Agriculture and Forestry in Bavaria Bayern

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					    Bayerisches Staatsministerium für
           Landwirtschaft und Forsten

Agriculture and Forestry
              in Bavaria
           Facts and Figures 2006

                                                                             1. Agriculture as an economic sector                                           4
2                                                                               Gross output                                                                 4
                                                                                Value added                                                                  4
                                                                                Agricultural productivity                                                    4
                                                                                Employment in agriculture and forestry                                       4
                                                                                Bavaria’s food industry                                                      4
                                                                                Dairy structure                                                              4
                                                                                Slaughterhouse structure                                                     4
                                                                             2. Bavarian foreign trade in food and agricultural products                    5
                                                                                Bavarian exports of food and agricultural products by recipient countries    5
                                                                                Bavarian exports of food and agricultural products by food groups            5
                                                                                Agricultural imports                                                         6
                                                                                Consumer spending                                                            7
                                                                                Food supply in Bavaria                                                       7
                                                                             3. Agricultural employment in Bavaria                                          8
                                                                             4. Structural changes in Bavarian agriculture                                  8
                                                                                Full-time holdings                                                           8
                                                                                Part-time holdings                                                           9
                                                                                Leasehold farming                                                            9
                                                                             5. Economic situation of farm holdings in Bavaria                              10
                                                                             6. Agricultural advisory services and administration                           11
                                                                                Organisation and responsibilities                                           11
                                                                                Use of IT in agricultural administration                                    11
                                                                             7. Professional education in agriculture                                       12
                                                                             8. Agrarian social policy                                                      12
                                                                             9. Plant production                                                            13
                                                                                Land distribution                                                           13
                                                                                Integrated crop management                                                  13
                                                                                Organic farming                                                             13
                                                                             10. Land use in Bavaria                                                        14
                                                                                Cereals                                                                     14
                                                                                Potatoes                                                                    14
                                                                                Sugar beet                                                                  14
                                                                                Hops                                                                        15
                                                                                Oil-producing crops                                                         15
                                                                                Fodder crops and permanent grassland                                        15
                                                                                Alpine farming and mountain pasture                                         15
                                                                                Wine                                                                        16
                                                                                Horticulture                                                                16
                                                                                Fruit                                                                       16
                                                                             11. Animal products industry                                                   17
                                                                                Production and marketing                                                    17
                                                                                Cattle farming                                                              17
                                                                                Milk production and supply                                                  18
                                                                                Dairy products                                                              18
                                                                                Pig farming                                                                 18
                                                                                Sheep farming                                                               18
                                                                                Poultry farming                                                             19
                                                                                Horse farming                                                               19
                                                                                Fisheries                                                                   19
                                                                             12. Rural development through land consolidation and village renewal           20
                                                                             13. Non-food utilisation of biomass                                            21
    Publisher:                                                                  Biomass for energy use                                                      21
    Bayerisches Staatsministerium für Landwirtschaft und Forsten,               Material use                                                                21
    Postfach 22 00 12, 80535 München, Germany                                   Trends                                                                      21;;
                                                                             14. Funding of agro-political measures                                         22;
                                                                                Support measures                                                            22
    RB No. 08/07/23, November 2006
                                                                                State subsidies                                                             22
    Editorial content: Office for Public Relations,                             State, federal and EU financing for all agro-political measures             22
                       Office for Agricultural Statistics
    Photographs:       StMLF archive 19, 20, 26; Günter 27; Lehr 1, 13, 16   15. Forestry and the timber industry                                           23
    Data:              Bayerisches Landesamt für Statistik und                  Forest area and social functions of forests                                 23
                       Datenverarbeitung – Bayerischer Agrarbericht 2006        Forest damage, forest conservation and research                             24
    Graphics:          Sainer Werbeagentur GmbH, 82166 Gräfelfing               Organisational structure, personnel, education                              25
    Translation:       Patricia Langfelder
                                                                                Management of state-owned forest                                            25
    Printing:          KKW-Druck GmbH
                       Heisinger Strasse 17, 87437 Kempten                      Privately owned and communal woodland                                       25
                                                                                Timber and timber markets                                                   26
                               Paper made from
                               certified sustainable
                               forestry products                             16. Hunting                                                                    27

               With its many different types of farm holding, agricultural products and        3
               businesses, Bavaria is one of the biggest core agricultural regions in
               Europe. This importance is also reflected in the wide public interest in
               current developments in agriculture and forestry, and in rural areas.
               At the same time, the economic and political environment is becoming
               more and more difficult for our farmers. Political decision makers, the
               farming community and society as a whole are constantly being confronted
               with new political and social issues and changes. This makes it all the
               more important to have reliable, well-researched information about
               structures, production, market opportunities and support measures in this
               This brochure contains a selection of facts and figures from the Agriculture
               Report 2006. Together they provide an insight into the current situation of
               the agricultural and forestry sector in Bavaria. These data also underscore
               the high priority set on farming and forestry by people who live in and visit
               In addition to producing foodstuffs of a very high quality, the farming
               community in Bavaria plays a major role in maintaining the rich diversity
               of the man-made landscapes so valued by the people who live in Bavaria
               and by holiday-makers and other visitors from around the world. Our
               forestry businesses have an additional economic and environmental
               contribution to make.
               For me the central task of our Bavarian agricultural policy is therefore
               to ensure the sustainability and competitiveness of the farming, forestry
               and food production sectors in Bavaria. If we are to strengthen the
               competitiveness of our agricultural businesses and to achieve continuing
               rural development, we need open, well-informed discussions at a political
               level, and in society as a whole, which are characterized by solidarity
               with family businesses in the countryside and which take due note of the
               value of the service that they perform for all of us.
               This brochure also provides an insight into the diverse activities of the
               farming community and their contribution to the well-being of society as
               a whole.

               Josef Miller
               Bavarian State Minister
               for Agriculture and Forestry
    1. Agriculture as an economic sector

4                                                                                                    ■ Gross output
     Chart 1
                                                                                                     The agricultural gross output value (excluding forestry and
     Shares in agricultural gross output
     in Bavaria in 2004 (K 9 billion)
                                                                                                     fisheries) in Bavaria in the year 2004 was approx. H 9 billion.
                                                                                                     Of this amount, 49 % was generated by animal products
           Milk 24.6 %
                                                                                                     and 46 % by crop products. Milk accounts for the largest
           Other plant
           products 1.3 %                                                                            amount, followed by wheat, feed crops and cattle.
           Other animal products 1.9 %
           Eggs and poultry 1.7 %
                                                                                                     >>> Chart 1
           Flowers and
           ornamental plants 2.3%                                                                    ■ Value added
           Wine, fruit and
           vegetables 3.7 %                                                                          The Bavarian agriculture and forestry gross value added
           Commercial crops 3.4 %
                                                                                                     in 2005 amounted to H 3.6 million. This figure does not
           Root crops 4.6 %
           Services and ancillary                                                                    include decoupled direct payments.
           activities 5.6 %
           Pigs 8.4 %
                                                                                                     >>> Chart 2
           Cattle, incl.
           calves 12.2 %                                                                             ■ Agricultural productivity
           Cereals 16.4 %
           Feed crops 13.8 %                                                                         The number of farm holdings in Bavaria has decreased
                                                                                                     continuously over the past few decades. At the same time,
                                                                                                     there has been a huge increase in agricultural productivity.
                                                                                                     >>> Chart 3
     Chart 2
                                                                                                     ■ Employment in agriculture and forestry
     Gross value added of Bavarian agriculture, forestry and fisheries
     in 2005 (K 3.60 billion)                                                                        The number of people engaged in agriculture in Bavaria,
                                                                                                     which has been decreasing steadily in recent decades,
           K 2.90 billion
                                                                                                     stood at 190,000 in 2005. This corresponds to 3.0 % of the
                                                                                                     working population.
                                                                                                     One in nine jobs in Bavaria depends directly or indirectly
           K 0.67 billion                                                                            on the agricultural sector. This means that roughly 11 % of
                                                                                                     the working population are employed in agriculture or
           Fisheries:                                                                                forestry or in upstream or downstream segments.
           K 0.032 billion
                                                                                                     ■ Bavaria’s food industry
                                                                                                     In 2005, the Bavarian food industry, including industry and
                                                                                                     artisan segments, posted sales of H 26.8 billion and
                                                                                                     employed around 195,000 people.
                                                                                                     The Bavarian food manufacturing and processing segments
                                                                                                     account for three quarters of food industry sales. Within
                                                                                                     Bavaria, more than half of the food industry’s workforce is
     Chart 3
                                                                                                     employed in artisan food segments (bakers, butchers, etc.).
     Productivity                                                                                    In 2005, 95,000 employees generated annual food-trade
     A Bavarian farmer supplied … people with food                                                   sales of H 5.4 billion.
     120                                                                     115                     >>> Table 4

                                                                                                     ■ Dairy structure
      60                                     51                                                      By the end of 2005, there were 84 companies managing
      40                      37                                                                     120 dairy enterprises.
      20                                                                                             By supporting sustainable investment in the dairy business
                1960         1970           1980      1990          2000     2005
                                                                                                     to improve marketing and processing of agricultural
                                                                                                     products, Bavaria is strengthening the economic viability
                                                                                                     and competitiveness of the companies in this sector.

     Table 4
                                                                                                     ■ Slaughterhouse structure
     Bavarian food industry                                                                          In the year 2005, there were 49 slaughterhouses with EU
     Category                           Number                 Total                 Sales in
                                     of businesses           employees             billion euro
                                                                                                     licences in Bavaria. In addition, there are another 3,000
                                    1995      2005          1995    2005      1995          2005
                                                                                                     small slaughterhouses supplying national and regional
     Manufacturing/                                                                                  markets.
     processing enter-                                                                               By supporting sustainable investment in the slaughter-
     prises with 20 or
     more employees                   997      994      89,830      97,209   17.10          20.93    house business to improve marketing and processing of
     Fewer than                                                                                      agricultural products, Bavaria is strengthening the economic
     20 employees                     475      511          2,856    2,908    0.43            0.46
                                                                                                     viability and competitiveness of the companies in this
     trades                     10,287            •   114,062       94,536    6.15            5.41   sector.
     Total food
     industry                   11,759            •   206,748 194,653        23.68          26.80
2. Bavarian foreign trade in food and
   agricultural products

Since 1970, Bavaria’s agricultural and food industry has                                                                                            5
                                                                 Chart 5
increased its exports by 800 %. Food of animal origin
accounts for the major part of this increase, while the          Bavarian agricultural exports by commodity classes
                                                                 in million euro
export of live animals has decreased significantly.
>>> Charts 5 and 11 (see page 6)                                 5,000

In 2005, the provisional total for agricultural exports from
Bavaria (excluding trade between the German states) was                                                  3,461
H 5.3 billion. The final figure for 2004 agricultural exports    3,000
was H 5.1 billion.                                                                                                                       2,673
                                                                                        2,151                                 2,235
Bavaria accounts for 15.5 % of Germany’s total agricultural      2,000                                   1,948
                                                                                                                              1,520      1,545
Exports to other parts of the European Union (EU 25) still       1,000                                                         827        749
account for the largest single share of Bavaria‘s agricultural               299                          85                   129        136
exports; in 2005 this was H 4.56 billion, or roughly 86 %.           0
                                                                                        1980             1990                  2000      2004
Overall, almost one of six jobs in the Bavarian agriculture                         Live animals                 Beverages and tobacco      Total
and forestry depends on agricultural exports.                                       Food of                      Food of
                                                                                    animal origin                vegetable origin
■ Bavarian exports of food and agricultural products
  by recipient countries
Bavaria’s major agricultural trading partners are Italy (31 %
of exports), Austria (12 %) and France (10 %).                   Chart 6
Of Bavaria’s non-EU trading partners, the USA was the            Bavarian exports of agricultural and food products
most important recipient country in 2004, followed by            in 2004 by major export markets
Switzerland, Russia and Japan. Bavaria exported agri-
                                                                         Italy 31.4 %
cultural and food products to 181 countries in 2004.
>>> Chart 6                                                              Austria 11.6 %

                                                                         France 9.8 %
■ Bavarian exports of food and agricultural products
  by food groups                                                         Netherlands 7.0 %

The major agricultural exports of animal origin were                     Spain 4.7 %
cheese (18.9 %), other dairy products including fresh milk
                                                                         United Kingdom 4.7 %
(17.3 %) and meat and meat products (13.7 %). These three
food groups accounted for some 50 % of total agricultural                Luxembourg 3.9 %
exports. Miscellaneous foodstuffs of vegetable origin
                                                                         Greece 2.4 %
accounted for 6.8 %. Other important export products
included sugar, beer and hops.                                           Other countries 24.5 %

>>> Chart 7

                                                                 Chart 7

                                                                 Bavarian exports of agricultural and food products
                                                                 in 2004 by major agricultural products

                                                                         Cheese 18.9 %

                                                                         Milk 17.3 %

                                                                         Meat and
                                                                         meat products 13.7 %

                                                                         foodstuffs of
                                                                         vegetable origin 6.8 %

                                                                         Sugar 3.4 %

                                                                         Beer 3.3 %

                                                                         Hops 2.2 %

                                                                         Preserved fruit and
                                                                         vegetables, juice, etc. 2.4 %

                                                                         Wheat 1.5 %

                                                                         Other agricultural products 30.5 %
6                                                                                                            ■ Agricultural imports
    Chart 8
                                                                                                             In 2004, Bavaria imported agricultural goods to the value
    Bavarian agricultural imports by commodity classes
    in million euro
                                                                                                             of roughly H 5 billion. The major agricultural import
                                                                                    5,035                    products were fruit (including fruit juices and tinned fruit
                                                                                                             and vegetables), meat products, other plant-based food
                                                                                                             products and vegetables. EU countries were the source of
                                                                                                             83 % of the imports.
                                            3,002                                                            >>> Chart 8
                                                                  2,458                                      The main suppliers of agricultural imports to Bavaria in
    2,000               1,887
                                            1,804                                                            2004 were Italy, France and Austria.
                                                                                     1,508                   >>> Charts 9 and 10
              1,172                          771
    1,000                                                                            708
                469                          385
                215                          42                    27                 25
                        1980                1990                  2000              2004

                      Live animals                  Beverages and tobacco                 Total
                      Food of                       Food of
                      animal origin                 vegetable origin

    Chart 9                                                                                                    Chart 10

    Bavarian agricultural and food imports in 2004                                                             Bavarian agricultural and food imports in 2004
    by major supplier countries                                                                                by major products
            Italy 20.3 %                                                                                            Fruit, excl. tropical and citrus 9.0 %
            France 13.1 %                                                                                           Preserved vegetables and
                                                                                                                    fruit, fruit juices 6.7 %
            Austria 11.6 %                                                                                          Meat and
                                                                                                                    meat products 8.8 %
            Netherlands 11.2 %                                                                                      Miscellaneous
                                                                                                                    foodstuffs of vegetable
            Belgium                                                                                                 origin 8.2 %
            Luxembourg 5.4 %                                                                                        Vegetables and
                                                                                                                    culinary herbs 8.0 %
            Spain 5.0 %
                                                                                                                    Cheese 7.4 %
            Denmark 2.7 %                                                                                           Milk 6.9 %
                                                                                                                    Tobacco products 6.2 %
            Poland 2.6 %                                                                                            Wine 5.4 %
            Greece 2.6 %                                                                                            Fish and
                                                                                                                    fish products 4.3 %
            Ireland 2.3 %                                                                                           Other agricultural
                                                                                                                    products and foodstuffs 29.1 %
            Other countries 23.2 %

                                                                                                             In 1970, the Bavarian agricultural and food industry
                                                                                                             exported goods to the value of roughly H 600 million. By
                                                                                                             2005, the value of such exports had reached H 5.3 billion.
                                                                                                             >>> Chart 11

    Chart 11

    Bavarian agricultural exports/imports
    in million euro
                                                                                                                                                                                    I 5.3 billion
    5,000                                                                                                                                                                           I 5.1 billion





            1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005*

                           Agricultural exports                    Agricultural imports      * provisional
■ Consumer spending                                                                                                                                                                      7
                                                                                Chart 12
The share of their budget that consumers spent on food
decreased sharply during the 1990s. In all households,                          Breakdown of consumer spending on food
                                                                                % share
food and drink (excluding canteen meals and eating out)
                                                                                20               18.5
accounted for only 15.3 % of private spending. Spending                                                                           16.5
on food and non-alcoholic drinks accounted for only 11.7 %                      15
of private spending.                                                                                                    11.2                            11.7
>>> Chart 12
                                                                                                           4.9                             4.9                            4.5
The proportion of agricultural income attributable to                            5

consumer spending on food has been decreasing steadily,                          0
                                                                                                 1991                      1995                                 2004
from 50 % in 1970 to some 40 % in 1985 and 25 % in 2005.
>>> Chart 13                                                                                     Food, beverages, tobacco products combined
                                                                                                 Catering services
■ Food supply in Bavaria
Whereas food self-sufficiency has largely been achieved
in the EU for the most important food groups, Bavaria is
dependent on imports of pork and poultry, eggs, wine, fruit
and vegetables. There are substantial surpluses of cheese,
milk, beef and veal as well as sugar.
>>> Chart 14
                                                                                Chart 13

                                                                                Share of consumer food spending
                                                                                accruing to agricultural producers
                                                                                % share                                 1980/81                  2004/05 (provisional)
                                                                                64                      56.8

                                                                                48                                     43.0              41.5 38.6      45.2
                                                                                32                                             26.3

                                                                                16                                                                             15.2      14.5
                                                                                          Eggs          Milk/milk      Meat and     Sugar beet/          Potatoes          Cereals/
                                                                                                        products      meat products   sugar                            cereal products

  Chart 14

  Self-sufficiency levels for various food groups

  2003/2004 in %








  Beef and


               0              40                80                  120   160                    200                      240                         280                       320

                   EU              Germany          Bavaria
    3. Agricultural employment in Bavaria                                                                                      4. Structural changes in Bavarian agriculture

8   In 2005, 332,000 people were employed full-time or part-                                                                   In 2005, there were 5,407 farm holdings of under 2.0 ha
    time on Bavarian farm holdings. Of these, farmers and                                                                      utilised agricultural area (UAA). The total number of record-
    their families accounted for 280,000 (84 %), while 52,000                                                                  ed holdings (including special crops) was 129,747 ha UAA.
    (16 %) were non-family farm workers.                                                                                       In Bavaria, 97 % of all holdings are sole enterprises, which
    The agricultural workforce in Bavaria has decreased by                                                                     manage nearly 92 % of UAA.
    60 % since 1975, while the number of farm holdings has                                                                     Bavarian agriculture is also experiencing far-reaching
    decreased by half. The decline in labour input per 100 ha                                                                  structural changes. Since 1975, the number of holdings has
    is equally pronounced. Currently, there are 1.2 labour units                                                               more than halved.
    per farm holding, which translates as 4.6 labour units                                                                     >>> Chart 17
    per 100 ha. This reduction has been made possible by an                                                                    The average UAA of the remaining farms has been
    enormous increase in the productivity of the workforce.                                                                    increasing continuously. In 1990, the average holding
    >>> Charts 15 and 16                                                                                                       (> 2 ha UAA) was 16.9 ha. By 2005, it was 26.1 ha UAA.
                                                                                                                               The pattern of expansion has been differed in different
                                                                                                                               farm-size categories. The cut-off point is at around 50 ha.
                                                                                                                               The number of holdings above 50 ha UAA is increasing
                                                                                                                               whereas the number of farm holdings below this size is
                                                                                                                               >>> Chart 18

                                                                                                                               ■ Full-time holdings
                                                                                                                               In 2005, full-time holdings accounted for 46 % of all farms
                                                                                                                               (sole enterprises) and 76.6 % of UAA with an average
                                                                                                                               holding size of 37.9 ha.
      Chart 15

      Labour in agricultural holdings
                   Holdings (2 ha or more UAA)                       Labour units
      in 1,000

      400                                        362.6
      300                              268,937                         279.1
      200                                                                        167,760 179.1
                                                                                                    124,340 131.9

                      1965                   1975               1985                    1995               2005

      Chart 16                                                                                                                     Chart 17

       Labour units per 100 ha UAA                                                                                                 Number of holdings in Bavaria
                                                                                                                                   (with 2 ha or more UAA)
      16.0             15.2                                                                                                        400,000
      12.0                                                                                                                         300,000
                                              10.9                                                                                                                 243,372
      10.0                                                           8.8
                                                                                                                                   200,000                                       198,765
                                                                                         5.8                                                                                                   149,057         140,425
       6.0                                                                                                                                                                                                               124,340
       4.0                                                                                                                         100,000
         0                                                                                                                                          1970            1980            1990           1999         2001      2005
                      1965                    1975               1985                   1995                2005

      Chart 18

      Farm holdings by size classes in Bavaria (ha)
      Holdings                  1979                 1989             2005
      80,000                                                                                   79,077
      70,000                                                63,391                                      61,026
                       49,234                                         46,794
      40,000                       36,864                                                                                 34,441 33,044
                                                                               21,445                                                                        19,740 20,307 19,740
      20,000                                18,638                                                                                        15,998                                                            16,515
      10,000                                                                                                                                                                               3,523    5,794
                              2 to below 5                      5 to below 10                     10 to below 20             20 to below 30                     30 to below 50                50 or more
■ Part-time holdings                                                                                                                                                                             9
                                                                                             Chart 19
In 2005, 54 % of farm holdings and 28.4 % of UAA in
Bavaria were run on a part-time basis.                                                       Share of leasehold land in Bavaria
                                                                                             Share of leasehold                                                               ha of leasehold
Since 1987, Bavaria has had more part-time than full-time                                    land in % UAA                                                                   land per holding
                                                                                             50                                                                                          18.0
holdings.                                                                                                                                                                                16.0
                                                                                             40                                                                                          14.0
>>> Chart 22
Part-time holdings play a very important role in Bavaria in                                                                                                                              10.0
the conservation of cultivated (man-made) landscapes and                                     20
especially in the conservation of ecologically valuable                                      10                                                                                            4.0
grasslands.                                                                                                                                                                                  0
                                                                                                          1981                 1991                2001                     2005
In 2005, the average size of part-time holdings was
12.8 ha.
■ Leasehold farming
                                                                                             Chart 20
In 2005, 83,100 holdings leased 1.5 million ha UAA. On
average, farmers leased 17.5 ha of additional UAA per                                        Purchase price for agricultural land
holding (full-time holdings: 20.9 ha, part-time holdings:
7.3 ha).                                                                                                                         32,599      31,686
Leasing was the method of choice for increasing holding                                      30,000
size, purchasing was seldom resorted to. In consequence,                                     20,000

the proportion of land held under lease has increased, and
now accounts for some 44.6 % of UAA.                                                         10,000

>>> Chart 19
                                                                                                         1975        1980            1985    1990         1995              2000        2004
The high demand for leasehold land has driven up rents
to a relatively high level. The average price for leasehold
land is H 229 per hectare.
There is a marked difference between rents for arable land                                   Chart 21
and grassland. Grassland can be leased for H 166 per ha,                                     Purchase price variation in Bavarian administrative districts in 2004
whereas arable land costs H 259 per ha. This is H 93 or 56 %                                 euro/ha UAA
above the grassland rent price.                                                              40,000

The number of farmland sales in 2004 stood at 3,407. This                                    30,000
                                                                                                                    26,201                                                             24,091
corresponds to roughly 5,000 ha UAA.                                                                                             20,961
                                                                                             20,000                                                       18,009
The price of farmland is influenced not only by its prod-                                                                                    14,670                     14,689

uctivity but also by non-farming factors. There are large                                    10,000

regional differences within Bavaria.
>>> Charts 20 and 21                                                                                     Upper       Lower      Upper       Upper    Central    Lower                 Swabia
                                                                                                        Bavaria     Bavaria    Palatinate Franconia Franconia Franconia

  Chart 22

   Development of full-time and part-time holdings
   (as a percentage of all farm holdings)

                                                                                                                                                                   53.9 %


                                                                                                                                                                   46.1 %

          1971             1974             1979        1983            1985   1987   1991   1995            1999             2001          2003          2005
                 Full-time holdings                Part-time holdings
     5. Economic situation of farm holdings in Bavaria

10                                                                                                                        In the 2004/2005 financial year, the average profits of the
      Table 23
                                                                                                                          full-time holdings were H 31,258 per holding. This was
      Income for full-time holdings 2004/2005
      Indicator                                           Unit                                            Business year   10 % above the 5-year average.
                                                                                                              2004/2005   >>> Table 23
      Farm size                                           ha UAA                                                44.10
                                                                                                                          This above-average profit was mainly due to improved
      Farm labour                                         AWU/farm                                               1.61
                                                                                                                          crop yields and to higher prices for pork and beef.
      of whom: family labour                              AWU/farm                                               1.48
      Disparity                                           %                                                        32     Location, holding size and labour supply lead to a variety
      Profit                                              euro/ha UAA                                             709     of organisational structures for the different enterprises.
      Profit                                              euro/family AWU                                      21,124     Depending on the production focus of the different hold-
      Profit                                              euro/enterprise                                      31,258     ings, the profit will vary (profit by enterprise form).
      Total income                                        euro/owner (=married couple)                         37,217
                                                                                                                          >>> Chart 25
                                                                                                                          Despite an increase in UAA since 1981/82 of nearly 22 ha
                                                                                                                          UAA per holding, the number of farm workers has remained
      Chart 24                                                                                                            the same on the farms that keep accounts. Especially
      Trend in incomes of full-time holdings in Bavaria                                                                   during the 1990s, the productivity of the workforce
      G 1,000                   1991/92             2000/01             2004/05                                           increased strongly.
      40                                                                                          37.2
                                                                                         35.8                             Annual non-farm income of farms obliged to keep accounts
      30                                                                                                                  rose between 1981/82 and 2004/2005 from approximately
                  21.9                                    21.5   21.1                                                     H 800 to H 6,000 per year.
                                                   14.9                                                                   >>> Chart 24
      10                                                                                                                  Overall, full-time and part-time holdings achieved
                                                                                                                          approximately the same total income.
                     euro/year                 euro/year/family AWU                   euro/year                           >>> Table 26
                    Profit/holding               Profit/family AWU                   Total income
                                                                                                                          In 2005, almost 4,800 holdings were being run in com-
                                                                                                                          pliance with organic farming standards. The profits of full-
      Chart 25                                                                                                            time organic farms are slightly lower than that of conven-
                                                                                                                          tional enterprises, mainly due to the smaller size of organic
      Incomes of full-time holdings in 2004/2005
      by type of holding (profit in euro/enterprise)
                                                      50,327                                                              In the 2004/05 financial year, organic farms received on
      40,000                                                                                                              average H 24,034 in subsidies; this represented approx.
                34,449                                                                   35,676
                                          30,236                                                     31,258               23 % of their earnings.
      30,000                28,776
                                                                                                                          >>> Table 27
      25,000                                                     22,504
      20,000                                                                                                              In 2004/05, an average full-time holding in Bavaria received
                                                                                                                          government subsidies to the value of H 21,540. This
       5,000                                                                                                              included the EU’s compensation payments and animal
           0                                                                                                              premiums, compensation payments for less-favoured
                Market      Dairy          Other     Animal   Wine     Other    Mixed     Total
                crops       cattle        fodder    products growing permanent farming (Ø Bavaria)                        regions, the cultural landscape programme, investment
                                           crops    industry           crops
                                                                                                                          promotion and subsidies for agricultural diesel fuel. On
                                                                                                                          average, the subsidy packages accounted for 14.8 % of
      Table 26
      Income of part-time holdings in Bavaria 2004/2005                                                                   >>> Chart 28
      Indicator                                           Unit                                            Business year

      Farm size                                           ha UAA                                                18.79
      Farm labour                                         AWU/farm                                               0.72
      of whom: family labour                              AWU/farm                                               0.71
      Profit                                              euro/ha UAA                                             630
      Profit                                              euro/enterprise                                      11,842
      Total income                                        euro/owner (=married couple)                         37,128
                                                                                                                            Chart 28

                                                                                                                            Financial aid granted to full-time farm holdings
      Table 27                                                                                                              by type of holding in 2004/2005
                                                                                                                            G 1,000/enterprise            Profit        Total aid
      Income for full-time organic farms 2004/2005
      Indicator                                           Unit                                            Business year
      Farm size                                           ha UAA                                                38.70
      Farm labour                                         AWU/farm                                               1.55
      of whom: family labour                              AWU/farm                                               1.46        20
      Profit                                              euro/ha UAA                                             752        10
      Profit                                              euro/family AWU                                      19,922
      Profit                                              euro/enterprise                                      29,116                Market      Dairy     Animal     Wine        Other      Mixed
      Total income                                        euro/owner (=married couple)                         37,297                crops       cattle   products   growing    permanent   farming
                                                                                                                                                          industry                crops
6. Agricultural advisory services
   and administration

■ Organisation and responsibilities                                                       ■ Use of IT in agricultural administration                                         11
The main areas of responsibility are:                                                     The agricultural administration provides comprehensive
–       Vocational training and further education                                         internet-based information at
–       Specialist agricultural colleges                                        
–       Adult vocational education                                                        or
–       Agricultural and home economic consulting including                               In addition, there are eGovernment solutions for all relevant
        advice on structural trends and income combination                                agricultural areas.
        (diversification)                                                                 Examples include:
–       Administrative tasks relating to agriculture and                                  –    The central database for cattle (HIT)
        cooperation in the implementation of regulations                                  –    The central InVeKoS database (ZID)
        imposed by other authorities
                                                                                          –    The multiple application procedure for agricultural
–       Agricultural support, including administration of                                      subsidies with which farmers can make simultaneous
        premiums and compensation payments as provided                                         multiple subsidy applications online incorporating
        by state, federal and EU law                                                           previous years’ holding and utilisation data, which are
–       Applied research and the compilation of scientific                                     also available online.
        research results for use in practice                                              –    The online subsidies sitemap with an up-to-date over-
                                                                                               view of conditions, value and form of the individual
The responsibility for carrying out these tasks is spread                                      support measures and a holdings comparison.
over 47 local administrative offices for agriculture and
forestry – which also act as training centres for basic and
advanced vocational training and provide advice on home
economics – and 50 schools of agriculture for farmers
and/or rural home economists, together with additional
institutions (see the organisational structure below).

                                                                               Organisational structure

                                                                             Bavarian Ministry for
                                                                            Agriculture and Forestry

          3 State Research Centres                State Leadership Academy                         Technology and                      Higher education institutions
        (Bayerische Landesanstalten)               for Nutrition, Agriculture                       Support Centre                     – 5 specialist agronomics
                     for                                 and Forestry                         (at Centre of Competence                   colleges
                                                          (Staatliche                         for Renewable Resources)
                                                                                                                                       – 4 advanced agricultural
                                                                                                                                         training colleges
                                                                                                                                       – 5 technical schools for
                                                                                                                                       – 1 technical school of
               Viniculture and                                                                                                           forestry
                                                                                                                                       – 1 school of forestry
                                                                                                                                       – 1 school for private
                                                                                                                                         forest owners
                                                                                                                                            1 specialist academy
                                                                                                                                                of agriculture
                                            1                    2

         47 Offices for Agriculture
                                                                        Office for Forest Seeding                                               7 Offices for
             and Forestry with
                                                                               and Planting                                                  Rural Development
           schools of agriculture

    1   Responsible for overseeing implementation of regulations and guidelines for plant and animal husbandry and the milk quota system.               Status: 01.08.2005
    2   Responsible for personnel, budget and subsidy matters (agriculture)
     7. Professional education in agriculture                                  8. Agrarian social policy

12   In 2005, 2,131 people began a course of vocational training               Apart from insurance for the farming population against
     or education in the agricultural sector. Gardener, followed               accidents, illness, old age and nursing care, the goals of
     by farmer, were the two most popular courses. The districts               agrarian social policy also include income support and
     of Upper Bavaria, Swabia and Lower Franconia reported                     measures to cushion the social effects of agricultural
     the highest trainee numbers.                                              restructuring.
     >>> Chart 29                                                              The independent agrarian social security system is geared
     In some agricultural professions (farmer, animal caretaker,               to the special requirements of agricultural life and work,
     stablehand) the first training year is a basic career orien-              and has, on the whole, proved its worth. Administration of
     tation year (Berufsgrundbildungsjahr/BGJ/s). In 2005, 804                 the social insurance scheme for farmers is the responsibi-
     students registered for the orientation year – an increase                lity of the Landwirtschaftliche Berufsgenossenschaften
     of nearly one third over the past five years.                             (Farmer’s Associations) and the old age, health and nur-
     >>> Chart 30                                                              sing-care insurance funds they have set up. These are
                                                                               public corporations subject to regulatory control by the
     At the end of 2005, a total of 5,234 apprentices were training
                                                                               Bavarian Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs, Family
     for professions in agriculture. Professions in agriculture
                                                                               Affairs and Women.
     include: farmer, gardener, housekeeper (in an agricultural
     context), winegrower, animal caretaker, stablehand
     (Pferdewirt), fish farmer, forester, hunter, agricultural
     distiller, dairy expert, dairy laboratory assistant and
     agricultural services specialist.                                           Chart 31

     In 2005, 319 farmers qualified as master craftsmen, i.e.                    Master craftsman’s diploma awards in 2005
     Bavaria trained more than 50 % of all agricultural master
     craftsmen in Germany.                                                           Dairy expert/
                                                                                     laboratory assistant 25
     >>> Chart 31
                                                                                     (Pferdewirt) 11

                                                                                     (rural) 52

                                                                                     Gardener 69

                                                                                     Farmer 319

       Chart 29

       Apprentices in agricultural professions in 2005
       (in first year of training)

             Gardener 779

             Farmer 706

             Dairy expert/
             laboratory assistant 151

             (Pferdewirt) 83

             Forester 53

             Housekeeper 48

             Others 286

       Chart 30

       Career orientation year (BGJ/s)
       Number of students 2000/01 to 2005/06 in Bavaria
       900                                                   828      804
       800                                          748
       700                         653
       600       592
                 2000/01             2002/03     2003/04   2004/05   2005/06
9. Plant production

■ Land distribution                                                                                                               13
                                                              Chart 32
Agricultural and forested areas make up 85 % of overall
land use in Bavaria; they are the dominant features of the    Land distribution in Bavaria in 2005
                                                              (7.1 million ha)
man-made landscape.
However, in Bavaria too, agricultural land continues to be            Agricultural land 50.1 %
lost to other land use forms.                                         Buildings and
                                                                      unused land 5.4 %
In 2005, the utilised agricultural area (UAA) in Bavaria
                                                                      Traffic area 4.7 %
amounted to 3.25 million ha (the total area of Bavaria is
                                                                      Water bodies 2.0 %
7.055 million ha).
                                                                      Recreational areas 0.5 %
>>> Chart 32
■ Integrated crop management                                          used land 0.4 %

                                                                      Miscellaneous 2.1 %
The aim of integrated crop management is to achieve high
                                                                      Forested area 34.9 %
yields and high quality with minimal environmental impact.
Versatile crop management processes are optimally
combined so as to retain and improve soil fertility. Weed,
pest and disease control are important features of the
integrated system.
■ Organic farming                                             Chart 33

At the end of 2005, 4,832 farms with a total of 142,123 ha    Organic farming in Bavaria
                                                              Number of holdings                                       UAA (ha)
UAA managed their farms according to the EEC Organic
Farming Regulation. Bavaria, therefore, still has the                                                                   160,000
                                                              5,000                                  4,832              140,000
greatest area under organic farming in Germany. Com-
pared to 2003, the number of organic holdings has             4,000             3,873      106,614
increased by 4.5 % and the land area by just under 12 %.      3,000                                                      80,000
3.7 % of all agricultural holdings (of more than 2 ha), and                                                              60,000
4.4 % of UAA in Bavaria are farmed organically. The                                                                      40,000
average enterprise size of organic farms is 31.6 ha UAA                                                                  20,000

and therefore above the average of all holdings (of more         0
                                                                                     2001                2005

than 2 ha UAA).
At the end of 2005, the organic farming associations re-
presented 3,600 holdings with an area of 113,042 ha UAA.
In 2004/05, the Landesvereinigung für den ökologischen
Landbau in Bayern e.V. (Association of Organic Farmers in
Bavaria) was granted a total of H 107,000 to fund general
>>> Chart 33
     10. Land use in Bavaria

14                                                                                                            Since 1970, land in agricultural use in Bavaria (UAA) has
      Chart 34
                                                                                                              declined from 53.2 % to 46.0 % of the total land area of the
      Main forms of agricultural land use and principal                                                       state. During the same period, the proportion of UAA given
      crops in 2005 (3.25 million ha)                                                                         over to grassland sank from 41.8 % to 35.4 %. In 2005, total
      Arable land 64.0 %, of which:                                                                           UAA amounted to 3.25 million ha. Cereal crops are grown
                Cereals, total 36.7 %
                                                                                                              on 1.2 million ha.
                  Fodder 13.1 %
                                                                                                              In 2005, the area under root crops totalled 120,000 ha, of
                  Commercial crops
                  (with renewable
                  raw materials) 5.6 %
                                                                                                              which 59 % were sugar beet followed by potatoes (40 %).
                  Root crops 3.7 %
                                                                                                              Other root crops do not play a major role.
                  Set-aside land                                                                              Of the fodder crops, the most important is silage maize
                  (without renewable
                  raw materials) 3.8 %                                                                        (303,626 ha). It accounts for 71 % of the area under fodder
                  Miscellaneous 1.1 %                                                                         crops in Bavaria. The second largest crop in this category
             Garden land, fruit                                                                               is clover/clover grass cultivated on an area about a third
             orchards, tree nurseries,
             vineyards, Christmas                                                                             as large as the silage maize area.
             tree plantations, etc. 0.5 %
             Permanent grassland 35.4 %                                                                       In 2004/05, there were approximately 40,000 ha of Alpine
                                                                                                              pastures; these pastures are important summer grazing for
                                                                                                              >>> Chart 34

                                                                                                              ■ Cereals
      Table 35                                                                                                Area and production
      Cereal production in Bavaria
      Year                                Area                         Yield                  Production      The total area under cereal crops is 1.2 million ha. Winter
                                       in 1,000 ha                   in dt/ha               in 1,000 tonnes   wheat (39 %) is the main cereal crop, followed by winter
      2004                                1,249                       73.0                      9,116         barley (23 %), summer barley (14 %) and grain maize (9 %).
      2005                                1,200                       61.9                      7,425         The total cereal harvest (including grain maize) is over
      ∅ 1999–2004                         1,211                       62.2                      7,532         7 million tonnes. Upward or downward variations are
                                                                                                              possible depending on the area under cultivation and
                                                                                                              growing conditions.
                                                                                                              >>> Table 35
                                                                                                              In 2004/05 crop year, Bavarian farmers sold 44 % of the
      Table 36                                                                                                cereal harvest. In the 2005/06 crop year, approximately
      Potato production in Bavaria                                                                            3.1 million tonnes of cereals will be sold. The marketed
      Year                                  Area                  Average yield               Production
                                            in ha                   in dt/ha                in 1,000 tonnes   output ratio is generally around 42 %.
      2004                                51,766                     393.6                      2.037
                                                                                                              ■ Potatoes
      2005                                48,398                     386.3                      1.870
      ∅ 1999–2004                         52,627                     372.2                      1.959         In 2005, potatoes were grown on 48,398 ha; 1.87 million
                                                                                                              tonnes and 2,04 million tonnes were grown in 2005 and
                                                                                                              2004 respectively. The average area under potatoes in
                                                                                                              Bavaria is 1.6 ha per holding.
                                                                                                              >>> >> Table 36

      Table 37                                                                                                ■ Sugar beet
      Sugar beet production in Bavaria                                                                        In 2005, farmers in Bavaria reduced the area under sugar
      Year                     Area                   Yield    Production          Sugar         Adjusted
                            in 1,000 ha             in dt/ha     in 1,000         content          yield      beet (roughly 70,700 ha) by approximately 3 % compared
                                                                 tonnes             in %         in dt/ha
                                                                                                              with 2003.
      2004                    73.4                   697        5,112             18.1           109.4
                                                                                                              In the year 2004, a high yield of 73.4 t/ha of sugar beet was
      2005                    70.7                   663        4,687             18.1           103.3
      ∅ 1999–2004             73.6                   655        4,820              •               •          achieved. Unfavourable weather conditions resulted in a
                                                                                                              below-average harvest in 2005.
                                                                                                              >>> Table 37
■ Hops                                                                                                                                                             15
                                                               Table 38
The area under hops in Bavaria has decreased slightly. In      Hop production in Bavaria
2005, it amounted to 14,625 ha, this was 270 ha less than      Year                  Number               Area under hops in ha        Production         Yield
                                                                                    of holdings            Total     Per holding          in dt         in dt/ha
2 years before. Over the past two years, 147 holdings in
Bavaria have stopped growing hops altogether. Since 1990,      1990                   3,704               18,648       5.03             257,575          13.8
                                                               1995                   2,708               18,663       6.89             299,434          16.0
the number of holdings has decreased from 3,704 to 1,394.
                                                               2005                   1,394               14,625      10.49             302,250          20.7
The average area per holding under hops has increased to
10.49 ha. Bavaria accounts for more than a quarter of the
worldwide production of hops.
In 2004, the hops marketing regulation was reformed. As        Table 39
with the other product groups, subsidies to hops farmers       Oilseed production in Bavaria (rapeseed)
                                                               including renewable raw materials on set-aside land
were decoupled from production. 2005 saw the first direct
                                                               Year                              Area                         Yield                  Production
decoupled payment, based on the area under hops rather                                        in 1,000 ha                   in dt/ha                  in tonnes
than on production.                                            2004                               139.2                       38.5                    536.6
>>> Table 38                                                   2005                               157.1                       36.5                    572.8
                                                               ∅ 1999–2004                        157.7                       31.6                    498.6
■ Oil-producing crops
In 2005, around 157,000 ha of oilseed rape were cultivated.
>>> Table 39
                                                               Chart 40
■ Fodder crops and permanent grassland
Because Bavaria is a centre of livestock production, fodder    Fodder-crop production by type of crop
                                                               Area in 1,000 ha
crops and grassland farming make an important contribu-        1,800
tion to the agricultural economy. Grassland use and the        1,700
cultivation of silage maize, clover and clover-grass are       1,600
especially important. Almost 48 % of UAA in Bavaria is         1,500
used to produce feed for beef and dairy herds, sheep and       1,400
horses.                                                        1,300

>>> Chart 40                                                   1,200
■ Alpine farming and mountain pasture                          1,000
Mountain farming is essential for the preservation and
sustainable use of the Alpine region. Family-run farms are
the basis for long-term settlement of these areas; they are
essential to the preservation of the mountain area as a
man-made landscape and a place to live, work and relax.          400
The typical Alpine landscapes are largely a product of the       300
work of mountain farmers and forest owners. Their activities     200
thus supply important services to society in general by:         100

–   Creating and preserving the unique man-made                       0
                                                                                                            1990/95                           2005
    landscape, which is very important for tourism                        Permanent
                                                                          grassland                   1,260,787                        1,145,911
–   Protecting natural resources and preserving ecological
    diversity. Alpine land management is essential for the                Fodder crops
                                                                          total                           469,248                        428,672
    conservation of species and habitats.
–   Preventing soil erosion and landslides.                               of which:
                                                                              Fodder beet           10,736                                   869
Bavaria has 1,388 mountain farms covering approximately                       Clover, clover-grass 103,472                                90,022
40,000 ha of alpine pastures. In summer 2005, there were                      Lucerne                9,564                                 4,098
                                                                              Silage maize         327,886                               303,626
51,000 cattle (of which 4,750 were cows), 3,000 sheep and                     Other fodder
goats and 1,000 horses on the pastures.                                       crops (including
                                                                              cultivated grass)     17,590                                30,056

                                                                          grassland and
                                                                          fodder crops
                                                                          together                    1,730,035                        1,574,583
16                                                                                                                                           ■ Wine
     Chart 41
                                                                                                                                             In the year 2005, there were 5,848 vineyards with vines
     Area under vines in Bavaria, as per the register of vineyards                                                                           planted on 6,106 ha. Of this area, 5,914 ha are under
     Survey includes holdings with an area of 10 or more ares under vines
     Number of holdings, area under vines in ha
                                                                                                                                             production. Structural changes continue in this segment
     8,000                                                                                                                                   too; the productive area per holding continues to increase
                                                                                                                                             (1995: 0.80 ha; 2005: 1.01 ha).
     7,500                                 7,364
                                                                                                                                             >>> Chart 41
     7,000                                                                                                                                   In 2005, wine must production reached 448,544 hl. With
                                                                                                                                             per capita consumption at almost 24 kg, this means that
     6,500                                                                                                                                   only 13 % of demand can be covered.
     6,000                                                                                                                   5,848           Red grape varieties are grown on approximately 1,100 ha.

                                                                                                                                             >>> Chart 42







                                                                                                                                             ■ Horticulture
                                                                                                                                             A full horticultural survey was conducted in Bavaria in
             Year     1993                   1995                   1997                   2000                       2005
                        Number of                                  Total area                                 Productive area                2005. The number of horticultural enterprises decreased
                        holdings                                   under vines                                under vines                    by 24 % compared to 1994. At the same time, however, the
                                                                                                                                             total area under cultivation increased to 23,620 ha. The
                                                                                                                                             average area size of a holding rose from 2.0 ha to 3.6 ha.
                                                                                                                                             Of the holdings recorded in the 2005 survey, approximately
     Chart 42
                                                                                                                                             4,200, or 64 %, were horticultural holdings which derived
     Wine must production in Bavaria                                                                                                         at least 50 % of their revenues from horticulture, trading
     Yield in hl/ha
     Production in 1,000 hl                                                                                                                  and services. The remaining 3,360 holdings are classified
     100              95.6                                                                                                                   as farm holdings with some horticultural production.
      90                                                                                          84.6                                       The total area under vegetable cultivation in 2005 was
      80                                                                                                                                     13,000 ha outdoors and about 200 ha under glass. Of the
                                                70.8                                                                 73.3             71.7
                                                            68.5                67.1
      70                                                                                                                                     area given over to asparagus cultivation, 1,725 ha were in
     600            555,303                                                                                                                  production.

                                      413,351         402,604        401,720                               417,739           423,902
                                                                                                                                             ■ Fruit
     300                                                                                                                                     According to the last fruit-farming survey, conducted in
     200                                                                                                                                     2002, 2,395 Bavarian fruit farms produce some 47,300
     100                                                                                                                                     tonnes of fresh-market fruit on 3,076 ha (3 million trees).
                                                                                                                                             Fruit growing is concentrated in Lower Franconia (plums),
           Year              1991        1993              1995               1997         2001               2003                   2005    Swabia (apples) and Upper Franconia (sweet cherries).
                                      Yield hl/ha                          Total hl
                                                                                                                                             In 2005, Bavaria as a whole produced 26,717 tonnes of
                                                                                                                                             apples, 4,488 tonnes of pears and 12,054 tonnes of
                                                                                                                                             strawberries. The strawberry cultivation area increased
                                                                                                                                             from 1,278 ha to 1,995 ha.
11. Animal products industry

Animal production is the most important source of                                          ■ Cattle farming                                                                17
livelihood in the Bavaria agricultural sector. In 2005, 96,066                             Cattle farming earns 52.1 % of the agricultural income in
farms raised livestock, this represents 77 % of all agricul-                               Bavaria and is therefore the most important production
tural holdings.                                                                            sector.
Animal production currently accounts for 69 % of overall                                   The number of holdings keeping dairy cows has shrunk by
agricultural production in Bavaria.                                                        56.5 % over the past 15 years, while the size of the dairy
The years between 1984 and 2005 saw in the most signifi-                                   herds has decreased by 29.6 %. These figures reflect the
cant structural changes in this sector since the end of the                                concentration of livestock in the remaining holdings.
war. The number of holdings keeping cattle has dropped                                     In 2005, Bavaria had 3.59 million cattle of which 1.27 million
by 60.1 % since 1984; the number of holdings keeping dairy                                 were dairy cows. The average herd size was 25 cows per
cows has decreased by 66.6 %. In pig farming, the concen-                                  farmer in the year 2005.
tration process has been even more pronounced. In the                                      >>> Table 43
space of those 21 years, 81.2 % of the holdings discontinued
pig keeping, and 77.5 % stopped keeping breeding sows.                                     Herd size has undergone profound changes. While the
                                                                                           majority of dairy cows are still held in herds of 30 to 49
Over the past two years, per capita meat consumption                                       cows, herd size surveys show an increase in the share of
increased by 0.5 kg to 61.1 kg per year. Beef and veal                                     holdings with 50 and more cows from 2.3 % to 20.5 % in
consumption rose by 0.4 kg to 8.8 kg per person and year.                                  2005.
Consumption of poultry and pork stands at 10.5 kg and
39.5 kg per person and year respectively.                                                  Herd sizes vary considerably within Bavaria. The largest
                                                                                           herds are kept in Upper Bavaria and Swabia. These two
■ Production and marketing                                                                 districts account for 54 % of all Bavarian cattle.
In 2005, Bavarian agriculture contributed 15 % to German                                   >>> Table 44
meat production. In the production of beef and veal, Bavaria
contributed an above average share of more than 28 %.
The Bavarian share in German pork production amounted
to about 12 % in 2005. The market value of Bavarian
slaughter animals in 2005 reached approximately H 1.7

  Table 43
  Cattle farmers and head of cattle by size of herd
  Size of herd                                        Number of farms                                                          Number of animals
  from … to … (head)             1980                     1990                    2005                       1980                   1990                   2005

  1–9                   51,752          26.7 %    26,107       18.9 %     8,303          11.9 %        279,801       5.7 %     143,273     3.0 %      45,007       1.3 %
  10–19                 47,818          24.7 %    27,156       19.6 %     9,945          14.3 %        676,836      13.7 %     385,470     8.0 %     140,677       3.9 %
  20–29                 32,710          16.9 %    20,811       15.1 %     8,276          11.9 %        789,347      16.0 %     503,640    10.5 %     203,523       5.7 %
  30–49                 36,053          18.5 %    29,115       21.1 %    14,003          20.1 %      1,372,940      27.8 %   1,126,820    23.4 %     548,190      15.3 %
  50–99                 23,259           2.0 %    30,198       22.0 %    20,590          29.5 %      1,511,974      30.5 %   2,034,097    42.3 %   1,447,751      40.4 %
  100–199                2,075           1.1 %     4,319       13.1 %     8,034          11.5 %        255,702       5.2 %     531,350    11.1 %   1,038,250      28.9 %
  200 or more              175           0.1 %       299        0.2 %       625           0.9 %         55,878       1.1 %      83,531     1.7 %     163,547       4.6 %
  Bavaria              193,842                   138,005                 69,775                      4,942,478               4,808,181             3,586,945

  Table 44
  Dairy farmers and number of dairy cows by size of herd
  Size of herd                                        Number of farms                                                          Number of animals
  from … to … (head)             1980                     1990                    2005                      1980                    1990                   2005

  1–9                   91,153          52.0 %    43,270        36.3 %    8,567          14.5 %       466,556       23.5 %     230,451    12.7 %      50,500       4.0 %
  10–19                 55,470          31.7 %    39,588        33.2 %   14,452          27.9 %       755,687       38.0 %     555,403    30.7 %     210,015      16.5 %
  20–29                 21,004          12.0 %    24,044        20.2 %   13,386          25.8 %       490,539       24.7 %     570,654    31.5 %     325,833      25.6 %
  30–49                  7,218           4.1 %    11,714         9.7 %   11,374          21.9 %       251,029       12.6 %     412,564    22.8 %     426,445      33.5 %
  50–99                    359           0.2 %       686         0.6 %    3,973           7.7 %        20,641        1.1 %      38,874     2.2 %     244,724      19.2 %
  100 or more               13           0.0 %         8         0.0 %      127           0.2 %         1 859        0.1 %       1,072     0.1 %      16,224       1.3 %
  Bavaria              175,217                   119,310                 51,880                     1,986,311                1,809,018             1,273,740
18   ■ Milk production and supply                                                                                                         ■ Pig farming
     In the year 2005, Bavaria contributed about 7.6 million                                                                              With 3.7 million pigs in 2005, Bavaria had a 14 % share of
     tonnes, or 27 %, to Germany’s milk production. Milk and                                                                              the total pig herd in Germany. In Bavaria, pig farming was
     cream deliveries totalled 7.0 million tonnes in the same                                                                             subject to an even greater concentration process than
     year. Milk accounts for 25 % of the gross agricultural output                                                                        cattle farming. Since 1990, the number of pig farmers has
     and 36 % of the sales revenues respectively.                                                                                         decreased by more than 70 %, but the number of pigs has
     >>> Chart 45                                                                                                                         remained almost constant. The number of breeding sows
                                                                                                                                          has decreased by 9 % since 1990, while the number of
     ■ Dairy products                                                                                                                     people keeping them has plummeted by 63 %.
     In recent years, consumer demand for Bavarian milk and                                                                               >>> Chart 46
     milk products has remained strong. In 2005, 897,808 tonnes
                                                                                                                                          The average number of pigs per farm is 147. On average
     of milk, 1,034,031 tonnes of combined milk products and
                                                                                                                                          there are 38 breeding sows per keeper, while 46 % of these
     761,444 tonnes of cheese were produced.
                                                                                                                                          sows are in herds of 100 animals or more.
                                                                                                                                          >>> Table 47

                                                                                                                                          ■ Sheep farming
                                                                                                                                          Bavaria has about 17 % of the German sheep stock, making
       Chart 45                                                                                                                           it the state with the most sheep. Between 1970 and 2005,
                                                                                                                                          sheep stock rose from 164,000 to 450,000. In 2005, ewes
       Milk production, milk delivery and milk yield recording in Bavaria
       Yield in kg/cow
                                                                                                                                          numbered 274,000. The average herd size increased from
       Production and delivery in 1,000 t                                                                                                 24 to 56 sheep per keeper.
                                                                        7,688 8,142
       8,000                                                            90.5 %        7,241 7,650 7,024 7,553 7,045
                                                                                      88.9 %       91.8 %       93.3 %
       7,000                                   6,874

       6,000                                           5,527
                              5,587                    80.4 %

       5,000                                                                                      5,403       5,930
       4,000                          3,618                                       4,415
                                      64.8 %                       4,279
       3,000          1,792                       3,498
                     57.6 %      3,119

                   1950         1960             1970             1980           1990            2000        2005
                     Average annual milk yield in kg/cow
                     Milk production in 1,000 t
                     Milk delivery to dairies in 1,000 t
                     Milk delivery to dairies as a % of total production

       Chart 46

        Pig keeping trends in Bavaria
       Keepers in 1,000                                                                                                                                                             Animals in millions
       160                                                                                                                                                                                                5.00
       120                                                                                                                                                                                                3.75
        80                                                                                                                                                                                                2.50
        40                                                                                                                                                                                                1.25
         0                                                                                                                                                                                                0
                  1980          1982                   1984              1986             1988            1990        1992        1994            1996        1998        2000   2003         2005
                         Pig keepers                              Pigs                                    Breeding sow keepers                     Breeding sows

       Table 47
       Breeding sow keepers and number of breeding sows by size of herd
       Size of herd                                                                        Number of farms                                                                       Number of animals
       from … to … (head)                                1980                                  1990                               2005                           1980                 1990                                 2005

       1–9                                43,408                76.9 %                  16,815            60.1 %          3,832          37.4 %           128,282       27.0 %    55,721       12.6 %             14,359           3.6 %
       10–19                               6,409                11.4 %                   4,106            14.7 %          1,441          14.1 %            86,480       18.2 %    56,285       12.7 %             20,928           5.2 %
       20–49                               5,186                 9.2 %                   4,722            16.8 %          2,433          23.7 %           147,048       32.6 %   126,036       33.2 %             79,209          19.7 %
       50–99                               1,282                 2.2 %                   1,950             7.0 %          1,440          14.0 %            83,192       17.5 %   131,256       29.6 %            103,014          25.6 %
       100 or more                           158                 0.3 %                     394             1.4 %          1,108          10.8 %            22,114        4.7 %    52,758       11.9 %            184,549          45.9 %
       Bavaria                            56,443                                        27,987                           10,254                           474,976                443,068                         402,059
■ Poultry farming                                               ■ Horse farming                                                  19
Laying hens                                                     Horse breeding and equestrian sports have developed into
In the poultry sector, the number of chicken farmers has        a significant economic factor in Bavaria. It is estimated that
dropped from 149,470 to 28,910 since 1980 and the number        Bavaria has 110,000 horses. Two thirds of these are kept in
of chickens from 7.2 million to 3.5 million. Farms with small   agricultural holdings. On average, each of these holding
poultry herds where poultry keeping has no significant          has 6.1 horses. Apart from horse breeding, some 6,500
economic effect have tended to stop keeping poultry. In         farmers operate livery stables as an additional source of
2005, 98 % of the enterprises only kept up to 250 chickens      income.
(about 16 % of the laying hens), 11 % of the chickens are       ■ Fisheries
in enterprises with 250 to 2,999 birds and 72 % of the
chickens are in 175 enterprises with stocks of 3,000 or more    Bavaria is one of the most water-rich states in Germany,
birds.                                                          with 126,000 ha of water.

Fattening poultry                                               Carp pond fish farming
                                                                With an annual carp production of 6,000 tonnes, Bavaria
The number of chickens has increased slightly again over
                                                                produces about 50 % of all German carp. Apart from carp,
the past few years, despite the decreasing number of
                                                                the 20,000 ha of carp ponds were also used to breed tench,
keepers. At the time of the survey conducted in May 2005,
                                                                pike, pike-perch and catfish.
509 enterprises kept about 4.4 million broilers. The 92
fattening farms in Bavaria with coop capacities for over        Trout pond fish farming
10,000 birds account for 97 % of the broilers. Bavaria          The Bavarian share of the 20,000 tonnes of food trout
produces about 10 % of the German broiler and turkey-hen        produced in Germany annually amounts to 8,000 tonnes.
production.                                                     Out of the total of 4,000 German fish farms, 3,300 (83 %)
Bavaria is 40 % self-sufficient in poultry production.          are located in Bavaria.
                                                                Angling fisheries
                                                                In Bavaria around 245,000 people go angling. About half
                                                                of them belong to the Bavarian fishing association. Every
                                                                year, about 9,000 candidates take the official fishing licence
                                                                examination, with about 8,000 passing.
     12. Rural development through land consolidation
         and village renewal

20   For many decades, rural development through land con-            Land regulation provides the rural development with an
     solidation, village renewal and integrated rural develop-        effective instrument for reorganising the ownership of
     ment has been one of the main aims of Bavarian agricul-          land; it makes implementing the planned schemes funda-
     tural policy. The primary goal of the Administration for         mentally easier and is often what makes them possible in
     Rural Development is to improve living and working condi-        the first place. The consolidation of fragmented or un-
     tions in rural areas. There are currently 1,900 rural develop-   favourably shaped property into larger and more practical
     ment projects in progress affecting 700,000 ha of land. In       holdings contributes to making area-wide land cultivation
     co-operation with 1.2 million citizens, these projects are       and thereby strengthens the competitiveness and eco-
     reshaping and developing the areas in which they live. In        nomic sustainability of farm businesses.
     this way, through land consolidation and village renewal,
     the Administration for Rural Development provides essen-
     tial support to mitigate and control the effects of structural   ■ Village renewal
     change, strengthening in particular areas with a weak infra-     Village renewal is an important aspect of Bavarian struc-
     structure. By channelling subsidies, the administration          tural improvement and rural development policy. It has
     supports the creation of living and working conditions that      been successful in achieving its goal of a standard of living
     are on a par across the whole of Bavaria. This helps to          and quality of life in rural areas that is equivalent to (but
     counteract the threatening trend to migration especially in      not the same as!) that of urban areas. Village renewal
     peripheral areas.                                                addresses current challenges, such as market globalisation,
                                                                      structural changes in the agricultural sector, demographic
     ■ Land consolidation
                                                                      trends with sometimes imminent population decreases
     In 2004 and 2005, subsidies of H 124.8 million were invested     and a re-appraisal of the community of responsibility
     in 1,230 land consolidation projects. Of these, around 640       between citizens and the state. Village renewal helps to
     were combined with village renewal schemes and roughly           improve the quality of life in rural areas as the foundation
     190 were voluntary land exchanges. The total investment          for people‘s feeling of association with that area, and as a
     amounted to H 161.3 million. It was allocated to develop-        positive factor which encourages investment. At the same
     ment of villages and landscapes, restructuring water cours-      time, it strengthens the economic, ecological, social and
     es, soil protection, landscape preservation, planning and        cultural potential of the villages, and improves production
     land regulation. A further H 27.3 million was invested in        and working conditions. Furthermore, village renewal
     land purchases.                                                  serves to support and encourage active citizens’ respon-
     One of the first steps in implementing a land consolidation      sibility for planning and implementing development
     scheme is to set up a community of participants (Teilneh-        concepts for rural local authorities (Gemeinden) and for
     mergemeinschaft). These associations of landowners have          strengthening their own ability to act. Village renewal is
     proved a successful approach to handling rural develop-          being implemented in 640 local authorities with over 2,130
     ment schemes over many decades. The elected manage-              villages and over 550,000 inhabitants. In 2004 and 2005,
     ment board of the community of participants is the central       these schemes were supported by H 85 million in subsidies
     decision-making body.                                            from Offices for Rural Development and Offices for Agricul-
                                                                      ture and Forestry. This directly generated communal and
                                                                      private sector investment of approximately H 195 million.
                                                                      Most of the resulting contracts were awarded to small and
                                                                      medium-sized regional artisan and commercial businesses.
                                                                13. Non-food utilisation of biomass

■ Integrated rural development                                  ■ Biomass for energy use                                       21
More and more local authorities are recognising that many       In 2003, about 4.4 % of Bavaria’s primary energy demand
of their problems are easier to be solved if they work          was met by biomass. This is equivalent to about 89 peta
together with other local authorities.                          joules.
Integrated rural development helps local authorities to         >>> Chart 49
define their goals in the planning stage by drafting an         By the end of 2005, Bavaria had the following infrastructure
integrated rural development concept (ILEK) as a basis for      for using biomass as an energy source:
coordinating development activities. At the same time, in       Solid biomass fuels
implementing the ILEK, village renewal, land consolidation      – Around 2,100 larger biomass heating plants with more
and other programmes can be coordinated and harmon-                than 150 kW capacity
ised so as to achieve their goals effectively. Implementation   – 1.76 million wood-burning stoves and open fireplaces
monitoring can help a rural local authority to implement
its ILEK.                                                       Liquid biomass fuels
                                                                – About 400 public biodiesel filling stations
In 2005, 65 integrated rural development projects and local     – Biodiesel production capacity of 155,000 t/a
authority alliances in Bavaria were monitored and funded.       – Biodiesel sales of 310,000 t/a
>>> Chart 48                                                    – Unprocessed vegetable oil: sales of 14,000 t/a in 120
                                                                   decentralised oil mills
                                                                Gaseous biomass fuels (biogas)
                                                                – Approx. 1,300 biogas plants in agricultural enterprises
                                                                – Approx. 250 sewage and landfill gas plants
                                                                Central Franconia, the Allgaeu region and the south eastern
  Chart 48
                                                                area of Upper Bavaria are regional centres for agricultural
                                                                biogas plants.
  Investment in rural development 2004 and 2005
  Total: K 356.2 million                                        ■ Material use
                                                                The main emphasis over the last two years was on:
                                                                –    Vegetable oil mixtures for bitumen (roof paving and
      K 161.3 million
                                                                –    Biodegradable products, for example cutlery and
      K 135.7 million                                                plates
                                                                –    Fibre composite materials
      K 59.2 million
                                                                ■ Trends
                                                                In 2005, approximately 230,000 ha in Bavaria were planted
                                                                with renewable raw materials. The area has nearly doubled
                                                                over the past five years. It included roughly 45,000 ha of
      Land consolidation
                                                                set-aside land. Of these, 75 % were planted with oilseed
      Common investment in village renewal                      for fuel or other technical applications, while 25 % were
      Private-sector investment in village renewal
                                                                planted with wheat or maize, which is used primarily as a
                                                                substrate for biogas plants. There is an estimated demand
                                                                for 10,000 ha of potatoes annually as renewable raw
                                                                materials. Non-food cultivation of sugar beet uses 3,000 ha.

                                                                    Chart 49

                                                                    Biomass mix in Bavaria

                                                                        Charcoal, pellets 1 %

                                                                        Digester gas 3 %

                                                                        Biogenic fuels –
                                                                        vegetable oil 7 %

                                                                        Biogas (agricultural
                                                                        plants) 8 %

                                                                        Other biomass
                                                                        in heating and
                                                                        CHP stations 18 %

                                                                        Biomass in
                                                                        waste 23 %

                                                                        Firewood 40 %
     14. Funding of agro-political measures

22   ■ Support measures                                                                                     ■ State subsidies
     Allocation of responsibilities                                                                         Section 08 of the Bavarian budget shows spending of
     Responsibility for agricultural policy is shared by the                                                H 1.038 billion for the year 2006.
     Bavarian state, the Federal Republic of Germany and the                                                The legal basis for agricultural state funding in Bavaria is
     European Union.                                                                                        the Agricultural Assistance Act (LwFöG) of 1974. An amend-
     The Bavarian state is primarily responsible for                                                        ment to the law is currently being discussed in parliament.
     – Initial training, advanced training, advisory services,                                              ■ State, federal and EU financing for all agro-political
       specialist schooling, agricultural research                                                            measures
     – Preserving man-made landscapes and natural resources
     – Improving productivity and quality                                                                   The total amount posted in section 08 of the Bavarian
     – Improving living and working conditions in agriculture                                               budget also includes funds partly reimbursed by the
                                                                                                            Federal Republic or the EU. Allowing for reimbursement,
     The Federal German Republic is primarily responsible for                                               Bavaria’s budget expenditure on agricultural measures
     – Social and fiscal policy                                                                             (including advisory services) is about H 674 million.
     The European Union is primarily responsible for                                                        >>> Charts 50 and 51
     – Market and price policy
     The European Union also lays down the policy framework
     for almost all support schemes. Agricultural structural
     policy is shaped jointly by the EU, the German government
     and the state of Bavaria.

      Chart 50
      Aggregate agrarian funding by Bavaria,
      the Federal Republic and the EU
      in 2005 by source of funds

            K 674 million

            K 1,300 million

            K 1,310 million

      Chart 51

      Financial support (in million euro) for Bavarian agriculture and forestry from the EU, the FRG and Bavaria in 2005
      (excluding approx. I 408 million for administration, consultancy, research and miscellaneous items)

            Grants for renewable natural resources 7                                                          Improving the market position of Bavarian producers 42

            Grants for forestry 18                                                                                                   Environmental programmes 225

            Restructuring grants for rural areas 114                                                                                      Self-help organisations 38

            Other EU grants 26                                                                                                                 Investment grants 54

            Special grants and others 23                                                                                                      Direct payments 1,010

            Compensatory allowences for                                                                                                        Social supports 1,175
            less favoured areas 143

            Aggregate financial support
            K 2,875 million
15. Forestry and the timber industry

■ Forest area and social functions of forests                      Natural forest reserves                                           23
Bavarian forest policy                                             Natural forest reserves serve the preservation and under-
The basis for the Bavarian forest policy and its goals is          standing of natural forest ecosystems. By the end of 2005,
defined in Article 1 of the Bavarian Forest Act (BayWaldG).        Bavaria had 154 natural forest reserves covering a total
The most effective way of reaching these goals is to ensure        land area of 6,600 ha. Within the reserves, no active interven-
that the whole forested area is utilised in a sustainable,         tions (process protection) are undertaken except in the
productive and natural way and that forests, suited to the         interest of road safety and forest protection.
site, are preserved or restored.                                   National parks
Forest area                                                        On October 14, 2003 the responsibility for the two national
One third of Bavaria (2.45 million ha) is covered by forests.      parks, the Bavarian Forest and Berchtesgaden passed to
In 2003 and 2004, the forest area of Bavaria increased by          the Bavarian State Ministry for Environment, Health and
428 ha. Forest area growth has slowed slightly compared            Consumer Safety.
to the previous reporting period.                                  Protected forest areas and Natura 2000
>>> Chart 52                                                       The designation of different protected area categories laid
Protected and protection forest                                    down in the Bavarian Nature Conservation Act affects large
                                                                   areas of forest and woodland:
By the end of 2004, 185,000 ha of forest and woodland has
been designated as protected by statutory order. This is           –     920,000 ha are nature parks
about 7.3 % of the forest area of Bavaria. Forests and             –     820,000 ha are nature conservation areas
woodland that meet the legal requirements can be declared          –     487,000 ha are protected landscape areas
protected by statutory order of the local authority.
                                                                   –     449,000 ha are Natura 2000 areas
Under Bavarian forestry law (Article 10 Paragraph 1
                                                                   –     31,000 ha are in national parks
BayWaldG), protection forest is defined as all woodland in
the upper zones and ridge zones of the Alps and the low            Forest and woodlands are very often located in water pro-
mountain range, as well as areas tending to erosion.               tection areas. In all, about two thirds of these areas
Protection forest also includes areas where the forest             (140,000 ha) fall in this category.
averts dangers, for example, avalanches or rock falls. Most        56 % of the area designated by Bavaria under the European
of the protection forests are listed in protection forest          Natura 2000 network is forest, 60 % of which is state-owned.
registers. Until 2004, private and communal forest owners          This is some indication of the high nature conservation
received fixed support payments for protection forest total-       quality of Bavarian forests and in particular state forests.
ling H 1 million. From 2005 onwards, the area-based pay-           The Bavarian Forestry Administration is responsible for the
ment was changed to a measure-based subsidy. An amount             management of all forests in Natura 2000 areas.
of H 830,000 was allocated for this subsidy.                       Recreational value of forests
Protection forest management                                       Especially in urban areas, forests are indispensable for
To ensure that mountain forests can perform protection             recreation. Among other amenities, Bavarian state-owned
functions, the Bavarian Forest Administration has developed        forests have about 9,000 km of hiking trails, 1,400 km of
a concept for integrated protection forest management.             cycling trails, 400 km of bridle-paths and 1000 parking
The concept addresses three tasks: protection forest               spaces. There are also many forest- and nature-information
restoration, protection forest maintenance and systematic          trails, tobogganing runs, camping sites, viewing points,
hunting of hoofed game. The most effective measures are            benches and a number of other amenities for leisure and
tree plantings in cleared mountain forests and building            recreational use.
temporary screens to protect saplings against drifting
snow. During 2004 and 2005, H 4.6 million were invested
in protection forest regeneration. Systematic care of pro-
tection forest will keep the forest in a condition to fulfil its
protective functions. Most important is timely regeneration            Chart 52
of the forest. Over the past few years, reducing deer                  Ownership structure of forest area
populations and adjusting forestry practices have brought              (BayWaldG/Bavarian Forest Act): 2.5 million ha
about a significant improvement in the rate of woodland                       Private forest* 57.0 %
                                                                              Bavarian state forest 31.3 %

                                                                              Corporate forest*
                                                                              (owned by incorporated
                                                                              bodies incl. by juristic
                                                                              persons in terms of
                                                                              public law) 10.2 %

                                                                              Federal state forest 1.5 %

                                                                       * The revised BayWaldG (Bavarian
                                                                         Forest Act) 01.07.2005 changed
                                                                         the definition of “corporate forest”,
                                                                         so that approx. 100,000 ha were
                                                                         recategorised as “private forest”.
24   Forest environmental education (Waldpädagogik)                   Conditions in 2003 were also favourable for oak tree insect
     Forest environmental education has been a statutory              pests. Franconia especially suffered from massive popula-
     responsibility of the state forestry authorities since 1998.     tion explosions of Winter Moth species, such as the Gypsy
     The Forestry Administration makes a valuable contribution        Moth and Oak Procession Moth. In 2004, these species had
     to the implementation of Bavarian education policy. The          to be controlled in an area totalling 3,000 ha. The following
     goal is to implement the statutory education responsibility      year, the oak pests were successfully controlled over an
     throughout Bavaria. The main target groups are school            area of 3,700 ha.
     classes whose curriculum includes forest and woodland            New types of damage to trees and the forest floor
     studies. The actual implementation is the responsibility of      In 2004, the condition of the crowns of forest trees
     the Agriculture and Forestry Offices. In densely populated       deteriorated seriously following the hot dry summer of
     urban areas and localities that attract tourism, the Offices     2003. Water shortages led to needle and leaf loss that is
     expand their service by providing forest experience centres      still, to some extent, in evidence today.
     and a forest youth hostel. The Bavarian Forestry Adminis-
                                                                      More favourable weather conditions and an adequate
     tration is one of the largest providers of positions for the
                                                                      water supply during the vegetation periods in 2004 and
     Voluntary Ecological Year in Bavaria. Many of the young
                                                                      2005 have defused the situation. The results of the 2005
     people spend their year working in forest environmental
                                                                      crown condition survey showed a reduction in needle and
     education facilities, but their tasks can also include protec-
                                                                      leaf loss.
     tion forest restoration and maintenance in high Alpine
     areas.                                                           One major worry is the forest floor. The buffering capacity
                                                                      of forest floors is reaching its limit due to the long-term
     Results of the second federal forest inventory
                                                                      impact of emissions, in particular nitrogen. In the medium
     The results of the second federal forest inventory were          term, this may impair the stability of the forests and the
     published in 2005. The survey provides facts and figures         quality of the groundwater, and threaten biodiversity in
     about the condition of forests and developments over the         some locations.
     past 15 years. The main findings are that the forest area        >>> Chart 53
     and the proportion of deciduous trees has increased, there
                                                                      Research and development
     has been a significant increase in wood resources, in par-
     ticular in small private forests, as well as a trend towards     Globalisation and climate change demand an innovative
     more natural forests. This second federal forest inventory       approach to a productive forest economy and timber
     shows that Bavarian forests are being used sustainably.          industry. R&D is an essential element in this approach.
                                                                      The Zentrum Wald-Forst-Holz (Centre of Forestry) in
     ■ Forest damage, forest conservation and research
                                                                      Weihenstephan is a step in this direction; at present it is
     Natural events                                                   unique in Germany. It is a competence centre created in a
     Over the past two years, Bavaria’s forests have been spared      joint endeavour by the Bavarian forestry research institu-
     extreme natural events. A severe storm in July 2005, which       tions in Weihenstephan – the chairs of Forest Science at
     produced 500,000 cubic metres of windfall timber in Lower        the Munich Technical University (TU München), the Faculty
     Bavaria and Upper Palatinate, was the only exception. The        for Forest and Forestry at the University of Applied Science
     heavy rainfall and resulting flooding in southern Bavaria        Weihenstephan and the Bavarian State Institute of Forestry.
     in August 2005 caused no damage to the forests.                  The centre will work on finding solutions to forest-related
     Damage by animals and fungi                                      questions (
     The effects of the severe storm in 2003 were still evident
     in 2004/2005. The hot, dry weather also allowed the bark
     beetle, spruce bark beetle and six-toothed spruce bark
     beetle to flourish. The bark beetle monitoring process
     developed by the Bavaria Forest Institute (LWF) proved its
     worth – forest owners and foresters can access informati-
     on at any time on the current state of the swarm phases
     and beetle development. The main areas of damage were
     in the western parts of Central Franconia, in Upper Fran-
     conia and in Lower Bavaria, all areas where below-average
     rainfall had reduced the water available to the forest.
                                                                        Chart 53
                                                                         Average needle/leaf loss and proportion of significant damage
                                                                        Significant damage                                          Average needle/leaf loss
                                                                        in %                                                                           in %
                                                                             1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005
■ Organisational structure, personnel, education                  Long-term silvicultural planning                                                             25
Forest administration reform                                      The forest taxation is the central medium-term planning
The ministerial decrees of March and November 2004                and control instrument of state forestry management. The
formed the framework for the reform of the Bavarian               Bavarian model is based on an optimised random selection
Forestry Administration. The main feature of the reform           inventory which allows an extensive planning.
was the separation of economic and administrative respon-         Logging, regeneration and care
sibilities. The business and economic aspects of the              The silviculture in the state forests was still suffering from
Bavarian state forests and hunting estates were bundled           the consequences of 2003‘s extreme hot summer. Thanks
in the newly-founded Bayerische Staatsforsten (Bavarian           to favourable weather conditions in the following years
State Forests) – an institution under public law. This institu-   and systematic pest control it was possible to avert the
tion and the state forestry administration have been              threatened explosion of bark beetle population. At the same
systematically structured as a two-stage system. In conse-        time, the timber market began to recover significantly.
quence, all four forestry directorates have been dissolved.       5.8 million cubic metres were felled in 2004 and 2.8 million
Forestry administration and agricultural administration           cubic metres in the first half of 2005. The second federal
have been combined in the Agriculture and Forestry Offices        forest inventory, published in 2005, concluded that the
which have also been allocated the technical tasks of the         timber stock of the state forests had increased by 15 %
forestry directorates. The role of the Offices as forestry        between 1987 and 2002.
authorities has been strengthened.                                During 2004 and 2005, 2,768 ha were replanted. Natural
The 127 previous Forestry Offices have been replaced by           methods of forest management and lower hoofed game
41 forest enterprises and 47 Agriculture and Forestry             populations allowed natural regeneration in two thirds of
Offices. These are split into the sections agriculture and        the regeneration area. 4,970 ha of young stands were
forestry as well as an office administration. The forestry        tended.
section is further subdivided into forest districts. These
                                                                  ■ Privately owned and communal woodland
decisions by the Bavarian government and the Bavarian
state parliament will have the effect of reducing the scope       Holding structure
of forestry administration responsibilities together with a       Approximately 57 % of the forest area in Bavaria is owned
20 % reduction in jobs.                                           by 700,000 private owners.
Training, further education                                       Around four fifths of all forest owners are not included in
In 2004/2005, the then Bavarian Forestry Administration           the agricultural statistics because their agricultural or
offered training in four administrative categories for the        forestry holding is below the legal minimum holding size
forestry service: senior, senior technical, senior non-tech-      for inclusion. Their average forest holding is 1.8 ha.
nical and medium-grade civil servant. The Bavarian                In 2005, there were about 104,000 agricultural holdings
Technical School of Forestry in Lohr on the Main trains           managing 755,000 ha of forest. Their average forest holding
foresters to become state certified technical foresters.          is 7.3 ha. In addition, some 6,600 so-called forest enter-
Specialist further education for employees is very important.     prises manage a forest area of 1.2 million ha in Bavaria.
Civil servants and employees spent between 3.4 and 4.0            Usually these are enterprises with a UAA of less than 2 ha
days per worker and year in further education.                    but a forest area of 10 ha or more.
                                                                  >>> Table 54
■ Management of state-owned forest
                                                                  The average forest holding of the forestry enterprises is
As of July 1, 2005, the business management of state              186 ha. The state forest previously managed by the forestry
forests was removed from the hitherto Bavarian Forestry           offices is included under forestry enterprises.
Administration and transferred to Bayerische Staatsforsten
(Bavarian State Forests) an institution under public law.
Management of the forests as nature-orientated forests
was written into Article 18 of the Bavarian Forest Act and
Article 3 of the State Forestry Act. According to Article 22
Paragraph 4 of the Bavarian Forest Act, the Bavarian state
also provides funding for services for the public good pro-
vided by the state forests.

                                                                    Table 54
                                                                    Forestry enterprises by size
                                                                    (from 10 ha forested area)

                                                                    Forested area                Number of forestry enterprises         Forested area (ha)
                                                                    per enterprise                   2003           2005               2003             2005

                                                                    10 to below 50 ha               5,498         5,011             102,004         93,440
                                                                    50 to below 200 ha              1,042         1,003             101,388         97,586
                                                                    200 to below 1,000 ha             456           455             193,212        191,304
                                                                    1,000 ha or more                  196           180             873,848        851,290
                                                                    Total                           7,192         6,639           1,270,452      1,233,621
26   Economic situation                                                                        Advisory services and further education for forest
     In 2004, approximately 50 enterprises in Bavaria participated                             owners
     in the Test Enterprise Network. The economic situation of                                 Advisory services continue to be the main component in
     privately owned forestry enterprises over 200 ha stabilised                               state support for forest owners. In Bavaria until June 2005,
     in 2004; they made an average net profit of H 75 per hectare                              these services were provided by the 436 forestry stations
     of forest.                                                                                operated by the 127 forestry offices. Since July 1, 2005, the
     Forest under communal ownership also made a net profit                                    services have been provided by the forestry districts of the
     (H 24 per hectare) thanks to growth in earnings.                                          47 Agriculture and Forestry Offices. In future, state support
                                                                                               will only fund projects that serve public welfare. The for-
     The smaller private forests sector (up to 200 ha in size) is
                                                                                               estry consortiums will offer economical advisory services
     dominated by enterprises with less than 10 ha in forest
                                                                                               for their members.
     area and the small forest owners, who are not included in
     the Test Enterprise Network. These enterprises have approx-                               In 2005, 182 events were held at the Forestry School
     imately 346 million cubic metres of standing timber per ha                                in Kelheim of which 152 were for training and further
     and so make up about 50 % of the entire timber stock in                                   education. All in all, 3,717 people attended 9,350 days of
     Bavaria. In 2004, small privately owned forests in Bavaria                                lectures.
     only extracted 7.5 cubic metres per ha; the full annual                                   Support for the forestry consortiums
     potential of 12.7 million cubic metres of harvestable stand-                              So far, 128,000 forest owners have voluntarily organised
     ing timber was not utilised. Altogether 7.5 million cubic                                 themselves in forestry communities and forest ownership
     metres of timber were felled, of which 3.8 million went to                                associations, the so-called forestry consortiums. To date,
     saw mills. The remainder was either used as firewood or                                   about 18 % of all forest owners with a total of over 1.2 million
     retained for private use by the forest owners.                                            ha (about 70 % of the total private and communal forest
     Support funding                                                                           area in Bavaria) have joined forestry consortiums. The con-
     During 2004 and 2005, more than H 36 million in subsidies                                 sortiums received a total of H 3.2 million in grants to cover
     were expended on private and communal forests, an                                         administrative costs and non-business investments.
     average of H 11 per ha private or communal forest.                                        ■ Timber and timber markets
     The funding programme “Contract Forest Nature Conser-                                     Continued weak domestic demand was the main factor
     vation”, launched in 2005, covers issues such as the                                      influencing the timber market in 2004. Demand from the
     preservation of old trees and dead wood, non-use,                                         construction industry in particular decreased year on year
     measures to create open spaces in forests and reduce tree                                 in 2004 and again in 2005. Planning approvals for detached
     density, re-naturalisation of moors, management of Mittel-                                and semi-detached homes, which are timber intensive,
     wald (mixed woodland with a wide range of tree ages) and                                  dropped below the level of previous years. Successful
     the conservation of beaver habitats. The main goals of the                                exports of coniferous sawn timber to the US increased
     programme are biodiversity conservation, preservation of                                  production in the German saw milling sector compared to
     natural habitats and the management of mixed woodland.                                    2004. The export-conditioned high production in the saw
     Contract Forest Nature Conservation was mainly                                            mill industry and the imminent establishment of new saw
     implemented in communal forests, because they have the                                    mills in Bavaria have supported the coniferous timber
     highly-trained personnel and excellent management                                         trade. Trend analyses for the deciduous timber market
     regimes already in place, as well as a large number of com-                               show increased interest in high quality oak, and steady,
     posite forests (Mittelwald) and old deciduous forests.                                    low-level demand for beech. Deciduous industrial wood is
     >>> Chart 55                                                                              increasingly being used as an energy source rather than
                                                                                               as a material.

       Chart 55

       Support funding for private and communal forests
       euro million







             1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005*
                      Federal government    State of Bavaria       EU                                * In 2005, support funding totalled I 18.5 million
                                                                                                       (Bavaria 44 %, EU 39 %, Federal government 17 %)
16. Hunting

■ How hunting is regulated                                        The Bavarian Forest Institute launched a pilot project for                   27
Bavarian Ministry for Agriculture and Forestry – Supreme          the hunting period 2001 to 2007 to assess the feasibility of
Hunting Authority                                                 roe deer hunting without an approved game management
                                                                  plan in selected preservation communities.
The tasks of the Supreme Hunting Authority in the Bavarian
Ministry for Agriculture and Forestry involve drafting
legislation on hunting, dealing with matters of hunting
policy, species conservation in hunting, wildlife manage-
                                                                    Table 56
ment and wildlife habitat improvement. Subsidiary
                                                                    Type of game
authorities involved in applying hunting laws are the higher                                        Hunting year – number of units
hunting authorities of the district governments and the                                   2002/03              2003/04               2004/05

lower hunting authorities of the regional administration            Red deer               9,617                9,866                 10,126
authorities. As part of the forest administration reform of         Fallow deer              360                  316                    335
                                                                    Chamois                4,210                4,202                  3,979
2005, the Agriculture and Forestry Offices participate in
                                                                    Mouflon                  102                   96                     93
hunting issues insofar as they affect key aspects of agri-
                                                                    Wild boar             54,819               41,976                 54,769
culture and forestry. This participation is especially relevant     Roe deer                   –              825,583                      –
when it comes to issues such as setting the harvest quota,          Hares                116,170              138,418                131,546
developing hunting management concepts, planning for
wildlife habitats, or counteracting the impact of game on
agriculture and forestry.
Hunting areas                                                     The figure for roe deer is the total for the three year harvest
                                                                  plan of 2001/2002 to 2003/2004 (the figure for the previous
Bavaria has 6.3 million ha hunting areas of which 40 % are
                                                                  three year harvest plan was 825,503 roe deer).
                                                                  Protection of wildlife and wildlife habitats
Outside the hunting areas of the Bavarian State Forests,
hunting is organised in 8,811 cooperation-owned hunting           The hunting law also includes animals in need of habitat
areas and 2,415 owner hunting areas. One aim of hunting           improvement or animals protected all year round. The pilot
policy has been to ensure that the holders of hunting rights      project “Structurally rich habitats in the agricultural land-
should live close to the hunting areas. This has been             scape” supports the improvement of habitats, for example
achieved.                                                         for partridges, through scientific monitoring funded from
                                                                  hunting licences. Agro-ecological measures such as mulch
Wildlife populations
                                                                  seeding were implemented on an area of 1,200 ha in a
Red deer numbers again increased slightly. The wild boar          cooperation project between farmers and hunters. Funds
gamebag stood at 54,769 in 2004/2005 – the second highest         from hunting licences are also used for research projects
figure ever. In 2002, the Supreme Hunting Authority, in           into the habits and potential conflict areas of protected
cooperation with affected groups, issued recommen-                species such as lynx and European otter. The results flow
dations for reducing the large wild boar population.              into strategies for the future management of these species.
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