production focus of the different hold- Profit euro/enterprise 31,258 ings, the profit will vary (profit by enterprise form). Total income euro/owner (=married couple) 37,217 >>> Chart 25 Despite an increase in UAA since 1981/82 of nearly 22 ha UAA per holding, the number of farm workers has remained Chart 24 the same on the farms that keep accounts. Especially Trend in incomes of full-time holdings in Bavaria during the 1990s, the productivity of the workforce G 1,000 1991/92 2000/01 2004/05 increased strongly. 40 37.2 32.4 35.8 Annual non-farm income of farms obliged to keep accounts 31.3 30 rose between 1981/82 and 2004/2005 from approximately 25.2 21.9 21.5 21.1 H 800 to H 6,000 per year. 20 14.9 >>> Chart 24 10 Overall, full-time and part-time holdings achieved approximately the same total income. 0 euro/year euro/year/family AWU euro/year >>> Table 26 Profit/holding Profit/family AWU Total income In 2005, almost 4,800 holdings were being run in com- pliance with organic farming standards. The profits of full- Chart 25 time organic farms are slightly lower than that of conven- tional enterprises, mainly due to the smaller size of organic Incomes of full-time holdings in 2004/2005 farms. by type of holding (profit in euro/enterprise) 50,000 50,327 In the 2004/05 financial year, organic farms received on 40,000 average H 24,034 in subsidies; this represented approx. 34,449 35,676 35,000 30,236 31,258 23 % of their earnings. 30,000 28,776 >>> Table 27 25,000 22,504 20,000 In 2004/05, an average full-time holding in Bavaria received 15,000 government subsidies to the value of H 21,540. This 10,000 6,217 5,000 included the EU’s compensation payments and animal 0 premiums, compensation payments for less-favoured Market Dairy Other Animal Wine Other Mixed Total crops cattle fodder products growing permanent farming (Ø Bavaria) regions, the cultural landscape programme, investment crops industry crops promotion and subsidies for agricultural diesel fuel. On average, the subsidy packages accounted for 14.8 % of Table 26 earnings. Income of part-time holdings in Bavaria 2004/2005 >>> Chart 28 Indicator Unit Business year 2004/2005 Farm size ha UAA 18.79 Farm labour AWU/farm 0.72 of whom: family labour AWU/farm 0.71 Profit euro/ha UAA 630 Profit euro/enterprise 11,842 Total income euro/owner (=married couple) 37,128 Chart 28 Financial aid granted to full-time farm holdings Table 27 by type of holding in 2004/2005 G 1,000/enterprise Profit Total aid Income for full-time organic farms 2004/2005 50 Indicator Unit Business year 2004/2005 40 Farm size ha UAA 38.70 30 Farm labour AWU/farm 1.55 of whom: family labour AWU/farm 1.46 20 Profit euro/ha UAA 752 10 Profit euro/family AWU 19,922 0 Profit euro/enterprise 29,116 Market Dairy Animal Wine Other Mixed Total income euro/owner (=married couple) 37,297 crops cattle products growing permanent farming industry crops 6. Agricultural advisory services and administration ■ Organisation and responsibilities ■ Use of IT in agricultural administration 11 The main areas of responsibility are: The agricultural administration provides comprehensive – Vocational training and further education internet-based information at – Specialist agricultural colleges www.landwirtschaft.bayern.de – Adult vocational education or www.stmlf.bayern.de – Agricultural and home economic consulting including In addition, there are eGovernment solutions for all relevant advice on structural trends and income combination agricultural areas. (diversification) Examples include: – Administrative tasks relating to agriculture and – The central database for cattle (HIT) cooperation in the implementation of regulations – The central InVeKoS database (ZID) imposed by other authorities – The multiple application procedure for agricultural – Agricultural support, including administration of subsidies with which farmers can make simultaneous premiums and compensation payments as provided multiple subsidy applications online incorporating by state, federal and EU law previous years’ holding and utilisation data, which are – Applied research and the compilation of scientific also available online. research results for use in practice – The online subsidies sitemap with an up-to-date over- view of conditions, value and form of the individual The responsibility for carrying out these tasks is spread support measures and a holdings comparison. over 47 local administrative offices for agriculture and forestry – which also act as training centres for basic and advanced vocational training and provide advice on home economics – and 50 schools of agriculture for farmers and/or rural home economists, together with additional institutions (see the organisational structure below). Organisational structure Bavarian Ministry for Agriculture and Forestry 3 State Research Centres State Leadership Academy Technology and Higher education institutions (Bayerische Landesanstalten) for Nutrition, Agriculture Support Centre – 5 specialist agronomics for and Forestry (at Centre of Competence colleges (Staatliche for Renewable Resources) – 4 advanced agricultural Führungsakademie) training colleges Agriculture – 5 technical schools for agronomics – 1 technical school of Viniculture and forestry Horticulture – 1 school of forestry – 1 school for private forest owners Forestry 1 specialist academy of agriculture 1 2 47 Offices for Agriculture Office for Forest Seeding 7 Offices for and Forestry with and Planting Rural Development schools of agriculture 1 Responsible for overseeing implementation of regulations and guidelines for plant and animal husbandry and the milk quota system. Status: 01.08.2005 2 Responsible for personnel, budget and subsidy matters (agriculture) 7. Professional education in agriculture 8. Agrarian social policy 12 In 2005, 2,131 people began a course of vocational training Apart from insurance for the farming population against or education in the agricultural sector. Gardener, followed accidents, illness, old age and nursing care, the goals of by farmer, were the two most popular courses. The districts agrarian social policy also include income support and of Upper Bavaria, Swabia and Lower Franconia reported measures to cushion the social effects of agricultural the highest trainee numbers. restructuring. >>> Chart 29 The independent agrarian social security system is geared In some agricultural professions (farmer, animal caretaker, to the special requirements of agricultural life and work, stablehand) the first training year is a basic career orien- and has, on the whole, proved its worth. Administration of tation year (Berufsgrundbildungsjahr/BGJ/s). In 2005, 804 the social insurance scheme for farmers is the responsibi- students registered for the orientation year – an increase lity of the Landwirtschaftliche Berufsgenossenschaften of nearly one third over the past five years. (Farmer’s Associations) and the old age, health and nur- >>> Chart 30 sing-care insurance funds they have set up. These are public corporations subject to regulatory control by the At the end of 2005, a total of 5,234 apprentices were training Bavarian Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs, Family for professions in agriculture. Professions in agriculture Affairs and Women. include: farmer, gardener, housekeeper (in an agricultural context), winegrower, animal caretaker, stablehand (Pferdewirt), fish farmer, forester, hunter, agricultural distiller, dairy expert, dairy laboratory assistant and agricultural services specialist. Chart 31 In 2005, 319 farmers qualified as master craftsmen, i.e. Master craftsman’s diploma awards in 2005 Bavaria trained more than 50 % of all agricultural master craftsmen in Germany. Dairy expert/ laboratory assistant 25 >>> Chart 31 Stablehand (Pferdewirt) 11 Housekeeper (rural) 52 Gardener 69 Farmer 319 Chart 29 Apprentices in agricultural professions in 2005 (in first year of training) Gardener 779 Farmer 706 Dairy expert/ laboratory assistant 151 Stablehand (Pferdewirt) 83 Forester 53 Housekeeper 48 Others 286 Chart 30 Career orientation year (BGJ/s) Number of students 2000/01 to 2005/06 in Bavaria 900 828 804 800 748 700 653 600 592 500 400 300 200 100 0 2000/01 2002/03 2003/04 2004/05 2005/06 9. Plant production ■ Land distribution 13 Chart 32 Agricultural and forested areas make up 85 % of overall land use in Bavaria; they are the dominant features of the Land distribution in Bavaria in 2005 (7.1 million ha) man-made landscape. However, in Bavaria too, agricultural land continues to be Agricultural land 50.1 % lost to other land use forms. Buildings and unused land 5.4 % In 2005, the utilised agricultural area (UAA) in Bavaria Traffic area 4.7 % amounted to 3.25 million ha (the total area of Bavaria is Water bodies 2.0 % 7.055 million ha). Recreational areas 0.5 % >>> Chart 32 Commercially ■ Integrated crop management used land 0.4 % Miscellaneous 2.1 % The aim of integrated crop management is to achieve high Forested area 34.9 % yields and high quality with minimal environmental impact. Versatile crop management processes are optimally combined so as to retain and improve soil fertility. Weed, pest and disease control are important features of the integrated system. ■ Organic farming Chart 33 At the end of 2005, 4,832 farms with a total of 142,123 ha Organic farming in Bavaria Number of holdings UAA (ha) UAA managed their farms according to the EEC Organic Farming Regulation. Bavaria, therefore, still has the 160,000 142,123 5,000 4,832 140,000 greatest area under organic farming in Germany. Com- 120,000 pared to 2003, the number of organic holdings has 4,000 3,873 106,614 100,000 increased by 4.5 % and the land area by just under 12 %. 3,000 80,000 3.7 % of all agricultural holdings (of more than 2 ha), and 60,000 2,000 4.4 % of UAA in Bavaria are farmed organically. The 40,000 1,000 average enterprise size of organic farms is 31.6 ha UAA 20,000 and therefore above the average of all holdings (of more 0 2001 2005 0 than 2 ha UAA). At the end of 2005, the organic farming associations re- presented 3,600 holdings with an area of 113,042 ha UAA. In 2004/05, the Landesvereinigung für den ökologischen Landbau in Bayern e.V. (Association of Organic Farmers in Bavaria) was granted a total of H 107,000 to fund general activities. >>> Chart 33 10. Land use in Bavaria 14 Since 1970, land in agricultural use in Bavaria (UAA) has Chart 34 declined from 53.2 % to 46.0 % of the total land area of the Main forms of agricultural land use and principal state. During the same period, the proportion of UAA given crops in 2005 (3.25 million ha) over to grassland sank from 41.8 % to 35.4 %. In 2005, total Arable land 64.0 %, of which: UAA amounted to 3.25 million ha. Cereal crops are grown Cereals, total 36.7 % on 1.2 million ha. Fodder 13.1 % In 2005, the area under root crops totalled 120,000 ha, of Commercial crops (with renewable raw materials) 5.6 % which 59 % were sugar beet followed by potatoes (40 %). Root crops 3.7 % Other root crops do not play a major role. Set-aside land Of the fodder crops, the most important is silage maize (without renewable raw materials) 3.8 % (303,626 ha). It accounts for 71 % of the area under fodder Miscellaneous 1.1 % crops in Bavaria. The second largest crop in this category Garden land, fruit is clover/clover grass cultivated on an area about a third orchards, tree nurseries, vineyards, Christmas as large as the silage maize area. tree plantations, etc. 0.5 % Permanent grassland 35.4 % In 2004/05, there were approximately 40,000 ha of Alpine pastures; these pastures are important summer grazing for livestock. >>> Chart 34 ■ Cereals Table 35 Area and production Cereal production in Bavaria Year Area Yield Production The total area under cereal crops is 1.2 million ha. Winter in 1,000 ha in dt/ha in 1,000 tonnes wheat (39 %) is the main cereal crop, followed by winter 2004 1,249 73.0 9,116 barley (23 %), summer barley (14 %) and grain maize (9 %). 2005 1,200 61.9 7,425 The total cereal harvest (including grain maize) is over ∅ 1999–2004 1,211 62.2 7,532 7 million tonnes. Upward or downward variations are possible depending on the area under cultivation and growing conditions. >>> Table 35 In 2004/05 crop year, Bavarian farmers sold 44 % of the Table 36 cereal harvest. In the 2005/06 crop year, approximately Potato production in Bavaria 3.1 million tonnes of cereals will be sold. The marketed Year Area Average yield Production in ha in dt/ha in 1,000 tonnes output ratio is generally around 42 %. 2004 51,766 393.6 2.037 ■ Potatoes 2005 48,398 386.3 1.870 ∅ 1999–2004 52,627 372.2 1.959 In 2005, potatoes were grown on 48,398 ha; 1.87 million tonnes and 2,04 million tonnes were grown in 2005 and 2004 respectively. The average area under potatoes in Bavaria is 1.6 ha per holding. >>> >> Table 36 Table 37 ■ Sugar beet Sugar beet production in Bavaria In 2005, farmers in Bavaria reduced the area under sugar Year Area Yield Production Sugar Adjusted in 1,000 ha in dt/ha in 1,000 content yield beet (roughly 70,700 ha) by approximately 3 % compared tonnes in % in dt/ha with 2003. 2004 73.4 697 5,112 18.1 109.4 In the year 2004, a high yield of 73.4 t/ha of sugar beet was 2005 70.7 663 4,687 18.1 103.3 ∅ 1999–2004 73.6 655 4,820 • • achieved. Unfavourable weather conditions resulted in a below-average harvest in 2005. >>> Table 37 ■ Hops 15 Table 38 The area under hops in Bavaria has decreased slightly. In Hop production in Bavaria 2005, it amounted to 14,625 ha, this was 270 ha less than Year Number Area under hops in ha Production Yield of holdings Total Per holding in dt in dt/ha 2 years before. Over the past two years, 147 holdings in Bavaria have stopped growing hops altogether. Since 1990, 1990 3,704 18,648 5.03 257,575 13.8 1995 2,708 18,663 6.89 299,434 16.0 the number of holdings has decreased from 3,704 to 1,394. 2005 1,394 14,625 10.49 302,250 20.7 The average area per holding under hops has increased to 10.49 ha. Bavaria accounts for more than a quarter of the worldwide production of hops. In 2004, the hops marketing regulation was reformed. As Table 39 with the other product groups, subsidies to hops farmers Oilseed production in Bavaria (rapeseed) including renewable raw materials on set-aside land were decoupled from production. 2005 saw the first direct Year Area Yield Production decoupled payment, based on the area under hops rather in 1,000 ha in dt/ha in tonnes than on production. 2004 139.2 38.5 536.6 >>> Table 38 2005 157.1 36.5 572.8 ∅ 1999–2004 157.7 31.6 498.6 ■ Oil-producing crops In 2005, around 157,000 ha of oilseed rape were cultivated. >>> Table 39 Chart 40 ■ Fodder crops and permanent grassland Because Bavaria is a centre of livestock production, fodder Fodder-crop production by type of crop Area in 1,000 ha crops and grassland farming make an important contribu- 1,800 tion to the agricultural economy. Grassland use and the 1,700 cultivation of silage maize, clover and clover-grass are 1,600 especially important. Almost 48 % of UAA in Bavaria is 1,500 used to produce feed for beef and dairy herds, sheep and 1,400 horses. 1,300 >>> Chart 40 1,200 1,100 ■ Alpine farming and mountain pasture 1,000 900 Mountain farming is essential for the preservation and 800 sustainable use of the Alpine region. Family-run farms are 700 the basis for long-term settlement of these areas; they are 600 essential to the preservation of the mountain area as a 500 man-made landscape and a place to live, work and relax. 400 The typical Alpine landscapes are largely a product of the 300 work of mountain farmers and forest owners. Their activities 200 thus supply important services to society in general by: 100 – Creating and preserving the unique man-made 0 1990/95 2005 landscape, which is very important for tourism Permanent grassland 1,260,787 1,145,911 – Protecting natural resources and preserving ecological diversity. Alpine land management is essential for the Fodder crops total 469,248 428,672 conservation of species and habitats. – Preventing soil erosion and landslides. of which: Fodder beet 10,736 869 Bavaria has 1,388 mountain farms covering approximately Clover, clover-grass 103,472 90,022 40,000 ha of alpine pastures. In summer 2005, there were Lucerne 9,564 4,098 Silage maize 327,886 303,626 51,000 cattle (of which 4,750 were cows), 3,000 sheep and Other fodder goats and 1,000 horses on the pastures. crops (including cultivated grass) 17,590 30,056 Permanent grassland and fodder crops together 1,730,035 1,574,583 16 ■ Wine Chart 41 In the year 2005, there were 5,848 vineyards with vines Area under vines in Bavaria, as per the register of vineyards planted on 6,106 ha. Of this area, 5,914 ha are under Survey includes holdings with an area of 10 or more ares under vines Number of holdings, area under vines in ha production. Structural changes continue in this segment 8,000 too; the productive area per holding continues to increase 7,649 (1995: 0.80 ha; 2005: 1.01 ha). 7,500 7,364 >>> Chart 41 7,096 7,000 In 2005, wine must production reached 448,544 hl. With 6,667 per capita consumption at almost 24 kg, this means that 6,500 only 13 % of demand can be covered. 6,000 5,848 Red grape varieties are grown on approximately 1,100 ha. 6,404 >>> Chart 42 6,290 6,319 6,294 5,500 5,877 6,106 5,987 5,911 5,914 5,856 ■ Horticulture 5,000 A full horticultural survey was conducted in Bavaria in Year 1993 1995 1997 2000 2005 Number of Total area Productive area 2005. The number of horticultural enterprises decreased holdings under vines under vines by 24 % compared to 1994. At the same time, however, the total area under cultivation increased to 23,620 ha. The average area size of a holding rose from 2.0 ha to 3.6 ha. Of the holdings recorded in the 2005 survey, approximately Chart 42 4,200, or 64 %, were horticultural holdings which derived Wine must production in Bavaria at least 50 % of their revenues from horticulture, trading Yield in hl/ha Production in 1,000 hl and services. The remaining 3,360 holdings are classified 100 95.6 as farm holdings with some horticultural production. 90 84.6 The total area under vegetable cultivation in 2005 was 80 13,000 ha outdoors and about 200 ha under glass. Of the 70.8 73.3 71.7 68.5 67.1 70 area given over to asparagus cultivation, 1,725 ha were in 600 555,303 production. 499,881 500 400 413,351 402,604 401,720 417,739 423,902 ■ Fruit 300 According to the last fruit-farming survey, conducted in 200 2002, 2,395 Bavarian fruit farms produce some 47,300 100 tonnes of fresh-market fruit on 3,076 ha (3 million trees). 0 Fruit growing is concentrated in Lower Franconia (plums), Year 1991 1993 1995 1997 2001 2003 2005 Swabia (apples) and Upper Franconia (sweet cherries). Yield hl/ha Total hl In 2005, Bavaria as a whole produced 26,717 tonnes of apples, 4,488 tonnes of pears and 12,054 tonnes of strawberries. The strawberry cultivation area increased from 1,278 ha to 1,995 ha. 11. Animal products industry Animal production is the most important source of ■ Cattle farming 17 livelihood in the Bavaria agricultural sector. In 2005, 96,066 Cattle farming earns 52.1 % of the agricultural income in farms raised livestock, this represents 77 % of all agricul- Bavaria and is therefore the most important production tural holdings. sector. Animal production currently accounts for 69 % of overall The number of holdings keeping dairy cows has shrunk by agricultural production in Bavaria. 56.5 % over the past 15 years, while the size of the dairy The years between 1984 and 2005 saw in the most signifi- herds has decreased by 29.6 %. These figures reflect the cant structural changes in this sector since the end of the concentration of livestock in the remaining holdings. war. The number of holdings keeping cattle has dropped In 2005, Bavaria had 3.59 million cattle of which 1.27 million by 60.1 % since 1984; the number of holdings keeping dairy were dairy cows. The average herd size was 25 cows per cows has decreased by 66.6 %. In pig farming, the concen- farmer in the year 2005. tration process has been even more pronounced. In the >>> Table 43 space of those 21 years, 81.2 % of the holdings discontinued pig keeping, and 77.5 % stopped keeping breeding sows. Herd size has undergone profound changes. While the majority of dairy cows are still held in herds of 30 to 49 Over the past two years, per capita meat consumption cows, herd size surveys show an increase in the share of increased by 0.5 kg to 61.1 kg per year. Beef and veal holdings with 50 and more cows from 2.3 % to 20.5 % in consumption rose by 0.4 kg to 8.8 kg per person and year. 2005. Consumption of poultry and pork stands at 10.5 kg and 39.5 kg per person and year respectively. Herd sizes vary considerably within Bavaria. The largest herds are kept in Upper Bavaria and Swabia. These two ■ Production and marketing districts account for 54 % of all Bavarian cattle. In 2005, Bavarian agriculture contributed 15 % to German >>> Table 44 meat production. In the production of beef and veal, Bavaria contributed an above average share of more than 28 %. The Bavarian share in German pork production amounted to about 12 % in 2005. The market value of Bavarian slaughter animals in 2005 reached approximately H 1.7 billion. Table 43 Cattle farmers and head of cattle by size of herd Size of herd Number of farms Number of animals from … to … (head) 1980 1990 2005 1980 1990 2005 1–9 51,752 26.7 % 26,107 18.9 % 8,303 11.9 % 279,801 5.7 % 143,273 3.0 % 45,007 1.3 % 10–19 47,818 24.7 % 27,156 19.6 % 9,945 14.3 % 676,836 13.7 % 385,470 8.0 % 140,677 3.9 % 20–29 32,710 16.9 % 20,811 15.1 % 8,276 11.9 % 789,347 16.0 % 503,640 10.5 % 203,523 5.7 % 30–49 36,053 18.5 % 29,115 21.1 % 14,003 20.1 % 1,372,940 27.8 % 1,126,820 23.4 % 548,190 15.3 % 50–99 23,259 2.0 % 30,198 22.0 % 20,590 29.5 % 1,511,974 30.5 % 2,034,097 42.3 % 1,447,751 40.4 % 100–199 2,075 1.1 % 4,319 13.1 % 8,034 11.5 % 255,702 5.2 % 531,350 11.1 % 1,038,250 28.9 % 200 or more 175 0.1 % 299 0.2 % 625 0.9 % 55,878 1.1 % 83,531 1.7 % 163,547 4.6 % Bavaria 193,842 138,005 69,775 4,942,478 4,808,181 3,586,945 Table 44 Dairy farmers and number of dairy cows by size of herd Size of herd Number of farms Number of animals from … to … (head) 1980 1990 2005 1980 1990 2005 1–9 91,153 52.0 % 43,270 36.3 % 8,567 14.5 % 466,556 23.5 % 230,451 12.7 % 50,500 4.0 % 10–19 55,470 31.7 % 39,588 33.2 % 14,452 27.9 % 755,687 38.0 % 555,403 30.7 % 210,015 16.5 % 20–29 21,004 12.0 % 24,044 20.2 % 13,386 25.8 % 490,539 24.7 % 570,654 31.5 % 325,833 25.6 % 30–49 7,218 4.1 % 11,714 9.7 % 11,374 21.9 % 251,029 12.6 % 412,564 22.8 % 426,445 33.5 % 50–99 359 0.2 % 686 0.6 % 3,973 7.7 % 20,641 1.1 % 38,874 2.2 % 244,724 19.2 % 100 or more 13 0.0 % 8 0.0 % 127 0.2 % 1 859 0.1 % 1,072 0.1 % 16,224 1.3 % Bavaria 175,217 119,310 51,880 1,986,311 1,809,018 1,273,740 18 ■ Milk production and supply ■ Pig farming In the year 2005, Bavaria contributed about 7.6 million With 3.7 million pigs in 2005, Bavaria had a 14 % share of tonnes, or 27 %, to Germany’s milk production. Milk and the total pig herd in Germany. In Bavaria, pig farming was cream deliveries totalled 7.0 million tonnes in the same subject to an even greater concentration process than year. Milk accounts for 25 % of the gross agricultural output cattle farming. Since 1990, the number of pig farmers has and 36 % of the sales revenues respectively. decreased by more than 70 %, but the number of pigs has >>> Chart 45 remained almost constant. The number of breeding sows has decreased by 9 % since 1990, while the number of ■ Dairy products people keeping them has plummeted by 63 %. In recent years, consumer demand for Bavarian milk and >>> Chart 46 milk products has remained strong. In 2005, 897,808 tonnes The average number of pigs per farm is 147. On average of milk, 1,034,031 tonnes of combined milk products and there are 38 breeding sows per keeper, while 46 % of these 761,444 tonnes of cheese were produced. sows are in herds of 100 animals or more. >>> Table 47 ■ Sheep farming Bavaria has about 17 % of the German sheep stock, making Chart 45 it the state with the most sheep. Between 1970 and 2005, sheep stock rose from 164,000 to 450,000. In 2005, ewes Milk production, milk delivery and milk yield recording in Bavaria Yield in kg/cow numbered 274,000. The average herd size increased from Production and delivery in 1,000 t 24 to 56 sheep per keeper. 9,000 8,493 7,688 8,142 8,000 90.5 % 7,241 7,650 7,024 7,553 7,045 88.9 % 91.8 % 93.3 % 7,000 6,874 6,000 5,527 5,587 80.4 % 5,000 5,403 5,930 4,000 3,618 4,415 64.8 % 4,279 3,113 3,000 1,792 3,498 57.6 % 3,119 2,000 1,818 1,000 0 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2005 Average annual milk yield in kg/cow Milk production in 1,000 t Milk delivery to dairies in 1,000 t Milk delivery to dairies as a % of total production Chart 46 Pig keeping trends in Bavaria Keepers in 1,000 Animals in millions 160 5.00 140 120 3.75 100 80 2.50 60 40 1.25 20 0 0 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2003 2005 Pig keepers Pigs Breeding sow keepers Breeding sows Table 47 Breeding sow keepers and number of breeding sows by size of herd Size of herd Number of farms Number of animals from … to … (head) 1980 1990 2005 1980 1990 2005 1–9 43,408 76.9 % 16,815 60.1 % 3,832 37.4 % 128,282 27.0 % 55,721 12.6 % 14,359 3.6 % 10–19 6,409 11.4 % 4,106 14.7 % 1,441 14.1 % 86,480 18.2 % 56,285 12.7 % 20,928 5.2 % 20–49 5,186 9.2 % 4,722 16.8 % 2,433 23.7 % 147,048 32.6 % 126,036 33.2 % 79,209 19.7 % 50–99 1,282 2.2 % 1,950 7.0 % 1,440 14.0 % 83,192 17.5 % 131,256 29.6 % 103,014 25.6 % 100 or more 158 0.3 % 394 1.4 % 1,108 10.8 % 22,114 4.7 % 52,758 11.9 % 184,549 45.9 % Bavaria 56,443 27,987 10,254 474,976 443,068 402,059 ■ Poultry farming ■ Horse farming 19 Laying hens Horse breeding and equestrian sports have developed into In the poultry sector, the number of chicken farmers has a significant economic factor in Bavaria. It is estimated that dropped from 149,470 to 28,910 since 1980 and the number Bavaria has 110,000 horses. Two thirds of these are kept in of chickens from 7.2 million to 3.5 million. Farms with small agricultural holdings. On average, each of these holding poultry herds where poultry keeping has no significant has 6.1 horses. Apart from horse breeding, some 6,500 economic effect have tended to stop keeping poultry. In farmers operate livery stables as an additional source of 2005, 98 % of the enterprises only kept up to 250 chickens income. (about 16 % of the laying hens), 11 % of the chickens are ■ Fisheries in enterprises with 250 to 2,999 birds and 72 % of the chickens are in 175 enterprises with stocks of 3,000 or more Bavaria is one of the most water-rich states in Germany, birds. with 126,000 ha of water. Fattening poultry Carp pond fish farming With an annual carp production of 6,000 tonnes, Bavaria The number of chickens has increased slightly again over produces about 50 % of all German carp. Apart from carp, the past few years, despite the decreasing number of the 20,000 ha of carp ponds were also used to breed tench, keepers. At the time of the survey conducted in May 2005, pike, pike-perch and catfish. 509 enterprises kept about 4.4 million broilers. The 92 fattening farms in Bavaria with coop capacities for over Trout pond fish farming 10,000 birds account for 97 % of the broilers. Bavaria The Bavarian share of the 20,000 tonnes of food trout produces about 10 % of the German broiler and turkey-hen produced in Germany annually amounts to 8,000 tonnes. production. Out of the total of 4,000 German fish farms, 3,300 (83 %) Bavaria is 40 % self-sufficient in poultry production. are located in Bavaria. Angling fisheries In Bavaria around 245,000 people go angling. About half of them belong to the Bavarian fishing association. Every year, about 9,000 candidates take the official fishing licence examination, with about 8,000 passing. 12. Rural development through land consolidation and village renewal 20 For many decades, rural development through land con- Land regulation provides the rural development with an solidation, village renewal and integrated rural develop- effective instrument for reorganising the ownership of ment has been one of the main aims of Bavarian agricul- land; it makes implementing the planned schemes funda- tural policy. The primary goal of the Administration for mentally easier and is often what makes them possible in Rural Development is to improve living and working condi- the first place. The consolidation of fragmented or un- tions in rural areas. There are currently 1,900 rural develop- favourably shaped property into larger and more practical ment projects in progress affecting 700,000 ha of land. In holdings contributes to making area-wide land cultivation co-operation with 1.2 million citizens, these projects are and thereby strengthens the competitiveness and eco- reshaping and developing the areas in which they live. In nomic sustainability of farm businesses. this way, through land consolidation and village renewal, the Administration for Rural Development provides essen- tial support to mitigate and control the effects of structural ■ Village renewal change, strengthening in particular areas with a weak infra- Village renewal is an important aspect of Bavarian struc- structure. By channelling subsidies, the administration tural improvement and rural development policy. It has supports the creation of living and working conditions that been successful in achieving its goal of a standard of living are on a par across the whole of Bavaria. This helps to and quality of life in rural areas that is equivalent to (but counteract the threatening trend to migration especially in not the same as!) that of urban areas. Village renewal peripheral areas. addresses current challenges, such as market globalisation, structural changes in the agricultural sector, demographic ■ Land consolidation trends with sometimes imminent population decreases In 2004 and 2005, subsidies of H 124.8 million were invested and a re-appraisal of the community of responsibility in 1,230 land consolidation projects. Of these, around 640 between citizens and the state. Village renewal helps to were combined with village renewal schemes and roughly improve the quality of life in rural areas as the foundation 190 were voluntary land exchanges. The total investment for people‘s feeling of association with that area, and as a amounted to H 161.3 million. It was allocated to develop- positive factor which encourages investment. At the same ment of villages and landscapes, restructuring water cours- time, it strengthens the economic, ecological, social and es, soil protection, landscape preservation, planning and cultural potential of the villages, and improves production land regulation. A further H 27.3 million was invested in and working conditions. Furthermore, village renewal land purchases. serves to support and encourage active citizens’ respon- One of the first steps in implementing a land consolidation sibility for planning and implementing development scheme is to set up a community of participants (Teilneh- concepts for rural local authorities (Gemeinden) and for mergemeinschaft). These associations of landowners have strengthening their own ability to act. Village renewal is proved a successful approach to handling rural develop- being implemented in 640 local authorities with over 2,130 ment schemes over many decades. The elected manage- villages and over 550,000 inhabitants. In 2004 and 2005, ment board of the community of participants is the central these schemes were supported by H 85 million in subsidies decision-making body. from Offices for Rural Development and Offices for Agricul- ture and Forestry. This directly generated communal and private sector investment of approximately H 195 million. Most of the resulting contracts were awarded to small and medium-sized regional artisan and commercial businesses. 13. Non-food utilisation of biomass ■ Integrated rural development ■ Biomass for energy use 21 More and more local authorities are recognising that many In 2003, about 4.4 % of Bavaria’s primary energy demand of their problems are easier to be solved if they work was met by biomass. This is equivalent to about 89 peta together with other local authorities. joules. Integrated rural development helps local authorities to >>> Chart 49 define their goals in the planning stage by drafting an By the end of 2005, Bavaria had the following infrastructure integrated rural development concept (ILEK) as a basis for for using biomass as an energy source: coordinating development activities. At the same time, in Solid biomass fuels implementing the ILEK, village renewal, land consolidation – Around 2,100 larger biomass heating plants with more and other programmes can be coordinated and harmon- than 150 kW capacity ised so as to achieve their goals effectively. Implementation – 1.76 million wood-burning stoves and open fireplaces monitoring can help a rural local authority to implement its ILEK. Liquid biomass fuels – About 400 public biodiesel filling stations In 2005, 65 integrated rural development projects and local – Biodiesel production capacity of 155,000 t/a authority alliances in Bavaria were monitored and funded. – Biodiesel sales of 310,000 t/a >>> Chart 48 – Unprocessed vegetable oil: sales of 14,000 t/a in 120 decentralised oil mills Gaseous biomass fuels (biogas) – Approx. 1,300 biogas plants in agricultural enterprises – Approx. 250 sewage and landfill gas plants Central Franconia, the Allgaeu region and the south eastern Chart 48 area of Upper Bavaria are regional centres for agricultural biogas plants. Investment in rural development 2004 and 2005 Total: K 356.2 million ■ Material use The main emphasis over the last two years was on: – Vegetable oil mixtures for bitumen (roof paving and K 161.3 million asphalt) – Biodegradable products, for example cutlery and K 135.7 million plates – Fibre composite materials K 59.2 million ■ Trends In 2005, approximately 230,000 ha in Bavaria were planted with renewable raw materials. The area has nearly doubled over the past five years. It included roughly 45,000 ha of Land consolidation set-aside land. Of these, 75 % were planted with oilseed Common investment in village renewal for fuel or other technical applications, while 25 % were Private-sector investment in village renewal planted with wheat or maize, which is used primarily as a substrate for biogas plants. There is an estimated demand for 10,000 ha of potatoes annually as renewable raw materials. Non-food cultivation of sugar beet uses 3,000 ha. Chart 49 Biomass mix in Bavaria Charcoal, pellets 1 % Digester gas 3 % Biogenic fuels – vegetable oil 7 % Biogas (agricultural plants) 8 % Other biomass in heating and CHP stations 18 % Biomass in waste 23 % Firewood 40 % 14. Funding of agro-political measures 22 ■ Support measures ■ State subsidies Allocation of responsibilities Section 08 of the Bavarian budget shows spending of Responsibility for agricultural policy is shared by the H 1.038 billion for the year 2006. Bavarian state, the Federal Republic of Germany and the The legal basis for agricultural state funding in Bavaria is European Union. the Agricultural Assistance Act (LwFöG) of 1974. An amend- The Bavarian state is primarily responsible for ment to the law is currently being discussed in parliament. – Initial training, advanced training, advisory services, ■ State, federal and EU financing for all agro-political specialist schooling, agricultural research measures – Preserving man-made landscapes and natural resources – Improving productivity and quality The total amount posted in section 08 of the Bavarian – Improving living and working conditions in agriculture budget also includes funds partly reimbursed by the Federal Republic or the EU. Allowing for reimbursement, The Federal German Republic is primarily responsible for Bavaria’s budget expenditure on agricultural measures – Social and fiscal policy (including advisory services) is about H 674 million. The European Union is primarily responsible for >>> Charts 50 and 51 – Market and price policy The European Union also lays down the policy framework for almost all support schemes. Agricultural structural policy is shaped jointly by the EU, the German government and the state of Bavaria. Chart 50 Aggregate agrarian funding by Bavaria, the Federal Republic and the EU in 2005 by source of funds Bavaria: K 674 million (including consultancy) FRG: K 1,300 million EU: K 1,310 million Chart 51 Financial support (in million euro) for Bavarian agriculture and forestry from the EU, the FRG and Bavaria in 2005 (excluding approx. I 408 million for administration, consultancy, research and miscellaneous items) Grants for renewable natural resources 7 Improving the market position of Bavarian producers 42 Grants for forestry 18 Environmental programmes 225 Restructuring grants for rural areas 114 Self-help organisations 38 Other EU grants 26 Investment grants 54 Special grants and others 23 Direct payments 1,010 Compensatory allowences for Social supports 1,175 less favoured areas 143 Aggregate financial support K 2,875 million 15. Forestry and the timber industry ■ Forest area and social functions of forests Natural forest reserves 23 Bavarian forest policy Natural forest reserves serve the preservation and under- The basis for the Bavarian forest policy and its goals is standing of natural forest ecosystems. By the end of 2005, defined in Article 1 of the Bavarian Forest Act (BayWaldG). Bavaria had 154 natural forest reserves covering a total The most effective way of reaching these goals is to ensure land area of 6,600 ha. Within the reserves, no active interven- that the whole forested area is utilised in a sustainable, tions (process protection) are undertaken except in the productive and natural way and that forests, suited to the interest of road safety and forest protection. site, are preserved or restored. National parks Forest area On October 14, 2003 the responsibility for the two national One third of Bavaria (2.45 million ha) is covered by forests. parks, the Bavarian Forest and Berchtesgaden passed to In 2003 and 2004, the forest area of Bavaria increased by the Bavarian State Ministry for Environment, Health and 428 ha. Forest area growth has slowed slightly compared Consumer Safety. to the previous reporting period. Protected forest areas and Natura 2000 >>> Chart 52 The designation of different protected area categories laid Protected and protection forest down in the Bavarian Nature Conservation Act affects large areas of forest and woodland: By the end of 2004, 185,000 ha of forest and woodland has been designated as protected by statutory order. This is – 920,000 ha are nature parks about 7.3 % of the forest area of Bavaria. Forests and – 820,000 ha are nature conservation areas woodland that meet the legal requirements can be declared – 487,000 ha are protected landscape areas protected by statutory order of the local authority. – 449,000 ha are Natura 2000 areas Under Bavarian forestry law (Article 10 Paragraph 1 – 31,000 ha are in national parks BayWaldG), protection forest is defined as all woodland in the upper zones and ridge zones of the Alps and the low Forest and woodlands are very often located in water pro- mountain range, as well as areas tending to erosion. tection areas. In all, about two thirds of these areas Protection forest also includes areas where the forest (140,000 ha) fall in this category. averts dangers, for example, avalanches or rock falls. Most 56 % of the area designated by Bavaria under the European of the protection forests are listed in protection forest Natura 2000 network is forest, 60 % of which is state-owned. registers. Until 2004, private and communal forest owners This is some indication of the high nature conservation received fixed support payments for protection forest total- quality of Bavarian forests and in particular state forests. ling H 1 million. From 2005 onwards, the area-based pay- The Bavarian Forestry Administration is responsible for the ment was changed to a measure-based subsidy. An amount management of all forests in Natura 2000 areas. of H 830,000 was allocated for this subsidy. Recreational value of forests Protection forest management Especially in urban areas, forests are indispensable for To ensure that mountain forests can perform protection recreation. Among other amenities, Bavarian state-owned functions, the Bavarian Forest Administration has developed forests have about 9,000 km of hiking trails, 1,400 km of a concept for integrated protection forest management. cycling trails, 400 km of bridle-paths and 1000 parking The concept addresses three tasks: protection forest spaces. There are also many forest- and nature-information restoration, protection forest maintenance and systematic trails, tobogganing runs, camping sites, viewing points, hunting of hoofed game. The most effective measures are benches and a number of other amenities for leisure and tree plantings in cleared mountain forests and building recreational use. temporary screens to protect saplings against drifting snow. During 2004 and 2005, H 4.6 million were invested in protection forest regeneration. Systematic care of pro- tection forest will keep the forest in a condition to fulfil its protective functions. Most important is timely regeneration Chart 52 of the forest. Over the past few years, reducing deer Ownership structure of forest area populations and adjusting forestry practices have brought (BayWaldG/Bavarian Forest Act): 2.5 million ha about a significant improvement in the rate of woodland Private forest* 57.0 % regeneration. Bavarian state forest 31.3 % Corporate forest* (owned by incorporated bodies incl. by juristic persons in terms of public law) 10.2 % Federal state forest 1.5 % * The revised BayWaldG (Bavarian Forest Act) 01.07.2005 changed the definition of “corporate forest”, so that approx. 100,000 ha were recategorised as “private forest”. 24 Forest environmental education (Waldpädagogik) Conditions in 2003 were also favourable for oak tree insect Forest environmental education has been a statutory pests. Franconia especially suffered from massive popula- responsibility of the state forestry authorities since 1998. tion explosions of Winter Moth species, such as the Gypsy The Forestry Administration makes a valuable contribution Moth and Oak Procession Moth. In 2004, these species had to the implementation of Bavarian education policy. The to be controlled in an area totalling 3,000 ha. The following goal is to implement the statutory education responsibility year, the oak pests were successfully controlled over an throughout Bavaria. The main target groups are school area of 3,700 ha. classes whose curriculum includes forest and woodland New types of damage to trees and the forest floor studies. The actual implementation is the responsibility of In 2004, the condition of the crowns of forest trees the Agriculture and Forestry Offices. In densely populated deteriorated seriously following the hot dry summer of urban areas and localities that attract tourism, the Offices 2003. Water shortages led to needle and leaf loss that is expand their service by providing forest experience centres still, to some extent, in evidence today. and a forest youth hostel. The Bavarian Forestry Adminis- More favourable weather conditions and an adequate tration is one of the largest providers of positions for the water supply during the vegetation periods in 2004 and Voluntary Ecological Year in Bavaria. Many of the young 2005 have defused the situation. The results of the 2005 people spend their year working in forest environmental crown condition survey showed a reduction in needle and education facilities, but their tasks can also include protec- leaf loss. tion forest restoration and maintenance in high Alpine areas. One major worry is the forest floor. The buffering capacity of forest floors is reaching its limit due to the long-term Results of the second federal forest inventory impact of emissions, in particular nitrogen. In the medium The results of the second federal forest inventory were term, this may impair the stability of the forests and the published in 2005. The survey provides facts and figures quality of the groundwater, and threaten biodiversity in about the condition of forests and developments over the some locations. past 15 years. The main findings are that the forest area >>> Chart 53 and the proportion of deciduous trees has increased, there Research and development has been a significant increase in wood resources, in par- ticular in small private forests, as well as a trend towards Globalisation and climate change demand an innovative more natural forests. This second federal forest inventory approach to a productive forest economy and timber shows that Bavarian forests are being used sustainably. industry. R&D is an essential element in this approach. The Zentrum Wald-Forst-Holz (Centre of Forestry) in ■ Forest damage, forest conservation and research Weihenstephan is a step in this direction; at present it is Natural events unique in Germany. It is a competence centre created in a Over the past two years, Bavaria’s forests have been spared joint endeavour by the Bavarian forestry research institu- extreme natural events. A severe storm in July 2005, which tions in Weihenstephan – the chairs of Forest Science at produced 500,000 cubic metres of windfall timber in Lower the Munich Technical University (TU München), the Faculty Bavaria and Upper Palatinate, was the only exception. The for Forest and Forestry at the University of Applied Science heavy rainfall and resulting flooding in southern Bavaria Weihenstephan and the Bavarian State Institute of Forestry. in August 2005 caused no damage to the forests. The centre will work on finding solutions to forest-related Damage by animals and fungi questions (www.forstzentrum.de). The effects of the severe storm in 2003 were still evident in 2004/2005. The hot, dry weather also allowed the bark beetle, spruce bark beetle and six-toothed spruce bark beetle to flourish. The bark beetle monitoring process developed by the Bavaria Forest Institute (LWF) proved its worth – forest owners and foresters can access informati- on at any time on the current state of the swarm phases and beetle development. The main areas of damage were in the western parts of Central Franconia, in Upper Fran- conia and in Lower Bavaria, all areas where below-average rainfall had reduced the water available to the forest. Chart 53 Average needle/leaf loss and proportion of significant damage 1991–2005 Significant damage Average needle/leaf loss in % in % 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 ■ Organisational structure, personnel, education Long-term silvicultural planning 25 Forest administration reform The forest taxation is the central medium-term planning The ministerial decrees of March and November 2004 and control instrument of state forestry management. The formed the framework for the reform of the Bavarian Bavarian model is based on an optimised random selection Forestry Administration. The main feature of the reform inventory which allows an extensive planning. was the separation of economic and administrative respon- Logging, regeneration and care sibilities. The business and economic aspects of the The silviculture in the state forests was still suffering from Bavarian state forests and hunting estates were bundled the consequences of 2003‘s extreme hot summer. Thanks in the newly-founded Bayerische Staatsforsten (Bavarian to favourable weather conditions in the following years State Forests) – an institution under public law. This institu- and systematic pest control it was possible to avert the tion and the state forestry administration have been threatened explosion of bark beetle population. At the same systematically structured as a two-stage system. In conse- time, the timber market began to recover significantly. quence, all four forestry directorates have been dissolved. 5.8 million cubic metres were felled in 2004 and 2.8 million Forestry administration and agricultural administration cubic metres in the first half of 2005. The second federal have been combined in the Agriculture and Forestry Offices forest inventory, published in 2005, concluded that the which have also been allocated the technical tasks of the timber stock of the state forests had increased by 15 % forestry directorates. The role of the Offices as forestry between 1987 and 2002. authorities has been strengthened. During 2004 and 2005, 2,768 ha were replanted. Natural The 127 previous Forestry Offices have been replaced by methods of forest management and lower hoofed game 41 forest enterprises and 47 Agriculture and Forestry populations allowed natural regeneration in two thirds of Offices. These are split into the sections agriculture and the regeneration area. 4,970 ha of young stands were forestry as well as an office administration. The forestry tended. section is further subdivided into forest districts. These ■ Privately owned and communal woodland decisions by the Bavarian government and the Bavarian state parliament will have the effect of reducing the scope Holding structure of forestry administration responsibilities together with a Approximately 57 % of the forest area in Bavaria is owned 20 % reduction in jobs. by 700,000 private owners. Training, further education Around four fifths of all forest owners are not included in In 2004/2005, the then Bavarian Forestry Administration the agricultural statistics because their agricultural or offered training in four administrative categories for the forestry holding is below the legal minimum holding size forestry service: senior, senior technical, senior non-tech- for inclusion. Their average forest holding is 1.8 ha. nical and medium-grade civil servant. The Bavarian In 2005, there were about 104,000 agricultural holdings Technical School of Forestry in Lohr on the Main trains managing 755,000 ha of forest. Their average forest holding foresters to become state certified technical foresters. is 7.3 ha. In addition, some 6,600 so-called forest enter- Specialist further education for employees is very important. prises manage a forest area of 1.2 million ha in Bavaria. Civil servants and employees spent between 3.4 and 4.0 Usually these are enterprises with a UAA of less than 2 ha days per worker and year in further education. but a forest area of 10 ha or more. >>> Table 54 ■ Management of state-owned forest The average forest holding of the forestry enterprises is As of July 1, 2005, the business management of state 186 ha. The state forest previously managed by the forestry forests was removed from the hitherto Bavarian Forestry offices is included under forestry enterprises. Administration and transferred to Bayerische Staatsforsten (Bavarian State Forests) an institution under public law. Management of the forests as nature-orientated forests was written into Article 18 of the Bavarian Forest Act and Article 3 of the State Forestry Act. According to Article 22 Paragraph 4 of the Bavarian Forest Act, the Bavarian state also provides funding for services for the public good pro- vided by the state forests. Table 54 Forestry enterprises by size (from 10 ha forested area) Forested area Number of forestry enterprises Forested area (ha) per enterprise 2003 2005 2003 2005 10 to below 50 ha 5,498 5,011 102,004 93,440 50 to below 200 ha 1,042 1,003 101,388 97,586 200 to below 1,000 ha 456 455 193,212 191,304 1,000 ha or more 196 180 873,848 851,290 Total 7,192 6,639 1,270,452 1,233,621 26 Economic situation Advisory services and further education for forest In 2004, approximately 50 enterprises in Bavaria participated owners in the Test Enterprise Network. The economic situation of Advisory services continue to be the main component in privately owned forestry enterprises over 200 ha stabilised state support for forest owners. In Bavaria until June 2005, in 2004; they made an average net profit of H 75 per hectare these services were provided by the 436 forestry stations of forest. operated by the 127 forestry offices. Since July 1, 2005, the Forest under communal ownership also made a net profit services have been provided by the forestry districts of the (H 24 per hectare) thanks to growth in earnings. 47 Agriculture and Forestry Offices. In future, state support will only fund projects that serve public welfare. The for- The smaller private forests sector (up to 200 ha in size) is estry consortiums will offer economical advisory services dominated by enterprises with less than 10 ha in forest for their members. area and the small forest owners, who are not included in the Test Enterprise Network. These enterprises have approx- In 2005, 182 events were held at the Forestry School imately 346 million cubic metres of standing timber per ha in Kelheim of which 152 were for training and further and so make up about 50 % of the entire timber stock in education. All in all, 3,717 people attended 9,350 days of Bavaria. In 2004, small privately owned forests in Bavaria lectures. only extracted 7.5 cubic metres per ha; the full annual Support for the forestry consortiums potential of 12.7 million cubic metres of harvestable stand- So far, 128,000 forest owners have voluntarily organised ing timber was not utilised. Altogether 7.5 million cubic themselves in forestry communities and forest ownership metres of timber were felled, of which 3.8 million went to associations, the so-called forestry consortiums. To date, saw mills. The remainder was either used as firewood or about 18 % of all forest owners with a total of over 1.2 million retained for private use by the forest owners. ha (about 70 % of the total private and communal forest Support funding area in Bavaria) have joined forestry consortiums. The con- During 2004 and 2005, more than H 36 million in subsidies sortiums received a total of H 3.2 million in grants to cover were expended on private and communal forests, an administrative costs and non-business investments. average of H 11 per ha private or communal forest. ■ Timber and timber markets The funding programme “Contract Forest Nature Conser- Continued weak domestic demand was the main factor vation”, launched in 2005, covers issues such as the influencing the timber market in 2004. Demand from the preservation of old trees and dead wood, non-use, construction industry in particular decreased year on year measures to create open spaces in forests and reduce tree in 2004 and again in 2005. Planning approvals for detached density, re-naturalisation of moors, management of Mittel- and semi-detached homes, which are timber intensive, wald (mixed woodland with a wide range of tree ages) and dropped below the level of previous years. Successful the conservation of beaver habitats. The main goals of the exports of coniferous sawn timber to the US increased programme are biodiversity conservation, preservation of production in the German saw milling sector compared to natural habitats and the management of mixed woodland. 2004. The export-conditioned high production in the saw Contract Forest Nature Conservation was mainly mill industry and the imminent establishment of new saw implemented in communal forests, because they have the mills in Bavaria have supported the coniferous timber highly-trained personnel and excellent management trade. Trend analyses for the deciduous timber market regimes already in place, as well as a large number of com- show increased interest in high quality oak, and steady, posite forests (Mittelwald) and old deciduous forests. low-level demand for beech. Deciduous industrial wood is >>> Chart 55 increasingly being used as an energy source rather than as a material. Chart 55 Support funding for private and communal forests euro million 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005* Federal government State of Bavaria EU * In 2005, support funding totalled I 18.5 million (Bavaria 44 %, EU 39 %, Federal government 17 %) 16. Hunting ■ How hunting is regulated The Bavarian Forest Institute launched a pilot project for 27 Bavarian Ministry for Agriculture and Forestry – Supreme the hunting period 2001 to 2007 to assess the feasibility of Hunting Authority roe deer hunting without an approved game management plan in selected preservation communities. The tasks of the Supreme Hunting Authority in the Bavarian Ministry for Agriculture and Forestry involve drafting legislation on hunting, dealing with matters of hunting policy, species conservation in hunting, wildlife manage- Table 56 ment and wildlife habitat improvement. Subsidiary Type of game authorities involved in applying hunting laws are the higher Hunting year – number of units hunting authorities of the district governments and the 2002/03 2003/04 2004/05 lower hunting authorities of the regional administration Red deer 9,617 9,866 10,126 authorities. As part of the forest administration reform of Fallow deer 360 316 335 Chamois 4,210 4,202 3,979 2005, the Agriculture and Forestry Offices participate in Mouflon 102 96 93 hunting issues insofar as they affect key aspects of agri- Wild boar 54,819 41,976 54,769 culture and forestry. This participation is especially relevant Roe deer – 825,583 – when it comes to issues such as setting the harvest quota, Hares 116,170 138,418 131,546 developing hunting management concepts, planning for wildlife habitats, or counteracting the impact of game on agriculture and forestry. Hunting areas The figure for roe deer is the total for the three year harvest plan of 2001/2002 to 2003/2004 (the figure for the previous Bavaria has 6.3 million ha hunting areas of which 40 % are three year harvest plan was 825,503 roe deer). forest. Protection of wildlife and wildlife habitats Outside the hunting areas of the Bavarian State Forests, hunting is organised in 8,811 cooperation-owned hunting The hunting law also includes animals in need of habitat areas and 2,415 owner hunting areas. One aim of hunting improvement or animals protected all year round. The pilot policy has been to ensure that the holders of hunting rights project “Structurally rich habitats in the agricultural land- should live close to the hunting areas. This has been scape” supports the improvement of habitats, for example achieved. for partridges, through scientific monitoring funded from hunting licences. Agro-ecological measures such as mulch Wildlife populations seeding were implemented on an area of 1,200 ha in a Red deer numbers again increased slightly. The wild boar cooperation project between farmers and hunters. Funds gamebag stood at 54,769 in 2004/2005 – the second highest from hunting licences are also used for research projects figure ever. In 2002, the Supreme Hunting Authority, in into the habits and potential conflict areas of protected cooperation with affected groups, issued recommen- species such as lynx and European otter. The results flow dations for reducing the large wild boar population. into strategies for the future management of these species. Note This publication is distributed free of charge by the Bavarian government as part of its public relations work. It may not be used for canvassing purposes by parties, candidates or electoral assistants during the 5-month period preceding an election. This applies to federal, state and local government elections as well as to elections for the European Parliament. In particular the distribution of this publication at election events and at the information stands of political parties, and the insertion, printing or pasting on of party-relevant information, is regarded as improper use. Handing out this publication to third parties as a form of canvassing is likewise prohibited. Even at times other than the 5 months preceding an upcoming election, the publication may not be used in a manner that may be conceived of as showing the Bavarian Government to favour individual political groups. Parties are permitted to use the publication as a source of information for their own members.
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