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UCL DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY BSc/MSci Programme Structures (Full-time Undergraduate Degrees) SESSION 2006/2007 Dates of College Terms 2006/2007 The College terms for session 2006/2007 are: First Term: Monday, 25 September 2006- Friday, 15 December 2006 (12 weeks) Second Term: Monday, 08 January 2007 – Friday, 23 March 2007 (11 weeks) Third Term: Monday, 23 April 2007 - Friday, 08 June 2007 (7 weeks) While every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of the information in this document, the Department cannot accept responsibility for any errors or omissions contained herein. A copy of this Handbook may be found at the Departmental Web site: www.phys.ucl.ac.uk. 2 FOREWORD This handbook contains information on all the full-time degree programmes and their constituent courses, which the Department of Physics and Astronomy plans to offer in Session 2006/2007. Please note that it cannot be guaranteed that all courses offered will run and that only the most usual pre-requisites for courses are given. The handbook is divided into three sections: SECTION 1 – provides a brief overview on the different degree programmes. SECTION 2 – provides details of the year-by-year course structure for each degree programme. SECTION 3 – contains short descriptions of the individual courses. An extended version of this handbook, which contains, in addition to the above, Aims and Objectives for each degree programme, is with the Teaching Support Co-ordinator and is posted on the Departmental Web site: www.phys.ucl.ac.uk. Detailed syllabuses and course descriptions are given in the Departmental handbooks Course Descriptions. Information on individual courses may be obtained from the Undergraduate Teaching Secretary in the Departmental Office, Room E15, Ground Floor, Department of Physics and Astronomy. Timetables for all courses can be found on the following noticeboards: Outside the Tutors’ Offices, Room E4 (Astronomy Programme Tutor) and Room E2 (Physics Programme Tutor). Outside the Massey Theatre If you need guidance on your choice of course(s), please contact either the Astronomy Programme Tutor, Dr. I. Furniss or the Physics Programme Tutor, Dr I.J. Ford. 3 CONTENTS DATES OF COLLEGE TERMS 2006/2007 ..................................................................................................... 2 SECTION 1 ............................................................................................................................................. 5 1. FULL-TIME UNDERGRADUATE DEGREE PROGRAMMES ........................................................ 5 1.1 Overview ........................................................................................................................................ 5 1.2 Aims and Objectives....................................................................................................................... 5 1.3 THE CORE FOR PHYSICS-RELATED DEGREES....................................................................... 6 1.4 THE CORE FOR ASTRONOMY-RELATED DEGREES ............................................................... 7 1.5 COMBINED STUDIES DEGREES ................................................................................................ 9 1.6 SKILLS TRAINING ........................................................................................................................ 9 1.7 DEGREE COURSE-STRUCTURES and OPTIONS .................................................................... 10 SECTION 2 ........................................................................................................................................... 11 PROGRAMME STRUCTURES ............................................................................................................ 11 PHYSICS F300 BSC (3-YEAR)................................................................................................................ 12 PHYSICS F303 MSCI (4-YEAR) .............................................................................................................. 13 THEORETICAL PHYSICS F340 BSC (3-YEAR). .................................................................................. 14 THEORETICAL PHYSICS F345 MSCI (4-YEAR).................................................................................. 15 PHYSICS WITH MEDICAL PHYSICS F351 BSC (3-YEAR). ............................................................... 16 MEDICAL PHYSICS F350 MSCI (4-YEAR). .......................................................................................... 17 PHYSICS WITH SPACE SCIENCE F3FN BSC (3-YEAR). ................................................................... 18 PHYSICS WITH SPACE SCIENCE F3FM MSCI (4-YEAR).................................................................. 19 ASTRONOMY F500 BSC (3-YEAR). ...................................................................................................... 20 ASTRONOMY F502 MSCI (4-YEAR). .................................................................................................... 21 ASTRONOMY AND PHYSICS FF53 BSC (3-YEAR). ........................................................................... 22 ASTRONOMY AND PHYSICS FF3M MSCI (4-YEAR). ........................................................................ 23 ASTROPHYSICS F510 BSC (3-YEAR)................................................................................................... 25 ASTROPHYSICS F511 MSCI (4-YEAR). ................................................................................................ 26 MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS GF13 BSC (3-YEAR). ...................................................................... 28 MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS GF1H MSCI (4-YEAR). .................................................................... 29 MATHS AND ASTRONOMY GF15 BSC (3-YEAR). ............................................................................. 30 MATHS AND ASTRONOMY GF1M MSCI (4-YEAR)........................................................................... 31 Course Options for 4th Year MSci (All degrees) ............................................................... 32 SECTION 3 ........................................................................................................................................... 34 BRIEF UCL COURSE DESCRIPTIONS ............................................................................................... 34 1st Year Courses ................................................................................................................................ 35 2nd Year Courses ............................................................................................................................... 40 3rd Year Courses ............................................................................................................................... 46 4th Year Courses ................................................................................................................................ 56 Fourth year Intercollegiate MSci courses table. 60 4 SECTION 1 1. FULL-TIME UNDERGRADUATE DEGREE PROGRAMMES 1.1 Overview The Department offers a wide range of full-time undergraduate programmes for both the three-year BSc and four-year MSci honours degrees. These are listed in Table 1, along with the UCAS codes. The present BSc and MSci degree structure was introduced in the 1993/94 session, following recommendations produced in 1990 by an Institute of Physics (IoP) report, "The Future Pattern of Higher Education in Physics". The four-year MSci degree provides a longer educational experience and more specialist training for students who intend to proceed directly to academic or industrial research in the relevant field. It is the policy in this Department, and in most other major physics and astronomy departments in the UK, that the MSci route is recommended for direct transfer to a PhD programme. The three-year BSc programmes are designed for students who have a high interest in the relevant field, but do not necessarily wish to pursue it beyond a first degree. For others further study may involve a subsequent, one-year, taught MSc postgraduate programme. Both types of undergraduate degree provide substantial training in transferable skills to facilitate progression to a wide range of careers, both within and outside the physics and astronomy professions. TABLE 1: Full-Time Undergraduate Degree programmes Title of Programme BSc MSci UCAS Code UCAS Code Single Honours Physics (p) F300 F303 Theoretical Physics (p) F340 F345 Physics with Space Science (p) F3FN F3FM Physics with Medical Physics (p) F351 Medical Physics (p) F350 Astronomy (a) F500 F502 Astrophysics (a) F510 F511 Combined Honours Astronomy and Physics FF53 FFM3 Mathematics and Astronomy GF15 GF1M Mathematics and Physics GF13 GF1H Note: (p) = ‘physics-related’; (a) = ‘astronomy-related’ 1.2 Aims and Objectives 5 The general teaching aim of the Department is to deliver a wide range of degree programmes, designed to develop a student's full potential, using the research strengths and experience of staff in a challenging, but friendly and supportive, environment. More specifically, our undergraduate programmes aim to: • attract and recruit high quality applicants, whatever their background; • encourage students to develop critical modes of thought and study, and an in-depth understanding of their chosen field of study; • provide a sufficiently broad education, in specialist and transferable skills to facilitate progression to a wide variety of careers, both within and outside the physics and astronomy professions; • equip students with knowledge and skills to progress to postgraduate study; Associated with these aims are the objectives that a student should have achieved having successfully completed a given programme. Graduates for our full-time undergraduate programmes should have: • followed a programme which is academically coherent, encompassing both depth and breadth; • acquired a thorough knowledge and understanding of the scientific basis of their chosen field; • gained practical and analytical skills through laboratory experiments and the ability to carry out accurate and informed analysis and interpretation of data; • developed investigative skills (experimental and/or theoretical) through individual and/or team project work; • learned how to communicate effectively, in speech and in writing, through the production of written essays, reports and oral presentations; • developed basic skills in computer programming and information technology; • in the case of MSci students, gained sufficient specialist knowledge in their 4th-year courses and research projects to allow a seamless progression to postgraduate study, including PhD programmes. Detailed aims and objectives for each BSc and MSci degree, listed in Table 1, have been formulated and are reproduced in the Web version of this document (www.phys.ucl.ac.uk). The detailed, year-by-year, course structures for each of the programmes listed in Table 1 are given in Section 2. Programmes are based on the University of London course-unit system. Most courses are of half-unit value and students normally take courses totaling four units per year. Following UCL guidelines, a half-unit course expects a total student commitment of 100-150 hours, including lectures, practicals, homeworks, private study and revision. 1.3 THE CORE FOR PHYSICS-RELATED DEGREES Each of the physics-related degrees is built on a common core of half-unit courses, over the first three years of both the BSc and MSci programmes. The first two years of each BSc/MSci programme are generally taught in common and provide a transition from school and a firm foundation for future years. The core courses for the physics-related degrees are based on topics recommended by the IoP. These courses are indicated for each year in Table 2. Each module is identified by a four digit code (and prefixed by the Departmental code PHAS). These codes were new for 2005-6. The courses provide in the first year the firm foundation of subject strands in quantum-based phenomena and condensed matter, underpinned by mathematics 1245, 1246 and classical mechanics 1247, and a practical skills course 1240 which includes a substantial element of computer-based and IT skills training. These strands are developed in the second year through core courses in quantum physics 2222 and its application to atoms and molecules 2224, in condensed matter 2228 and in electromagnetic theory 2201, with the necessary mathematics further developed 6 2246. The quantum and condensed matter elements of the core are completed in the third year courses 3201, 3224, 3225, 3226. The framework prepares students for the 2nd and 3rd year course variations and options that differentiate the different degree programmes, and for the 4th year specialist courses. TABLE 2: CORE COURSES FOR PHYSICS-RELATED DEGREES YEAR 1 YEAR 2 YEAR 3 1102 Physics of the 2246 Mathematical Methods III 3224 Nuclear and Universe Particle Physics 1224 Waves, Optics and 2222 Quantum Physics 3225 Solid State Physics Acoustics 1228 Thermal Physics 2224 Atomic & Molecular 3226 Quantum Physics Physics 1240 Practical Skills 1C 2228 Statistical 3201 Electromagnetic (Core Physics) Thermodynamics theory 1245 Mathematical 2201 Electricity and Magnetism Methods I 1246 Mathematical Methods II 1247 Classical Mechanics All physics-related students except Theoretical Physicists do two half-unit first year practical skills courses 1240, 1241, which include computing and IT skills elements. For most degrees this is followed by compulsory second and third year practical laboratory and project courses. Students reading for the Theoretical Physics degrees take 1449, Practical Mathematics, in year one and replace second and third year experimental work with theory courses. The second and third years of the BSc and MSci degrees provide for optional courses to develop further and enhance knowledge of a range of physics topics. Students taking the BSc/MSci programmes involving Medical Physics, in addition to the physics core, take one half-unit Medical Physics course in the first year, two in the second year, two in year 3 and a further 3 in year 4 if on the MSci. Students taking the BSc/MSci programmes in Physics with Space Science do one compulsory space science course in each of the first three years. The fourth year of the MSci degrees comprises a compulsory research project, and a further five half-unit courses, generally chosen from subjects in the relevant degree specialty. The range of courses available is very wide, and includes some courses taught by staff in physics departments from other London Colleges. To qualify for a given degree name, it is expected that the majority of fourth year courses (including the project) will be from those designated against the relevant degree area. The Physics and Astronomy Programme Tutors will monitor and approve the coherence of the set of choices selected by each student. 1.4 THE CORE FOR ASTRONOMY-RELATED DEGREES 7 Each of the Astronomy-related degrees is built on a common core of half-unit courses over the first three years of both BSc and MSci programmes, supplemented by degree-variation half-units and options. The core courses are listed is Table 3, and comprise: (i) those underpinning first and second year mathematics 1245, 1246 and 2246 (ii) classical and quantum physics elements in the first year 1224, 1247 and second year 2222, 2228, 2201, and (iii) courses which build up an increasing exposure to topics in astronomy and astrophysics. This starts in the first year with core courses in Physics of the Universe 1102, and Practical Astronomy 1130. These are followed in the second year by Astrophysical Processes: Nebulae to Stars 2112, Practical Astrophysics 2130, leading into core third year courses in Stellar Astrophysics 3134, Extragalactic Astronomy and Cosmology 3136, Astronomical Spectroscopy 3338. (The last course is not core for the joint Astronomy Physics degree.) TABLE 3: CORE COURSES FOR ASTRONOMY-RELATED DEGREES YEAR 1 YEAR 2 YEAR 3 1102 Physics of the 2112 Astrophysical 3134 The Physics and Universe. Processes: Nebulae to Evolution of Stars Stars 1228 Thermal Physics 2228 Statistical 3136 Cosmology and Thermodynamics Extragalactic Astronomy 1224 Waves, Optics and 2117 Physics of the Solar 3338 Astronomical Acoustics System Spectroscopy 1130 Practical Skills 1A 2246 Mathematical (Astronomy) Methods III 1240 Practical Skills 1C 2222 Quantum Physics (Core Physics) 1245 Mathematical 2201 Electricity and Methods I Magnetism 1246 Mathematical 2130 Practical Methods II Astrophysics 2A 1247 Classical Mechanics Variations in compulsory courses and option courses distinguish the different degrees. These build on and supplement the Astronomy core programme, providing an exposure to a wide range of topics in classical and modern astronomy and astrophysics. All astronomy-related students do the half-unit first year practical skills course 1240, which includes a computing and IT skills element. For most degrees this is followed by compulsory second and third year practical astronomy/astrophysics and project courses. The second and third years of the BSc and MSci degrees provide for optional courses to further enhance and enrich students’ knowledge of astronomy and astrophysics topics. The fourth year of the MSci degrees comprises a compulsory research project in astronomy/astrophysics, and a further five half-unit courses, generally chosen from subjects in the relevant degree speciality. A wide range of courses is available, including some taught by staff from other London Colleges. 8 1.5 COMBINED STUDIES DEGREES Students taking the Astronomy and Physics combined degree follow a programme of core courses drawn from a blend of the physics-related and astronomy-related cores. In addition to the courses listed in Table 3, 2224 is taken in the second year, while in the third year 3338 is replaced by 3224 and 3226. Normally over the three-year and four-year degrees students study about half of their courses in physics and half in astronomy. As they progress, students can place increasing emphasis on either physics-related or astronomy-related options, depending on their interest and aptitude, especially with regard to practical and project work. The combined studies degrees in Mathematics & Physics and Mathematics & Astronomy are taught jointly with the Mathematics Department. Students take about half of their courses in each department: in the earlier years of the degrees the courses are governed by the later requirements of each subject. Thus, in the first year Maths/Astronomy and Maths/Physics students take 1102 (Physics of the Universe) and 1228 (Thermal Physics) in the first term and 1224 (Waves, Optics and Acoustics) and 1247 (Classical Mechanics) in the second term: with two mathematics half-units in each term. 1.6 SKILLS TRAINING 1.6.1 Practical Skills and Projects Practical skills teaching is structured to build up competence and a range of experience such that, on graduation, students are capable of independent work in a variety of situations. Most degree programmes include compulsory practical courses which total two to three units for years 1 to 3. For physics-related degrees these form experimental laboratory courses in the Teaching Laboratories in the Department, whilst for the astronomy-related degrees Practical Astronomy classes are held in the first and third years at the University of London Observatory at Mill Hill (used exclusively by UCL students). Most students in the third year do a course(s) in experimental work (in physics or astronomy) and a Group Project, which introduces students to the concept and challenges of teamwork within a scientific environment. All MSci students in their fourth year undertake a major research project, which draws upon the wide-ranging research activities in the Department. Students proceeding to the BSc rather than the MSci undertake a full-unit project in their third year. 1.6.2 Computing and Information Technology All students in their first year take a basic Practical Skills course 1240 which includes training in Windows-based computer skills (Excel, Visual Basic etc.). These are complemented in later years through the introduction of packages for the solution of scientific problems (e.g. Mathematica) and a high-level computer language option. 1.6.3 Communication Skills An integral part of your degree training is to learn how to get your message across, be it to other scientists or not non-specialists, using a range of written and oral media. To this end, two ‘Effective Communication” modules are followed by all students pursuing degrees in Physics and Astronomy, 9 one in each of years 1 (1901) and 2 (2901). Writing skills are developed progressively, building up from short written pieces on scientific topics for both specialist and non-specialist audiences, to longer written reports. Oral presentations start with short talks in first year tutorial groups, and towards the end of the first and second years build up to more formal presentations to larger audiences. As part of these exercises, you will gain increasing abilities in using appropriate software, including that needed to construct and maintain your own personal web page. The skills you build in these modules will be increasingly employed in other courses, and will be particularly useful in the third year Group Project and final year dissertations and presentations. The marks gained in these modules contribute to your assessment for honours in the third year, at a level equivalent to a half course unit. Each laboratory/observatory practical course also includes a significant element of communications skills development, through the production of formal reports on experiments and projects. 1.7 DEGREE COURSE-STRUCTURES and OPTIONS Details of each of the year-by-year course structures for the different BSc and MSci degrees are given in the following section. In addition to the relevant core and compulsory courses, students from year 2 onwards can exercise an increasingly flexible range of option courses (typically one in year 2, (depending on the degree), two in year 3, and five in year 4). The option courses listed in the following degree descriptions are those most commonly chosen. In addition, and at the discretion of the Physics or Astronomy Programme Tutor, students can exercise a limited choice of courses from other Departments, most frequently the Departments of Science and Technology Studies, Mathematics, or Computer Science. 10 SECTION 2 PROGRAMME STRUCTURES 11 PHYSICS F300 BSc (3-year) Programme Structure YEAR 1 YEAR 2 YEAR 3 1102 Physics of the Universe 2246 Mathematical Methods 3224 Nuclear and Particle III Physics 1224 Waves, Optics and 2222 Quantum Physics 3225 Solid State Physics Acoustics 1228 Thermal Physics 2224 Atomic & Molecular 3226 Quantum Mechanics Physics 1240 Practical Skills 1C 2228 Statistical 3400 Physics Project (1 (Core Physics) Thermodynamics OR unit) 3440 plus 1 option 1241 Practical Skills 1P 2201 Electricity and (Experimental Physics) Magnetism 1245 Mathematical Methods I 2440 Practical Physics 2A 3201 Electromagnetic theory 1246 Mathematical Methods II 2441 Practical Physics 2B 3441 Group Project 1247 Classical Mechanics Option Option 1901 Developing Effective 2901 Developing Effective Communications 1* Communications 2* All courses are half units, unless otherwise stated. *Compulsory modules (weighted into final assessment for honours). Refer to 1.6.3 Courses available for option selection YEAR 2 YEAR 3 MATH6202 Mathematics for 3423 Methods of Physics and Astronomy Mathematical Physics 2427 Environmental Physics 3443 Lasers and Modern Optics 3446 Materials Science 3459 Scientific Computing using Object Oriented Languages 3661 Physics of the Earth 12 PHYSICS F303 MSci (4-year) Programme Structure YEAR 1 YEAR 2 YEAR 3 YEAR 4 1102 Physics of the 2246 Mathematical 3224 Nuclear and 4201 Project Universe Methods III Particle Physics (1.5 unit) 1224 Waves, Optics and 2222 Quantum Physics 3225 Solid State Acoustics Physics 1228 Thermal Physics 2224 Atomic & 3226 Quantum Molecular Physics Mechanics 1240 Practical Skills 1C 2228 Statistical 3440 Experimental Option (Core Physics) Thermodynamics Physics 1241 Practical Skills 1P 2201 Electricity and 3441 Physics Group Option (Experimental Physics) Magnetism Project 1245 Mathematical 2440 Practical Physics 3201 Electromagnetic Option Methods I 2A theory 1246 Mathematical 2441 Practical Physics Option Option Methods II 2B 1247 Classical Option Option Option Mechanics 1901 Developing 2901 Developing Effective Effective Communications 1* Communications 2* All courses are half units, unless otherwise stated. *Compulsory modules (weighted into final assessment for Honours). Refer to 1.6.3 Courses available for option selection YEAR 2 YEAR 3 YEAR 4 MATH6202 3423 Methods of See Mathematics for Mathematical Physics separate Physics and Astronomy 2427 Environmental 3443 Lasers and table of Physics Modern Optics 3446 Materials Science options 3459 Scientific for year 4 Computing using Page 32 Object Oriented Languages 3661 Physics of the Earth 13 THEORETICAL PHYSICS F340 BSc (3-year). Programme Structure YEAR 1 YEAR 2 YEAR 3 1102 Physics of the Universe 2246 Mathematical Methods III 3224 Nuclear and Particle Physics 1224 Waves, Optics and 2222 Quantum Physics 3225 Solid State Physics Acoustics 1228 Thermal Physics 2224 Atomic & Molecular 3226 Quantum Physics Mechanics 1240 Practical Skills 1C (Core 2228 Statistical 3441 Group Project Physics) Thermodynamics 1449 Practical Mathematics 1 2201 Electricity and 3201 Electromagnetic Magnetism Theory 1245 Mathematical Methods I 2443 Practical Mathematics II Option 1246 Mathematical Methods II MATH6202 Mathematics for Option Physics and Astronomy 1247 Classical Mechanics MATH2301 Fluid Mechanics Option 1901 Developing Effective 2901 Developing Effective Communications 1* Communications 2* All courses are half units, unless otherwise stated. *Compulsory modules (weighted into final assessment of honours). Refer 1.6.3. Courses available for option selection YEAR 3 3423 Methods of Mathematical Physics 3443 Lasers and Modern Optics MATH2201 Algebra 3: Further Linear Algebra MATH3305 Mathematics for General Relativity MATH3306 Cosmology 3400 Project (1 unit) MATH3303 Gas Dynamics 3459 Scientific Computing using Object Oriented Languages 14 THEORETICAL PHYSICS F345 MSci (4-year). Programme Structure YEAR 1 YEAR 2 YEAR 3 YEAR 4 1102 Physics of the 2246 Mathematical 3224 Nuclear and 4201 Project Universe Methods III Particle Physics (1.5 unit) 1224 Waves, Optics and 2222 Quantum Physics 3225 Solid State Acoustics Physics 1228 Thermal Physics 2224 Atomic & 3226 Quantum Molecular Physics Mechanics 1240 Practical Skills 1C 2228 Statistical 3441 Physics Group Option (Core Physics) Thermodynamics Project 1449 Practical 2201 Electricity and 3201 Electromagnetic Option Mathematics 1 Magnetism Theory 1245 Mathematical 2443 Practical Option Option Methods I Mathematics II 1246 Mathematical MATH6202 Option Option Methods II Mathematics for Physics and Astronomy 1247 Classical MATH2301 Fluid Option Option Mechanics Mechanics 1901 Developing 2901 Developing Effective Effective Communications 1* Communications 2* All courses are half units, unless otherwise stated. *Compulsory modules (weighted into final assessment of honours). Refer 1.6.3. Courses available for option selection YEAR 3 YEAR 4 3423 Methods of Mathematical Physics See separate table of options 3443 Lasers and Modern Optics for Year 4. Page 32 MATH2201 Algebra 3: Further Linear Algebra plus options from Mathematics MATH3305 Mathematics for General Relativity Department MATH3306 Cosmology MATH3303 Gas Dynamics 3459 Scientific Computing using Object Oriented Languages 15 PHYSICS WITH MEDICAL PHYSICS F351 BSc (3-year). Programme Structure YEAR 1 YEAR 2 YEAR 3 1224 Waves, Optics and 2246 Mathematical Methods III 3224 Nuclear and Particle Acoustics Physics ** 1228 Thermal Physics 2222 Quantum Physics 3225 Solid State Physics ** 1240 Practical Skills 1C (Core 2224 Atomic & Molecular 3226 Quantum Mechanics Physics) Physics ** 1102 Physics of the Universe 2228 Statistical 3400 Project (1 unit) Thermodynamics 1245 Mathematical Methods I 2201 Electricity and Magnetism 1246 Mathematical Methods II 2440 Practical Physics 2A 3201 Electromagnetic theory ** 1247 Classical Mechanics 2881 Introduction to Medical Medical Physics Option Radiation Physics 1882 Essential Medical Physics PHOL1003 Mammalian Medical Physics Option Physiology 1901 Developing Effective 2901 Developing Effective Communications 1* Communications 2* All courses are half units, unless otherwise stated. *Compulsory modules (weighted into final assessment of honours). Refer 1.6.3. **One of these Year 3 courses may be replaced by a Medical Physics option. Courses available for option selection YEAR 3 3890 Medical Imaging with Ionising Radiation 3891 Medical Imaging with Non-Ionising Radiation 3892 Treatment with Ionising Radiation COMP3053 Medical Scientific Computing ELEC3012 Physiological Monitoring 4886 Optics in Medicine ELEC3009 Medical Electronics 16 MEDICAL PHYSICS F350 MSci (4-year). Programme Structure YEAR 1 YEAR 2 YEAR 3 YEAR 4 1224 Waves, Optics and 2246 Mathematical 3224 Nuclear and 4201 Project Acoustics Methods III Particle Physics ** (1.5 unit) (Medical Physics) 1228 Thermal Physics 2222 Quantum 3225 Solid State Physics Physics ** 1240 Practical Skills 1C 2224 Atomic & 3226 Quantum (Core Physics) Molecular Physics Mechanics ** 1102 Physics of the 2228 Statistical 3440 Experimental Medical Physics Universe Thermodynamics Physics (some Option Medical Physics) 1245 Mathematical 2201 Electricity and 3441 Physics Group Medical Physics Methods I Magnetism Project Option 1246 Mathematical 2440 Practical Physics 3201 Electromagnetic Medical Physics Methods II 2A Theory ** Option 1247 Classical 2881 Introduction to Medical Physics Non-Medical Mechanics Medical Radiation Option Physics Option Physics 1882 Essential Medical PHOL1003 Medical Physics Non-Medical Physics Mammalian Option Physics Option Physiology 1901 Developing 2901 Developing Effective Effective Communications 1* Communications 2* All courses are half units, unless otherwise stated. *Compulsory modules (weighted into final assessment of honours). Refer 1.6.3. **One of these Year 3 courses may be replaced by a Medical Physics option. Courses available for option selection YEAR 3 YEAR 4 COMP3053 Medical Scientific Computing See separate table of options 3890 Medical Imaging with Ionising Radiation for Year 4, page 32 3891 Medical Imaging with Non-Ionising Radiation 3892 Treatment with Ionising Radiation ELEC3012 Physiological Monitoring 4886 Optics in Medicine ELEC3009 Medical Electronics 17 PHYSICS WITH SPACE SCIENCE F3FN BSc (3-year). Programme Structure YEAR 1 YEAR 2 YEAR 3 1224 Waves, Optics and 1102 Physics of the Universe 3224 Nuclear and Particle Acoustics Physics 1228 Thermal Physics 2246 Mathematical Methods III 3225 Solid State Physics 1240 Practical Skills 1C (Core 2222 Quantum Physics 3226 Quantum Mechanics Physics) 1241 Practical Skills 1P 2224 Atomic & Molecular 3400 Project (1 unit) (Experimental Physics) Physics 1245 Mathematical Methods I 2228 Statistical Thermodynamics 1246 Mathematical Methods II 2201 Electricity and 3664 Space Systems Magnetism Technology 1247 Classical Mechanics 2442 Practical Physics 2C 3201 Electromagnetic (Space Science) Theory 1664 Space Exploration 2665 Space Science, Option Instrumentation and Techniques 1901 Developing Effective 2901 Developing Effective Communications 1* Communications 2* All courses are half units, unless otherwise stated. *Compulsory modules (weighted into final assessment of honours). Refer 1.6.3. Courses available for option selection YEAR 3 3459 Scientific Computing using Object Oriented Languages 3661 Physics of the Earth 2112 Astrophysical Processes: Nebulae to Stars 2117 Physics of the Solar System 18 PHYSICS WITH SPACE SCIENCE F3FM MSci (4-year). Programme Structure YEAR 1 YEAR 2 YEAR 3 YEAR 4 1224 Waves, Optics and 1102 Physics of the 3224 Nuclear and 4201 Project Acoustics Universe Particle Physics (1.5 unit) 1228 Thermal Physics 2246 Mathematical 3225 Solid State Methods III Physics 1240 Practical Skills 1C 2222 Quantum 3226 Quantum (Core Physics) Physics Mechanics 1241 Practical Skills 1P 2224 Atomic and 3440 Experimental Option (Experimental Physics) Molecular Physics Physics 1245 Mathematical 2228 Statistical 3441 Physics Group Option Methods I Thermodynamics Project 1246 Mathematical 2201 3664 Space Systems Option Methods II Electromagnetic Technology Theory 1247 Classical 2442 Practical 3201 Electromagnetic Option Mechanics Physics 2C (Space theory Science) 1664 Space Exploration 2665 Space Option Option Instrumentation and Techniques 1901 Developing 2901 Developing Effective Effective Communications 1* Communications 2* All courses are half units, unless otherwise stated. *Compulsory modules (weighted into final assessment of honours). Refer to 1.6.3. Courses available for option selection YEAR 3 YEAR 4 3459 Scientific Computing See separate table of using Object Oriented options for Year 4, Languages Page 32. 3661 Physics of the Earth 2112 Astrophysical Processes: Nebulae to Stars 2117 Physics of the Solar System 19 ASTRONOMY F500 BSc (3-year). Programme Structure YEAR 1 YEAR 2 YEAR 3 1228 Thermal Physics 2112 Astrophysical 3134 The Physics and Evolution of Processes: Nebulae to Stars Stars 1102 Physics of the 2228 Statistical 3136 Cosmology and Extragalactic Universe Thermodynamics Astronomy 1224 Waves, Optics and 2117 Physics of the Solar 3301 Techniques and Optics in Acoustics System Astronomy 1130 Practical Skills 1A 2246 Mathematical Methods 3338 Astronomical Spectroscopy (Astronomy) III 1240 Practical Skills 1C 2222 Quantum Physics 3330 Practical Astronomy 1 - (Core Physics) Techniques 1245 Mathematical 2201 Electricity and 3331 Practical Astronomy 2 - Methods I Magnetism Applications OR 3332 Practical Astronomy 3 - Field Trip 1246 Mathematical 2130 Practical Astrophysics Option Methods II 2A 1247 Classical Option Option Mechanics 1901 Developing 2901 Developing Effective Effective Communications 2* Communications 1* All courses are half units, unless otherwise stated *Compulsory modules (weighted into final assessment of honours). Refer to 1.6.3. Courses available for option selection YEAR 2 YEAR 3 2427 Environmental Physics 3423 Methods of Mathematical Physics MATH6202 Mathematics for 3224 Nuclear and Particle Physics Physics & Astronomy 3226 Quantum Mechanics 3459 Scientific Computing using Object Oriented Languages 3661 Physics of the Earth 3333 Interstellar Physics GEOL3027 Astrobiology 3201 Electromagnetic Theory 20 ASTRONOMY F502 MSci (4-year). Programme Structure YEAR 1 YEAR 2 YEAR 3 YEAR 4 1228 Thermal Physics 2112 Astrophysical 3134 The Physics and 4101 Processes: Nebulae to Evolution of Stars Astronomy Stars Project 1102 Physics of the 2228 Statistical 3136 Cosmology and (1.5 unit) Universe Thermodynamics Extragalactic Astronomy 1224 Waves, Optics and 2117 Physics of the Solar 3301 Techniques and Acoustics System Optics in Astronomy 1130 Practical Skills 1A 2246 Mathematical 3338 Astronomical Option (Astronomy) Methods III Spectroscopy 1240 Practical Skills 1C 2222 Quantum Physics 3330 Practical Astronomy Option (Core Physics) 1 - Techniques 1245 Mathematical 2201 Electricity and 3331 Practical Astronomy Option Methods I Magnetism 2 - Applications OR 3332 Practical Astronomy 3 - Field Trip 1246 Mathematical 2130 Practical Option Option Methods II Astrophysics 2A 1247 Classical Option Option Option Mechanics 1901 Developing 2901 Developing Effective Effective Communications 1* Communications 2* All courses are half units, unless otherwise stated. *Compusory modules (weighted into final assessment of honours). Refer to 1.6.3. Courses available for option selection YEAR 2 YEAR 3 YEAR 4 2427 Environmental Physics 3423 Methods of Mathematical Physics See MATH6202 Mathematics 3224 Nuclear and Particle Physics Option for Physics & Astronomy table 3226 Quantum Mechanics 3459 Scientific Computing using For year 4, Object Oriented Languages 3661 Physics of the Earth Page 32. 3333 Interstellar Physics GEOL3027 Astrobiology 3201 Electromagnetic Theory 21 ASTRONOMY AND PHYSICS FF53 BSc (3-year). Programme Structure YEAR 1 YEAR 2 YEAR 3 1228 Thermal Physics 2112 Astrophysical 3224 Nuclear and Particle Physics Processes: Nebulae to Stars 1102 Physics of the Universe 2228 Statistical 3226 Quantum Mechanics Thermodynamics 1224 Waves, Optics and 2117 Physics of the Solar 3134 The Physics and Evolution of Acoustics System Stars 1130 1241 Practical 2246 Mathematical Methods 3136 Cosmology and Extragalactic Practical Skills 1P III Astronomy Skills 1A (Experi-mental (Astronomy) Physics) OR 1240 Practical Skills 1C 2222 Quantum Physics 3330 Practical Astronomy 1 - Techniques 1245 Mathematical Methods I 2224 Atomic and Molecular 3331 Practical Astronomy 2 - Physics Applications OR 3332 Practical Astronomy 3 - Field Trip OR 3441 Physics Group Project 1246 Mathematical Methods II 2201 Electricity and Option Magnetism 1247 Classical Mechanics 2130 Practical Astrophysics Option 2A 1901 Developing Effective 2901 Developing Effective Communications 1* Communications 2* All courses are half units, unless otherwise stated. *Compulsory modules (weighted into final assessment of honours). Refer 1.6.3. Courses available for option selection YEAR 3 3225 Solid State Physics 3333 Interstellar Physics 3338 Astronomical Spectroscopy 3459 Scientific Computing using Object Oriented Languages 3661 Physics of the Earth 3301 Techniques and Optics in Modern Astronomy GEOL3027 Astrobiology 3201 Electromagnetic Theory 22 ASTRONOMY AND PHYSICS FF3M MSci (4-year). Programme Structure YEAR 1 YEAR 2 YEAR 3 YEAR 4 1228 Thermal Physics 2112 Astrophysical 3224 Nuclear and Particle 4101 Astronomy Processes: Nebulae to Stars Physics Project (1.5units) 1102 Physics of the Universe 2228 Statistical 3226 Quantum Mechanics Thermodynamics 1224 Waves, Optics and 2117 Physics of the Solar 3134 The Physics and Acoustics System Evolution of Stars 1130 1241 Skills 1P 2246 Mathematical 3136 Cosmology and Option Practical (Experimental Methods III Extragalactic Astronomy Skills 1A Physics) (Astronomy ) OR 1240 Practical Skills 1C 2222 Quantum Physics 3330 3440 Option (Core Physics) Practical Experimen- Astronomy 1 tal Physics Techniques OR 1245 Mathematical Methods 2224 Atomic and 3331 3441 Option I Molecular Physics Practical Physics Astronomy 2 Group Applications Project OR 3332 (3C32) Practical Astronomy 3 - Field Trip 1246 Mathematical Methods 2201 Electricity and Option Option II Magnetism 1247 Classical Mechanics 2130 Practical Option Option Astrophysics 2A 1901 Developing Effective 2901 Developing Effective Communications 1* Communications 2* All courses are half units, unless otherwise stated. *Compulsory modules (weighted into final assessment of honours). Refer 1.6.3. Courses available for option selection YEAR 3 (continued on next page) YEAR 4 3225 Solid State Physics 3333 Interstellar Physics See Separate table 3338 Astronomical Spectroscopy of options for year 4, 23 3459 Scientific Computing using Object Oriented Languages Page 32. 3661 Physics of the Earth C3301 Techniques and Optics in Modern Astronomy GEOL3027 Astrobiology 3201 Electromagnetic Theory 24 ASTROPHYSICS F510 BSc (3-year). Programme Structure YEAR 1 YEAR 2 YEAR 3 1228 Thermal Physics 2222 Quantum Physics 3338 Astronomical Spectroscopy 1102 Physics of the 2112 Astrophysical 3134 The Physics and Evolution of Universe Processes: Nebulae to Stars Stars 1224 Waves, Optics and 2228 Statistical 3136 Cosmology and Extragalactic Acoustics Thermodynamics Astronomy 1130 Practical Skills 1A 2117 Physics of the Solar 3333 Interstellar Physics (Astronomy) System 1240 Practical Skills 1C 2246 Mathematical 3330 Practical Astronomy 1 - (Core Physics) Methods III Techniques 1245 Mathematical Methods 2201 Electricity and 3331 Practical Astronomy 2 - I Magnetism Applications OR 3332 Practical Astronomy 3 - Field Trip OR 3441 Physics Group Project 1246 Mathematical Methods 2130 Practical Option II Astrophysics 2A 1247 Classical Mechanics MATH6202 Option Mathematics for Physics & Astronomy 1901 Developing Effective 2901 Developing Communications 1* Effective Communications 2* All courses are half units, unless otherwise stated. *Compulsory modules (weighted into final assessment of honours). Refer 1.6.3. Courses available for option selection YEAR 3 3423 Methods of Mathematical Physics 3226 Quantum Mechanics 3301 Techniques and Optics in Modern Astronomy 3459 Scientific Computing using Object Oriented Languages 3661 Physics of the Earth GEOL3027 Astrobiology 3224 Nuclear and Particle Physics 3201 Electromagnetic Theory 25 ASTROPHYSICS F511 MSci (4-year). Programme Structure YEAR 1 YEAR 2 YEAR 3 YEAR 4 1228 Thermal Physics 2222 Quantum 3333 Interstellar Physics 4101 Physics Astronomy 1102 Physics of the 2112 Astrophysical 3134 The Physics and Project Universe Processes: Nebulae to Evolution of Stars (1.5 unit) Stars 1224 Waves, Optics and 2228 Statistical 3136 Cosmology and Acoustics Thermodynamics Extragalactic Astronomy 1130 Practical Skills 1A 2117 Physics of the 3338 Astronomical Option (Astronomy) Solar System Spectroscopy 1240 Practical Skills 1C 2246 Mathematical 3330 Practical Astronomy 1 - Option (Core Physics) Methods III Techniques OR 3440 Experimental Physics 1245 Mathematical 2201 Electricity and 3331 Practical Astronomy 2 - Option Methods I Magnetism Applications OR 3332 Practical Astronomy 3 - Field Trip OR 3441 Physics Group Project 1246 Mathematical 2130 Practical Option Option Methods II Astrophysics 2A 1247 Classical MATH6202 Option Option Mechanics Mathematics for Physics & Astronomy 1901 Developing 2901 Developing Effective Effective Communications 1* Communications 2* All courses are half units, unless otherwise stated. *Compulsory modules (weighted into final assessment of honours). Refer to 1.6.3. Courses available for option selection YEAR 3 (continued on next page) YEAR 4 3423 Methods of Mathematical Physics 3226 Quantum Mechanics 3301 Techniques and Optics in Modern Astronomy 3459 Scientific Computing using Object See separate table of Oriented Languages options for Year 4, Page 32 26 3661 Physics of the Earth GEOL3027 Astrobiology 3224 Nuclear and Particle Physics 3201 Electromagnetic Theory 27 MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS GF13 BSc (3-year). Programme Structure YEAR 1 YEAR 2 YEAR 3 1102 Physics of the Universe 2222 Quantum Physics 3224 Nuclear and Particle Physics 1224 Waves, Optics and 2224 Atomic & Molecular 3225 Solid State Physics Acoustics Physics 1228 Thermal Physics 2228 Statistical 3226 Quantum Mechanics Thermodynamics 1247 Classical Mechanics 2201 Electricity and 3201 Electromagnetic Magnetism Theory MATH1101 Analysis 1 MATHM2101 Analysis 3 : Option Complex Analysis MATH1401 Mathematical MATHM2401 Mathematical Option Methods 1 Methods 3 MATH1402 Mathematical Option Option Methods II MATH1203 Algebra for Joint Option Option Honours All courses are half units, unless otherwise stated. Courses available for option selection YEAR 2 YEAR 3 MATH2302 Analytic Dynamics 2112 Astrophysical Processes: Nebulae to Stars MATH2402 Mathematical 2427 Environmental Physics Methods 4 MATH2501 Probability and 3661 Physics of the Earth Statistics MATH2201 Algebra 3: Further Linear Algebra MATH2301 Fluid Dynamics Other Mathematics options 28 MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS GF1H MSci (4-year). Programme Structure YEAR 1 YEAR 2 YEAR 3 YEAR 4 1102 Physics of the 2222 Quantum 3224 Nuclear and 4201 Physics Universe Physics Particle Physics Project (1.5 unit) OR 1224 Waves, Optics and 2224 Atomic & 3225 Condensed MATH4901 Acoustics Molecular Physics Matter Physics Maths Project 1228 Thermal Physics 2228 Statistical 3226 Quantum (1 unit) Thermodynamics Mechanics plus an Option 1247 Classical 2201 Electricity and MATH2201 Option Mechanics Magnetism Algebra 3: Further Linear Algebra MATH1101 Analysis 1 MATH2101 MATH2301 Fluid Option Analysis 3: Complex Dynamics Analysis MATH1401 MATH2401 3201 Option Mathematical Methods 1 Mathematical Electromagnetic Methods 3 Theory MATH1402 Option Option Option Mathematical Methods 2 MATH1203 Algebra for Option Option Option Joint Honours All courses are half units, unless otherwise stated. Courses available for option selection YEAR 2 YEAR 3 YEAR 4 MATH2302 2112 Astrophysical See Analytical Dynamics Processes: Nebulae separate to Stars MATH2402 2427 Environmental table of Mathematical Physics Methods 4 MATH2501 3661 Physics of the Options on Probability and Earth Page 32 Statistics M332: Algebra 2 for Other Mathematics year 4 Options 29 MATHS AND ASTRONOMY GF15 BSc (3-year). Programme Structure YEAR 1 YEAR 2 YEAR 3 1228 Thermal Physics 2112 Astrophysical Processes: 3136 Cosmology and Extragalactic Nebulae to Stars Astronomy 1102 Physics of the 2228 Statistical 3134 The Physics and Evolution of Universe Thermodynamics Stars 1224 Waves, Optics 2222 Quantum Physics Option and Acoustics 1247 Classical 2201 Electricity and Option Mechanics Magnetism MATH1101) Analysis MATH2101 Analysis 3: Option 1 Complex Analysis MATH1401 MATH2401 Mathematical Option Mathematical Methods 3 Methods 1 MATH1402 Option Option Mathematical Methods 2 MATH1203 Algebra Option Option for Joint Honours All courses are half units, unless otherwise stated Courses available for option selection YEAR 2 YEAR 3 1130 Practical Skills 1A 3333 Interstellar Physics (Astronomy) 2117 Physics of the Solar 3338 Astronomical Spectroscopy System MATH2301 Fluid Dynamics 3459 Scientific Computing using Object Oriented Languages MATH2402 Mathematical MATH2102 Analysis 4: Real Analysis Methods 4 MATH2501 Probability and 3224 Nuclear and Particle Physics Statistics MATH2302 Analytical 3201 Electromagnetic Theory Dynamics 30 MATHS AND ASTRONOMY GF1M MSci (4-year). Programme Structure YEAR 1 YEAR 2 YEAR 3 YEAR 4 1228 Thermal Physics 2112 Astrophysical 3134 The Physics and Evolution 4101 Processes: Nebulae of Stars Astronomy to Stars Project (1.5 unit) OR 1102 Physics of the 2228 Statistical 3136 Cosmology and MATH4901 Universe Thermodynamics Extragalactic Astronomy Maths Project 1224 Waves, Optics 2222 Quantum MATH2102 Analysis 4: Real (1 unit) and Acoustics Physics Analysis plus an Option 1247 Classical 2201 Electricity and MATH2201 Algebra 3: Further Option Mechanics Magnetism Linear Algebra MATH1101 Analysis 1 MATH2101 MATH2301 Fluid Dynamics Option Analysis 3: Complex Analysis MATH1401 MATH2401 Option Option Mathematical Methods Mathematical 1 Methods 3 MATH1402 Option Option Option Mathematical Methods 2 MATH1203 Algebra Option Option Option for Joint Honours All courses are half units, unless otherwise stated. Courses available for option selection YEAR 2 YEAR 3 YEAR 4 1130 Practical Skills 1A 3301 Techniques and Optics in See (Astronomy) Modern Astronomy 2117 Physics of the Solar System 3333 Interstellar Physics separate MATH2402 Mathematical 3338 Astronomical table of Methods 4 Spectroscopy MATH2501 Probability and 3459 Scientific Computing options for Statistics using Object Oriented Languages MATH2302 Analytical Dynamics 3224 Nuclear and Particle year 4 Physics page 32 31 3201 Electromagnetic Theory Course Options for 4th Year MSci, all degrees. (Read the notes below the table pertaining to possible choices of courses depending on degree programme.) All courses are half units UCL UCL UCL Mainly astronomy-related Mainly physics-related Mainly medical physics 3333 Interstellar Physics 4426 Advanced Quantum Theory COMP3053 Medical Scientific Computing 4312 Planetary Atmospheres 4421 Atom and Photon Physics 4886 Optics in Medicine 4314 Solar Physics 4431 Molecular Physics 3890 Medical Imaging with Ionising Radiation 4315 High Energy Astrophysics 4442 Particle Physics 3891 Medical Imaging with Non- Ionising Radiation 4316 Advanced Topics in Stellar 4427 Quantum Computation and 3892 Treatment using Atmospheres and Evolution Communication Ionising Radiation 4317 Galaxy and Cluster 4472 Order and Excitations in ELEC3012 Physiological Dynamics Condensed Matter Monitoring MATH3305 Mathematics for 3423 Methods of Mathematical Physics ELEC3009 Medical Electronics 1 General Relativity MATH3306 Cosmology 4465 Space Plasma and Other Colleges Magnetospheric Physics Mainly physics-related 3301 Techniques and Optics in 3661 Physics of the Earth 4261 Electromagnetic Theory Astronomy (QMUL) Other Colleges 3443 Lasers and Modern optics 4478 Superfluids, Superconductors Mainly astronomy-related & Condensates (RHUL) 4600 Stellar Structure and 3446 Material Science 4512 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance evolution (QMUL) (taught in the (Taught at RHUL Egham campus) evenings) 60 4601 Advanced Cosmology 4515 Computing and Statistical (QMUL) data analysis (Taught at RHUL Egham campus) 4603 Astrophysical Fluid 4750 Image Capture and Sensor Dynamics (QMUL) Technology (KCL) 4650 Solar System (QMUL) 4211 Statistical Mechanics (taught in the evenings) (RHUL) 4660 The Galaxy (QMUL) 4242 Relativistic Waves and (taught in the evenings) Quantum fields. (QMUL) 4670 Astrophysical Plasmas 4474 Physics at the Nano-scale (QMUL) (taught in the evenings) (KCL) 32 Physics students normally take the majority of options from the physics-related courses. Theoretical Physics students normally take the majority of options from the physics-related courses. Medical Physics students normally select 3 medical physics options plus 2 options from the physics-related courses. Physics with Space Science students normally take the majority of options from the physics-related courses. Astronomy students normally take the majority of options from the astronomy-related courses. (Continued over page) Astronomy and Physics students normally take at least 2 options from the physics-related courses and at least 2 from the astronomy-related courses. Astrophysics students take at least 3 from options from the astronomy-related courses. Maths and Physics students normally take about half their options from the physics-related courses and half from the options offered by the Maths Dept. Maths and Astronomy students normally take about half their options from the astronomy-related courses and half from the options offered by the Maths Dept. 33 SECTION 3 BRIEF COURSE DESCRIPTIONS 34 1st Year Courses (all courses are of half-unit value unless stated otherwise) PHYSICS OF THE UNIVERSE Code: PHAS1102 Term: 1 Pre-requisites: Structure: 27 lectures, 6 hours of problem classes/discussion The course aims to give 1st year students in physics and astronomy an introduction to the modern ideas in physics and astronomy. It introduces the ideas of astrophysics and provides broad coverage of the origin and evolution of the Universe, as it is currently understood. Topics: Stellar Astrophysics. Radiation - Planck's Law and Stefan-Boltzmann Law, with astrophysical (stellar) applications, cosmic microwave background. Stars - fusion, with associated nuclear and particle-physics topics. Cosmology and the Universe – introduction to space and time, magnitude scale & colour systems, distance-scale topics, concept of curved space-time, basis of Einstein’s approach to gravity, black holes. Cosmological principles, Redshift and Hubble’s law, the Big Bang model. WAVES, OPTICS AND ACOUSTICS Code: PHAS1224 Term: 2 Pre-requisites: A-Level Physics and Maths or equivalent Structure: 27 lectures, 6 hours of problem classes/discussion This is a basic course in wave motion, covering both general features of the wave equation and features specific to electromagnetic waves and sound waves. The properties of different types of waves are discussed together with major applications in physical and geometrical optics and propagation of sound waves. At the end of the course the student should be fully conversant with these fundamentals and how they are applied to an understanding of interference and diffraction, dispersion and wave propagation phenomena. Topics: General properties of waves. Basic properties of wave equation. Acoustic waves in gases and solids. Resonant properties of strings, pipes and cavities. Moving sources and detectors. Reflection and refraction. Coherence. Interference. Huygens’s principle. Fraunhofer diffraction. Lenses and curved mirrors, optical devices. Resolution; Raleigh criterion; Abbe theory. THERMAL PHYSICS Code:PHAS1228 Term: 2 Pre-requisites: A-Level Maths and Physics or equivalent Structure: 27 lectures, 6 hours of problem classes/discussion The course aims to develop, via a discussion of heat and the interaction of heat with matter, an understanding of the laws of thermodynamics. Simple statistical ideas of heat are introduced which are fully developed in a later course. Students are able by the end to apply thermodynamics to simple systems. Topics: Atoms, ions and molecules as the building blocks of matter, perfect gas, real gases, the structure of liquids, Molecular, covalent, ionic and metallic solids, phase change, latent heats, triple point and critical point, p-V and p-V-T diagrams, Thermodynamic state, state variables, and thermodynamic equilibrium, Heat Transfer mechanisms, The Carnot cycle, Entropy, disorder, the arrow of time and 35 the Second Law of Thermodynamics Plausible derivation of the form of the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution. PRACTICAL SKILLS 1A Code: PHAS1130 Term: 1&2 Pre-requisites: Structure: 5 lectures (approx.), 90 hours of practical work This course gives practice in experimental technique including data recording, data analysis and report writing; also an introduction to the elements of a computer packaged analysis tools. The astronomy sessions are conducted at the University of London Observatory (ULO) at Mill Hill. Its principal instruments are the 24/18-inch twin Radcliffe refractor and the 24-inch Allen reflector. Instruments for Practical Astronomy teaching for this course include the Fry telescope (8-inch refractor), a 10” Meade reflector and 14” Celestron reflector reserved exclusively for first-year students. Other Meade computer-controlled reflectors, several theodolites, measuring machines and several networked PCs with Internet access and network connections to UCL are available. The lectures cover basic positional astronomy (co-ordinate systems, spherical trigonometry, time, the night sky) and take place in Gower Street, although one of the lectures is traditionally given at the nearby London Planetarium. Topics: Use of telescopes and ancillary astronomical equipment such as CCD cameras and spectroscopes, important concepts in astronomy such as stellar spectral classification, analysis of photographs, measurement of variable stars, and the measurement of spectra, Data Analysis and Computing skills gained in modules of the Physics Laboratory course 1240. Many of the experiments involve the use of prepared material such as data files, CD-ROMs, CCD images or photographic prints; these have been obtained at ULO or from other observatories around the world, including satellites (e.g., Viking Mars Orbiter, Hubble Space Telescope). See http://www.ulo.ucl.ac.uk/students/1b30 for a full description of the course and useful information. PRACTICAL SKILLS 1C Code: PHAS1240 Term: 1&2 Pre-requisites: Structure: 6+3 Lectures, 70 hours of practical work A course giving an introduction to Physics Laboratory techniques and practice, and developing the basic practical skills necessary for performing experimental work which is a crucial component of both the physics-related and astronomy-related Honours Degree programme. Topics: General experimental techniques through completion of simple practical exercises; data analysis through lectures, special exercises and application to experiments performed; familiarisation with use of computers covering training on a spreadsheet, word processor and net browser packages, computer programming using a self-directed learning package at workstations, supplemented by lectures. PRACTICAL SKILLS 1P Code: PHAS1241 Term: 2 Pre-requisites: Structure: 70 hours of practical work This course is a further instruction in experimental physics through a selection of scripted experimental exercises appropriate to the various degree streams providing practice in experimental technique, including data recording, data analysis and report writing. 36 MATHEMATICAL METHODS I Code: PHAS1245 Term: 1 Pre-requisites: A-Level Maths or its equivalent Structure: 33 lectures, 7 hours of discussion, 5 problem classes All the mathematics required for the understanding of 1st Year Astronomy and Physics courses will be provided in this service course and PHAS1246. Topics Elementary Functions (mainly revision): Manipulation of algebraic equations, powers, exponentials and logarithms, inverse functions, trigonometric functions, sine, cosine and tangent for special angles, hyperbolic functions. Differentiation (mainly revision): Definition, product rule, function of a function rule, implicit functions, logarithmic derivative, parametric differentiation, maxima and minima. Integration (mainly revision): Integration as converse of differentiation, changing variables, integration by parts, partial fractions, trigonometric and other substitutions, definite integral, integral as the area under a curve, trapezium rule, integral of odd and even functions. Partial Differentiation: Definition, surface representation of functions of two variables, total differentials, chain rule, change of variables, second order derivatives. Maxima, minima and saddle points for functions of two variables. Vectors: Definition, addition, subtraction, scalar and vector multiplication. Vector and scalar triple products, vector equations (Third order determinants only very briefly). Vector geometry - straight lines and planes. Vector differentiation, vectors in plane polar, cylindrical, and spherical polar coordinates. Series: Sequences and series, convergence of infinite series. Power series, radius of convergence, simple examples including the binomial series. Taylor and Maclaurin series, L'Hôpital's rule. Complex Numbers: Representation, addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, Cartesian,polar exponential forms, De Moivre's theorem, powers and roots, complex equations. MATHEMATICAL METHODS II Code: PHAS1246 Term: 2 Pre-requisites: A-Level Maths or its equivalent Structure: 33 lectures, 7 hours of discussion, 5 problem classes All the mathematics required for the understanding of 1st Year Astronomy and Physics courses will be provided in this service course and 1245. Topics: Multiple Integrals: Line integrals, area and volume integrals, change of coordinates, area and volume elements in plane polar, cylindrical polar and spherical polar coordinates. Vector Operators: Directional derivatives, gradient for functions of two or three variables. Gradient, divergence, curl and Laplacian operators in Cartesian coordinates, Flux of a vector field, Divergence theorem, Stokes' theorem, Coordinate-independent definitions of vector operators. Derivation of vector operators in spherical and cylindrical polar coordinates. Differential Equations: Ordinary first-order, separable, integrating factor, change of variables, exact differential.Ordinary second order homogeneous and non-homogeneous including equal roots. Series Solution of Ordinary Differential Equations: Derivation of the Frobenius method, Application to linear first order equations, Singular points and convergence, Application to second order equations. Elements of Probability Theory: Discrete probability distributions, moments, means and standard deviations, independent probabilities. Means and standard deviations for continuous distributions. Special Theory of Relativity: Implications of Galilean transformation for the speed of light 37 Michelson-Morley experiment, Einstein’s postulates, Derivation of the Lorentz transformation equations; length contraction, time dilation, addition law of velocities, “paradoxes” Transformation of momentum and energy; invariants, Doppler effect for photons, threshold energy for pair production, the headlight effect. CLASSICAL MECHANICS Code: PHAS1247 Term: 1 Pre-requisites: A-Level Maths and Physics or equivalent Structure: 27 lectures, 10 hours of discussion, 4 problem classes This is an introductory course in Classical Mechanics. Starting from Newton’s Law of Motion, it sets up the techniques used to apply the laws to the solution of physical problems. It is essential background for many of the succeeding courses within the degrees in Physics and Astronomy. Topics: Introduction to Classical Mechanics: Importance of classical mechanics; conditions for its validity. Statics, kinematics, dynamics; units and dimensions. Newton' s laws of motion. Motion in one dimension: Variable acceleration. Work, power, impulse. Conservation of momentum and energy; conservative force, potential and kinetic energy. Construction of equations of motion and their solutions. Simple harmonic motion; damped and forced oscillations, resonance. Motion in two and three dimensions: Relative motion; Galilean and other transformations between frames of reference. Inertial and non-inertial frames of reference, fictitious forces. Motion in a plane; trajectories, elastic collisions. Constraints and boundary conditions. Rotation about an axis; motion in a circle, angular velocity, angular momentum, torques and couples; radial and transverse components of velocity and acceleration in plane polar coordinates, centrifugal and Coriolis forces. Orbital motion for inverse square law of force; statement of the gravitational force due to a spherically symmetric mass distribution. Kepler' s laws of planetary motion (review of properties of conic sections). Rigid Body Motion: Centre of mass, its motion under the influence of external forces; moment of inertia, theorems of parallel and perpendicular axes; centre of percussion. Rotational analogues of rectilinear equations of motion; simple theory of gyroscope. Fluid Mechanics: Fluids at rest: pressure, buoyancy and Archimedes principle. Fluids in motion: equation of continuity for laminar flow; Bernoulli's equation with applications, flow over an aerofoil; brief qualitative account of viscosity and turbulence. PRACTICAL MATHEMATICS 1 Code: PHAS1449 Term: 2 Pre-requisites: None Structure: 27 lectures, 6 hours of problem classes/discussion PHAS1449 will provide a foundation in computer-based mathematical modelling for students of Theoretical Physics. It is based on a state of the art system for mathematical computation, and will introduce key concepts in computation which will be developed further and applied to a project in year 2 and will provide important concepts for the optional course in object-oriented computer languages in year 3. At the same time it will reinforce and apply concepts of mathematical physics being taught in other first year courses. There are no prerequisites for this course, but it is itself a prerequisite for PHAS2443 Practical Mathematics in the second year. *This module is intended for students following the Theoretical Physics degree course. Topics ‘Computer Algebra’ systems in general and Mathematica. Mathematica©’s structures (especially lists) and their relationship with mathematical structures. Rules and how to apply them. Mathematica©’s pattern constructions. Rules as returned when 38 solving equations. Manipulating expressions with rules. Graphics: basic line graphs, contour and surface plots. Controlling graph layouts, combining and animating graphs. Applications to visualisation of fields. Conformal Mapping. Domains of functions. More general pattern-matching; sequences, types, criteria and defaults. RepeatReplace and delayed rules. Defining functions. Overloading of functions. Modules. Pure (unnamed) functions. Functions that remember or redefine themselves. Recursive procedures. Loops and control structures. Numerical solutions of algebraic equations using FindRoot and using graphs to control the process. Methods of root-finding by bisection and the Newton-Raphson method. Numerical solution of differential equations by finite difference methods, including simple stability analysis. Use of NDSolve. Repeated operations without loops: Nest, While, Fixed Point, Through, Compositions. Series solution of differential equations. Boundary value problems (multiple shooting). Brief treatment of partial differential equations.Analysis of data: linear and non-linear fitting; Fourier smoothing of data. Reading and writing external files. Simple image processing (pixellisation; edge enhancement). ESSENTIAL MEDICAL PHYSICS Code: PHAS1882 Term: 2 Pre-requisites: A-Level Maths and Physics or equivalent Structure: 27 lectures, 6 hours of problem classes/discussion This course provides foundation knowledge in basic medical statistics and biophysics. Topics: Atomic and Molecular Structure; Physics properties of macromolecules; Structure and physical properties of membranes; Molecular Spectroscopy; Nuclear Magnetic Resonance; Medical statistics. DEVELOPING EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION 1 Code: PHAS1901 Term: 1&2 Pre-requisites: None Aim of the Course: This is the first of three modules that aim to develop your skills in getting your message across, and in understanding the messages of others. These skills are crucial not only for being an effective physicist, but also in functioning effectively in many career – or non-career – situations. Objectives: After completing this module successfully, students should be able to: • write short pieces for non-specialist and specialist audiences; • orally present scientific ideas to a small group of peers; • construct a personal web page • use appropriate IT effectively 39 2nd Year Courses (All courses are of half-unit value unless stated otherwise) ASTROPHYSICAL PROCESSES: NEBULAE TO STARS Code: PHAS2112 Term: 2 Pre-requisites: Attending PHAS2228 and PHAS2222 Structure: 27 lectures, 6 hours of problem classes/discussion The aim of this course is to introduce students to the most important astrophysical processes encountered in a wide range of nebular and stellar environments. A knowledge of these processes is an essential prerequisite for several subsequent more specialised 3rd and 4th year astronomy and astrophysics courses. The philosophy of the course is to start at the low density (nebular) limit, where microscopic processes must be considered individually and to then treat increasingly high density environments, working through to the atmospheres of stars; the interior regions where stellar nuclear energy sources are located; and finally, degenerate matter, the highest density form of material found in stars. Topics: Microscopic atomic processes that determine physical conditions such as ionisation balance and temperature in the low-density interstellar medium. Treatment of higher density and higher- temperature environments, where simplifying assumptions can often be made. A range of processes that are encountered in stellar atmospheres and stellar interiors are treated in this part of the course. Finally, the nuclear reaction processes that generate energy in high-temperature stellar cores are discussed. PHYSICS OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM Code: PHAS2117 Term: 2 Pre-requisites: PHAS1245 Mathematics 1 PHAS1102 Physics of the Universe Structure: 30 lectures, 3 hours of problem classes/discussion The course covers basic requirements, central principles, and practical considerations for components used in complete astronomical data-acquisition systems in different wavebands in the electromagnetic spectrum. These general concepts are discussed with regard to telescopes, spectrometers and detector-systems. Examples of working systems are discussed. Topics: Origin of the Solar System, dynamics and composition. Basic structure of the Sun in terms of the physics of energy transport from the core. Source of solar magnetic field, solar activity and sunspots. The solar wind and the interplanetary magnetic field. The interaction of the solar wind with solar system bodies..Planetary magnetospheres, radiation belts, charged particle motions in a planetary magnetic field. Internal structure of the Terrestrial Planets. Interior and surface evolution. Observational methods, in particular seismic studies on Earth. Gravitational potential and tidal forces. Roche limit. Instability limit. Relevance to why rings surround the Gas Giants. Thermal structure and atmospheres of planets. The Gas Giants. Physics of hydrogen under great pressure. Asteroids and meteorites, Comets, the Oort Cloud and the Kuiper belt MATHEMATICAL METHODS III Code: PHAS2246 Term: 1 Pre-requisites: PHAS1245 , PHAS1246 Structure: 33 lectures, 11 hours of problem classes/discussion Together with the two first year mathematics courses, PHAS2246 will provide the necessary mathematical underpinning for all core Physics and Astronomy modules throughout the BSc/MSci 40 programmes. Completion of PHAS1245 and preferably PHAS1246 will normally be required for entry onto the course. Completion of the course and proven performance in its continuous assessment will be the norm for students wishing to proceed to the second semester mathematics half-unit MATHS6202 provided for second year Physics & Astronomy students. Topics: Linear Vector Space, Determinants and Matrices. Partial Differential Equations. Legendre Functions. Fourier Analysis. Group Theory. QUANTUM PHYSICS Code: PHAS2222 Term: 1 Pre-requisites: PHAS2246 Maths III (this may be taken in parallel) or its equivalents Structure: 27 lectures, 6 hours of problem classes/discussion This is an introductory core course in quantum mechanics covering the failure of classical Newtonian mechanics and the basics of quantum mechanics motivated by physical examples. It aims to develop an understanding of the principles of Quantum Mechanics and their implications to the solution of physical problems. It forms the essential basis for many of the succeeding courses within Physics and Astronomy. Topics: The failure of classical physics. Steps towards wave mechanics. One-dimensional time-independent problems. The formal basis of quantum mechanics. Angular Momentum in quantum mechanics. The hydrogen atom - qualitative treatment. Magnetic moments and electron spin. Correspondence principle and Expansion Postulate. Ehrenfest's theorem. Introduction to atomic structure Review of one electron atoms. Many-electron atoms including the Pauli Principle and spin. Atoms and radiation. Atoms in static electric and magnetic fields. Molecular Structure and bonding. Molecular Spectra. Harmonic oscillator. ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS Code: PHAS2224 Term: 2 Pre-requisites: PHAS2201 Electricity and Magnetism and PHAS2222 Quantum Physics or their equivalents Structure: 27 lectures, 6 hours of problem classes/discussion This course introduces the physics of atoms and molecules which has established the quantised nature of physical phenomena. A core course which builds on the observations and ideas of the preceding courses in electromagnetism and quantum physics to enable the student to understand the structure and spectra of simple atoms and molecules, and to develop such understanding to a point where problems can be tackled. The course provides the basis for many further courses in the Department, not only in atomic and molecular physics, but also nuclear physics, modern optics, plasma physics and many branches of astrophysics. Topics: Introduction to atomic structure. Review of one electron atoms. Many-electron atoms including the Pauli Principle and spin. Atoms and radiation. Atoms in static electric and magnetic fields. Molecular Structure and bonding. Molecular Spectra. ENVIRONMENTAL PHYSICS Code: PHAS2427 Term: 2 Pre-requisites: PHAS1228 Thermal Physics, PHAS1247 Classical Mechanics Structure: 27 lectures, 6 hours of problem classes/discussion An optional course which enables the student to understand the structure and dynamics of the Earth’s atmosphere and oceans. Topical issues such as global warming, ozone depletion and acid 41 rain will be discussed. This course will provide a link between the pure physics and applied physics degrees and be pertinent to the Physics with Space Science degree. Topics: Radiation; Spectrum of Solar radiation; Energy transfer; Structure and composition of the atmosphere; Fluid dynamic; atmospheric circulation; Energy resources; power consumption; pollution. STATISTICAL THERMODYNAMICS Code: PHAS2228 Term: 2 Pre-requisites: Structure: 27 lectures, 6 hours of problem classes/discussion The course aims to establish a secure structural foundation to an understanding of statistical thermodynamics that is essential to the study of processes at the microscopic level and of solid-state physics. Topics: Introduction. Principles of Statistical Physics. Isolated systems. Systems in contact with a heat bath. Classical gases. Ideal quantum gases. Bose-Einsten statistics. Fermi-Dirac statistics. PRACTICAL ASTROPHYSICS 2A Code: PHAS2130 Term: 1 Pre-requisites: Structure: 72 hours of practical work split between a lab and a computer cluster This course provides an introduction to the basic specialist skills required by the practicing astrophysicist through a range of experiments in Laboratory Astrophysics including an introduction to Mathematica. Topics: A selection of 2nd Year level scripted experiments designed for Astrophysics students: a short course on the basic techniques required for numerical analysis of theoretical results and their comparison with experimental data, with emphasis on the use of various computer packages. Introduction to the Mathematica programming language. PRACTICAL PHYSICS 2A Code: PHAS2440 Term: 1 Pre-requisites: Structure: 72 hours of practical work The course provides an introduction to the basic specialist skills required of the practicing physicist by means of a range of experiments in Physics including an introduction to Numerical Methods. Topics: A selection of 2nd year level scripted experiments designed for Physics students, a short course on the basic techniques required for numerical analysis of theoretical results and their comparison with experimental data, with emphasis on the use of various computer packages. Basic electronic techniques are also introduced and developed by providing practise in design and construction of a circuit including diagnosis and rectification of faults. PRACTICAL PHYSICS 2B Code: PHAS2441 Term: 2 42 Pre-requisites: Structure: 72 hours of practical work split between a lab and a computer cluster This course includes a Physics project together with a course of instruction in computer based skills in particular the Mathematica programming language. It aims to provide instruction in some of the more advanced specialist skills required of a practising Physicist and an opportunity to use the skills acquired in project work. PRACTICAL PHYSICS 2C Code: PHAS2442 Term: 2 Pre-requisites: Structure: 72 hours of practical work split between a lab and a computer cluster This course involves experiments in Laboratory astrophysics/physics including an introduction to the Mathematica programming language. Topics: A selection of advanced 2nd Year level scripted experiments designed for Physics with Space Science students. The use of word processors to prepare reports is encouraged. Mathematica programming language is introduced. ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM Code: PHAS2201 Term: 1 Pre-requisites: PHAS1245 Maths I and PHAS1246 Maths II Structure: 27 lectures, 6 hours of problem classes/discussion This is the foundation course in electricity and magnetism to be taken by all undergraduates. It provides the basis for advanced courses in electricity and magnetism and essential techniques for use in other areas of physics. Topics: Milestones in electromagnetism. Electrostatics. Conductors. Dielectrics. DC circuits. Magnetostatics Electromagnetic induction. AC circuits. Maxwell's equations PRACTICAL MATHEMATICS 2 Code: PHAS2443 Term: 1 Pre-requisites: PHAS1449 Structure: 11 lectures/demonstrations, 72 hours of practical work The Mathematica component of this module equips students with the ability to analyze and solve problems of mathematical physics within a modern computing environment. It establishes a bridge between the mathematics and computer programming which are taught elsewhere in the course, and illustrates the benefit of computer packages for problem analysis, for problem solving, and for displaying results. This module is intended for students following the Theoretical Physics degree course. The mini project increases a student's ability and confidence to undertake scientific investigation without the need for prescriptive instruction and to present the results in a written report. SPACE SCIENCE, INSTRUMENTATION AND TECHNIQUES Code: PHAS2665 Term: 2 Pre-requisites: PHAS1664 Basic knowledge of mechanics, electromagnetism and astronomical concepts Structure: 27 lectures, 6 hours of problem classes/discussion 43 The course can be roughly divided into three parts: an introduction to space astronomy, a quantitative description of the analysis techniques used in space and a quantitative account of the instruments and techniques used in remote sensing of the Earth. Topics: Description of the physics and operation of the photon detectors most commonly used (photo- emissive, photo-conductive and gas-filled); this is complemented by a description of their practical application in X-ray astronomy satellites, past, present and planned, and by an overview of the scientific knowledge that has been gained with their use. Analysis techniques used in space to establish the energy and mass of plasma particles, charged and neutral; and how these techniques have been applied to gather information on the Earth’s magnetosphere, the solar wind and its interaction with the Earth’s and other planets’ magnetosphere, and with other bodies in the solar system, such as comets. The basic physics principles in remote sensing, examples of applications of such techniques to specific issues concerning the Earth’s surface and its climate. MEDICAL RADIATION PHYSICS Code: PHAS2881 Term: 2 Pre-requisites: Students normally from the Medical Physics stream Structure: 28 lectures, 20 hours of written work (essays), 6 hours of problem classes/discussion This introductory course provides a sound basic knowledge and understanding of various uses of ionising and non-ionising radiations for diagnosis and imaging in Medical Physics. It imparts sufficient knowledge to provide a basis for further courses in more specialised applications and core knowledge for career work within these fields. Topics: Theoretical principles of ionising radiation sources; interactions in materials; dosimetry and clinical applications; theoretical principles of ultrasound production, its propagation in materials and methods of detection; theoretical basis of NMR signal and its detection; introduction to the principles of light interaction with tissue, light transport and distribution as a function of the tissues. MATHEMATICS FOR PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY Code: MATH6202 Term: 2 Pre-requisites: PHAS2246 Maths 3 Structure: 3 hours lectures and 1 hour problem class per week. Weekly assessed coursework. This is a course of advanced mathematical methods for students of Physics and Astronomy who intend to proceed further with theoretical studies. It forms a natural pre-requisite of the 3rd Year course PHAS3423 Methods of Mathematical Physics. Topics: Functions of a complex variable: power series, elementary functions, branch points and cuts, continuity and differentiability, analytic functions, Cauchy-Riemann equations, harmonic functions, singularities, Taylor and Laurent series, Cauchy's integral formula. Calculus of variations: Euler's equation, simple examples, problems with integral constraints, approximate solutions. Analytical Dynamics: mechanical systems, Hamilton's principle, Lagrange's equations, Hamilton's equations, constants of the motion, phase space. DEVELOPING EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION 2 Code: PHAS2901 Term: 1&2 44 Pre-requisites: PHAS1901 Aim of the Course: This is the second of three modules that aim to develop your skills in getting your message across, and in understanding the messages of others. These skills are crucial not only for being an effective physicist, but also in functioning effectively in many career – or non-career – situations. Objectives: After completing this module successfully, students should be able to: • write medium-length pieces for non-specialist and specialist audiences; • produce short briefs on scientific issues for a lay audience; • orally present scientific ideas to a medium-sized group of peers using full visual aids; • summarize scientific ideas succinctly and accurately; • appreciate some of the ethical implications of being a scientist; • present and defend ideas using a poster presentation; • maintain a personal web page; • use appropriate IT effectively. 45 3rd Year Courses (All courses are of half-unit value unless stated otherwise) PHYSICS PROJECT - BSc Code: PHAS3400 Value: One unit Term: 1 and 2 Pre-requisites: Structure: 180 hours of independent project work This course stimulates an anticipation of research and work in a problem-solving environment. It enables students, who work independently or in pairs, to tackle novel and stimulating problems drawn from many areas of Physics, and related disciplines, both theoretical and experimental. The course aims to develop a student’s confidence and ability and to work independently to solve problems, posed here in a research-type context. It inculcates the keeping of clear records of progress in a logbook and emphasises communication skills via written and oral reports presented during, and at the end of, the course. It builds upon the largely prescriptive experimental work encountered in the practical skills units of the first two years and enhances the communication skills developed in these years. METHODS OF MATHEMATICAL PHYSICS Code: PHAS3423 Term: 1 Pre-requisites: MATH6202 Structure: 30 lectures, 3 hours of problem classes/discussion This course offers an introduction to the modern theory of dynamical systems with applications in Physics and their relevance to modelling mechanical and physical systems. Topics: Continuous dynamical systems: Hamiltonian systems, Liouvilles's theorem, dissipative systems, local stability analysis, non-linear oscillators, bifurcation analysis in one and two dimensions. Discrete dynamical systems: Iterated maps, logistic map, cycles and stability, period doubling, bifurcations, Lyapunov exponents. Stochastic processes, Brownian motion, stochastic calculus. ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY Code: PHAS3201 Term: 1 Pre-requisites: PHAS2201, PHAS 1245, PHAS1246, PHAS2246 Structure: 27 lectures, 6 hours of problem classes/discussion This course will build on PHAS2201 to establish Maxwell’s equations of electromagnetism and use them to derive electromagnetic wave equations and an understanding of e-m wave propagation in different media. They will be used to help understand energy flow in the waves and the optical phenomena of reflection, refraction and polarization. Topics: Dielectric media, magnetic fields, linear magnetic media, ferromagnetism, Maxwell equations and e.m waves, reflection and refraction at a plane dielectric surface, energy flow and the Poynting vector, waves in conducting media, Emission of radiation, Hertzian dipole, relativistic transformations of e.m. fields. 46 NUCLEAR AND PARTICLE PHYSICS Code: PHAS3224 Term: 2 Pre-requisites: PHAS2224 Atomic and Molecular Physics also PHAS2222 Structure: 30 lectures, 3 hours of problem classes/discussion This is a core course which introduces nuclei and particles. It outlines their systematics and explores the nature of the forces between them. Although self-contained the course provides the groundwork for fourth year courses in nuclear and particle physics. Topics: Introduction to the Standard Model. The relationship between the theory and the measurables. Interaction Kinematics. Feynman Diagrams. Experimental Issues of Particle Physics. Introduction to composite particles (Hadrons and Baryons). Cross-section and lifetime: measurables. The weak interaction. Accelerators and detectors. Introduction to nuclear physics. Liquid drop model and the Semi-empirical mass formula. Fission and fusion. Resonance enhanced neutron capture for waste transmutation. The nuclear shell model. SOLID STATE PHYSICS Code: PHAS3225 Term: 2 Pre-requisites: Structure: 30 lectures, 3 hours of problem classes/discussion The course aims to lay a secure foundation for the understanding of the underlying principles of the structure of the solids, determination of their structures (and defects therein), and to establish an understanding of the relationship between structure and their thermal, mechanical, electronic and magnetic properties. The basis allows further advanced development in 4th year MSci modules. Topics: Review of bonding and structure in solids; covalent, molecular, ionic, metallic, hydrogen bonding. Crystalline and non-crystalline materials. Principles of (x-ray & neutron) structure determination of solids; direct and reciprocal lattices, Laue condition. Mechanical properties of solids; elasticity, dislocations, strength of materials (crystalline and non-crystalline). Lattices in motion; phonons, dispersion curves, heat capacity, Einstein and Debye models, thermal conductivity. Electrons in solids; simple models of conduction, Hall effect, heat capacity, basic band theory, Fermi surface, insulators, metals, and semiconductors. Pure and doped semiconductors and simple semiconducting devices. Optical properties of solids, dielectric constant, refractive index. QUANTUM MECHANICS Code: PHAS3226 Term: 1 Pre-requisites: PHAS2222 Structure: 30 lectures, 3 hours of problem classes/discussion This is a core course which builds on a previous first course in Quantum Mechanics. It aims to extend the students’ knowledge base and to give a deeper understanding of the subject. The course material is essential for many courses offered in the MSci year. Topics: A summary of the basic concepts and postulates of quantum mechanics. Dirac Notation: Linear harmomic oscillator by operator techniques. Theory of orbital, spin and generalised angular momentum, with an introduction to coupling of two angular momenta. Applications and approximations; the hydrogen-like ion: full treatment; time- independent, non-degenerate perturbation theory up to second order; first-order degenerate perturbation theory. Time evolution of simple systems with a time-independent Hamiltonian. Systems of identical particles; Pauli principle, bosons and fermions. 47 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY 1 - TECHNIQUE Code: PHAS3330 Term: 1 Pre-requisites: PHAS1130, and PHAS2130 Structure: 1 lecture, 64 hours of practical work The aim of the course is to develop competence in planning a set of astronomical observations, using large telescopes, CCD detectors and spectroscopy, and applying a range of data reduction techniques. The course content will comprise the use of data compilations to plan a set of imaging observations (Radcliffe 24”/18” Long Focus Refractor) and a set of spectroscopic observations (Allen 24” Reflector); data reduction procedures in positional astronomy (including radial velocity measurements); data reduction procedures in astronomical spectroscopy (stars, extended objects) and data reduction procedures for photometry. An introductory lecture is presented in Gower Street, after which each student is expected to attend the Observatory on one afternoon and evening per week. During the first 5 weeks of the course the use of the telescopes, computers and other equipment is taught. During the remainder of the course the emphasis switches to the completion of two longer and more detailed experiments. Observing with the telescopes continues throughout the course, making maximum use of available clear weather. PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY 2 - APPLICATIONS Code: PHAS3331 Term: 2 Pre-requisites: PHAS3330 Practical Astronomy 1 - Technique Note: Students undertaking PHAS3331 do not take PHAS3332. Structure: 62 hours of practical work The aim of this course is to develop competence in the use of telescopes by extending the observational programmes of PHAS3330 and in the application of data reduction techniques to astrophysical data sets and in the analysis of such reduced sets to derive astrophysically relevant information. The course content will be in the form of mini-projects on positional astronomy (e.g. derivation of the elements of a comet or asteroid), astronomical spectroscopy of stars - both normal and peculiar, extended objects, galaxies and interstellar matter. PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY 3 - FIELD TRIP Code: PHAS3332 Term: 2 Pre-requisites: Successful completion of PHAS3330 Please note: This Field Trip is only open to the best qualified 10 - 12 students taking course PHAS330. Note: Students undertaking PHAS3332 do not take PHAS3331 Structure: 60 hours of Field Work, 8 hours of preparation work to be carried out at ULO The aim of the course is to give selected students hands-on experience of developing and executing a programme of spectroscopy and CCD photometric observations at a mountain site of high quality overseas. The operation of this course depends upon the award of observing time to an observing proposal submitted to a host observatory by the course organiser. The course takes place during the Spring Term. Each student is expected to attend the ULO on 4 or 5 evenings for orientation sessions. Approximately one week is then spent observing in the field at the host observatory, currently the Observatoire De Haute Provence in Southern France, followed by more sessions at ULO to complete data reduction and analysis. 48 INTERSTELLAR PHYSICS Code: PHAS3333 Term: 2 Pre-requisites: Structure: 30 lectures, 3 hours of problem classes/discussion The aim is to teach the basic physics of the interstellar gas in its diffuse, ionised, and molecular phases, together with the properties of interstellar dust. Topics: Applications of radiative transfer, energy balance, and line-formation mechanisms as diagnostics of the physics and chemistry of the interstellar medium (ISM). Detailed attention is paid to interstellar gas dynamics and shocks. The structure and evolution of photoionised nebulae are derived, and the earliest stages of star formation are discussed. Free-free continuum emission and Line formation in the diffuse ISM is considered in detail. The formation and destruction of dust grains is reviewed, together with the basic principles underlying the extinction which they produce. Simple reaction networks and rate equations are developed for astrochemical molecular processes, and are put into context. THE PHYSICS AND EVOLUTION OF STARS Code: PHAS3134 Term: 1 Pre-requisites: PHAS2112 - Astrophysical Processes PHAS2228 - Statistical Thermodynamics Structure: 30 lectures, 3 hours problem classes/discussion This is a course dealing with the theory of radiative transfer and the structure of stellar atmospheres and interiors, and the use of these to understand the formation, evolution and death of stars. It builds on the basic astrophysical concepts and processes that were introduced in the 2nd Year. It is the core course in stellar astrophysics, and is a pre-requisite for the 4th Year course on Advanced Topics in Stellar Astrophysics and Evolution . Topics: Equations of Stellar structure. Stellar Atmospheres and radiative transfer. Radiative opacities. Convection in stars. Basic stellar structure models. Evolution onto the Main-Sequence. Post Main- Sequence Evolution. COSMOLOGY AND EXTRAGALACTIC ASTRONOMY Code: PHAS3136 Term: 2 Pre-requisites: PHAS2112 – Astrophysical Processes: Nebulae to Stars Structure: 30 lectures, 3 hours of problem classes/discussion This is an advanced course on the structure and evolution of the Universe, galaxies, quasars and related objects, and how they are studied from an observational point of view. The aim is to enhance the students’ knowledge and understanding of these topics and their relationships. Topics: Cosmology: Cosmological models; the microwave background; primordial nucleosynthesis; inflation; the cosmological constant; large-scale structure. Galaxies: Morphology; chemical, physical, and dynamical structure; clusters of galaxies. Dark matter in galaxies and clusters of galaxies. Active Galactic Nuclei: Taxonomy; characteristics of the central engine; reverberation mapping; quasar absorption-line systems; the quasar luminosity function; the evolution of galaxies and the star-formation history of the Universe. 49 ASTRONOMICAL SPECTROSCOPY Code: PHAS3338 Term: 1 Pre-requisites: PHAS2222 - Quantum Physics Structure: 30 lectures, 3 hours problem classes/discussion This is a course developing an understanding of the spectra of atoms and molecules and their uses in astronomy. Wherever possible, the discussion will be illustrated by real astronomical spectra. Topics: Spectral lines observed from astronomical objects and their interpretation. The structure and radiative properties of atoms and molecules. Pauli’s principle and electron shells; angular momentum; fine structure; hyperfine structure; radiation in spectral lines; forbidden transitions; atoms in external fields; molecular rotational, vibrational and electronic structure and transitions. Spectroscopy of stars, interstellar matter, galaxies, planets and other astronomical objects. TECHNIQUES AND OPTICS IN MODERN ASTRONOMY Code: PHAS3301 Term: 2 Pre-requisites: PHAS1224 – Waves, Optics and Acoustics; PHAS2246 Mathematics III Structure: 30 lectures, 3 hours problem classes/discussion This course will provide the necessary skills for a student to understand the design and operation of modern astronomical instruments. Topics: Optics Theory: Wave propagation theory, Imaging theory, Polarisation, Fourier Optics, Convolution/deconvolution. UV/Visible/NIR techniques: Telescope Design, Optical aberrations, Detectors, Imaging, Photometry, Signal to noise, Spectroscopy, Grating equation , Cross dispersion , Echelle spectrograph, Multiple object spectroscopy, Integral field units, Polarimetry, Adaptive Optics, Coronography, Optical Interferometry. Radio Astronomy techniques: Radio sources, Radio Receivers (Detectors, antenna), Heterodyne frequency shift, Spectroscopy, Radio dishes, Radio Interferometry. X-ray and Gamma-ray techniques: Sources, Detectors, Imaging high Energy Radiation, Spectroscopy at high energies, Bragg equation. Exotic Astronomy: Very High Energy (VHE) Gamma Rays, Sources of radiation, VHE Gamma ray Telescopes, Neutrino Astronomy, Neutrino production, Neutrino detectors, Gravity Wave Detectors, Sources, Detector systems. EXPERIMENTAL PHYSICS Code: PHAS3440 Term: 1 Pre-requisites: PHAS1240 - Practical Skills 1C and PHAS2440 - Practical Physics 2A Structure: 35 hours of practical work, 35 hours problem classes/discussion This course entails advanced experimentation in Physics and statistical analysis of data with a short introductory course in ‘Mathematica’. Topics: One long experimental investigation lasting half a term involving the integration of several experimental techniques to complete the task. A short course, working from a programmed text, in statistical analysis of data. Training and practice in report writing. A short course lasting half a term in the use of symbolic manipulation techniques using the programme ‘Mathematica’ for the solution of mathematical problems and modeling. 50 GROUP PROJECT - PHYSICS Code: PHAS3441 Term: 2 Pre-requisites: Structure: 3 lectures, 77 hours of independent project work, 10 hours of written work (essays), 12 hours problem classes/discussion. Short interview. The course aims to teach students how to function effectively in a group situation stimulating the actual working environment they will encounter in the course of their professional careers. The technical skills exercised in the collective solution of the set problem rely on practical skills developed in courses in the first two years. Topics: Students take part in training in group interaction and management. They then practice these skills in small groups by attempting the solutions of a complex technical problem in physics which requires group co-operation for its solutions. LASERS AND MODERN OPTICS Code: PHAS3443 Term: 2 Pre-requisites: PHAS1224 - Waves, Optics and Acoustics Structure: 30 lectures, 3 hours problem classes/discussion This course aims to give an introduction to modern optics and laser physics to ensure that the students are conversant with the principles of laser physics and are competent in applying them to different physical processes. Topics: Matrix optics. Laser principles. Gaussian optics. Electro-optics. Non-linear optics. Guided wave optics. MATERIALS SCIENCE Code: PHAS3446 Term: 2 Pre-requisites: PHAS2228 - Statistical Thermodynamics and Condensed Matter Physics Structure: 30 lectures, 3 hours problem classes/discussion This course is an introduction to the physics of materials science which addresses the mechanical, electrical, magnetic and optical properties of manufactured materials, and the factors which lead to their exploitation in commercial devices. It is an optional course which builds on the core courses PHAS2228 and PHAS3225. Topics: Property relations for a variety of materials covering a range of complexity, including microstructures and mechanical properties, electrical, optical and magnetic properties, polymers, comparatives, bio-materials and advanced device materials. SCIENTIFIC COMPUTING USING OBJECT ORIENTED LANGUAGES. Code: PHAS3459 Term: 2 Pre-requisites: None: Previous experience of programming an advantage. Structure: Two weekly 3-hour sessions for 11 weeks equally divided between instruction / Lectures and practice at the computer. The course aims to provide an introduction to the use of object oriented (OO) programming in the context of physics data handling and analysis using the JAVA language. 51 Topics: Basic program control, OO concepts and design; implementation of JAVA programming tools; program design and application; principal differences between JAVA and C++. PHYSICS OF THE EARTH Code: PHAS3661 Term: 1 Pre-requisites: Structure: 30 lectures, 3 hours problem classes/discussion This course is primarily an option for the Physics with Space Science degree. It has emphasis on the new insights provided by modern techniques, including seismic techniques for studying the Earth’s interior, satellite altimetry for determining the geoid and ocean circulations, laser ranging and very long baseline interferometry for measuring continental drift. Topics: Mass and density of the Earth; Earth Gravity; Earth magnetism and plate tectonics; Earthquakes; seismology; origin of the Solar System; Earth’s climate; Earth observation for geophysics and climate. SPACE SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY Code: PHAS3664 Term: 1 Pre-requisites: Students normally from the Physics with Space Science stream. Structure: 30 lectures, 3 hours problem classes/discussion This course is an advanced survey of current space technology and techniques. It introduces students to spacecraft subsystems and techniques which must be implemented to overcome the rigorous constraints imposed on the spacecraft and payload by launch and orbit environments. The subject will be presented at a level suitable for those hoping to enter a professional career in an aerospace discipline. Topics: Subsystems of a typical scientific spacecraft; budgets, cost link, mass heat, power. Structure and materials, mechanical systems and testing, Power generation and control. Instrumentation and associated electronics. On-Board Data Handling. Spacecraft internal and external communications, signal modulation and encoding. Thermal control, altitude control, stabilisation and measurement, attitude dynamics of rigid bodies in terms of angular momentum, the inertia tensor, principle moments and principal axes. Attitude sensors. The effects of non-rigidity. The rocket equation revisited, propulsion and thrusters for orbital applications. The ion thruster. MEDICAL SCIENTIFIC COMPUTING Code: COMP3053 Term: 2 Pre-requisites: Students normally from the Medical Physics stream. Structure: 30 lectures, 3 hours problem classes/discussion Note: Given by Computer Science Department The course provides information on the use of computers for processing, in particular, pictorial information in the medical domain, for example Computerised Tomography and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. Topics: Data handling; basic mathematical tools; principles and clinical applications of tomographic method; data display; picture archiving and communication systems (PACS); the man-machine interface; some clinical problems. 52 MEDICAL IMAGING WITH IONISING RADIATION Code: PHAS3890 Term: 1 Pre-requisites: Students normally from the Medical Physics stream. Structure: 30 lectures, 3 hours problem classes/discussion The aim is for the students to understand the use and application of techniques and methods of imaging both anatomy and physiological function using ionising radiation, including processing evaluation of their performance and the principles of quality assurance. Topics: Sources of Ionising Radiation; Interaction in the patient; different detectors; systems; the use of systems; image processing and assessment; quality control. MEDICAL IMAGING WITH NON-IONISING RADIATION Code: PHAS3891 Term: 1 Pre-requisites: Students normally from the Medical Physics stream. Structure: 30 lectures, 3 hours problem classes/discussion The course will provide a basic introduction to the physical principles of NMR and ultrasound and their application to the imaging of both anatomy and physiological function. The methods by which images of anatomy and function are obtained are explained as well as their applications in medicine. Topics: Basic NMR theory; NMR signal acquisition; NMR hardware; Tissue parameters and contrast in imaging; data acquisition and image formation; image processing; NMR safety; ultrasound imaging; transducers; ultrasound beams; safety considerations; resolution; scanner construction, signal processing; artefacts and measurements; the Doppler effect; tissue characterisation; therapeutic applications. TREATMENT USING IONISING RADIATION Code: PHAS3892 Term: 2 Pre-requisites: Students normally from the Medical Physics stream. Structure: 30 lectures, 3 hours problem classes/discussion The course covers theory and methods of treatment using ionising radiation, including dosimetry, radiobiology and protection. Topics: Dosimetry; radiobiological basis; dose distribution and radiotherapy treatments; radiation protection. PHYSIOLOGICAL MONITORING Code: ELEC3009 Term: 2 Pre-requisites: Students normally from the Medical Physics stream. Structure: 30 lectures, 3 hours problem classes/discussion Note: Course supplied by the Electronic and Electrical Engineering Dept. The course provides an understanding of the theory and practice of transducers and monitoring techniques in medicine and physiology. It covers most of the commonly used methods in medical practice except those derived from imaging and radionuclide methods. Topics: Measurement variables; Pressure, force and position sensing; Piezoelectric sensors; Temperature sensing; Flow, velocity and volume sensors; Optical sensors; Gas and ion sensors. 53 MATHS FOR GENERAL RELATIVITY Code: MATH3305 Term: 1 Pre-requisites: MATH6202 (Physicists and Astronomers); MATH2303 (Mathematicians) Structure: 3 hour lectures per week This course is available to 3rd or 4th year students with a good mathematical ability. The course introduces Einstein’s theories of special and general relativity. Special relativity shows how measurements of physical quantities such as time and space can depend on an observer’s frame of reference. Relativity also emphasises that there exists an underlying physical description independent of observers. This physical description uses mathematical objects called tensors. Tensor notation simplifies the form of the Maxwell equations and reveals their power and beauty. The Maxwell equations provide a description of electromagnetism compatible with special relativity. However, no similar equations exist for gravitation. Instead, a more general form of relativity is needed where space-time has curvature. Curvature, in effect, replaces the gravitational field. Objects no longer accelerate due to gravitational forces; instead they move along geodesics whose shape is determined by the curvature. Furthermore, rather than mass being the source of the gravitational field, a massive object warps the space around it, generating curvature. COSMOLOGY Code: MATH3306 Term: 2 Pre-requisites: MATH3305 - Mathematics for General Relativity Structure: 3 hour lectures per week This course is available to 3rd or 4th year students with a good mathematical ability. Cosmology is the study of the history and structure of the Universe. Cosmologists usually assume that the Universe is highly symmetric on large scales; under this assumption the equations of general relativity reduce to two simple ordinary differential equations. These equations govern the expansion of the Universe. These equations are studied in detail, and show how observations are affected by the expansion and curvature of the Universe. The course then covers the astronomical methods used to determine the expansion rate (i.e. the Hubble constant) and the mass density of the Universe. Physical processes in the early universe such as nucleo-synthesis, the formation of the microwave background, and galaxy formation will also be studied. The course begins with a description of black holes and ends with speculative topics including inflation and cosmic strings. ASTROBIOLOGY Code: GEOL3027 Term: 2 Pre-requisites: There are no formal prerequisites. Aims and Objectives This course is designed to provide a broad introduction to the exciting new field of astrobiology -- the study of the astronomical and planetary context within which life on Earth has evolved, and the implications for the prevalence of life elsewhere in the Universe. The course will be suitable for a diverse audience of undergraduate students in their second year or above, and who pursuing degrees in Planetary Science, Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences, and Astronomy/Astrophysics. Topics: Origin and distribution of biologically important chemical elements. Origin and early evolution of the Solar System and implications for other planetary systems. Pre-biological chemical evolution 54 and the origin of life. Summary of evolutionary biology (3 lectures). Rare Earth? Requirements for life. Prospects for life eleswhere in the Solar System. Extrasolar planets. Extraterrestrial intelligence. 55 4th Year Courses (All courses are of half-unit value unless stated otherwise) MSci PHYSICS PROJECT Code: PHAS4201 Value: 1.5 Units Term: 1&2 Pre-requisites: 1st , 2nd and 3rd year practical courses to have been successfully taken Structure: 200 hours of independent project work, 30 hours of written work The course aims to develop a student’s confidence and ability to work as an independent researcher and inculcates the keeping of clear records in a progress log. It builds on the largely proscriptive experimental work encountered in the practical skills units of the first three years plus the smaller components of group and individual project work. An emphasis on good communication via written and oral reports continues the stress laid on this in the first three years. Students work independently or in pairs (depending on the scope of the project) on a major investigation which may be experimental, theoretical or involve computer simulation. Students are required to keep a detailed log of their day to day work and present their findings in a final written report plus an oral presentation. The final report is expected to be presented in a fully word processed form. MSci ASTRONOMY PROJECT Code: PHAS4101 Value: 1.5 Units Term: 1&2 Pre-requisites: Structure: 200 hours of independent project work, 30 hours of written work The aim of the course is to enable the student to undertake real scientific research for the first time. Students will build on the formal knowledge and practical techniques that they have acquired from lectures and practicals during the preceding three years. Students will have their own supervisor who will be a staff member (or senior contract research staff person). A 1 unit course consisting of a research project over 2 semesters, in any area related to astronomy and astrophysics. The project can be any combination of theory, analysis, observation, instrumentation or history and philosophy of astronomy, provided the work is original. Students will provide an extended written report (dissertation) which as well as describing the results of their research, should contain a review of previous related work. Students will also give a 15-minute oral presentation, using audio visual aids, on the results of their project. ADVANCED QUANTUM THEORY Code: PHAS4426 Term: 1 Pre-requisites: 3226 or equivalent. Structure: 30 lectures, 3 hours problem classes/discussion This is a course where some aspects of the basic postulates of quantum mechanics are discussed more formally and mathematically than in earlier courses. The course extends perturbation theory to time-dependent systems and gives students an introduction to a quantum mechanical description of the scattering of low-energy particles by a potential - two important topics for other fourth-year courses. Topics: An algebraic operator approach for angular momentum, both orbital and spin; the addition of angular momenta. The variational method for non-perturbative approximations and the JWKB 56 approximation. Time-dependent perturbation theory leading to Fermi's Golden Rule and applications to simple systems such as an harmonic perturbation. The quantum mechanical description of the scattering of low-energy spinless particles from a potential via the partial wave expansion and phase shifts. The first Born approximation. PLANETARY ATMOSPHERES Code: PHAS4312 Term: 1 Pre-requisites: Structure: 30 lectures, 3 hours problem classes/discussion This course compares the atmospheres of all the planets and examines the past, present and future of the Earth’s atmosphere with the perspective offered by the comparison. Topics: Comparison of planetary atmospheres including; atmospheric structure, retention; oxygen chemistry; atmospheric temperature profiles; origin and evolution of planetary atmospheres; atmospheric dynamics; ionospheres; magnetospheres; observational techniques and global warming. SOLAR PHYSICS Code: PHAS4314 Term: 2 Pre-requisites: Structure: 30 lectures, 3 hours problem classes/discussion The aim of this course is to present a detailed description of the structure and behaviour of the Sun and its atmosphere and to give the student a good understanding of the underlying physical processes. Topics: The Solar interior and photosphere; Solar magnetic fields; Solar activity; the Solar atmosphere - Chromosphere; the Solar atmosphere - Corona and Solar wind; Solar flares. HIGH ENERGY ASTROPHYSICS Code: PHAS4315 Term: 2 Pre-requisites: Structure: 30 lectures, 3 hours problem classes/discussion This course provides an understanding of the theoretical processes responsible for a range of high- energy stellar and galactic sources, using observational data from Earth satellites. Topics: A simple introduction to General Relativity, by approaching the Schwarzschild and Kerr metrics from practical considerations rather than using highly mathematical tools; A simple mathematical account of the mechanisms that lead to the production and absorption of high energy photons in the Universe; A quantitative account of cosmic sources of high energy radiation. ADVANCED TOPICS IN STELLAR ATMOSPHERES AND EVOLUTION. Code: PHAS4316 Term: 1 Pre-requisites: PHAS3134 - Physics and Evolution of Stars Structure: 30 lectures, 3 hours problem classes/discussion A course which develops the theory of model atmosphere techniques and their application to quantitative analyses of stellar spectra; the effects of mass loss on the evolution of both high and low mass stars, and interaction effects in binary systems. 57 Topics: The LTE Model Atmosphere: the formation of continua and spectral lines. Comparison of LTE model atmospheres with observations. The Non-LTE Model Atmosphere: two-level and multi-level atoms. Comparison of non-LTE model atmospheres with observations. Observations of stellar winds from hot stars and determination of mass-loss rates. The theory of line-driven stellar winds. The effects of mass-loss on stellar evolution for high and low mass stars. The evolution of massive close binary systems. GALAXY AND CLUSTER DYNAMICS Code: PHAS4317 Term: 1 Pre-requisites: PHAS3136 - Cosmology and Extragalactic Astronomy Structure: 30 lectures, 3 hours problem classes/discussion This course provides an in-depth study of the dynamical structure and evolution of galaxies (elliptical and spiral), clusters within galaxies (open and globular), and clusters of galaxies. The course explains the origins and mechanisms by which galaxies and clusters have obtained their observed characteristics. Topics: Galaxies, Clusters, and the Foundations of Stellar Dynamics, Rotating Galaxies and the Structure of the Milky Way, Stellar Encounters and Galactic Evolution, Star Clusters, Elliptical Galaxies, and Clusters of Galaxies. ATOM AND PHOTON PHYSICS Code: PHAS4421 Term: 1 Pre-requisites: Structure: 30 lectures, 3 hours problem classes/discussion The course introduces students to the interactions of photons with atoms. In particular the operation and use of lasers is discussed and the role of lasers in modern spectroscopic techniques. Topics: Interaction of light with atoms. L.A.S.E.R. Chaotic light and coherence. Laser spectroscopy. Multiphoton processes. Light scattering by atoms. Electron scattering by atoms. Coherence and cavity effects in atoms. Trapping and cooling. QUANTUM COMPUTATION AND COMMUNICATION Code: PHAS4427 Term: 2 Pre-requisites: PHAS3226 or equivalent Structure: 30 lectures, 3 hours problem classes/discussion The course aims to provide a comprehensive introduction to the emerging field of quantum information (the basic notions such as quantum cryptography, quantum algorithms, teleportation and the like, as well as state of the art experiments), so that the student is well prepared for research (both academic and industrial) in the area. Topics: Background: The qubit and its physical realization; Single qubit operations and measurements; The Deutsch algorithm; Quantum no-cloning. Quantum Cryptography: The BB84 quantum key distribution protocol; elementary discussion of security; physical implementations of kilometers. Quantum Entanglement: State space of two qubits; Entangled states; Bell’s inequality; Entanglement based cryptography; Quantum Dense Coding; Quantum Teleportation; Entanglement Swapping; Polarization entangled photons & implementations; von-Neumann entropy; Quantification of pure state entanglement. Quantum Computation: Tensor product structure of the state space of many qubits; Discussion of the power of quantum computers; The Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm; Quantum simulations; Quantum logic gates and circuits; Universal quantum gates; 58 Quantum Fourier Transform; Phase Estimation; Shor’s algorithm; Grover’s algorithm. Decoherence & Quantum Error Correction: Decoherence; Errors in quantum computation & communication; Quantum error correcting codes; Elementary discussion of entanglement concentration & distillation. Physical Realization of Quantum Computers: Ion trap quantum computers; Solid state implementations (Kane proposal as an example); NMR quantum computer. MOLECULAR PHYSICS Code: PHAS4431 Term: 2 Pre-requisites: Quantum Physics (such as UCL course PHAS2222) Atomic Physics (such as UCL courses PHAS2224 or PHAS3338) Structure: 30 lectures, 3 hours problem classes/discussion The course aims to introduce fourth year students to a detailed discussion of the spectroscopy and electronic states of polyatomic molecules. Topics: Molecular structure: Born-Oppenheimer approximation; Electronic structure ionic and covalent bonding, H2, H2+; Vibrational and rotational structure. Molecular spectra: Microwave, infrared and optical spectra of molecules; Selection rules, Experimental set-ups and examples; Raman spectroscopy. Ortho-para states. Molecular processes: Collisions with electrons and heavy particles; Experimental techniques. PARTICLE PHYSICS Code: PHAS4442 Term: 2 Pre-requisites: Basic Quantum, Atomic and Nuclear Physics Structure: 30 lectures, 3 hours problem classes/discussion The course introduces the basic concepts of particle physics, including the fundamental interactions and particles and the role of symmetries. Emphasis will be placed upon how particle physics is actually carried out and the course will use data from currently running experiments to illustrate the underlying physics involved. Topics: Feynman diagrams as a tool for qualitative description of interactions. Relativistic wave equations. Conserved Current, Propagators and the Invariant Amplitude. Symmetries and conservation laws. Basic principles of calorimeters, drift chambers and silicon vertex detectors. QCD – confinement, asymptotic freedom and Jets. Deep Inelastic scattering, scaling and the quark parton model. Weak Interactions, the W and Z bosons. Quark and lepton doublets and Cabibbo mixing. Parity and C- Parity violation and handedness of neutrinos. Unification of weak and electromagnetic interactions. Neutrino oscillations and some other open questions. SPACE PLASMA & MAGNETOSPHERIC PHYSICS Code: PHAS4465 Term: 2 Pre-requisites: PHAS3201. Also knowledge of vector algebra Structure: 30 lectures, 3 hours problem classes/discussion The course introduces the student to the solar wind and its interaction with various bodies in the solar system, in particular discussing the case of the Earth and the environment in which most spacecraft operate. Topics: 59 Introduction to magnetohydrodynamics, the solar wind, solar wind interaction with unmagnetised bodies, the solar wind interaction with magnetized bodies, various magnetospheric models, magnetic storms and substorms. ORDER AND EXCITATIONS IN CONDENSED MATTER Code: PHAS4472 Term: 2 Pre-requisites: PHAS3225 – Solid State Physics Structure: 30 lectures, 3 hours problem classes/discussion The course aims to provide a unified description of order and excitations in condensed matter with an emphasis on how they may be determined with modern x-ray and neutron techniques. Topics: Atomic Scale Structure of Material , Magnetism: Moments, Environments and Interactions, Order and Magnetic Structure, Scattering Theory, Excitations of Crystalline Materials, Magnetic Excitations, Excitations in ferromagnets and antiferromagnets, Magnons, Sources of X-rays and Neutrons (Full day visit to RAL.), Modern Spectroscopic Techniques, Phase transitions and Critical Phenomena, Local Order in Liquids and Amorphous Solids. OPTICS IN MEDICINE Code: PHAS4886 Term: 1 Pre-requisites: Students normally from the Medical Physics stream. Structure: 30 lectures, 3 hours problem classes/discussion The course provides an introduction to the principles of optics and lasers in medicine, and the interaction of light with biological tissues. It gives a sound basic knowledge and understanding of the principles behind the various uses of light in diagnostic and therapeutic medicine and imparts sufficient knowledge to provide a basis for further courses in more specialised applications, and also forms the core knowledge for career work within these fields. Topics: Interaction of Light with Biological Materials; Sources of Light; Light delivery systems; Optical Sensors; Safety. 60 FOURTH YEAR INTERCOLLEGIATE MSci COURSES. N.B. For full details, content etc., please refer to the MSci Handbook on the Web. http://personal.rhul.ac.uk/UHAP/027/MSci/Files/handbook.pdf This list indicates taught courses of the fourth year of the Intercollegiate MSci degree programmes. Each course has a code number used by the Intercollegiate MSci board, shown at the left hand side. Colleges use local codes for the courses they teach. The number is usually the same as the MSci code, but some are different so beware! Local course codes are shown at the right hand side. All courses are a half course unit (in QMUL language, they are a full course unit). The list shows the course title and the term in which it is taught. Also indicated is the course teacher and the college supplying the course. No. Title Term Lecturer College Code 4211 Statistical Mechanics 2 Prof. B. Cowan RHUL PHAS4211 4226 Advanced Quantum Theory 1 Prof T. Monteiro UCL PHAS4426 4242 Relativistic waves and Quantum 2 Dr. A. Brandhuber QMUL PHY899 Fields 4261 Electromagnetic Theory 2 Dr. W. J. Spence QMUL PHY966 4317 Galaxy and Cluster Dynamics 1 Prof M Cropper UCL PHAS4317 4421 Atom and Photon Physics 1 Prof. W. R. Newell UCL PHAS4421 4427 Quantum Computation and 2 Dr. S. Bose UCL PHAS4427 Communication 4431 Molecular Physics 2 Dr A Bain UCL PHAS4431 4442 Particle Physics 2 Dr. M. Lancaster UCL PHAS4442 4472 Order & Excitations in Condensed 2 Prof. D. McMorrow UCL PHAS4472 Matter 4473 Theory and treatment of Nano- 2 Dr. A. DeVita KCL CP4473 systems 4474 Physics at the Nanoscale 1 Prof. G. Davies & KCL CP4474 Prof. V. Petrashov 4478 Superfluids, Superconductors & 1 Prof. J. Saunders RHUL PH4478 Condensates. 4512 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance 2 Prof. B. Cowan RHUL* PH4512 4515 Computing and statistical data 1 Dr G. Cowan RHUL* PH4515 analysis 4600 Stellar structure and evolution 1$ Prof I. Williams QMUL‡ ASTM109 4601 Advanced Cosmology 1 Dr. J. Lidsey QMUL‡ ASTM108 4603 Astrophysical Fluid Dynamics 2 Dr.S.Vorontsov QMUL‡ ASTM112 4630 Planetary Atmospheres 1 Dr I. Mason UCL PHAS4312 4640 Solar Physics 2 Dr I. Philips & UCL PHAS4314 Dr L. M van Driel- Gesztelyi 4650 Solar System 2$ Dr J. Cho QMUL‡ ASTM001 4660 The Galaxy 2$ Prof C. Murray QMUL‡ ASTM002 4670 Astrophysical Plasmas 1$ Dr D. Burgess QMUL‡ ASTM116 4680 Space Plasma & Magnetospheric 2 Dr A. Coates & UCL PHAS4465 Physics Dr C. Owen 4750 Image Capture & Sensor 2 Dr K. Powell KCL CP4750 Technology 61 4602 Relativity & Gravitation 2 Dr A. Polnarev QMUL‡ MAS412 Students will undertake one or more project-related courses in accordance with practice at their own colleges. ‡ Taught by the Mathematics department of QMUL. $ These QMUL courses are taught in the evenings. * Courses taught at RHUL in Egham, although 4515 may be available over LiveNet at the UCL studio. 62

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