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					UCL DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS
AND ASTRONOMY




        BSc/MSci Programme Structures
        (Full-time Undergraduate Degrees)




         SESSION 2006/2007
Dates of College Terms 2006/2007


The College terms for session 2006/2007 are:

First Term: Monday, 25 September 2006- Friday, 15 December 2006              (12 weeks)
Second Term: Monday, 08 January 2007 – Friday, 23 March 2007                 (11 weeks)
Third Term: Monday, 23 April 2007 - Friday, 08 June 2007                     (7 weeks)




While every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of the information in this document, the
Department cannot accept responsibility for any errors or omissions contained herein.

A copy of this Handbook may be found at the Departmental Web site: www.phys.ucl.ac.uk.




                                               2
FOREWORD

This handbook contains information on all the full-time degree programmes and their constituent
courses, which the Department of Physics and Astronomy plans to offer in Session 2006/2007.
Please note that it cannot be guaranteed that all courses offered will run and that only the most usual
pre-requisites for courses are given.

The handbook is divided into three sections:

SECTION 1 – provides a brief overview on the different degree programmes.

SECTION 2 – provides details of the year-by-year course structure for each degree programme.

SECTION 3 – contains short descriptions of the individual courses.

An extended version of this handbook, which contains, in addition to the above, Aims and
Objectives for each degree programme, is with the Teaching Support Co-ordinator and is posted on
the Departmental Web site: www.phys.ucl.ac.uk.

Detailed syllabuses and course descriptions are given in the Departmental handbooks Course
Descriptions. Information on individual courses may be obtained from the Undergraduate Teaching
Secretary in the Departmental Office, Room E15, Ground Floor, Department of Physics and
Astronomy.

Timetables for all courses can be found on the following noticeboards:

Outside the Tutors’ Offices, Room E4 (Astronomy Programme Tutor) and Room E2 (Physics
Programme Tutor).

Outside the Massey Theatre

If you need guidance on your choice of course(s), please contact either the Astronomy Programme
Tutor, Dr. I. Furniss or the Physics Programme Tutor, Dr I.J. Ford.




                                                  3
                                                                             CONTENTS




DATES OF COLLEGE TERMS 2006/2007 ..................................................................................................... 2
SECTION 1 ............................................................................................................................................. 5
1. FULL-TIME UNDERGRADUATE DEGREE PROGRAMMES ........................................................ 5
   1.1 Overview ........................................................................................................................................ 5
   1.2 Aims and Objectives....................................................................................................................... 5
   1.3 THE CORE FOR PHYSICS-RELATED DEGREES....................................................................... 6
   1.4 THE CORE FOR ASTRONOMY-RELATED DEGREES ............................................................... 7
   1.5 COMBINED STUDIES DEGREES ................................................................................................ 9
   1.6 SKILLS TRAINING ........................................................................................................................ 9
   1.7 DEGREE COURSE-STRUCTURES and OPTIONS .................................................................... 10
SECTION 2 ........................................................................................................................................... 11
PROGRAMME STRUCTURES ............................................................................................................ 11
PHYSICS F300 BSC (3-YEAR)................................................................................................................ 12
PHYSICS F303 MSCI (4-YEAR) .............................................................................................................. 13
THEORETICAL PHYSICS F340 BSC (3-YEAR). .................................................................................. 14
THEORETICAL PHYSICS F345 MSCI (4-YEAR).................................................................................. 15
PHYSICS WITH MEDICAL PHYSICS F351 BSC (3-YEAR). ............................................................... 16
MEDICAL PHYSICS F350 MSCI (4-YEAR). .......................................................................................... 17
PHYSICS WITH SPACE SCIENCE F3FN BSC (3-YEAR). ................................................................... 18
PHYSICS WITH SPACE SCIENCE F3FM MSCI (4-YEAR).................................................................. 19
ASTRONOMY F500 BSC (3-YEAR). ...................................................................................................... 20
ASTRONOMY F502 MSCI (4-YEAR). .................................................................................................... 21
ASTRONOMY AND PHYSICS FF53 BSC (3-YEAR). ........................................................................... 22
ASTRONOMY AND PHYSICS FF3M MSCI (4-YEAR). ........................................................................ 23
ASTROPHYSICS F510 BSC (3-YEAR)................................................................................................... 25
ASTROPHYSICS F511 MSCI (4-YEAR). ................................................................................................ 26
MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS GF13 BSC (3-YEAR). ...................................................................... 28
MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS GF1H MSCI (4-YEAR). .................................................................... 29
MATHS AND ASTRONOMY GF15 BSC (3-YEAR). ............................................................................. 30
MATHS AND ASTRONOMY GF1M MSCI (4-YEAR)........................................................................... 31

Course Options for 4th Year MSci (All degrees) ............................................................... 32
SECTION 3 ........................................................................................................................................... 34
BRIEF UCL COURSE DESCRIPTIONS ............................................................................................... 34
  1st Year Courses ................................................................................................................................ 35
  2nd Year Courses ............................................................................................................................... 40
  3rd Year Courses ............................................................................................................................... 46
  4th Year Courses ................................................................................................................................ 56
  Fourth year Intercollegiate MSci courses table.                                                                                                 60




                                                                                       4
SECTION 1


1. FULL-TIME UNDERGRADUATE DEGREE PROGRAMMES


1.1 Overview

The Department offers a wide range of full-time undergraduate programmes for both the three-year
BSc and four-year MSci honours degrees. These are listed in Table 1, along with the UCAS codes.

The present BSc and MSci degree structure was introduced in the 1993/94 session, following
recommendations produced in 1990 by an Institute of Physics (IoP) report, "The Future Pattern of
Higher Education in Physics".

The four-year MSci degree provides a longer educational experience and more specialist training for
students who intend to proceed directly to academic or industrial research in the relevant field. It is
the policy in this Department, and in most other major physics and astronomy departments in the
UK, that the MSci route is recommended for direct transfer to a PhD programme. The three-year
BSc programmes are designed for students who have a high interest in the relevant field, but do not
necessarily wish to pursue it beyond a first degree. For others further study may involve a
subsequent, one-year, taught MSc postgraduate programme. Both types of undergraduate degree
provide substantial training in transferable skills to facilitate progression to a wide range of careers,
both within and outside the physics and astronomy professions.

TABLE 1: Full-Time Undergraduate Degree programmes


Title of Programme                                     BSc                    MSci
                                                       UCAS Code              UCAS Code

Single Honours
Physics (p)                                            F300                   F303
Theoretical Physics (p)                                F340                   F345
Physics with Space Science (p)                         F3FN                   F3FM
Physics with Medical Physics (p)                       F351
Medical Physics (p)                                                           F350
Astronomy (a)                                          F500                   F502
Astrophysics (a)                                       F510                   F511

Combined Honours
Astronomy and Physics                                  FF53                   FFM3
Mathematics and Astronomy                              GF15                   GF1M
Mathematics and Physics                                GF13                   GF1H

Note: (p) = ‘physics-related’; (a) = ‘astronomy-related’




1.2 Aims and Objectives



                                                   5
The general teaching aim of the Department is to deliver a wide range of degree programmes,
designed to develop a student's full potential, using the research strengths and experience of staff in
a challenging, but friendly and supportive, environment. More specifically, our undergraduate
programmes aim to:

•   attract and recruit high quality applicants, whatever their background;
•   encourage students to develop critical modes of thought and study, and an in-depth
    understanding of their chosen field of study;
•   provide a sufficiently broad education, in specialist and transferable skills to facilitate
    progression to a wide variety of careers, both within and outside the physics and astronomy
    professions;
•   equip students with knowledge and skills to progress to postgraduate study;

Associated with these aims are the objectives that a student should have achieved having
successfully completed a given programme. Graduates for our full-time undergraduate programmes
should have:

•   followed a programme which is academically coherent, encompassing both depth and breadth;
•   acquired a thorough knowledge and understanding of the scientific basis of their chosen field;
•   gained practical and analytical skills through laboratory experiments and the ability to carry out
    accurate and informed analysis and interpretation of data;
•   developed investigative skills (experimental and/or theoretical) through individual and/or team
    project work;
•   learned how to communicate effectively, in speech and in writing, through the production of
    written essays, reports and oral presentations;
•   developed basic skills in computer programming and information technology;
•   in the case of MSci students, gained sufficient specialist knowledge in their 4th-year courses and
    research projects to allow a seamless progression to postgraduate study, including PhD
    programmes.

Detailed aims and objectives for each BSc and MSci degree, listed in Table 1, have been formulated
and are reproduced in the Web version of this document (www.phys.ucl.ac.uk).

The detailed, year-by-year, course structures for each of the programmes listed in Table 1 are given
in Section 2. Programmes are based on the University of London course-unit system. Most courses
are of half-unit value and students normally take courses totaling four units per year. Following
UCL guidelines, a half-unit course expects a total student commitment of 100-150 hours, including
lectures, practicals, homeworks, private study and revision.

1.3 THE CORE FOR PHYSICS-RELATED DEGREES

Each of the physics-related degrees is built on a common core of half-unit courses, over the first
three years of both the BSc and MSci programmes. The first two years of each BSc/MSci
programme are generally taught in common and provide a transition from school and a firm
foundation for future years. The core courses for the physics-related degrees are based on topics
recommended by the IoP. These courses are indicated for each year in Table 2. Each module is
identified by a four digit code (and prefixed by the Departmental code PHAS). These codes were
new for 2005-6. The courses provide in the first year the firm foundation of subject strands in
quantum-based phenomena and condensed matter, underpinned by mathematics 1245, 1246 and
classical mechanics 1247, and a practical skills course 1240 which includes a substantial element of
computer-based and IT skills training. These strands are developed in the second year through core
courses in quantum physics 2222 and its application to atoms and molecules 2224, in condensed
matter 2228 and in electromagnetic theory 2201, with the necessary mathematics further developed
                                                  6
2246. The quantum and condensed matter elements of the core are completed in the third year
courses 3201, 3224, 3225, 3226. The framework prepares students for the 2nd and 3rd year course
variations and options that differentiate the different degree programmes, and for the 4th year
specialist courses.

TABLE 2: CORE COURSES FOR PHYSICS-RELATED DEGREES


          YEAR 1                         YEAR 2                             YEAR 3
 1102 Physics of the           2246 Mathematical Methods III       3224 Nuclear and
 Universe                                                          Particle Physics
 1224 Waves, Optics and        2222 Quantum Physics                3225 Solid State Physics
 Acoustics
 1228 Thermal Physics          2224 Atomic & Molecular             3226 Quantum Physics
                               Physics
 1240 Practical Skills 1C      2228 Statistical                    3201 Electromagnetic
 (Core Physics)                Thermodynamics                      theory
 1245 Mathematical             2201 Electricity and Magnetism
 Methods I
 1246 Mathematical
 Methods II
 1247 Classical Mechanics




All physics-related students except Theoretical Physicists do two half-unit first year practical skills
courses 1240, 1241, which include computing and IT skills elements. For most degrees this is
followed by compulsory second and third year practical laboratory and project courses. Students
reading for the Theoretical Physics degrees take 1449, Practical Mathematics, in year one and
replace second and third year experimental work with theory courses. The second and third years of
the BSc and MSci degrees provide for optional courses to develop further and enhance knowledge
of a range of physics topics.

Students taking the BSc/MSci programmes involving Medical Physics, in addition to the physics
core, take one half-unit Medical Physics course in the first year, two in the second year, two in year
3 and a further 3 in year 4 if on the MSci. Students taking the BSc/MSci programmes in Physics
with Space Science do one compulsory space science course in each of the first three years.

The fourth year of the MSci degrees comprises a compulsory research project, and a further five
half-unit courses, generally chosen from subjects in the relevant degree specialty. The range of
courses available is very wide, and includes some courses taught by staff in physics departments
from other London Colleges. To qualify for a given degree name, it is expected that the majority of
fourth year courses (including the project) will be from those designated against the relevant degree
area. The Physics and Astronomy Programme Tutors will monitor and approve the coherence of the
set of choices selected by each student.


1.4 THE CORE FOR ASTRONOMY-RELATED DEGREES



                                                  7
Each of the Astronomy-related degrees is built on a common core of half-unit courses over the first
three years of both BSc and MSci programmes, supplemented by degree-variation half-units and
options. The core courses are listed is Table 3, and comprise: (i) those underpinning first and second
year mathematics 1245, 1246 and 2246 (ii) classical and quantum physics elements in the first year
1224, 1247 and second year 2222, 2228, 2201, and (iii) courses which build up an increasing
exposure to topics in astronomy and astrophysics. This starts in the first year with core courses in
Physics of the Universe 1102, and Practical Astronomy 1130. These are followed in the second year
by Astrophysical Processes: Nebulae to Stars 2112, Practical Astrophysics 2130, leading into core
third year courses in Stellar Astrophysics 3134, Extragalactic Astronomy and Cosmology 3136,
Astronomical Spectroscopy 3338. (The last course is not core for the joint Astronomy Physics
degree.)

TABLE 3: CORE COURSES FOR ASTRONOMY-RELATED DEGREES


         YEAR 1                        YEAR 2                         YEAR 3
 1102 Physics of the           2112 Astrophysical           3134 The Physics and
 Universe.                     Processes: Nebulae to        Evolution of Stars
                               Stars
 1228 Thermal Physics          2228 Statistical             3136 Cosmology and
                               Thermodynamics               Extragalactic Astronomy
 1224 Waves, Optics and        2117 Physics of the Solar    3338 Astronomical
 Acoustics                     System                       Spectroscopy
 1130 Practical Skills 1A      2246 Mathematical
 (Astronomy)                   Methods III
 1240 Practical Skills 1C      2222 Quantum Physics
 (Core Physics)
 1245 Mathematical             2201 Electricity and
 Methods I                     Magnetism
 1246 Mathematical             2130 Practical
 Methods II                    Astrophysics 2A
 1247 Classical Mechanics


Variations in compulsory courses and option courses distinguish the different degrees. These build
on and supplement the Astronomy core programme, providing an exposure to a wide range of topics
in classical and modern astronomy and astrophysics.

All astronomy-related students do the half-unit first year practical skills course 1240, which includes
a computing and IT skills element. For most degrees this is followed by compulsory second and
third year practical astronomy/astrophysics and project courses. The second and third years of the
BSc and MSci degrees provide for optional courses to further enhance and enrich students’
knowledge of astronomy and astrophysics topics.

The fourth year of the MSci degrees comprises a compulsory research project in
astronomy/astrophysics, and a further five half-unit courses, generally chosen from subjects in the
relevant degree speciality. A wide range of courses is available, including some taught by staff from
other London Colleges.




                                                  8
1.5 COMBINED STUDIES DEGREES

Students taking the Astronomy and Physics combined degree follow a programme of core courses
drawn from a blend of the physics-related and astronomy-related cores. In addition to the courses
listed in Table 3, 2224 is taken in the second year, while in the third year 3338 is replaced by 3224
and 3226. Normally over the three-year and four-year degrees students study about half of their
courses in physics and half in astronomy. As they progress, students can place increasing emphasis
on either physics-related or astronomy-related options, depending on their interest and aptitude,
especially with regard to practical and project work.

The combined studies degrees in Mathematics & Physics and Mathematics & Astronomy are taught
jointly with the Mathematics Department. Students take about half of their courses in each
department: in the earlier years of the degrees the courses are governed by the later requirements of
each subject. Thus, in the first year Maths/Astronomy and Maths/Physics students take 1102
(Physics of the Universe) and 1228 (Thermal Physics) in the first term and 1224 (Waves, Optics and
Acoustics) and 1247 (Classical Mechanics) in the second term: with two mathematics half-units in
each term.

1.6 SKILLS TRAINING

1.6.1 Practical Skills and Projects

Practical skills teaching is structured to build up competence and a range of experience such that, on
graduation, students are capable of independent work in a variety of situations. Most degree
programmes include compulsory practical courses which total two to three units for years 1 to 3. For
physics-related degrees these form experimental laboratory courses in the Teaching Laboratories in
the Department, whilst for the astronomy-related degrees Practical Astronomy classes are held in
the first and third years at the University of London Observatory at Mill Hill (used exclusively by
UCL students).

Most students in the third year do a course(s) in experimental work (in physics or astronomy) and a
Group Project, which introduces students to the concept and challenges of teamwork within a
scientific environment. All MSci students in their fourth year undertake a major research project,
which draws upon the wide-ranging research activities in the Department. Students proceeding to
the BSc rather than the MSci undertake a full-unit project in their third year.




1.6.2 Computing and Information Technology

All students in their first year take a basic Practical Skills course 1240 which includes training in
Windows-based computer skills (Excel, Visual Basic etc.). These are complemented in later years
through the introduction of packages for the solution of scientific problems (e.g. Mathematica) and
a high-level computer language option.



1.6.3 Communication Skills

An integral part of your degree training is to learn how to get your message across, be it to other
scientists or not non-specialists, using a range of written and oral media. To this end, two ‘Effective
Communication” modules are followed by all students pursuing degrees in Physics and Astronomy,
                                                  9
one in each of years 1 (1901) and 2 (2901). Writing skills are developed progressively, building up
from short written pieces on scientific topics for both specialist and non-specialist audiences, to
longer written reports. Oral presentations start with short talks in first year tutorial groups, and
towards the end of the first and second years build up to more formal presentations to larger
audiences. As part of these exercises, you will gain increasing abilities in using appropriate
software, including that needed to construct and maintain your own personal web page. The skills
you build in these modules will be increasingly employed in other courses, and will be particularly
useful in the third year Group Project and final year dissertations and presentations.

The marks gained in these modules contribute to your assessment for honours in the third year, at a
level equivalent to a half course unit.

Each laboratory/observatory practical course also includes a significant element of communications
skills development, through the production of formal reports on experiments and projects.

1.7 DEGREE COURSE-STRUCTURES and OPTIONS

Details of each of the year-by-year course structures for the different BSc and MSci degrees are
given in the following section. In addition to the relevant core and compulsory courses, students
from year 2 onwards can exercise an increasingly flexible range of option courses (typically one in
year 2, (depending on the degree), two in year 3, and five in year 4).

The option courses listed in the following degree descriptions are those most commonly chosen. In
addition, and at the discretion of the Physics or Astronomy Programme Tutor, students can exercise
a limited choice of courses from other Departments, most frequently the Departments of Science
and Technology Studies, Mathematics, or Computer Science.




                                                10
      SECTION 2




PROGRAMME STRUCTURES




          11
PHYSICS F300 BSc (3-year)

Programme Structure


            YEAR 1                          YEAR 2                           YEAR 3
 1102 Physics of the Universe      2246 Mathematical Methods        3224 Nuclear and Particle
                                   III                              Physics

 1224 Waves, Optics and            2222 Quantum Physics             3225 Solid State Physics
 Acoustics
 1228 Thermal Physics              2224 Atomic & Molecular          3226 Quantum Mechanics
                                   Physics
 1240 Practical Skills 1C          2228 Statistical                 3400 Physics Project   (1
 (Core Physics)                    Thermodynamics                   OR                     unit)
                                                                    3440 plus 1 option
 1241 Practical Skills 1P          2201 Electricity and
 (Experimental Physics)            Magnetism
 1245 Mathematical Methods I       2440 Practical Physics 2A        3201 Electromagnetic theory

 1246 Mathematical Methods II      2441 Practical Physics 2B        3441 Group Project

 1247 Classical Mechanics                      Option                            Option

 1901 Developing Effective             2901 Developing Effective
 Communications 1*                     Communications 2*
All courses are half units, unless otherwise stated.
*Compulsory modules (weighted into final assessment for honours). Refer to 1.6.3

                                Courses available for option selection

                                  YEAR 2                        YEAR 3
                       MATH6202 Mathematics for         3423 Methods of
                       Physics and Astronomy            Mathematical Physics
                       2427 Environmental Physics       3443 Lasers and Modern
                                                        Optics
                                                        3446 Materials Science

                                                        3459 Scientific Computing
                                                        using Object Oriented
                                                        Languages
                                                        3661 Physics of the Earth




                                               12
PHYSICS F303 MSci (4-year)

Programme Structure


         YEAR 1                    YEAR 2                    YEAR 3                  YEAR 4
 1102 Physics of the         2246 Mathematical        3224 Nuclear and             4201 Project
 Universe                    Methods III              Particle Physics              (1.5 unit)
 1224 Waves, Optics and      2222 Quantum Physics     3225 Solid State
 Acoustics                                            Physics
 1228 Thermal Physics        2224 Atomic &            3226 Quantum
                             Molecular Physics        Mechanics
 1240 Practical Skills 1C    2228 Statistical         3440 Experimental              Option
 (Core Physics)              Thermodynamics           Physics
 1241 Practical Skills 1P    2201 Electricity and     3441 Physics Group             Option
 (Experimental Physics)      Magnetism                Project
 1245 Mathematical           2440 Practical Physics   3201 Electromagnetic           Option
 Methods I                   2A                       theory
 1246 Mathematical           2441 Practical Physics            Option                Option
 Methods II                  2B
 1247 Classical                      Option                    Option                Option
 Mechanics
 1901 Developing             2901 Developing
 Effective                   Effective
 Communications 1*           Communications 2*

All courses are half units, unless otherwise stated.
*Compulsory modules (weighted into final assessment for Honours). Refer to 1.6.3


                            Courses available for option selection

                       YEAR 2                 YEAR 3                    YEAR 4
                 MATH6202               3423 Methods of                   See
                 Mathematics for        Mathematical Physics            separate
                 Physics and
                 Astronomy
                 2427 Environmental     3443 Lasers and                 table of
                 Physics                Modern Optics
                                        3446 Materials Science          options

                                        3459 Scientific              for year 4
                                        Computing using                 Page 32
                                        Object Oriented
                                        Languages
                                        3661 Physics of the
                                        Earth




                                                13
THEORETICAL PHYSICS F340 BSc (3-year).


Programme Structure


           YEAR 1                           YEAR 2                       YEAR 3
 1102 Physics of the Universe     2246 Mathematical Methods III 3224 Nuclear and
                                                                Particle Physics
 1224 Waves, Optics and           2222 Quantum Physics          3225 Solid State Physics
 Acoustics
 1228 Thermal Physics             2224 Atomic & Molecular         3226 Quantum
                                  Physics                         Mechanics
 1240 Practical Skills 1C (Core   2228 Statistical                3441 Group Project
 Physics)                         Thermodynamics
 1449 Practical Mathematics 1     2201 Electricity and            3201 Electromagnetic
                                  Magnetism                       Theory

 1245 Mathematical Methods I      2443 Practical Mathematics II            Option

 1246 Mathematical Methods II     MATH6202 Mathematics for                 Option
                                  Physics and Astronomy
 1247 Classical Mechanics         MATH2301 Fluid Mechanics                 Option

 1901 Developing Effective        2901 Developing Effective
 Communications 1*                Communications 2*

All courses are half units, unless otherwise stated.
*Compulsory modules (weighted into final assessment of honours). Refer 1.6.3.

                      Courses available for option selection


                 YEAR 3
                 3423 Methods of Mathematical Physics
                 3443 Lasers and Modern Optics
                 MATH2201 Algebra 3: Further Linear Algebra
                 MATH3305 Mathematics for General Relativity
                 MATH3306 Cosmology
                 3400 Project (1 unit)

                 MATH3303 Gas Dynamics

                 3459 Scientific Computing using Object Oriented Languages




                                               14
THEORETICAL PHYSICS F345 MSci (4-year).

Programme Structure


         YEAR 1                    YEAR 2                     YEAR 3                YEAR 4
 1102 Physics of the         2246 Mathematical        3224 Nuclear and            4201 Project
 Universe                    Methods III              Particle Physics             (1.5 unit)
 1224 Waves, Optics and      2222 Quantum Physics     3225 Solid State
 Acoustics                                            Physics
 1228 Thermal Physics        2224 Atomic &            3226 Quantum
                             Molecular Physics        Mechanics
 1240 Practical Skills 1C    2228 Statistical         3441 Physics Group              Option
 (Core Physics)              Thermodynamics           Project
 1449 Practical              2201 Electricity and     3201 Electromagnetic            Option
 Mathematics 1               Magnetism                Theory
 1245 Mathematical           2443 Practical                    Option                 Option
 Methods I                   Mathematics II
 1246 Mathematical           MATH6202                         Option                  Option
 Methods II                  Mathematics for
                             Physics and Astronomy
 1247 Classical              MATH2301 Fluid                   Option                  Option
 Mechanics                   Mechanics
 1901 Developing             2901 Developing
 Effective                   Effective
 Communications 1*           Communications 2*

All courses are half units, unless otherwise stated.
*Compulsory modules (weighted into final assessment of honours). Refer 1.6.3.


                            Courses available for option selection


                            YEAR 3                                     YEAR 4
        3423 Methods of Mathematical Physics                  See separate table of
                                                              options
        3443 Lasers and Modern Optics                         for Year 4.
                                                              Page 32
        MATH2201 Algebra 3: Further Linear Algebra            plus options from
                                                              Mathematics
        MATH3305 Mathematics for General Relativity           Department
        MATH3306 Cosmology
        MATH3303 Gas Dynamics

        3459 Scientific Computing using Object Oriented
        Languages


                                               15
PHYSICS WITH MEDICAL PHYSICS F351 BSc (3-year).

Programme Structure


           YEAR 1                           YEAR 2                       YEAR 3
 1224 Waves, Optics and           2246 Mathematical Methods III 3224 Nuclear and Particle
 Acoustics                                                      Physics **
 1228 Thermal Physics             2222 Quantum Physics          3225 Solid State Physics **

 1240 Practical Skills 1C (Core   2224 Atomic & Molecular         3226 Quantum Mechanics
 Physics)                         Physics                         **
 1102 Physics of the Universe     2228 Statistical                3400 Project (1 unit)
                                  Thermodynamics
 1245 Mathematical Methods I      2201 Electricity and
                                  Magnetism
 1246 Mathematical Methods II     2440 Practical Physics 2A       3201 Electromagnetic
                                                                  theory **
 1247 Classical Mechanics       2881 Introduction to Medical        Medical Physics Option
                                Radiation Physics
 1882 Essential Medical Physics PHOL1003 Mammalian                   Medical Physics Option
                                Physiology
 1901 Developing Effective      2901 Developing Effective
 Communications 1*              Communications 2*

All courses are half units, unless otherwise stated.
*Compulsory modules (weighted into final assessment of honours). Refer 1.6.3.
**One of these Year 3 courses may be replaced by a Medical Physics option.

                            Courses available for option selection

                                            YEAR 3
                                  3890 Medical Imaging with
                                  Ionising Radiation
                                  3891 Medical Imaging with
                                  Non-Ionising Radiation
                                  3892 Treatment with
                                  Ionising Radiation
                                  COMP3053 Medical
                                  Scientific Computing
                                  ELEC3012 Physiological
                                  Monitoring
                                  4886 Optics in Medicine
                                  ELEC3009 Medical
                                  Electronics



                                               16
MEDICAL PHYSICS F350 MSci (4-year).

Programme Structure


         YEAR 1                   YEAR 2                     YEAR 3                  YEAR 4
 1224 Waves, Optics and      2246 Mathematical        3224 Nuclear and             4201 Project
 Acoustics                   Methods III              Particle Physics **           (1.5 unit)
                                                                                    (Medical
                                                                                     Physics)

 1228 Thermal Physics        2222 Quantum             3225 Solid State
                             Physics                  Physics **
 1240 Practical Skills 1C    2224 Atomic &            3226 Quantum
 (Core Physics)              Molecular Physics        Mechanics **
 1102 Physics of the         2228 Statistical         3440 Experimental       Medical Physics
 Universe                    Thermodynamics           Physics (some              Option
                                                      Medical Physics)
 1245 Mathematical           2201 Electricity and     3441 Physics Group      Medical Physics
 Methods I                   Magnetism                Project                    Option
 1246 Mathematical           2440 Practical Physics   3201 Electromagnetic    Medical Physics
 Methods II                  2A                       Theory **                  Option
 1247 Classical              2881 Introduction to        Medical Physics       Non-Medical
 Mechanics                   Medical Radiation                Option          Physics Option
                             Physics
 1882 Essential Medical      PHOL1003                    Medical Physics        Non-Medical
 Physics                     Mammalian                      Option             Physics Option
                             Physiology
 1901 Developing             2901 Developing
 Effective                   Effective
 Communications 1*           Communications 2*

All courses are half units, unless otherwise stated.
*Compulsory modules (weighted into final assessment of honours). Refer 1.6.3.
**One of these Year 3 courses may be replaced by a Medical Physics option.

                            Courses available for option selection

                       YEAR 3                                           YEAR 4
      COMP3053 Medical Scientific Computing                  See separate table of options
      3890 Medical Imaging with Ionising Radiation           for Year 4, page 32

      3891 Medical Imaging with Non-Ionising Radiation
      3892 Treatment with Ionising Radiation
      ELEC3012 Physiological Monitoring

      4886 Optics in Medicine

      ELEC3009 Medical Electronics


                                                 17
PHYSICS WITH SPACE SCIENCE F3FN BSc (3-year).

Programme Structure


           YEAR 1                            YEAR 2                       YEAR 3
 1224 Waves, Optics and            1102 Physics of the Universe  3224 Nuclear and Particle
 Acoustics                                                       Physics
 1228 Thermal Physics              2246 Mathematical Methods III 3225 Solid State Physics

 1240 Practical Skills 1C (Core    2222 Quantum Physics              3226 Quantum Mechanics
 Physics)
 1241 Practical Skills 1P          2224 Atomic & Molecular           3400 Project    (1 unit)
 (Experimental Physics)            Physics
 1245 Mathematical Methods I       2228 Statistical
                                   Thermodynamics
 1246 Mathematical Methods II      2201 Electricity and              3664 Space Systems
                                   Magnetism                         Technology
 1247 Classical Mechanics          2442 Practical Physics 2C         3201 Electromagnetic
                                   (Space Science)                   Theory
 1664 Space Exploration            2665 Space Science,                         Option
                                   Instrumentation and
                                   Techniques
 1901 Developing Effective         2901 Developing Effective
 Communications 1*                 Communications 2*

All courses are half units, unless otherwise stated.
*Compulsory modules (weighted into final assessment of honours). Refer 1.6.3.


                                  Courses available for option selection



                                                   YEAR 3
                                         3459 Scientific Computing
                                         using Object Oriented
                                         Languages
                                         3661 Physics of the Earth
                                         2112 Astrophysical
                                         Processes: Nebulae to Stars
                                         2117 Physics of the Solar
                                         System




                                                18
PHYSICS WITH SPACE SCIENCE F3FM MSci (4-year).

Programme Structure


  YEAR 1                       YEAR 2                YEAR 3                   YEAR 4
  1224 Waves, Optics and       1102 Physics of the   3224 Nuclear and         4201 Project
  Acoustics                    Universe              Particle Physics         (1.5 unit)
  1228 Thermal Physics         2246 Mathematical     3225 Solid State
                               Methods III           Physics
  1240 Practical Skills 1C     2222 Quantum          3226 Quantum
  (Core Physics)               Physics               Mechanics
  1241 Practical Skills 1P     2224 Atomic and       3440 Experimental             Option
  (Experimental Physics)       Molecular Physics     Physics
  1245 Mathematical            2228 Statistical      3441 Physics Group            Option
  Methods I                    Thermodynamics        Project
  1246 Mathematical            2201                  3664 Space Systems            Option
  Methods II                   Electromagnetic       Technology
                               Theory
  1247 Classical               2442 Practical        3201 Electromagnetic          Option
  Mechanics                    Physics 2C (Space     theory
                               Science)
  1664 Space Exploration       2665 Space                    Option                Option
                               Instrumentation and
                               Techniques
  1901 Developing              2901 Developing
  Effective                    Effective
  Communications 1*            Communications 2*

All courses are half units, unless otherwise stated.
*Compulsory modules (weighted into final assessment of honours). Refer to 1.6.3.

                             Courses available for option selection



                             YEAR 3                        YEAR 4
                             3459 Scientific Computing     See separate table of
                             using Object Oriented         options for Year 4,
                             Languages                     Page 32.
                             3661 Physics of the Earth
                             2112 Astrophysical
                             Processes: Nebulae to Stars
                             2117 Physics of the Solar
                             System




                                                19
ASTRONOMY F500 BSc (3-year).

Programme Structure


       YEAR 1                           YEAR 2                            YEAR 3
1228 Thermal Physics          2112 Astrophysical             3134 The Physics and Evolution of
                              Processes: Nebulae to Stars    Stars
1102 Physics of the           2228 Statistical               3136 Cosmology and Extragalactic
Universe                      Thermodynamics                 Astronomy
1224 Waves, Optics and        2117 Physics of the Solar      3301 Techniques and Optics in
Acoustics                     System                         Astronomy
1130 Practical Skills 1A      2246 Mathematical Methods      3338 Astronomical Spectroscopy
(Astronomy)                   III
1240 Practical Skills 1C      2222 Quantum Physics           3330 Practical Astronomy 1 -
(Core Physics)                                               Techniques

1245 Mathematical             2201 Electricity and           3331 Practical Astronomy 2 -
Methods I                     Magnetism                      Applications OR 3332 Practical
                                                             Astronomy 3 - Field Trip
1246 Mathematical             2130 Practical Astrophysics                    Option
Methods II                    2A
1247 Classical                           Option                             Option
Mechanics
1901 Developing               2901 Developing Effective
Effective                     Communications 2*
Communications 1*

All courses are half units, unless otherwise stated
*Compulsory modules (weighted into final assessment of honours). Refer to 1.6.3.


                           Courses available for option selection

                     YEAR 2                                   YEAR 3
          2427 Environmental Physics            3423 Methods of Mathematical Physics
          MATH6202 Mathematics for              3224 Nuclear and Particle Physics
          Physics & Astronomy
                                                3226 Quantum Mechanics
                                                3459 Scientific Computing using Object
                                                Oriented Languages
                                                3661 Physics of the Earth
                                                3333 Interstellar Physics
                                                GEOL3027 Astrobiology
                                                3201 Electromagnetic Theory




                                                     20
ASTRONOMY F502 MSci (4-year).

Programme Structure


        YEAR 1                        YEAR 2                      YEAR 3                 YEAR 4
 1228 Thermal Physics         2112 Astrophysical          3134 The Physics and             4101
                              Processes: Nebulae to       Evolution of Stars            Astronomy
                              Stars                                                       Project
 1102 Physics of the          2228 Statistical            3136 Cosmology and             (1.5 unit)
 Universe                     Thermodynamics              Extragalactic Astronomy

 1224 Waves, Optics and       2117 Physics of the Solar   3301 Techniques and
 Acoustics                    System                      Optics in Astronomy
 1130 Practical Skills 1A     2246 Mathematical           3338 Astronomical               Option
 (Astronomy)                  Methods III                 Spectroscopy
 1240 Practical Skills 1C     2222 Quantum Physics        3330 Practical Astronomy        Option
 (Core Physics)                                           1 - Techniques
 1245 Mathematical            2201 Electricity and        3331 Practical Astronomy        Option
 Methods I                    Magnetism                   2 - Applications OR
                                                          3332 Practical Astronomy
                                                          3 - Field Trip
 1246 Mathematical            2130 Practical                         Option               Option
 Methods II                   Astrophysics 2A
 1247 Classical                       Option                         Option               Option
 Mechanics
 1901 Developing              2901 Developing
 Effective                    Effective
 Communications 1*            Communications 2*

All courses are half units, unless otherwise stated.
*Compusory modules (weighted into final assessment of honours). Refer to 1.6.3.

                            Courses available for option selection

                YEAR 2                               YEAR 3                         YEAR 4
       2427 Environmental Physics      3423 Methods of Mathematical Physics           See
       MATH6202 Mathematics            3224 Nuclear and Particle Physics            Option
       for Physics & Astronomy                                                       table
                                       3226 Quantum Mechanics
                                       3459 Scientific Computing using           For year 4,
                                       Object Oriented Languages
                                       3661 Physics of the Earth                    Page 32.
                                       3333 Interstellar Physics
                                       GEOL3027 Astrobiology
                                       3201 Electromagnetic Theory



                                                 21
ASTRONOMY AND PHYSICS FF53 BSc (3-year).

Programme Structure


          YEAR 1                           YEAR 2                           YEAR 3
1228 Thermal Physics             2112 Astrophysical             3224 Nuclear and Particle Physics
                                 Processes: Nebulae to Stars
1102 Physics of the Universe     2228 Statistical               3226 Quantum Mechanics
                                 Thermodynamics
1224 Waves, Optics and           2117 Physics of the Solar      3134 The Physics and Evolution of
Acoustics                        System                         Stars
1130            1241 Practical   2246 Mathematical Methods      3136 Cosmology and Extragalactic
Practical       Skills 1P        III                            Astronomy
Skills 1A       (Experi-mental
(Astronomy) Physics)
OR
1240 Practical Skills 1C         2222 Quantum Physics           3330 Practical Astronomy
                                                                1 - Techniques
1245 Mathematical Methods I      2224 Atomic and Molecular      3331 Practical Astronomy 2 -
                                 Physics                        Applications OR 3332 Practical
                                                                Astronomy 3 - Field Trip OR
                                                                3441 Physics Group Project
1246 Mathematical Methods II     2201 Electricity and                         Option
                                 Magnetism
1247 Classical Mechanics         2130 Practical Astrophysics                  Option
                                 2A
1901 Developing Effective        2901 Developing Effective
Communications 1*                Communications 2*
All courses are half units, unless otherwise stated.
*Compulsory modules (weighted into final assessment of honours). Refer 1.6.3.

                       Courses available for option selection


                                             YEAR 3
               3225 Solid State Physics
               3333 Interstellar Physics
               3338 Astronomical Spectroscopy
               3459 Scientific Computing using Object Oriented Languages
               3661 Physics of the Earth
               3301 Techniques and Optics in Modern Astronomy
               GEOL3027 Astrobiology
               3201 Electromagnetic Theory




                                               22
     ASTRONOMY AND PHYSICS FF3M MSci (4-year).


     Programme Structure


         YEAR 1                        YEAR 2                       YEAR 3                     YEAR 4
1228 Thermal Physics          2112 Astrophysical            3224 Nuclear and Particle     4101 Astronomy
                              Processes: Nebulae to Stars   Physics                       Project (1.5units)
1102 Physics of the Universe 2228 Statistical               3226 Quantum Mechanics
                              Thermodynamics
1224 Waves, Optics and        2117 Physics of the Solar     3134 The Physics and
Acoustics                     System                        Evolution of Stars
1130           1241 Skills 1P 2246 Mathematical             3136 Cosmology and                    Option
Practical      (Experimental Methods III                    Extragalactic Astronomy
Skills 1A      Physics)
(Astronomy
) OR
1240 Practical Skills 1C      2222 Quantum Physics          3330            3440                  Option
(Core Physics)                                              Practical       Experimen-
                                                            Astronomy 1 tal Physics
                                                            Techniques
                                                            OR
1245 Mathematical Methods      2224 Atomic and              3331             3441                 Option
I                              Molecular Physics            Practical       Physics
                                                            Astronomy 2 Group
                                                            Applications Project
                                                            OR
                                                            3332 (3C32)
                                                            Practical
                                                            Astronomy 3
                                                            - Field Trip
1246 Mathematical Methods      2201 Electricity and                     Option                    Option
II                             Magnetism
1247 Classical Mechanics       2130 Practical                         Option                      Option
                               Astrophysics 2A
1901 Developing Effective      2901 Developing Effective
Communications 1*              Communications 2*

     All courses are half units, unless otherwise stated.
     *Compulsory modules (weighted into final assessment of honours). Refer 1.6.3.

                                         Courses available for option selection

                      YEAR 3 (continued on next page)                             YEAR 4
         3225 Solid State Physics
         3333 Interstellar Physics                                       See Separate table
         3338 Astronomical Spectroscopy                                  of options for year 4,

                                                    23
3459 Scientific Computing using Object Oriented Languages   Page 32.
3661 Physics of the Earth
C3301 Techniques and Optics in Modern Astronomy
GEOL3027 Astrobiology
3201 Electromagnetic Theory




                                          24
ASTROPHYSICS F510 BSc (3-year).

Programme Structure


         YEAR 1                         YEAR 2                          YEAR 3
 1228 Thermal Physics            2222 Quantum Physics      3338 Astronomical Spectroscopy

 1102 Physics of the       2112 Astrophysical              3134 The Physics and Evolution of
 Universe                  Processes: Nebulae to           Stars
                           Stars
 1224 Waves, Optics and    2228 Statistical                3136 Cosmology and Extragalactic
 Acoustics                 Thermodynamics                  Astronomy
 1130 Practical Skills 1A  2117 Physics of the Solar       3333 Interstellar Physics
 (Astronomy)               System
 1240 Practical Skills 1C  2246 Mathematical               3330 Practical Astronomy 1 -
 (Core Physics)            Methods III                     Techniques
 1245 Mathematical Methods 2201 Electricity and            3331 Practical Astronomy 2 -
 I                         Magnetism                       Applications OR
                                                           3332 Practical Astronomy 3 - Field Trip
                                                           OR
                                                           3441 Physics Group Project
 1246 Mathematical Methods 2130 Practical                                  Option
 II                              Astrophysics 2A
 1247 Classical Mechanics        MATH6202                                 Option
                                 Mathematics for Physics
                                 & Astronomy
 1901 Developing Effective       2901 Developing
 Communications 1*               Effective
                                 Communications 2*
All courses are half units, unless otherwise stated.
*Compulsory modules (weighted into final assessment of honours). Refer 1.6.3.

                                  Courses available for option selection

                                                  YEAR 3
                       3423 Methods of Mathematical Physics
                       3226 Quantum Mechanics
                       3301 Techniques and Optics in Modern Astronomy
                       3459 Scientific Computing using Object Oriented Languages
                       3661 Physics of the Earth
                       GEOL3027 Astrobiology
                       3224 Nuclear and Particle Physics
                       3201 Electromagnetic Theory




                                                   25
ASTROPHYSICS F511 MSci (4-year).

Programme Structure


        YEAR 1                     YEAR 2                     YEAR 3                 YEAR 4
 1228 Thermal Physics       2222 Quantum            3333 Interstellar Physics          4101
                            Physics                                                 Astronomy
 1102 Physics of the        2112 Astrophysical      3134 The Physics and              Project
 Universe                   Processes: Nebulae to   Evolution of Stars               (1.5 unit)
                            Stars
 1224 Waves, Optics and     2228 Statistical        3136 Cosmology and
 Acoustics                  Thermodynamics          Extragalactic Astronomy
 1130 Practical Skills 1A   2117 Physics of the     3338 Astronomical                 Option
 (Astronomy)                Solar System            Spectroscopy
 1240 Practical Skills 1C   2246 Mathematical       3330 Practical Astronomy 1 -      Option
 (Core Physics)             Methods III             Techniques
                                                    OR
                                                    3440 Experimental Physics
 1245 Mathematical          2201 Electricity and    3331 Practical Astronomy 2 -      Option
 Methods I                  Magnetism               Applications OR
                                                    3332 Practical Astronomy 3 -
                                                    Field Trip
                                                    OR
                                                    3441 Physics Group Project
 1246 Mathematical          2130 Practical                     Option                 Option
 Methods II                 Astrophysics 2A
 1247 Classical             MATH6202                           Option                 Option
 Mechanics                  Mathematics for
                            Physics & Astronomy
 1901 Developing            2901 Developing
 Effective                  Effective
 Communications 1*          Communications 2*

All courses are half units, unless otherwise stated.
*Compulsory modules (weighted into final assessment of honours). Refer to 1.6.3.

                                    Courses available for option selection

               YEAR 3 (continued on next page)                     YEAR 4
         3423 Methods of Mathematical Physics
         3226 Quantum Mechanics
         3301 Techniques and Optics in Modern
         Astronomy
         3459 Scientific Computing using Object             See separate table of
         Oriented Languages                                 options for Year 4,
                                                            Page 32

                                               26
3661 Physics of the Earth
GEOL3027 Astrobiology

3224 Nuclear and Particle Physics
3201 Electromagnetic Theory




                                    27
MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS GF13 BSc (3-year).

Programme Structure


            YEAR 1                             YEAR 2                         YEAR 3
 1102 Physics of the Universe         2222 Quantum Physics           3224 Nuclear and Particle
                                                                     Physics
 1224 Waves, Optics and               2224 Atomic & Molecular        3225 Solid State Physics
 Acoustics                            Physics
 1228 Thermal Physics                 2228 Statistical               3226 Quantum Mechanics
                                      Thermodynamics
 1247 Classical Mechanics             2201 Electricity and           3201 Electromagnetic
                                      Magnetism                      Theory
 MATH1101 Analysis 1                  MATHM2101 Analysis 3 :                   Option
                                      Complex Analysis
 MATH1401 Mathematical                MATHM2401 Mathematical                    Option
 Methods 1                            Methods 3
 MATH1402 Mathematical                            Option                        Option
 Methods II
 MATH1203 Algebra for Joint                       Option                        Option
 Honours

All courses are half units, unless otherwise stated.


                                   Courses available for option selection

                                 YEAR 2                               YEAR 3
                         MATH2302 Analytic Dynamics          2112 Astrophysical
                                                             Processes: Nebulae to Stars
                         MATH2402 Mathematical               2427 Environmental Physics
                         Methods 4
                         MATH2501 Probability and            3661 Physics of the Earth
                         Statistics
                                                             MATH2201 Algebra 3:
                                                             Further Linear Algebra
                                                             MATH2301 Fluid
                                                             Dynamics
                                                             Other Mathematics options




                                                   28
MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS GF1H MSci (4-year).

Programme Structure


        YEAR 1                      YEAR 2                     YEAR 3                  YEAR 4
 1102 Physics of the          2222 Quantum              3224 Nuclear and             4201 Physics
 Universe                     Physics                   Particle Physics                Project
                                                                                       (1.5 unit)
                                                                                          OR
 1224 Waves, Optics and       2224 Atomic &             3225 Condensed               MATH4901
 Acoustics                    Molecular Physics         Matter Physics               Maths Project
 1228 Thermal Physics         2228 Statistical          3226 Quantum                    (1 unit)
                              Thermodynamics            Mechanics                       plus an
                                                                                        Option

 1247 Classical               2201 Electricity and      MATH2201                        Option
 Mechanics                    Magnetism                 Algebra 3: Further
                                                        Linear Algebra
 MATH1101 Analysis 1          MATH2101                  MATH2301 Fluid                  Option
                              Analysis 3: Complex       Dynamics
                              Analysis
 MATH1401                     MATH2401                  3201                            Option
 Mathematical Methods 1       Mathematical              Electromagnetic
                              Methods 3                 Theory
 MATH1402                            Option                    Option                   Option
 Mathematical Methods 2
 MATH1203 Algebra for                Option                    Option                   Option
 Joint Honours

All courses are half units, unless otherwise stated.


                             Courses available for option selection

                       YEAR 2                    YEAR 3                   YEAR 4
                  MATH2302                 2112 Astrophysical               See
                  Analytical Dynamics      Processes: Nebulae             separate
                                           to Stars
                  MATH2402                 2427 Environmental             table of
                  Mathematical             Physics
                  Methods 4
                  MATH2501                 3661 Physics of the          Options on
                  Probability and          Earth                          Page 32
                  Statistics
                                           M332: Algebra 2                   for

                                           Other Mathematics               year 4
                                           Options

                                                   29
MATHS AND ASTRONOMY GF15 BSc (3-year).

Programme Structure


       YEAR 1                         YEAR 2                               YEAR 3
 1228 Thermal Physics      2112 Astrophysical Processes:     3136 Cosmology and Extragalactic
                           Nebulae to Stars                  Astronomy
 1102 Physics of the       2228 Statistical                  3134 The Physics and Evolution of
 Universe                  Thermodynamics                    Stars
 1224 Waves, Optics        2222 Quantum Physics                             Option
 and Acoustics
 1247 Classical            2201 Electricity and                                Option
 Mechanics                 Magnetism
 MATH1101) Analysis        MATH2101 Analysis 3:                                Option
 1                         Complex Analysis
 MATH1401                  MATH2401 Mathematical                               Option
 Mathematical              Methods 3
 Methods 1
 MATH1402                              Option                                 Option
 Mathematical
 Methods 2
 MATH1203 Algebra                      Option                                 Option
 for Joint Honours
All courses are half units, unless otherwise stated


                                      Courses available for option selection

                               YEAR 2                                  YEAR 3
                    1130 Practical Skills 1A           3333 Interstellar Physics
                    (Astronomy)
                    2117 Physics of the Solar          3338 Astronomical Spectroscopy
                    System
                    MATH2301 Fluid Dynamics            3459 Scientific Computing using Object
                                                       Oriented Languages
                    MATH2402 Mathematical              MATH2102 Analysis 4: Real Analysis
                    Methods 4
                    MATH2501 Probability and           3224 Nuclear and Particle Physics
                    Statistics
                    MATH2302 Analytical                3201 Electromagnetic Theory
                    Dynamics




                                                  30
MATHS AND ASTRONOMY GF1M MSci (4-year).

Programme Structure


       YEAR 1                      YEAR 2                         YEAR 3                    YEAR 4
 1228 Thermal Physics       2112 Astrophysical          3134 The Physics and Evolution        4101
                            Processes: Nebulae          of Stars                           Astronomy
                            to Stars                                                         Project
                                                                                            (1.5 unit)
                                                                                               OR
 1102 Physics of the        2228 Statistical            3136 Cosmology and                MATH4901
 Universe                   Thermodynamics              Extragalactic Astronomy           Maths Project
 1224 Waves, Optics         2222 Quantum                MATH2102 Analysis 4: Real            (1 unit)
 and Acoustics              Physics                     Analysis                             plus an
                                                                                             Option

 1247 Classical             2201 Electricity and        MATH2201 Algebra 3: Further            Option
 Mechanics                  Magnetism                   Linear Algebra
 MATH1101 Analysis 1        MATH2101                    MATH2301 Fluid Dynamics                Option
                            Analysis 3: Complex
                            Analysis
 MATH1401                   MATH2401                               Option                      Option
 Mathematical Methods       Mathematical
 1                          Methods 3
 MATH1402                         Option                           Option                      Option
 Mathematical Methods
 2
 MATH1203 Algebra                   Option                         Option                      Option
 for Joint Honours
All courses are half units, unless otherwise stated.

                           Courses available for option selection


                       YEAR 2                                YEAR 3                  YEAR 4
        1130 Practical Skills 1A               3301 Techniques and Optics in             See
        (Astronomy)                            Modern Astronomy
        2117 Physics of the Solar System       3333 Interstellar Physics             separate

        MATH2402 Mathematical                  3338 Astronomical                     table of
        Methods 4                              Spectroscopy
        MATH2501 Probability and               3459 Scientific Computing            options for
        Statistics                             using Object Oriented
                                               Languages
        MATH2302 Analytical Dynamics           3224 Nuclear and Particle              year 4
                                               Physics                               page 32


                                                   31
                                                 3201 Electromagnetic Theory


      Course Options for 4th Year MSci, all degrees. (Read the notes below the table pertaining to
      possible choices of courses depending on degree programme.)

    All courses are half units
             UCL                                 UCL                                   UCL
   Mainly astronomy-related              Mainly physics-related                Mainly medical physics
3333 Interstellar Physics         4426 Advanced Quantum Theory         COMP3053 Medical Scientific
                                                                       Computing
4312 Planetary Atmospheres        4421 Atom and Photon Physics         4886 Optics in Medicine
4314 Solar Physics                4431 Molecular Physics               3890 Medical Imaging with
                                                                       Ionising Radiation
4315 High Energy Astrophysics     4442 Particle Physics                3891 Medical Imaging with Non-
                                                                       Ionising Radiation
4316 Advanced Topics in Stellar   4427 Quantum Computation and         3892 Treatment using
Atmospheres and Evolution         Communication                        Ionising Radiation
4317 Galaxy and Cluster           4472 Order and Excitations in        ELEC3012 Physiological
Dynamics                          Condensed Matter                     Monitoring
MATH3305 Mathematics for          3423 Methods of Mathematical Physics ELEC3009 Medical Electronics 1
General Relativity
MATH3306 Cosmology                4465 Space Plasma and                           Other Colleges
                                  Magnetospheric Physics                       Mainly physics-related
3301 Techniques and Optics in     3661 Physics of the Earth            4261 Electromagnetic Theory
Astronomy                                                              (QMUL)
       Other Colleges             3443 Lasers and Modern optics        4478 Superfluids, Superconductors
   Mainly astronomy-related                                            & Condensates (RHUL)
4600 Stellar Structure and      3446 Material Science                  4512 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
evolution (QMUL) (taught in the                                        (Taught at RHUL Egham campus)
evenings) 60
4601 Advanced Cosmology                                                4515 Computing and Statistical
(QMUL)                                                                 data analysis (Taught at RHUL
                                                                       Egham campus)
4603 Astrophysical Fluid                                               4750 Image Capture and Sensor
Dynamics (QMUL)                                                        Technology (KCL)
4650 Solar System (QMUL)                                               4211 Statistical Mechanics
(taught in the evenings)                                               (RHUL)
4660 The Galaxy (QMUL)                                                 4242 Relativistic Waves and
(taught in the evenings)                                               Quantum fields. (QMUL)
4670 Astrophysical Plasmas                                             4474 Physics at the Nano-scale
(QMUL) (taught in the evenings)                                        (KCL)




                                                     32
Physics students normally take the majority of options from the physics-related courses.
Theoretical Physics students normally take the majority of options from the physics-related courses.
Medical Physics students normally select 3 medical physics options plus 2 options from the
physics-related courses.
Physics with Space Science students normally take the majority of options from the physics-related
courses.
Astronomy students normally take the majority of options from the astronomy-related courses.
(Continued over page)
Astronomy and Physics students normally take at least 2 options from the physics-related courses
and at least 2 from the astronomy-related courses.
Astrophysics students take at least 3 from options from the astronomy-related courses.
Maths and Physics students normally take about half their options from the physics-related courses
and half from the options offered by the Maths Dept.
Maths and Astronomy students normally take about half their options from the astronomy-related
courses and half from the options offered by the Maths Dept.




                                                 33
        SECTION 3




BRIEF COURSE DESCRIPTIONS




            34
                                  1st Year Courses
                     (all courses are of half-unit value unless stated otherwise)


PHYSICS OF THE UNIVERSE                                            Code: PHAS1102
Term:           1
Pre-requisites:
Structure:      27 lectures, 6 hours of problem classes/discussion

The course aims to give 1st year students in physics and astronomy an introduction to the modern
ideas in physics and astronomy. It introduces the ideas of astrophysics and provides broad coverage
of the origin and evolution of the Universe, as it is currently understood.
Topics:
Stellar Astrophysics. Radiation - Planck's Law and Stefan-Boltzmann Law, with astrophysical
(stellar) applications, cosmic microwave background. Stars - fusion, with associated nuclear and
particle-physics topics. Cosmology and the Universe – introduction to space and time, magnitude
scale & colour systems, distance-scale topics, concept of curved space-time, basis of Einstein’s
approach to gravity, black holes. Cosmological principles, Redshift and Hubble’s law, the Big Bang
model.
WAVES, OPTICS AND ACOUSTICS                                        Code: PHAS1224
Term:           2
Pre-requisites: A-Level Physics and Maths or equivalent
Structure:      27 lectures, 6 hours of problem classes/discussion

This is a basic course in wave motion, covering both general features of the wave equation and
features specific to electromagnetic waves and sound waves. The properties of different types of
waves are discussed together with major applications in physical and geometrical optics and
propagation of sound waves. At the end of the course the student should be fully conversant with
these fundamentals and how they are applied to an understanding of interference and diffraction,
dispersion and wave propagation phenomena.
Topics:
General properties of waves. Basic properties of wave equation. Acoustic waves in gases and solids.
Resonant properties of strings, pipes and cavities. Moving sources and detectors. Reflection and
refraction. Coherence. Interference. Huygens’s principle. Fraunhofer diffraction. Lenses and curved
mirrors, optical devices. Resolution; Raleigh criterion; Abbe theory.

THERMAL PHYSICS                                                                     Code:PHAS1228
Term:           2
Pre-requisites: A-Level Maths and Physics or equivalent
Structure:      27 lectures, 6 hours of problem classes/discussion

The course aims to develop, via a discussion of heat and the interaction of heat with matter, an
understanding of the laws of thermodynamics. Simple statistical ideas of heat are introduced which
are fully developed in a later course. Students are able by the end to apply thermodynamics to
simple systems.
Topics:
Atoms, ions and molecules as the building blocks of matter, perfect gas, real gases, the structure of
liquids, Molecular, covalent, ionic and metallic solids, phase change, latent heats, triple point and
critical point, p-V and p-V-T diagrams, Thermodynamic state, state variables, and thermodynamic
equilibrium, Heat Transfer mechanisms, The Carnot cycle, Entropy, disorder, the arrow of time and

                                                 35
the Second Law of Thermodynamics Plausible derivation of the form of the Maxwell-Boltzmann
distribution.

PRACTICAL SKILLS 1A                                                         Code: PHAS1130
Term:           1&2
Pre-requisites:
Structure:      5 lectures (approx.), 90 hours of practical work

This course gives practice in experimental technique including data recording, data analysis and
report writing; also an introduction to the elements of a computer packaged analysis tools.
The astronomy sessions are conducted at the University of London Observatory (ULO) at Mill Hill.
Its principal instruments are the 24/18-inch twin Radcliffe refractor and the 24-inch Allen reflector.
Instruments for Practical Astronomy teaching for this course include the Fry telescope (8-inch
refractor), a 10” Meade reflector and 14” Celestron reflector reserved exclusively for first-year
students. Other Meade computer-controlled reflectors, several theodolites, measuring machines and
several networked PCs with Internet access and network connections to UCL are available.
The lectures cover basic positional astronomy (co-ordinate systems, spherical trigonometry, time,
the night sky) and take place in Gower Street, although one of the lectures is traditionally given at
the nearby London Planetarium.
Topics:
Use of telescopes and ancillary astronomical equipment such as CCD cameras and spectroscopes,
important concepts in astronomy such as stellar spectral classification, analysis of photographs,
measurement of variable stars, and the measurement of spectra, Data Analysis and Computing skills
gained in modules of the Physics Laboratory course 1240. Many of the experiments involve the use
of prepared material such as data files, CD-ROMs, CCD images or photographic prints; these have
been obtained at ULO or from other observatories around the world, including satellites (e.g.,
Viking Mars Orbiter, Hubble Space Telescope). See http://www.ulo.ucl.ac.uk/students/1b30 for a
full description of the course and useful information.

PRACTICAL SKILLS 1C                                                         Code: PHAS1240
Term:           1&2
Pre-requisites:
Structure:      6+3 Lectures, 70 hours of practical work

A course giving an introduction to Physics Laboratory techniques and practice, and developing the
basic practical skills necessary for performing experimental work which is a crucial component of
both the physics-related and astronomy-related Honours Degree programme.
Topics:
General experimental techniques through completion of simple practical exercises; data analysis
through lectures, special exercises and application to experiments performed; familiarisation with
use of computers covering training on a spreadsheet, word processor and net browser packages,
computer programming using a self-directed learning package at workstations, supplemented by
lectures.


PRACTICAL SKILLS 1P                                                         Code: PHAS1241
Term:           2
Pre-requisites:
Structure:      70 hours of practical work

This course is a further instruction in experimental physics through a selection of scripted
experimental exercises appropriate to the various degree streams providing practice in experimental
technique, including data recording, data analysis and report writing.
                                                 36
MATHEMATICAL METHODS I                                      Code: PHAS1245
Term:           1
Pre-requisites: A-Level Maths or its equivalent
Structure:      33 lectures, 7 hours of discussion, 5 problem classes

All the mathematics required for the understanding of 1st Year Astronomy and Physics courses will
be provided in this service course and PHAS1246.
Topics
Elementary Functions (mainly revision): Manipulation of algebraic equations, powers, exponentials
and logarithms, inverse functions, trigonometric functions, sine, cosine and tangent for special
angles, hyperbolic functions.
Differentiation (mainly revision): Definition, product rule, function of a function rule, implicit
functions, logarithmic derivative, parametric differentiation, maxima and minima.
Integration (mainly revision): Integration as converse of differentiation, changing variables,
integration by parts, partial fractions, trigonometric and other substitutions, definite integral, integral
as the area under a curve, trapezium rule, integral of odd and even functions.
Partial Differentiation: Definition, surface representation of functions of two variables, total
differentials, chain rule, change of variables, second order derivatives. Maxima, minima and saddle
points for functions of two variables.
Vectors: Definition, addition, subtraction, scalar and vector multiplication. Vector and scalar triple
products, vector equations (Third order determinants only very briefly). Vector geometry - straight
lines and planes. Vector differentiation, vectors in plane polar, cylindrical, and spherical polar
coordinates.
Series: Sequences and series, convergence of infinite series. Power series, radius of convergence,
simple examples including the binomial series. Taylor and Maclaurin series, L'Hôpital's rule.
Complex Numbers: Representation, addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, Cartesian,polar
exponential forms, De Moivre's theorem, powers and roots, complex equations.

MATHEMATICAL METHODS II                                     Code: PHAS1246
Term:           2
Pre-requisites: A-Level Maths or its equivalent
Structure:      33 lectures, 7 hours of discussion, 5 problem classes

All the mathematics required for the understanding of 1st Year Astronomy and Physics courses will
be provided in this service course and 1245.
Topics:
Multiple Integrals: Line integrals, area and volume integrals, change of coordinates, area and
volume elements in plane polar, cylindrical polar and spherical polar coordinates.
Vector Operators: Directional derivatives, gradient for functions of two or three variables. Gradient,
divergence, curl and Laplacian operators in Cartesian coordinates, Flux of a vector field, Divergence
theorem, Stokes' theorem, Coordinate-independent definitions of vector operators. Derivation of
vector operators in spherical and cylindrical polar coordinates.
Differential Equations: Ordinary first-order, separable, integrating factor, change of variables, exact
differential.Ordinary second order homogeneous and non-homogeneous including equal roots.
Series Solution of Ordinary Differential Equations: Derivation of the Frobenius method,
Application to linear first order equations, Singular points and convergence, Application to second
order equations.
Elements of Probability Theory: Discrete probability distributions, moments, means and standard
deviations, independent probabilities. Means and standard deviations for continuous distributions.
Special Theory of Relativity: Implications of Galilean transformation for the speed of light

                                                    37
Michelson-Morley experiment, Einstein’s postulates, Derivation of the Lorentz transformation
equations; length contraction, time dilation, addition law of velocities, “paradoxes” Transformation
of momentum and energy; invariants, Doppler effect for photons, threshold energy for pair
production, the headlight effect.

CLASSICAL MECHANICS                                                Code: PHAS1247
Term:           1
Pre-requisites: A-Level Maths and Physics or equivalent
Structure:      27 lectures, 10 hours of discussion, 4 problem classes

This is an introductory course in Classical Mechanics. Starting from Newton’s Law of Motion, it
sets up the techniques used to apply the laws to the solution of physical problems. It is essential
background for many of the succeeding courses within the degrees in Physics and Astronomy.
Topics:
Introduction to Classical Mechanics: Importance of classical mechanics; conditions for its validity.
Statics, kinematics, dynamics; units and dimensions. Newton' s laws of motion.
Motion in one dimension: Variable acceleration. Work, power, impulse. Conservation of
momentum and energy; conservative force, potential and kinetic energy. Construction of equations
of motion and their solutions. Simple harmonic motion; damped and forced oscillations, resonance.
Motion in two and three dimensions: Relative motion; Galilean and other transformations between
frames of reference. Inertial and non-inertial frames of reference, fictitious forces. Motion in a
plane; trajectories, elastic collisions. Constraints and boundary conditions. Rotation about an axis;
motion in a circle, angular velocity, angular momentum, torques and couples; radial and transverse
components of velocity and acceleration in plane polar coordinates, centrifugal and Coriolis forces.
Orbital motion for inverse square law of force; statement of the gravitational force due to a
spherically symmetric mass distribution. Kepler' s laws of planetary motion (review of properties of
conic sections).
Rigid Body Motion: Centre of mass, its motion under the influence of external forces; moment of
inertia, theorems of parallel and perpendicular axes; centre of percussion. Rotational analogues of
rectilinear equations of motion; simple theory of gyroscope.
Fluid Mechanics: Fluids at rest: pressure, buoyancy and Archimedes principle. Fluids in motion:
equation of continuity for laminar flow; Bernoulli's equation with applications, flow over an
aerofoil; brief qualitative account of viscosity and turbulence.


PRACTICAL MATHEMATICS 1                                            Code: PHAS1449
Term:           2
Pre-requisites: None
Structure:      27 lectures, 6 hours of problem classes/discussion

PHAS1449 will provide a foundation in computer-based mathematical modelling for students of
Theoretical Physics. It is based on a state of the art system for mathematical computation, and will
introduce key concepts in computation which will be developed further and applied to a project in
year 2 and will provide important concepts for the optional course in object-oriented computer
languages in year 3. At the same time it will reinforce and apply concepts of mathematical physics
being taught in other first year courses. There are no prerequisites for this course, but it is itself a
prerequisite for PHAS2443 Practical Mathematics in the second year.
*This module is intended for students following the Theoretical Physics degree course.

Topics
‘Computer Algebra’ systems in general and Mathematica.
Mathematica©’s structures (especially lists) and their relationship with mathematical structures.
Rules and how to apply them. Mathematica©’s pattern constructions. Rules as returned when

                                                  38
solving equations. Manipulating expressions with rules. Graphics: basic line graphs, contour and
surface plots. Controlling graph layouts, combining and animating graphs. Applications to
visualisation of fields. Conformal Mapping. Domains of functions. More general pattern-matching;
sequences, types, criteria and defaults. RepeatReplace and delayed rules. Defining functions.
Overloading of functions. Modules. Pure (unnamed) functions. Functions that remember or redefine
themselves. Recursive procedures. Loops and control structures. Numerical solutions of algebraic
equations using FindRoot and using graphs to control the process. Methods of root-finding by
bisection and the Newton-Raphson method. Numerical solution of differential equations by finite
difference methods, including simple stability analysis. Use of NDSolve. Repeated operations
without loops: Nest, While, Fixed Point, Through, Compositions. Series solution of differential
equations. Boundary value problems (multiple shooting). Brief treatment of partial differential
equations.Analysis of data: linear and non-linear fitting; Fourier smoothing of data. Reading and
writing external files. Simple image processing (pixellisation; edge enhancement).

ESSENTIAL MEDICAL PHYSICS                                                 Code: PHAS1882
Term:                 2
Pre-requisites:       A-Level Maths and Physics or equivalent
Structure:            27 lectures, 6 hours of problem classes/discussion
This course provides foundation knowledge in basic medical statistics and biophysics.
Topics:
Atomic and Molecular Structure; Physics properties of macromolecules; Structure and physical
properties of membranes; Molecular Spectroscopy; Nuclear Magnetic Resonance; Medical statistics.

DEVELOPING EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION 1                                          Code: PHAS1901
Term:                    1&2
Pre-requisites:          None
Aim of the Course:
This is the first of three modules that aim to develop your skills in getting your message across, and
in understanding the messages of others. These skills are crucial not only for being an effective
physicist, but also in functioning effectively in many career – or non-career – situations.
Objectives:
After completing this module successfully, students should be able to:
    • write short pieces for non-specialist and specialist audiences;
    • orally present scientific ideas to a small group of peers;
    • construct a personal web page
    • use appropriate IT effectively




                                                 39
                                  2nd Year Courses
                      (All courses are of half-unit value unless stated otherwise)

ASTROPHYSICAL PROCESSES: NEBULAE TO STARS                          Code: PHAS2112
Term:           2
Pre-requisites: Attending PHAS2228 and PHAS2222
Structure:      27 lectures, 6 hours of problem classes/discussion

The aim of this course is to introduce students to the most important astrophysical processes
encountered in a wide range of nebular and stellar environments. A knowledge of these processes is
an essential prerequisite for several subsequent more specialised 3rd and 4th year astronomy and
astrophysics courses. The philosophy of the course is to start at the low density (nebular) limit,
where microscopic processes must be considered individually and to then treat increasingly high
density environments, working through to the atmospheres of stars; the interior regions where stellar
nuclear energy sources are located; and finally, degenerate matter, the highest density form of
material found in stars.
Topics:
Microscopic atomic processes that determine physical conditions such as ionisation balance and
temperature in the low-density interstellar medium. Treatment of higher density and higher-
temperature environments, where simplifying assumptions can often be made. A range of processes
that are encountered in stellar atmospheres and stellar interiors are treated in this part of the course.
Finally, the nuclear reaction processes that generate energy in high-temperature stellar cores are
discussed.

PHYSICS OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM                                        Code: PHAS2117
Term:           2
Pre-requisites: PHAS1245 Mathematics 1
                PHAS1102 Physics of the Universe
Structure:      30 lectures, 3 hours of problem classes/discussion

The course covers basic requirements, central principles, and practical considerations for
components used in complete astronomical data-acquisition systems in different wavebands in the
electromagnetic spectrum. These general concepts are discussed with regard to telescopes,
spectrometers and detector-systems. Examples of working systems are discussed.
Topics:
Origin of the Solar System, dynamics and composition. Basic structure of the Sun in terms of the
physics of energy transport from the core. Source of solar magnetic field, solar activity and
sunspots. The solar wind and the interplanetary magnetic field. The interaction of the solar wind
with solar system bodies..Planetary magnetospheres, radiation belts, charged particle motions in a
planetary magnetic field. Internal structure of the Terrestrial Planets. Interior and surface evolution.
Observational methods, in particular seismic studies on Earth. Gravitational potential and tidal
forces. Roche limit. Instability limit. Relevance to why rings surround the Gas Giants. Thermal
structure and atmospheres of planets. The Gas Giants. Physics of hydrogen under great pressure.
Asteroids and meteorites, Comets, the Oort Cloud and the Kuiper belt

MATHEMATICAL METHODS III                                          Code: PHAS2246
Term:           1
Pre-requisites: PHAS1245 , PHAS1246
Structure:      33 lectures, 11 hours of problem classes/discussion

Together with the two first year mathematics courses, PHAS2246 will provide the necessary
mathematical underpinning for all core Physics and Astronomy modules throughout the BSc/MSci

                                                   40
programmes. Completion of PHAS1245 and preferably PHAS1246 will normally be required for
entry onto the course. Completion of the course and proven performance in its continuous
assessment will be the norm for students wishing to proceed to the second semester mathematics
half-unit MATHS6202 provided for second year Physics & Astronomy students.
Topics:
Linear Vector Space, Determinants and Matrices. Partial Differential Equations. Legendre
Functions. Fourier Analysis. Group Theory.

QUANTUM PHYSICS                                                    Code: PHAS2222
Term:           1
Pre-requisites: PHAS2246 Maths III (this may be taken in parallel) or its equivalents
Structure:      27 lectures, 6 hours of problem classes/discussion

This is an introductory core course in quantum mechanics covering the failure of classical
Newtonian mechanics and the basics of quantum mechanics motivated by physical examples. It
aims to develop an understanding of the principles of Quantum Mechanics and their implications to
the solution of physical problems. It forms the essential basis for many of the succeeding courses
within Physics and Astronomy.
Topics:
The failure of classical physics. Steps towards wave mechanics. One-dimensional time-independent
problems. The formal basis of quantum mechanics. Angular Momentum in quantum mechanics.
The hydrogen atom - qualitative treatment. Magnetic moments and electron spin. Correspondence
principle and Expansion Postulate. Ehrenfest's theorem. Introduction to atomic structure Review of
one electron atoms. Many-electron atoms including the Pauli Principle and spin. Atoms and
radiation. Atoms in static electric and magnetic fields. Molecular Structure and bonding. Molecular
Spectra. Harmonic oscillator.

ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS                                       Code: PHAS2224
Term:           2
Pre-requisites: PHAS2201 Electricity and Magnetism and
                PHAS2222 Quantum Physics or their equivalents
Structure:      27 lectures, 6 hours of problem classes/discussion

This course introduces the physics of atoms and molecules which has established the quantised
nature of physical phenomena. A core course which builds on the observations and ideas of the
preceding courses in electromagnetism and quantum physics to enable the student to understand the
structure and spectra of simple atoms and molecules, and to develop such understanding to a point
where problems can be tackled. The course provides the basis for many further courses in the
Department, not only in atomic and molecular physics, but also nuclear physics, modern optics,
plasma physics and many branches of astrophysics.
Topics:
Introduction to atomic structure. Review of one electron atoms. Many-electron atoms including the
Pauli Principle and spin. Atoms and radiation. Atoms in static electric and magnetic fields.
Molecular Structure and bonding. Molecular Spectra.

ENVIRONMENTAL PHYSICS                                              Code: PHAS2427
Term:           2
Pre-requisites: PHAS1228 Thermal Physics, PHAS1247 Classical Mechanics
Structure:      27 lectures, 6 hours of problem classes/discussion

An optional course which enables the student to understand the structure and dynamics of the
Earth’s atmosphere and oceans. Topical issues such as global warming, ozone depletion and acid


                                                41
rain will be discussed. This course will provide a link between the pure physics and applied physics
degrees and be pertinent to the Physics with Space Science degree.
Topics:
Radiation; Spectrum of Solar radiation; Energy transfer; Structure and composition of the
atmosphere; Fluid dynamic; atmospheric circulation; Energy resources; power consumption;
pollution.


STATISTICAL THERMODYNAMICS                                         Code: PHAS2228
Term:           2
Pre-requisites:
Structure:      27 lectures, 6 hours of problem classes/discussion

The course aims to establish a secure structural foundation to an understanding of statistical
thermodynamics that is essential to the study of processes at the microscopic level and of solid-state
physics.
Topics:
Introduction. Principles of Statistical Physics. Isolated systems. Systems in contact with a heat bath.
Classical gases. Ideal quantum gases. Bose-Einsten statistics. Fermi-Dirac statistics.


PRACTICAL ASTROPHYSICS 2A                                        Code: PHAS2130
Term:           1
Pre-requisites:
Structure:      72 hours of practical work split between a lab and a computer cluster

This course provides an introduction to the basic specialist skills required by the practicing
astrophysicist through a range of experiments in Laboratory Astrophysics including an introduction
to Mathematica.
Topics:
A selection of 2nd Year level scripted experiments designed for Astrophysics students: a short
course on the basic techniques required for numerical analysis of theoretical results and their
comparison with experimental data, with emphasis on the use of various computer packages.
Introduction to the Mathematica programming language.


PRACTICAL PHYSICS 2A                                                 Code: PHAS2440
Term:           1
Pre-requisites:
Structure:      72 hours of practical work

The course provides an introduction to the basic specialist skills required of the practicing physicist
by means of a range of experiments in Physics including an introduction to Numerical Methods.
Topics:
A selection of 2nd year level scripted experiments designed for Physics students, a short course on
the basic techniques required for numerical analysis of theoretical results and their comparison with
experimental data, with emphasis on the use of various computer packages. Basic electronic
techniques are also introduced and developed by providing practise in design and construction of a
circuit including diagnosis and rectification of faults.


PRACTICAL PHYSICS 2B                                                        Code: PHAS2441
Term:         2
                                                  42
Pre-requisites:
Structure:            72 hours of practical work split between a lab and a computer cluster
This course includes a Physics project together with a course of instruction in computer based skills
in particular the Mathematica programming language. It aims to provide instruction in some of the
more advanced specialist skills required of a practising Physicist and an opportunity to use the skills
acquired in project work.


PRACTICAL PHYSICS 2C                                            Code: PHAS2442
Term:                2
Pre-requisites:
Structure:           72 hours of practical work split between a lab and a computer cluster
This course involves experiments in Laboratory astrophysics/physics including an introduction to
the Mathematica programming language.
Topics:
A selection of advanced 2nd Year level scripted experiments designed for Physics with Space
Science students. The use of word processors to prepare reports is encouraged. Mathematica
programming language is introduced.

ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM                                          Code: PHAS2201
Term:           1
Pre-requisites: PHAS1245 Maths I and PHAS1246 Maths II
Structure:      27 lectures, 6 hours of problem classes/discussion

This is the foundation course in electricity and magnetism to be taken by all undergraduates. It
provides the basis for advanced courses in electricity and magnetism and essential techniques for
use in other areas of physics.
Topics:
Milestones in electromagnetism. Electrostatics.         Conductors.   Dielectrics. DC circuits.
Magnetostatics Electromagnetic induction. AC circuits. Maxwell's equations


PRACTICAL MATHEMATICS 2                                                  Code: PHAS2443
Term:                  1
Pre-requisites:        PHAS1449
Structure:             11 lectures/demonstrations, 72 hours of practical work
The Mathematica component of this module equips students with the ability to analyze and solve
problems of mathematical physics within a modern computing environment. It establishes a bridge
between the mathematics and computer programming which are taught elsewhere in the course, and
illustrates the benefit of computer packages for problem analysis, for problem solving, and for
displaying results. This module is intended for students following the Theoretical Physics
degree course.

The mini project increases a student's ability and confidence to undertake scientific investigation
without the need for prescriptive instruction and to present the results in a written report.


SPACE SCIENCE, INSTRUMENTATION AND TECHNIQUES                      Code: PHAS2665
Term:           2
Pre-requisites: PHAS1664
                Basic knowledge of mechanics, electromagnetism and astronomical
concepts
Structure:      27 lectures, 6 hours of problem classes/discussion
                                                  43
The course can be roughly divided into three parts: an introduction to space astronomy, a
quantitative description of the analysis techniques used in space and a quantitative account of the
instruments and techniques used in remote sensing of the Earth.
Topics:
Description of the physics and operation of the photon detectors most commonly used (photo-
emissive, photo-conductive and gas-filled); this is complemented by a description of their practical
application in X-ray astronomy satellites, past, present and planned, and by an overview of the
scientific knowledge that has been gained with their use. Analysis techniques used in space to
establish the energy and mass of plasma particles, charged and neutral; and how these techniques
have been applied to gather information on the Earth’s magnetosphere, the solar wind and its
interaction with the Earth’s and other planets’ magnetosphere, and with other bodies in the solar
system, such as comets. The basic physics principles in remote sensing, examples of applications of
such techniques to specific issues concerning the Earth’s surface and its climate.

MEDICAL RADIATION PHYSICS                                          Code: PHAS2881
Term:              2
Pre-requisites:    Students normally from the Medical Physics stream
Structure:         28 lectures, 20 hours of written work (essays), 6 hours of problem
classes/discussion

This introductory course provides a sound basic knowledge and understanding of various uses of
ionising and non-ionising radiations for diagnosis and imaging in Medical Physics. It imparts
sufficient knowledge to provide a basis for further courses in more specialised applications and core
knowledge for career work within these fields.

Topics:
Theoretical principles of ionising radiation sources; interactions in materials; dosimetry and clinical
applications; theoretical principles of ultrasound production, its propagation in materials and
methods of detection; theoretical basis of NMR signal and its detection; introduction to the
principles of light interaction with tissue, light transport and distribution as a function of the tissues.


MATHEMATICS FOR PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY                     Code: MATH6202
Term:           2
Pre-requisites: PHAS2246 Maths 3
Structure:      3 hours lectures and 1 hour problem class per week.
                Weekly assessed coursework.

This is a course of advanced mathematical methods for students of Physics and Astronomy who
intend to proceed further with theoretical studies. It forms a natural pre-requisite of the 3rd Year
course PHAS3423 Methods of Mathematical Physics.
Topics:
Functions of a complex variable: power series, elementary functions, branch points and cuts,
continuity and differentiability, analytic functions, Cauchy-Riemann equations, harmonic functions,
singularities, Taylor and Laurent series, Cauchy's integral formula.
Calculus of variations: Euler's equation, simple examples, problems with integral constraints,
approximate solutions.
Analytical Dynamics: mechanical systems, Hamilton's principle, Lagrange's equations,
Hamilton's equations, constants of the motion, phase space.

DEVELOPING EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION 2                                           Code: PHAS2901
Term:         1&2
                                                    44
Pre-requisites:       PHAS1901

Aim of the Course:
This is the second of three modules that aim to develop your skills in getting your message across,
and in understanding the messages of others. These skills are crucial not only for being an effective
physicist, but also in functioning effectively in many career – or non-career – situations.

Objectives:
After completing this module successfully, students should be able to:
   • write medium-length pieces for non-specialist and specialist audiences;
   • produce short briefs on scientific issues for a lay audience;
   • orally present scientific ideas to a medium-sized group of peers using full visual aids;
   • summarize scientific ideas succinctly and accurately;
   • appreciate some of the ethical implications of being a scientist;
   • present and defend ideas using a poster presentation;
   • maintain a personal web page;
   • use appropriate IT effectively.




                                                 45
                                 3rd Year Courses
                     (All courses are of half-unit value unless stated otherwise)

PHYSICS PROJECT - BSc                                                       Code: PHAS3400
Value:          One unit
Term:           1 and 2
Pre-requisites:
Structure:      180 hours of independent project work

This course stimulates an anticipation of research and work in a problem-solving environment. It
enables students, who work independently or in pairs, to tackle novel and stimulating problems
drawn from many areas of Physics, and related disciplines, both theoretical and experimental. The
course aims to develop a student’s confidence and ability and to work independently to solve
problems, posed here in a research-type context. It inculcates the keeping of clear records of
progress in a logbook and emphasises communication skills via written and oral reports presented
during, and at the end of, the course. It builds upon the largely prescriptive experimental work
encountered in the practical skills units of the first two years and enhances the communication skills
developed in these years.


METHODS OF MATHEMATICAL PHYSICS                                    Code: PHAS3423
Term:           1
Pre-requisites: MATH6202
Structure:      30 lectures, 3 hours of problem classes/discussion

This course offers an introduction to the modern theory of dynamical systems with applications in
Physics and their relevance to modelling mechanical and physical systems.
Topics:
Continuous dynamical systems: Hamiltonian systems, Liouvilles's theorem, dissipative systems,
local stability analysis, non-linear oscillators, bifurcation analysis in one and two dimensions.
Discrete dynamical systems: Iterated maps, logistic map, cycles and stability, period doubling,
bifurcations, Lyapunov exponents. Stochastic processes, Brownian motion, stochastic calculus.


ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY                                             Code: PHAS3201
Term:           1
Pre-requisites: PHAS2201, PHAS 1245, PHAS1246, PHAS2246
Structure:      27 lectures, 6 hours of problem classes/discussion

This course will build on PHAS2201 to establish Maxwell’s equations of electromagnetism and use
them to derive electromagnetic wave equations and an understanding of e-m wave propagation in
different media. They will be used to help understand energy flow in the waves and the optical
phenomena of reflection, refraction and polarization.
Topics:
Dielectric media, magnetic fields, linear magnetic media, ferromagnetism, Maxwell equations and
e.m waves, reflection and refraction at a plane dielectric surface, energy flow and the Poynting
vector, waves in conducting media, Emission of radiation, Hertzian dipole, relativistic
transformations of e.m. fields.



                                                 46
NUCLEAR AND PARTICLE PHYSICS                                       Code: PHAS3224
Term:           2
Pre-requisites: PHAS2224 Atomic and Molecular Physics
                also PHAS2222
Structure:      30 lectures, 3 hours of problem classes/discussion

This is a core course which introduces nuclei and particles. It outlines their systematics and explores
the nature of the forces between them. Although self-contained the course provides the groundwork
for fourth year courses in nuclear and particle physics.
Topics:
Introduction to the Standard Model. The relationship between the theory and the measurables.
Interaction Kinematics. Feynman Diagrams. Experimental Issues of Particle Physics. Introduction to
composite particles (Hadrons and Baryons). Cross-section and lifetime: measurables. The weak
interaction. Accelerators and detectors. Introduction to nuclear physics. Liquid drop model and the
Semi-empirical mass formula. Fission and fusion. Resonance enhanced neutron capture for waste
transmutation. The nuclear shell model.

SOLID STATE PHYSICS                                                Code: PHAS3225
Term:           2
Pre-requisites:
Structure:      30 lectures, 3 hours of problem classes/discussion

The course aims to lay a secure foundation for the understanding of the underlying principles of the
structure of the solids, determination of their structures (and defects therein), and to establish an
understanding of the relationship between structure and their thermal, mechanical, electronic and
magnetic properties. The basis allows further advanced development in 4th year MSci modules.
Topics:
Review of bonding and structure in solids; covalent, molecular, ionic, metallic, hydrogen bonding.
Crystalline and non-crystalline materials. Principles of (x-ray & neutron) structure determination of
solids; direct and reciprocal lattices, Laue condition. Mechanical properties of solids; elasticity,
dislocations, strength of materials (crystalline and non-crystalline). Lattices in motion; phonons,
dispersion curves, heat capacity, Einstein and Debye models, thermal conductivity. Electrons in
solids; simple models of conduction, Hall effect, heat capacity, basic band theory, Fermi surface,
insulators, metals, and semiconductors. Pure and doped semiconductors and simple semiconducting
devices. Optical properties of solids, dielectric constant, refractive index.


QUANTUM MECHANICS                                            Code: PHAS3226
Term:           1
Pre-requisites:   PHAS2222
Structure:        30 lectures, 3 hours of problem classes/discussion

This is a core course which builds on a previous first course in Quantum Mechanics. It aims to
extend the students’ knowledge base and to give a deeper understanding of the subject. The course
material is essential for many courses offered in the MSci year.
Topics:
A summary of the basic concepts and postulates of quantum mechanics. Dirac Notation: Linear
harmomic oscillator by operator techniques.
Theory of orbital, spin and generalised angular momentum, with an introduction to coupling of two
angular momenta. Applications and approximations; the hydrogen-like ion: full treatment; time-
independent, non-degenerate perturbation theory up to second order; first-order degenerate
perturbation theory. Time evolution of simple systems with a time-independent Hamiltonian.
Systems of identical particles; Pauli principle, bosons and fermions.
                                                  47
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY 1 - TECHNIQUE                                         Code: PHAS3330
Term:           1
Pre-requisites: PHAS1130, and PHAS2130
Structure:      1 lecture, 64 hours of practical work

The aim of the course is to develop competence in planning a set of astronomical observations,
using large telescopes, CCD detectors and spectroscopy, and applying a range of data reduction
techniques. The course content will comprise the use of data compilations to plan a set of imaging
observations (Radcliffe 24”/18” Long Focus Refractor) and a set of spectroscopic observations
(Allen 24” Reflector); data reduction procedures in positional astronomy (including radial velocity
measurements); data reduction procedures in astronomical spectroscopy (stars, extended objects)
and data reduction procedures for photometry. An introductory lecture is presented in Gower Street,
after which each student is expected to attend the Observatory on one afternoon and evening per
week.

During the first 5 weeks of the course the use of the telescopes, computers and other equipment is
taught. During the remainder of the course the emphasis switches to the completion of two longer
and more detailed experiments. Observing with the telescopes continues throughout the course,
making maximum use of available clear weather.

PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY 2 - APPLICATIONS                         Code: PHAS3331
Term:           2
Pre-requisites: PHAS3330 Practical Astronomy 1 - Technique
                Note: Students undertaking PHAS3331 do not take PHAS3332.
Structure:      62 hours of practical work

The aim of this course is to develop competence in the use of telescopes by extending the
observational programmes of PHAS3330 and in the application of data reduction techniques to
astrophysical data sets and in the analysis of such reduced sets to derive astrophysically relevant
information. The course content will be in the form of mini-projects on positional astronomy (e.g.
derivation of the elements of a comet or asteroid), astronomical spectroscopy of stars - both normal
and peculiar, extended objects, galaxies and interstellar matter.

PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY 3 - FIELD TRIP                              Code: PHAS3332
Term:           2
Pre-requisites: Successful completion of PHAS3330
                Please note: This Field Trip is only open to the best qualified 10 - 12
                students taking course PHAS330.
                Note: Students undertaking PHAS3332 do not take PHAS3331
Structure:      60 hours of Field Work, 8 hours of preparation work to be carried out at
ULO

The aim of the course is to give selected students hands-on experience of developing and executing
a programme of spectroscopy and CCD photometric observations at a mountain site of high quality
overseas.
The operation of this course depends upon the award of observing time to an observing proposal
submitted to a host observatory by the course organiser.
The course takes place during the Spring Term. Each student is expected to attend the ULO on 4 or
5 evenings for orientation sessions. Approximately one week is then spent observing in the field at
the host observatory, currently the Observatoire De Haute Provence in Southern France, followed by
more sessions at ULO to complete data reduction and analysis.
                                                48
INTERSTELLAR PHYSICS                                               Code: PHAS3333
Term:           2
Pre-requisites:
Structure:      30 lectures, 3 hours of problem classes/discussion

The aim is to teach the basic physics of the interstellar gas in its diffuse, ionised, and molecular
phases, together with the properties of interstellar dust.

Topics:
Applications of radiative transfer, energy balance, and line-formation mechanisms as diagnostics of
the physics and chemistry of the interstellar medium (ISM). Detailed attention is paid to interstellar
gas dynamics and shocks. The structure and evolution of photoionised nebulae are derived, and the
earliest stages of star formation are discussed. Free-free continuum emission and Line formation in
the diffuse ISM is considered in detail. The formation and destruction of dust grains is reviewed,
together with the basic principles underlying the extinction which they produce. Simple reaction
networks and rate equations are developed for astrochemical molecular processes, and are put into
context.


THE PHYSICS AND EVOLUTION OF STARS                                          Code: PHAS3134
Term:           1
Pre-requisites: PHAS2112 - Astrophysical Processes
                PHAS2228 - Statistical Thermodynamics
Structure:      30 lectures, 3 hours problem classes/discussion

This is a course dealing with the theory of radiative transfer and the structure of stellar atmospheres
and interiors, and the use of these to understand the formation, evolution and death of stars. It
builds on the basic astrophysical concepts and processes that were introduced in the 2nd Year. It is
the core course in stellar astrophysics, and is a pre-requisite for the 4th Year course on Advanced
Topics in Stellar Astrophysics and Evolution .
Topics:
Equations of Stellar structure. Stellar Atmospheres and radiative transfer. Radiative opacities.
Convection in stars. Basic stellar structure models. Evolution onto the Main-Sequence. Post Main-
Sequence Evolution.


COSMOLOGY AND EXTRAGALACTIC ASTRONOMY                              Code: PHAS3136
Term:           2
Pre-requisites: PHAS2112 – Astrophysical Processes: Nebulae to Stars
Structure:      30 lectures, 3 hours of problem classes/discussion

This is an advanced course on the structure and evolution of the Universe, galaxies, quasars and
related objects, and how they are studied from an observational point of view. The aim is to enhance
the students’ knowledge and understanding of these topics and their relationships.
Topics:
Cosmology: Cosmological models; the microwave background; primordial nucleosynthesis;
inflation; the cosmological constant; large-scale structure.
Galaxies: Morphology; chemical, physical, and dynamical structure; clusters of galaxies. Dark
matter in galaxies and clusters of galaxies.
Active Galactic Nuclei: Taxonomy; characteristics of the central engine; reverberation mapping;
quasar absorption-line systems; the quasar luminosity function; the evolution of galaxies and the
star-formation history of the Universe.
                                                  49
ASTRONOMICAL SPECTROSCOPY                                                     Code: PHAS3338
Term:           1
Pre-requisites: PHAS2222 - Quantum Physics
Structure:      30 lectures, 3 hours problem classes/discussion

This is a course developing an understanding of the spectra of atoms and molecules and their uses in
astronomy. Wherever possible, the discussion will be illustrated by real astronomical spectra.
Topics:
Spectral lines observed from astronomical objects and their interpretation. The structure and
radiative properties of atoms and molecules. Pauli’s principle and electron shells; angular
momentum; fine structure; hyperfine structure; radiation in spectral lines; forbidden transitions;
atoms in external fields; molecular rotational, vibrational and electronic structure and transitions.
Spectroscopy of stars, interstellar matter, galaxies, planets and other astronomical objects.

TECHNIQUES AND OPTICS IN MODERN ASTRONOMY                                     Code: PHAS3301
Term:           2
Pre-requisites: PHAS1224 – Waves, Optics and Acoustics;
                PHAS2246 Mathematics III
Structure:      30 lectures, 3 hours problem classes/discussion

This course will provide the necessary skills for a student to understand the design and operation of
modern astronomical instruments.
Topics:
Optics Theory: Wave propagation theory, Imaging theory, Polarisation, Fourier Optics,
Convolution/deconvolution. UV/Visible/NIR techniques: Telescope Design, Optical aberrations,
Detectors, Imaging, Photometry, Signal to noise, Spectroscopy, Grating equation , Cross dispersion ,
Echelle spectrograph, Multiple object spectroscopy, Integral field units, Polarimetry, Adaptive
Optics, Coronography, Optical Interferometry. Radio Astronomy techniques: Radio sources, Radio
Receivers (Detectors, antenna), Heterodyne frequency shift, Spectroscopy, Radio dishes, Radio
Interferometry. X-ray and Gamma-ray techniques: Sources, Detectors, Imaging high Energy
Radiation, Spectroscopy at high energies, Bragg equation. Exotic Astronomy: Very High Energy
(VHE) Gamma Rays, Sources of radiation, VHE Gamma ray Telescopes, Neutrino Astronomy,
Neutrino production, Neutrino detectors, Gravity Wave Detectors, Sources, Detector systems.


EXPERIMENTAL PHYSICS                                            Code: PHAS3440
Term:           1
Pre-requisites: PHAS1240 - Practical Skills 1C and
                PHAS2440 - Practical Physics 2A
Structure:      35 hours of practical work, 35 hours problem classes/discussion

This course entails advanced experimentation in Physics and statistical analysis of data with a short
introductory course in ‘Mathematica’.

Topics:
One long experimental investigation lasting half a term involving the integration of several
experimental techniques to complete the task. A short course, working from a programmed text, in
statistical analysis of data. Training and practice in report writing. A short course lasting half a term
in the use of symbolic manipulation techniques using the programme ‘Mathematica’ for the solution
of mathematical problems and modeling.


                                                   50
GROUP PROJECT - PHYSICS                                          Code: PHAS3441
Term:           2
Pre-requisites:
Structure:      3 lectures, 77 hours of independent project work, 10 hours of written
                work (essays), 12 hours problem classes/discussion. Short interview.

The course aims to teach students how to function effectively in a group situation stimulating the
actual working environment they will encounter in the course of their professional careers. The
technical skills exercised in the collective solution of the set problem rely on practical skills
developed in courses in the first two years.
Topics:
Students take part in training in group interaction and management. They then practice these skills
in small groups by attempting the solutions of a complex technical problem in physics which
requires group co-operation for its solutions.

LASERS AND MODERN OPTICS                                                  Code: PHAS3443
Term:           2
Pre-requisites: PHAS1224 - Waves, Optics and Acoustics
Structure:      30 lectures, 3 hours problem classes/discussion

This course aims to give an introduction to modern optics and laser physics to ensure that the
students are conversant with the principles of laser physics and are competent in applying them to
different physical processes.
Topics:
Matrix optics. Laser principles. Gaussian optics. Electro-optics. Non-linear optics. Guided wave
optics.

MATERIALS SCIENCE                                               Code: PHAS3446
Term:           2
Pre-requisites: PHAS2228 - Statistical Thermodynamics and Condensed Matter Physics
Structure:      30 lectures, 3 hours problem classes/discussion

This course is an introduction to the physics of materials science which addresses the mechanical,
electrical, magnetic and optical properties of manufactured materials, and the factors which lead to
their exploitation in commercial devices. It is an optional course which builds on the core courses
PHAS2228 and PHAS3225.
Topics:
 Property relations for a variety of materials covering a range of complexity, including
microstructures and mechanical properties, electrical, optical and magnetic properties, polymers,
comparatives, bio-materials and advanced device materials.

SCIENTIFIC COMPUTING USING OBJECT ORIENTED LANGUAGES.
                                                                 Code: PHAS3459
Term:           2
Pre-requisites: None: Previous experience of programming an advantage.
Structure:      Two weekly 3-hour sessions for 11 weeks equally divided between
                instruction / Lectures and practice at the computer.

The course aims to provide an introduction to the use of object oriented (OO) programming in the
context of physics data handling and analysis using the JAVA language.
                                                51
Topics:
Basic program control, OO concepts and design; implementation of JAVA programming tools;
program design and application; principal differences between JAVA and C++.


PHYSICS OF THE EARTH                                                        Code: PHAS3661
Term:           1
Pre-requisites:
Structure:      30 lectures, 3 hours problem classes/discussion

This course is primarily an option for the Physics with Space Science degree. It has emphasis on the
new insights provided by modern techniques, including seismic techniques for studying the Earth’s
interior, satellite altimetry for determining the geoid and ocean circulations, laser ranging and very
long baseline interferometry for measuring continental drift.
Topics:
Mass and density of the Earth; Earth Gravity; Earth magnetism and plate tectonics; Earthquakes;
seismology; origin of the Solar System; Earth’s climate; Earth observation for geophysics and
climate.


SPACE SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY                                        Code: PHAS3664
Term:           1
Pre-requisites: Students normally from the Physics with Space Science stream.
Structure:      30 lectures, 3 hours problem classes/discussion

This course is an advanced survey of current space technology and techniques. It introduces students
to spacecraft subsystems and techniques which must be implemented to overcome the rigorous
constraints imposed on the spacecraft and payload by launch and orbit environments. The subject
will be presented at a level suitable for those hoping to enter a professional career in an aerospace
discipline.
Topics:
Subsystems of a typical scientific spacecraft; budgets, cost link, mass heat, power. Structure and
materials, mechanical systems and testing, Power generation and control. Instrumentation and
associated electronics. On-Board Data Handling. Spacecraft internal and external communications,
signal modulation and encoding. Thermal control, altitude control, stabilisation and measurement,
attitude dynamics of rigid bodies in terms of angular momentum, the inertia tensor, principle
moments and principal axes. Attitude sensors. The effects of non-rigidity. The rocket equation
revisited, propulsion and thrusters for orbital applications. The ion thruster.


MEDICAL SCIENTIFIC COMPUTING                                    Code: COMP3053
Term:           2
Pre-requisites: Students normally from the Medical Physics stream.
Structure:      30 lectures, 3 hours problem classes/discussion
                Note: Given by Computer Science Department

The course provides information on the use of computers for processing, in particular, pictorial
information in the medical domain, for example Computerised Tomography and Nuclear Magnetic
Resonance.
Topics:
Data handling; basic mathematical tools; principles and clinical applications of tomographic
method; data display; picture archiving and communication systems (PACS); the man-machine
interface; some clinical problems.
                                                 52
MEDICAL IMAGING WITH IONISING RADIATION                         Code: PHAS3890
Term:           1
Pre-requisites: Students normally from the Medical Physics stream.
Structure:      30 lectures, 3 hours problem classes/discussion

The aim is for the students to understand the use and application of techniques and methods of
imaging both anatomy and physiological function using ionising radiation, including processing
evaluation of their performance and the principles of quality assurance.
Topics:
Sources of Ionising Radiation; Interaction in the patient; different detectors; systems; the use of
systems; image processing and assessment; quality control.

MEDICAL IMAGING WITH NON-IONISING RADIATION                     Code: PHAS3891
Term:           1
Pre-requisites: Students normally from the Medical Physics stream.
Structure:      30 lectures, 3 hours problem classes/discussion

The course will provide a basic introduction to the physical principles of NMR and ultrasound and
their application to the imaging of both anatomy and physiological function. The methods by which
images of anatomy and function are obtained are explained as well as their applications in medicine.
Topics:
Basic NMR theory; NMR signal acquisition; NMR hardware; Tissue parameters and contrast in
imaging; data acquisition and image formation; image processing; NMR safety; ultrasound imaging;
transducers; ultrasound beams; safety considerations; resolution; scanner construction, signal
processing; artefacts and measurements; the Doppler effect; tissue characterisation; therapeutic
applications.

TREATMENT USING IONISING RADIATION                              Code: PHAS3892
Term:           2
Pre-requisites: Students normally from the Medical Physics stream.
Structure:      30 lectures, 3 hours problem classes/discussion

The course covers theory and methods of treatment using ionising radiation, including dosimetry,
radiobiology and protection.
Topics:
Dosimetry; radiobiological basis; dose distribution and radiotherapy treatments; radiation
protection.

PHYSIOLOGICAL MONITORING                                        Code: ELEC3009
Term:           2
Pre-requisites: Students normally from the Medical Physics stream.
Structure:      30 lectures, 3 hours problem classes/discussion
                Note: Course supplied by the Electronic and Electrical Engineering
                Dept.

The course provides an understanding of the theory and practice of transducers and monitoring
techniques in medicine and physiology. It covers most of the commonly used methods in medical
practice except those derived from imaging and radionuclide methods.
Topics:
Measurement variables; Pressure, force and position sensing; Piezoelectric sensors; Temperature
sensing; Flow, velocity and volume sensors; Optical sensors; Gas and ion sensors.


                                                53
MATHS FOR GENERAL RELATIVITY                                                 Code: MATH3305
Term:           1
Pre-requisites: MATH6202 (Physicists and Astronomers);
                MATH2303 (Mathematicians)
Structure:      3 hour lectures per week

This course is available to 3rd or 4th year students with a good mathematical ability.

The course introduces Einstein’s theories of special and general relativity. Special relativity shows
how measurements of physical quantities such as time and space can depend on an observer’s frame
of reference. Relativity also emphasises that there exists an underlying physical description
independent of observers. This physical description uses mathematical objects called tensors.
Tensor notation simplifies the form of the Maxwell equations and reveals their power and beauty.
The Maxwell equations provide a description of electromagnetism compatible with special
relativity. However, no similar equations exist for gravitation. Instead, a more general form of
relativity is needed where space-time has curvature. Curvature, in effect, replaces the gravitational
field. Objects no longer accelerate due to gravitational forces; instead they move along geodesics
whose shape is determined by the curvature. Furthermore, rather than mass being the source of the
gravitational field, a massive object warps the space around it, generating curvature.


COSMOLOGY                                                                    Code: MATH3306
Term:                  2
Pre-requisites:        MATH3305 - Mathematics for General Relativity
Structure:             3 hour lectures per week

This course is available to 3rd or 4th year students with a good mathematical ability.

Cosmology is the study of the history and structure of the Universe. Cosmologists usually assume
that the Universe is highly symmetric on large scales; under this assumption the equations of
general relativity reduce to two simple ordinary differential equations. These equations govern the
expansion of the Universe. These equations are studied in detail, and show how observations are
affected by the expansion and curvature of the Universe. The course then covers the astronomical
methods used to determine the expansion rate (i.e. the Hubble constant) and the mass density of the
Universe. Physical processes in the early universe such as nucleo-synthesis, the formation of the
microwave background, and galaxy formation will also be studied. The course begins with a
description of black holes and ends with speculative topics including inflation and cosmic strings.

ASTROBIOLOGY                                                                 Code: GEOL3027
Term:           2
Pre-requisites: There are no formal prerequisites.

Aims and Objectives
This course is designed to provide a broad introduction to the exciting new field of astrobiology --
the study of the astronomical and planetary context within which life on Earth has evolved, and the
implications for the prevalence of life elsewhere in the Universe. The course will be suitable for a
diverse audience of undergraduate students in their second year or above, and who pursuing degrees
in Planetary Science, Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences, and Astronomy/Astrophysics.
Topics:
Origin and distribution of biologically important chemical elements. Origin and early evolution of
the Solar System and implications for other planetary systems. Pre-biological chemical evolution
                                                  54
and the origin of life. Summary of evolutionary biology (3 lectures). Rare Earth? Requirements for
life. Prospects for life eleswhere in the Solar System. Extrasolar planets. Extraterrestrial
intelligence.




                                                55
                                     4th Year Courses
                      (All courses are of half-unit value unless stated otherwise)

MSci PHYSICS PROJECT                                                Code: PHAS4201
Value:          1.5 Units
Term:           1&2
Pre-requisites: 1st , 2nd and 3rd year practical courses to have been successfully taken
Structure:      200 hours of independent project work, 30 hours of written work

The course aims to develop a student’s confidence and ability to work as an independent researcher
and inculcates the keeping of clear records in a progress log. It builds on the largely proscriptive
experimental work encountered in the practical skills units of the first three years plus the smaller
components of group and individual project work. An emphasis on good communication via
written and oral reports continues the stress laid on this in the first three years. Students work
independently or in pairs (depending on the scope of the project) on a major investigation which
may be experimental, theoretical or involve computer simulation. Students are required to keep a
detailed log of their day to day work and present their findings in a final written report plus an oral
presentation. The final report is expected to be presented in a fully word processed form.


MSci ASTRONOMY PROJECT                                          Code: PHAS4101
Value:          1.5 Units
Term:           1&2
Pre-requisites:
Structure:      200 hours of independent project work, 30 hours of written work

The aim of the course is to enable the student to undertake real scientific research for the first time.
Students will build on the formal knowledge and practical techniques that they have acquired from
lectures and practicals during the preceding three years. Students will have their own supervisor
who will be a staff member (or senior contract research staff person). A 1 unit course consisting of
a research project over 2 semesters, in any area related to astronomy and astrophysics. The project
can be any combination of theory, analysis, observation, instrumentation or history and philosophy
of astronomy, provided the work is original. Students will provide an extended written report
(dissertation) which as well as describing the results of their research, should contain a review of
previous related work. Students will also give a 15-minute oral presentation, using audio visual
aids, on the results of their project.


ADVANCED QUANTUM THEORY                                                      Code: PHAS4426
Term:           1
Pre-requisites: 3226 or equivalent.
Structure:      30 lectures, 3 hours problem classes/discussion

This is a course where some aspects of the basic postulates of quantum mechanics are discussed
more formally and mathematically than in earlier courses. The course extends perturbation theory
to time-dependent systems and gives students an introduction to a quantum mechanical description
of the scattering of low-energy particles by a potential - two important topics for other fourth-year
courses.
Topics:
An algebraic operator approach for angular momentum, both orbital and spin; the addition of
angular momenta. The variational method for non-perturbative approximations and the JWKB
                                                  56
approximation. Time-dependent perturbation theory leading to Fermi's Golden Rule and
applications to simple systems such as an harmonic perturbation. The quantum mechanical
description of the scattering of low-energy spinless particles from a potential via the partial wave
expansion and phase shifts. The first Born approximation.


PLANETARY ATMOSPHERES                                                      Code: PHAS4312
Term:           1
Pre-requisites:
Structure:      30 lectures, 3 hours problem classes/discussion

This course compares the atmospheres of all the planets and examines the past, present and future of
the Earth’s atmosphere with the perspective offered by the comparison.
Topics:
Comparison of planetary atmospheres including; atmospheric structure, retention; oxygen
chemistry; atmospheric temperature profiles; origin and evolution of planetary atmospheres;
atmospheric dynamics; ionospheres; magnetospheres; observational techniques and global warming.

SOLAR PHYSICS                                                              Code: PHAS4314
Term:           2
Pre-requisites:
Structure:      30 lectures, 3 hours problem classes/discussion

The aim of this course is to present a detailed description of the structure and behaviour of the Sun
and its atmosphere and to give the student a good understanding of the underlying physical
processes.
Topics:
The Solar interior and photosphere; Solar magnetic fields; Solar activity; the Solar atmosphere -
Chromosphere; the Solar atmosphere - Corona and Solar wind; Solar flares.

HIGH ENERGY ASTROPHYSICS                                                   Code: PHAS4315
Term:           2
Pre-requisites:
Structure:      30 lectures, 3 hours problem classes/discussion

This course provides an understanding of the theoretical processes responsible for a range of high-
energy stellar and galactic sources, using observational data from Earth satellites.
Topics:
A simple introduction to General Relativity, by approaching the Schwarzschild and Kerr metrics
from practical considerations rather than using highly mathematical tools;
A simple mathematical account of the mechanisms that lead to the production and absorption of
high energy photons in the Universe; A quantitative account of cosmic sources of high energy
radiation.

ADVANCED TOPICS IN STELLAR ATMOSPHERES AND EVOLUTION.
                                                                Code: PHAS4316
Term:           1
Pre-requisites: PHAS3134 - Physics and Evolution of Stars
Structure:      30 lectures, 3 hours problem classes/discussion

A course which develops the theory of model atmosphere techniques and their application to
quantitative analyses of stellar spectra; the effects of mass loss on the evolution of both high and
low mass stars, and interaction effects in binary systems.
                                                 57
Topics:
The LTE Model Atmosphere: the formation of continua and spectral lines. Comparison of LTE
model atmospheres with observations. The Non-LTE Model Atmosphere: two-level and multi-level
atoms. Comparison of non-LTE model atmospheres with observations. Observations of stellar
winds from hot stars and determination of mass-loss rates. The theory of line-driven stellar winds.
The effects of mass-loss on stellar evolution for high and low mass stars. The evolution of massive
close binary systems.

GALAXY AND CLUSTER DYNAMICS                                     Code: PHAS4317
Term:           1
Pre-requisites: PHAS3136 - Cosmology and Extragalactic Astronomy
Structure:      30 lectures, 3 hours problem classes/discussion

This course provides an in-depth study of the dynamical structure and evolution of galaxies
(elliptical and spiral), clusters within galaxies (open and globular), and clusters of galaxies. The
course explains the origins and mechanisms by which galaxies and clusters have obtained their
observed characteristics.
Topics:
Galaxies, Clusters, and the Foundations of Stellar Dynamics, Rotating Galaxies and the Structure of
the Milky Way, Stellar Encounters and Galactic Evolution, Star Clusters, Elliptical Galaxies, and
Clusters of Galaxies.


ATOM AND PHOTON PHYSICS                                                      Code: PHAS4421
Term:                   1
Pre-requisites:
Structure:              30 lectures, 3 hours problem classes/discussion
The course introduces students to the interactions of photons with atoms. In particular the operation
and use of lasers is discussed and the role of lasers in modern spectroscopic techniques.
Topics:
Interaction of light with atoms. L.A.S.E.R. Chaotic light and coherence. Laser spectroscopy.
Multiphoton processes. Light scattering by atoms. Electron scattering by atoms. Coherence and
cavity effects in atoms. Trapping and cooling.


QUANTUM COMPUTATION AND COMMUNICATION                                          Code: PHAS4427
Term:                   2
Pre-requisites:         PHAS3226 or equivalent
Structure:              30 lectures, 3 hours problem classes/discussion
The course aims to provide a comprehensive introduction to the emerging field of quantum
information (the basic notions such as quantum cryptography, quantum algorithms, teleportation
and the like, as well as state of the art experiments), so that the student is well prepared for research
(both academic and industrial) in the area.
Topics:
Background: The qubit and its physical realization; Single qubit operations and measurements; The
Deutsch algorithm; Quantum no-cloning. Quantum Cryptography: The BB84 quantum key
distribution protocol; elementary discussion of security; physical implementations of kilometers.
Quantum Entanglement: State space of two qubits; Entangled states; Bell’s inequality;
Entanglement based cryptography; Quantum Dense Coding; Quantum Teleportation; Entanglement
Swapping; Polarization entangled photons & implementations; von-Neumann entropy;
Quantification of pure state entanglement. Quantum Computation: Tensor product structure of the
state space of many qubits; Discussion of the power of quantum computers; The Deutsch-Jozsa
algorithm; Quantum simulations; Quantum logic gates and circuits; Universal quantum gates;
                                                   58
Quantum Fourier Transform; Phase Estimation; Shor’s algorithm; Grover’s algorithm. Decoherence
& Quantum Error Correction: Decoherence; Errors in quantum computation & communication;
Quantum error correcting codes; Elementary discussion of entanglement concentration &
distillation. Physical Realization of Quantum Computers: Ion trap quantum computers; Solid state
implementations (Kane proposal as an example); NMR quantum computer.

MOLECULAR PHYSICS                                            Code: PHAS4431
Term:           2
Pre-requisites: Quantum Physics (such as UCL course PHAS2222)
                Atomic Physics (such as UCL courses PHAS2224 or PHAS3338)

Structure:            30 lectures, 3 hours problem classes/discussion

The course aims to introduce fourth year students to a detailed discussion of the spectroscopy and
electronic states of polyatomic molecules.
Topics:
Molecular structure: Born-Oppenheimer approximation; Electronic structure ionic and covalent
bonding, H2, H2+; Vibrational and rotational structure.
Molecular spectra: Microwave, infrared and optical spectra of molecules; Selection rules,
Experimental set-ups and examples; Raman spectroscopy. Ortho-para states.
Molecular processes: Collisions with electrons and heavy particles; Experimental techniques.

PARTICLE PHYSICS                                                            Code: PHAS4442
Term:           2
Pre-requisites: Basic Quantum, Atomic and Nuclear Physics
Structure:      30 lectures, 3 hours problem classes/discussion

The course introduces the basic concepts of particle physics, including the fundamental interactions
and particles and the role of symmetries. Emphasis will be placed upon how particle physics is
actually carried out and the course will use data from currently running experiments to illustrate the
underlying physics involved.

Topics:
Feynman diagrams as a tool for qualitative description of interactions. Relativistic wave equations.
Conserved Current, Propagators and the Invariant Amplitude. Symmetries and conservation laws.
Basic principles of calorimeters, drift chambers and silicon vertex detectors. QCD – confinement,
asymptotic freedom and Jets. Deep Inelastic scattering, scaling and the quark parton model. Weak
Interactions, the W and Z bosons. Quark and lepton doublets and Cabibbo mixing. Parity and C-
Parity violation and handedness of neutrinos. Unification of weak and electromagnetic interactions.
Neutrino oscillations and some other open questions.


SPACE PLASMA & MAGNETOSPHERIC PHYSICS                                       Code: PHAS4465
Term:           2
Pre-requisites: PHAS3201. Also knowledge of vector algebra
Structure:      30 lectures, 3 hours problem classes/discussion

The course introduces the student to the solar wind and its interaction with various bodies in the
solar system, in particular discussing the case of the Earth and the environment in which most
spacecraft operate.
Topics:



                                                  59
Introduction to magnetohydrodynamics, the solar wind, solar wind interaction with unmagnetised
bodies, the solar wind interaction with magnetized bodies, various magnetospheric models,
magnetic storms and substorms.


ORDER AND EXCITATIONS IN CONDENSED MATTER                                   Code: PHAS4472
Term:           2
Pre-requisites: PHAS3225 – Solid State Physics
Structure:      30 lectures, 3 hours problem classes/discussion

The course aims to provide a unified description of order and excitations in condensed matter with
an emphasis on how they may be determined with modern x-ray and neutron techniques.
Topics:
Atomic Scale Structure of Material , Magnetism: Moments, Environments and Interactions, Order
and Magnetic Structure, Scattering Theory, Excitations of Crystalline Materials, Magnetic
Excitations, Excitations in ferromagnets and antiferromagnets, Magnons, Sources of X-rays and
Neutrons (Full day visit to RAL.), Modern Spectroscopic Techniques, Phase transitions and Critical
Phenomena, Local Order in Liquids and Amorphous Solids.

OPTICS IN MEDICINE                                              Code: PHAS4886
Term:           1
Pre-requisites: Students normally from the Medical Physics stream.
Structure:      30 lectures, 3 hours problem classes/discussion

The course provides an introduction to the principles of optics and lasers in medicine, and the
interaction of light with biological tissues. It gives a sound basic knowledge and understanding of
the principles behind the various uses of light in diagnostic and therapeutic medicine and imparts
sufficient knowledge to provide a basis for further courses in more specialised applications, and also
forms the core knowledge for career work within these fields.
Topics:
Interaction of Light with Biological Materials; Sources of Light; Light delivery systems; Optical
Sensors; Safety.




                                                 60
FOURTH YEAR INTERCOLLEGIATE MSci COURSES.

N.B. For full details, content etc., please refer to the MSci Handbook on the Web.
http://personal.rhul.ac.uk/UHAP/027/MSci/Files/handbook.pdf

 This list indicates taught courses of the fourth year of the Intercollegiate MSci degree programmes.
Each course has a code number used by the Intercollegiate MSci board, shown at the left hand side.
Colleges use local codes for the courses they teach. The number is usually the same as the MSci
code, but some are different so beware! Local course codes are shown at the right hand side. All
courses are a half course unit (in QMUL language, they are a full course unit). The list shows the
course title and the term in which it is taught. Also indicated is the course teacher and the college
supplying the course.

    No.               Title                     Term Lecturer               College Code

   4211 Statistical Mechanics                   2 Prof. B. Cowan           RHUL PHAS4211
   4226 Advanced Quantum Theory                 1 Prof T. Monteiro         UCL  PHAS4426
   4242 Relativistic waves and Quantum          2 Dr. A. Brandhuber        QMUL PHY899
        Fields
   4261 Electromagnetic Theory                  2     Dr. W. J. Spence     QMUL      PHY966
   4317 Galaxy and Cluster Dynamics             1     Prof M Cropper       UCL       PHAS4317
   4421 Atom and Photon Physics                 1     Prof. W. R. Newell   UCL       PHAS4421
   4427 Quantum Computation and                 2     Dr. S. Bose          UCL       PHAS4427
        Communication
   4431 Molecular Physics                       2 Dr A Bain                UCL       PHAS4431
   4442 Particle Physics                        2 Dr. M. Lancaster         UCL       PHAS4442
   4472 Order & Excitations in Condensed        2 Prof. D. McMorrow        UCL       PHAS4472
        Matter
   4473 Theory and treatment of Nano-           2 Dr. A. DeVita            KCL       CP4473
        systems
   4474 Physics at the Nanoscale                1 Prof. G. Davies &        KCL       CP4474
                                                  Prof. V. Petrashov
   4478 Superfluids, Superconductors &          1 Prof. J. Saunders        RHUL      PH4478
        Condensates.
   4512 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance              2 Prof. B. Cowan           RHUL* PH4512
   4515 Computing and statistical data          1 Dr G. Cowan              RHUL* PH4515
        analysis
   4600 Stellar structure and evolution         1$ Prof I. Williams        QMUL‡     ASTM109
   4601 Advanced Cosmology                      1  Dr. J. Lidsey           QMUL‡     ASTM108
   4603 Astrophysical Fluid Dynamics            2  Dr.S.Vorontsov          QMUL‡     ASTM112
   4630 Planetary Atmospheres                   1  Dr I. Mason             UCL       PHAS4312
   4640 Solar Physics                           2  Dr I. Philips &         UCL       PHAS4314
                                                   Dr L. M van Driel-
                                                   Gesztelyi
   4650 Solar System                            2$ Dr J. Cho               QMUL‡     ASTM001
   4660 The Galaxy                              2$ Prof C. Murray          QMUL‡     ASTM002
   4670 Astrophysical Plasmas                   1$ Dr D. Burgess           QMUL‡     ASTM116
   4680 Space Plasma & Magnetospheric           2 Dr A. Coates &           UCL       PHAS4465
        Physics                                    Dr C. Owen
   4750 Image Capture & Sensor                  2 Dr K. Powell             KCL       CP4750
        Technology


                                                 61
4602 Relativity & Gravitation                  2 Dr A. Polnarev           QMUL‡ MAS412




Students will undertake one or more project-related courses in accordance with practice at their own
colleges.
‡ Taught by the Mathematics department of QMUL. $ These QMUL courses are taught in the
evenings.
* Courses taught at RHUL in Egham, although 4515 may be available over LiveNet at the UCL
studio.




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