Meet your Minister 3
From the Editor’s Desk...
Programmes 5 Climate change and rural India
Landmarks of the Month
Nirmal Gram Puraskar – 2009 8 Climate change is one of the most important global environmental challenges, with
SARAS Mela at Pragati Maidan 9 implications for food production, water supply, health, energy security, etc. Addressing
Dr. C.P. Joshi Addresses climate change requires a good scientiﬁc understanding as well as coordinated action
Parliamentary Consultative at national and global level. The adaptive capacity of communities likely to be impacted
Committee 9 by climate change is low in developing countries. The climate change issue is part of
Handwashing Day Celebrated 10 the larger challenge of sustainable development. As a result, climate policies can be
Visit of Secretary (RD) to Libya to more effective when consistently embedded within broader strategies designed to make
Chair 59th AARDO Session 10 national and regional development paths more sustainable.
There are many climate-related problems that people in India are already facing,
National Rural Employment
Guarantee Scheme Software such as diminishing water resources and frequent natural disasters. Climate change will
(NREGASoft) 11 aggravate these existing problems. Changes in average temperatures, rainfall patterns
Know your Campaign and monsoon timings will affect India's entire environment, especially the nation's water
Ecological Sanitation 12 resources, sea-levels, and biodiversity, impacting a wide range of sectors, particularly
Success Story agriculture. Domestically with over 700 million of her people living in the rural areas for
Assured Drinking Water Supply whom sustainable development goals need to be pursued, India thus has a big stake
through Community Mobilisation 13 on climate change related issues.
The poorest, are the most vulnerable to the impacts of climate change, mainly
Phulkari Craft from Punjab 14
Improvements and Innovations
because India’s economy is so closely woven to natural resources. More than 56% of
Simple and Low Cost Technology workers are engaged in agriculture and allied sectors, while many others earn their living in
for Removal of Excess Iron and coastal areas through ﬁshing or tourism. Most of India's poorest people live in rural areas
Turbidity in Drinking Water 15 and are almost totally reliant on natural resources for their food, shelter and incomes.
In the News Ironically, though they contribute least to the deteriorating global climate change, they
The Media... on the Ministry 16 are already experiencing the impacts of it, with few resources to cope with.
Editorial Board Women’s vulnerability to climate change cannot be overstated. It’s especially the
poor women — who are most vulnerable.Women are often responsible for providing
Editor-in-Chief: Nilam Sawhney,
daily essentials such as food ,water, fuel , fodder etc. When climate-related disasters
Joint Secretary (IEC)
strike the poorest families, the workload of women and girls increases and they tend to
Editor: B. Narayanan, Director (IEC)
miss out on opportunities.
Associate Editor : A. Mazumdar,
Dy. Dir. (IEC) As climate change intensiﬁes India's poorest are at risk of losing out on opportunities
Members: to participate equally in development process. This realisation is reﬂected in the various
developmental schemes undertaken in our rural areas under the aegis of this ministry.
S.K. Singh, Dir (NREGA)
V. R. Sharma, Dir (SGSY) There is a concerted effort in these, not only to reduce the carbon footprint but also to
S. H. Khurana, Dir (RH) positively contribute towards restoration and correction of climate imbalance.
N. K. Sahu, Dir (Mon.)
For example, under NREGS no machines are utilised making it a ‘zero carbon’
S. K. Rakesh, Dir (PMGSY)
B. Lal, Dir. (DWS) programme. The works undertaken under NREGS and IWMP relate to creation and
V. Mittal, Dir. (IEC-DWS) restoration of water bodies, enhancing land productivity, afforestation, drought prooﬁng
T. Srinivas, DS (NSAP) etc. The rural solid and liquid waste management efforts under the Total Sanitation
A. K. Singh, DS (Trg.) Programme also are a step in that direction. Under the IAY beneﬁciaries are encouraged
C. P. Reddy, AC (DPAP) to use smokeless chullahs to reduce the carbon emission level.
C. S. Mann, Dy. Advisor (LR)
Photographic Asistance: Ramesh Climate change is a real life issue for the vast majority of people living in rural areas
Kumar, Staff photographer, MoRD and hence everyone needs to contribute for its upkeep in their own small way which can
Published & Distributed by be signiﬁcant in the long run.
Fountainhead Solutions (Pvt) Ltd., New Nilam Sawhney
Delhi on behalf of the Ministry of Rural
Grameen Bharat Vol.9 Issue 62: August 209
The Grameen Bharat team had the pleasure of interviewing the Minister of State for Rural
Meet your Minister Development, Shri Sisir Adhikari. Shri S. Adhikari's vast experience and deep knowledge on rural
India come through in the excerpts of the interview given below.
1. Q What are the biggest positives of working
in the Ministry of Rural Development ?
A. It gives me an opportunity to serve rural
people all over the country through regular
monitoring and supervision of all ongoing
rural development programmes and
schemes in villages. It also gives me scope
to fulﬁll the expectations of the people on
the basis of their feedback by incorporating
necessary changes in the guidelines of the
2. Q What are the challenges?
A. To provide efﬁcient and timely service to
the needy, rural poor through effective and
transparent implementation of all the developmental schemes by checking corruption. To make special efforts for
development of all sections of the society who are still suffering, like SC/ST/OBC/ women/ handicapped etc. This
target can be achieved by establishing zonal or regional ofﬁces all over India so that immediate intervention may
3. Q One of the key programmes of the Ministry is the National Land Records Modernisation Programme (NLRMP).
What are your views on it?
A. One national land reforms policy and land use policy should by made at the national level. Tenancy as well as
homestead land / house right should be recognised by law. Distribution of ‘Bhoodan’ land should be made at the
earliest and within a stipulated period.
4. Q You are known to be an advocate for the proposed Land Acquisition Bill; could you please explain how
this law could help the interests of the poor farmers?
A. The process should be transparent and the targeted project should be completed within a speciﬁed period. If the
land is not utilised for a long period for the purpose for which it was acquired, then it should be returned back to
the original owners without any charge.
5. Q With 25 years of experience as Chairman of the Kanthi Municipality, you are renowned for your organisational
skills. How do you plan to put these to use in this Ministry?
A. I ﬁrst got elected in 1962 to the Gram Panchayat and in 1969 was elected to the Kanthi Municipality. I believe
that people’s participation is the key to efﬁcient and effective administration to achieve peace, development and
Meet your Minister
6. Q What is your vision of rural India 2020?
A. I envision a rural India which will have access to better information about the rights of its people regarding various
aspects of ongoing schemes and programmes and thereby ensuring better social audit and transparency in
implementation of all the schemes and programmes of rural development.
There ought to be computerisation in the functioning of Gram Panchayats for quick transmission of information and
achievement of efﬁcient implementation of all developmental schemes for better earnings and development of the
rural people through social audit.
Villages should be self sufﬁcient and to check migration from villages to towns, for higher earnings, better infrastructure
facilities especially in health, education, roads, electricity etc. should be made available.
7. Q How can we make implementation more effective and ensure that Central policies reach and serve the
needs of people at the local level?
A. Implementation of Central policies could be improved through consistent communication and focused leadership
to achieve the strategic target and action plans.
Regional ofﬁces could be set up, which would be responsible for monitoring and assessing the implementation of
social programmes, policies and provide guidance across all regions through regular surveys and certiﬁcations,
initiatives and improvements in quality within their geographic area. Each RO/ZO would report directly to the HQ
at New Delhi.
These regional ofﬁces would also coordinate with regional ofﬁces of other departments and agencies and with State
Governments within their jurisdiction to fulﬁll the assigned targets for rural development. A skilled, committed and
highly motivated workforce should be deputed in these regional ofﬁces.
The key roles of the regional ofﬁce would be representation and monitoring, thereby leading to more effective
implementation of all policies.
8. Q Thank you for taking precious time out for Grameen Bharat, the monthly newsletter for the Ministry of Rural
Development. Would you like to address the people of rural India through this medium? What would you
like to say to them?
A. Rural people should come forward for ensuring timely and transparent implementation of all the schemes related
to the villages by better using of the Right to Information Act. If they are aware of their rights and the course of
action, only then can transparency be ensured and corruption stopped. Human resources should be strengthened
through continuous efforts. I would request rural youth to get actively involved in the process of betterment of the
villages by generating public awareness and to ensure transparency by organising regular and timely social audit.
I also feel that students of universities, colleges and particularly those who are into professional courses, should
spend some time in rural areas as part of their curriculum as this would help them to understand the issues and
concerns of our rural masses. This would help them profusely once they step out of educational institutions and
get into broader walks of life.
There should be people’s participation in every sphere of the implementation of policies. Since 70% of the population
of India resides in villages, their economic progress will ensure the peace and prosperity of the entire country. We
need to make the rural poor aware of their rights.
Grameen Bharat Vol.9 Issue 62: August 209
Spotlight Watershed Development Programmes: Helping us to
Preserve our Natural Reserves
A greater focus on watershed development programmes to increase productivity of lands in rain-fed areas may hold the key
to meeting the challenge of food security in years to come. Our Spotlight in June elaborated on the various programmes of
Watershed. This time we focus on the latest developments in this sphere since then. Mr. C.S. Mann and Dr. C.P. Reddy (of the
Department of Land Resources, MoRD), detail the latest developments in this regard.
To accelerate the pace of development of wastelands/ value addition to the interventions. The guidelines for these
degraded lands and to focus attention in this regard, all programmes were further revised with effect from 1 April
land-based developmental programmes and the Land 2003, and renamed as Hariyali Guidelines. The Common
Reforms Division were brought under the Department of Guidelines for Watershed Development Projects, 2008 have
Land Resources, which acts as the nodal agency for land come into force w.e.f. 1 April 2008.
resource management. In 1994, a Technical Committee
under the Chairmanship of Professor C.H. Hanumantha
Rao was appointed to appraise the impact of Drought Prone
Areas Programme (DPAP) / Desert Prone Programme
(DDP) and suggest measures for improvement. The
committee recommended a common set of operational
guidelines and expenditure norms for the three programmes
of Ministry of Rural Development (MoRD). Accordingly, the
guidelines for watershed development were framed and
brought into force from 1 April 1995. Since then, DPAP,
DDP and Integrated Watershed Development Programme
(IWDP) are being implemented on watershed basis. Recent Policy Modiﬁcations
Wasteland, watershed and dryland developments are
key action points of the Government. The Planning
Commission and National Rainfed Area Authority framed
Common Guidelines, 2008 for watershed programmes for
all Ministries/Departments based on the Parthasarathy
Committee report and other Committee's observations and
past experiences. The provisions in the Common Guidelines
and the observations of the Parthasarthy Committee have
necessitated modiﬁcations in the watershed schemes of
the Department of Land Resources (DoLR).
Accordingly, DPAP, DDP and IWDP have been integrated
Drip irrigation for efﬁcient use of harvested rain water
and consolidated into a single programme called the
The Watershed Guidelines of 1995 were revised by MoRD
Integrated Watershed Management Programme (IWMP).
in 2001 to make them more focussed, transparent and
This consolidation is for optimum use of resources,
suitable to local requirements. The revised guidelines
sustainable outcomes and integrated planning. The scheme
of 2001 provided for a greater role of Panchayati Raj
was approved by the Government on 26 February 2009.
Institutions(PRIs), exit protocol and provision for availing
The salient features of IWMP in comparison with existing
the credit facility from ﬁnancial institutions to ensure higher
schemes are as below:
S. No. Contents Existing provisions (Hariyali 2003) Proposed provisions under IWMP
1 Programmes Three programmes IWDP, DPAP, DDP Single programmed IWMP
2 Project area One micro-watershed A cluster of micro-watersheds
(500 ha average size) (1000 ha to 5000 ha)
3 Selection of watershed Project area did not Assured irrigation area excluded
exclude assured irrigation area from project area
4 Cost per ha. Rs. 6,000 Rs. 12,000 for plains and Rs.15,000 for
difﬁcult and hilly areas
5 Central share 75 : 25 for DPAP and DDP 92:8 for IWDP
and State share 90 : 10 for IWMP
6 Project period Five years Four to Seven years
7 Number of installments Five Three
(15%, 30%, 30%, 15%, 10%) (20%, 50%, 30%)
8 Fund allocation Training & Communication Institution & Capacity Building 5%
Mobilisation 5% Monitoring & Evaluation 2%
Administration 10% Administration 10% Works &
Works 85% Entry Point Activities 78%
9 Institutional Support Weak institutional arrangements Dedicated Institutional Structures at Central,
State, District, Project and Village level
10 Planning No separate component 1% for DPR preparation with scientiﬁc inputs
11 Monitoring & No separate component 2% of project cost. Evaluation after every
Evaluation Mid-term & ﬁnal evaluation phase of the project will be done and
release of installment is based on the
satisfactory report of the evaluation.
12 Sustainability Weak mechanism with WDF as a tool Consolidation phase with
WDF and livelihood component as a tool
13 Livelihood Not included Included as a component
A New Initiative has been Taken in the Form of Diploma Programme in Watershed Management Sponsored
by Department of Land Resources
A distance learning 'Diploma Programme in Watershed Management' has been prepared by IGNOU based on the 'Common
Guidelines 2008'. This will cover various aspects like Concept of Watershed Management, Soil and Water Conservation,
Basic Hydrology, Rainfed Farming, Integrating Farming Systems Ensuring Livelihood, Livestock Management and Capacity
Building, Funding, Monitoring and Evaluation of Different Watershed Programmes. It is visualised that the pass outs of the
proposed diploma programme from IGNOU shall be engaged in watershed projects being implemented in rural areas.
Grameen Bharat Vol.9 Issue 62: August 209
The State-wise projects sanctioned and funds released under IWMP during 2009-10 (upto October, 2009) are as below:`
S.No State No. Of Projects Area (Lakh ha) Funds Released (Rs In Crore)
1 Andhra Pradesh 110 4.73 30.67891
2 Arunachal Pradesh 13 0.68 5.45
3 Assam 57 2.21 14.81
4 Chhattishgarh 29 1.52 9.83122
5 Gujarat 68 3.3 23.28143
6 Himachal Pradesh 18 0.92 7.44269
7 Karnataka 81 3.42 23.58
8 Meghalaya 18 0.3 2.43
9 Madhya Pradesh 94 5.47 35.43886
10 Nagaland 13 0.59 4.81
11 Orissa 57 2.95 19.089
12 Punjab 6 0.35 2.28757
13 Rajasthan 162 9.26 69.92
14 Sikkim 2 0.11 0.85
15 Tamil Nadu 37 1.87 12.11183
16 Tripura 10 0.3 2.45
Total 775 37.98 264.46151
Impact Assessment of Watershed Programmes: Important Findings (ICRISAT Report, 2008)
A study titled 'Comprehensive Assessment of Watershed Programmes' in India has been assigned to Arid Tropics
(ICRISAT), Hyderabad to critically assess the impact of various Watershed Development Programmes in India.
The study has indicated the following:
(i) Watershed Programmes have performed well with a mean beneﬁt cost ratio of two, which indicates that investment
in them are economically viable and substantially beneﬁcial.
(ii) A 27.4% Mean Internal Rate of Return of 27.4% indicates that investment in watershed programmes is comparable with any
successful Governmental programme. These results conﬁrm that watershed projects are able to meet their initial costs and
generate substantial economic beneﬁts and justify the investment as income levels were raised within the target domains.
(iii) The alleviation of rural poverty and reduction of disparities among rural households is an important achievement
under the watershed +rogrammes as the average additional annual employment generation in the watershed area is
about 154 person days. Hence, the watershed investment may be characterised as a poverty alleviation programme
in fragile areas.
(iv)The objective of conserving soil and water has also been well achieved as it was noted that on an average
38 ha. m. additional water storage capacity was created in a 500 ha. watershed as a result of watershed programmes.
The irrigated area increased by 52% and the cropping intensity increased by 35.5%.
the Month Nirmal Gram Puraskar – 2009
The President of India awarded 28 block Panchayats and two district Panchayats for making their villages ‘open-defecation
free’ and ‘Nirmal Gram’ at a function held on 17 November 2009 at Vigyan Bhavan, New Delhi. The President of India
while giving away the Nirmal Gram Puraskars, consisting of a momento and scroll, to the representatives of 28 block /
taluka and two Zila Panchayats, said "Good sanitation practices are the key to a healthy lifestyle. The Total Sanitation
Campaign (TSC) has generated a lot of enthusiasm among the rural people and is truly a people’s campaign now". Over
1,000 awardees and invitees gathered for the function organised by Department of Drinking Water Supply, Ministry of
Her Excellency appreciated the efforts made by the Department of Drinking Water Supply, Ministry of Rural Development
for up-scaling TSC and achieving 61% sanitation coverage in rural India as of now. In her address, she stressed that
providing sanitation facilities to the rural poor had to be a combined effort of the Government, the elected representatives
of the Panchayati Raj Institutions
Organisations (NGOs) and
members of civil society.
Minister of State for Rural
Development, Ms. Agatha
Sangma expressed her gratitude
for the President’s patronage
which helped in implementing
sanitation programmes and
welcomed all the awardees who
had come from different parts of
the country to participate in the
The President, Smt. Pratibha Devisingh Patil presented the Nirmal Gram Puraskar 2009, function.
at a function, in New Delhi on November 17, 2009
The Minister for Rural Development, Dr. C. P. Joshi hailed the Panchayati Raj Institutions for contributing towards
improving the quality of life of the people living in rural areas by giving high priority to sanitation.
The Minister for Rural Development highlighted some of the important steps taken up by the Department to strengthen
the implementation of TSC. The measures suggested included increase in the Central share incentive for BPL households
for construction of individual household toilets to Rs. 1,500 and Rs. 2,000/- for hilly and difﬁcult areas. Other steps include
focus on the efforts for sustainable sanitation technologies like eco-san toilets, biogas-linked toilets, solid and liquid waste
management, etc. He emphasised the need for transparency and accountability in the campaign and directed the ﬁeld
functionaries to provide names and card numbers of BPL beneﬁciaries in the online Management Informations System
(MIS) of the Department.
Sikkim was conferred the award for being the ﬁrst Nirmal State in the country last year. Inspite of raising the bar and
making qualiﬁcation criteria more stringent this year, about 5,400 Gram Panchayats have qualiﬁed for Nirmal Gram
Puraskar and shall be conferred the award in their respective States.
Grameen Bharat Vol.9 Issue 62: August 209
SARAS Mela at Pragati Maidan
The two week long SARAS Mela, an exhibition cum sale showcasing the products made by rural artisans, craftsmen,
Swarnajayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojna (SGSY) beneﬁciaries, Self help groups (SHGs) and Voluntary Organisations
(VOs) got underway at Pragati Maidan, New Delhi on 14 November 2009. Union Minister for Rural Development, Dr.
C.P. Joshi, inaugurated the Mela at the India International Trade Fair (IITF-2009) Hall No.7, Pragati Maidan in New
Delhi. It was organised by the Council for Advancement of People’s Action and Rural Technology (CAPART). The
other attraction was an exclusive exhibition of rural development schemes and rural technologies at RD Pavilion (Hall
No.17), Pragati Maidan. The twin events were held from 14 to 27 November 2009.
SARAS-2009 exhibited the products of 700 artisans in nearly 390 stalls of DRDAs and VOs from 33 States and
Union Territories, displaying a variety of products from across the country. Some of the attractive products on sale
for this SARAS included bamboo artifacts, traditional and ayurvedic medicines, metalwork, woodwork, Madhubani
paintings, terracotta, sarees, shawls, dress material, carpets,
food products etc. In addition, 27 CAPART supported voluntary
organisations under the special SGSY scheme were also
represented in SARAS 2009. Lively cultural programmes by
artists from different States were another major attraction at this
mega event. A special display on rural development schemes
of the Ministry of Rural Development and rural technologies
was organised at RD Pavilion (Hall No.17), Pragati Maidan. A
Business Centre has also been created at Hall No.17 to facilitate
artisans and State coordinators for business discussions. In
addition, workshops were organised during the fair on designing
The Union Minister for Rural Development and Panchayati
Raj, Shri C.P. Joshi inaugurating the SARAS Mela, at IITF,
Pragati Maidan in New Delhi on 14 November 2009.
Dr.C.P.Joshi Addresses Parliamentary Consultative Committee
Addressing the members of the are aimed at providing resistance to nearly 70% works. These are mainly
Parliamentary Consultative Committee climate shocks and natural disasters. related to water conservation, water
on NREGA on 29 October 2009, Hence, NREGA can actually be seen harvesting, restoration, renovation
Union Minister of Rural Development moving towards its objective of food and desilting of water bodies, drought
& Panchayati Raj, Dr. C.P.Joshi and livelihood security and long term prooﬁng, plantation and afforestation.
emphasised the need to ensure sustainable development through
The members complained of lack
streamlining of the implementation ecological regeneration.
of awareness and non-cooperation
of NREGA by consistent monitoring
The positive trends in NREGA, such as of local administration in sharing
of works being done under the information. The members called for
increase in agriculture minimum wage
Act. Till date a total of 10.63 crore provision of accountability, ﬁxing of
were highlighted. Under the ﬁnancial
job cards have been provided and responsibility, timely social auditing
inclusion, 7.99 crore bank/post ofﬁce
priority has been given to water and of works done and transparency to
accounts have been opened. Distress
soil conservation, plantation and ensure smooth implementation of
migration has reduced in many parts of
afforestation works. The works related NREGA.
the country. 'Green jobs' have created
to drought prooﬁng and ﬂood protection
Handwashing Day Celebrated
Sanitation Campaign S h r i . M a t h u r, J S ( S a n i t a t i o n )
(TSC) of the DDWS. emphasised the use of soap
The programme was for handwashing not only on
presided over by Handwashing Day but in daily life
Ms Agatha Sangma as well. School children participated
Hon’ble MoS-RD, in the handwashing rhyme and skit
programme and demonstrated the
Government of India,
handwashing technique. Printed
in the presence of
material on handwashing was
Handwashing Day was celebrated on Mr. Kevin St Louis,
distributed by UNICEF, and a video
27 October 2009 at Sarvodaya Kanya representative of UNICEF (Delhi) and
on handwashing featuring Sachin
Vidyalaya (SKV) Samalkha, New Delhi Shri. J.S. Mathur, Joint Secretary
Tendulkar, Brand Ambassador for
by the Department of Drinking Water (Sanitation), DDWS, officials of
Sanitation of UNICEF, was shown
Supply (DDWS) and Department Department of Education of NCT and all participants took the pledge
of Education, Government of NCT Delhi, students of SKV, Samalkha of Handwashing and good sanitation
with the support of United Nations and school administration. practices.
International Children's Emergency Mr. Louis, Deputy Representative,
Fund (UNICEF). The campaign was UNICEF remarked that the
planned by the DDWS and Department ‘Handwashing Day’ programme was
of School Education and Literacy being celebrated all over the world.
(DSE&L), Government of India and He stated that the practice of hand
operationalised through the ﬂagship washing can reduce diseases like
programme of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan diarrhoea / pneumonia by 25% to
and Mid-day Meal of DSE&L, and Total 30%.
Visit of Secretary (RD) to Libya to Chair 59th AARDO Session
The 59th session of the Executive Committee of the Afro-
Asian Rural Development Organisation (AARDO) was held
in Tripoli 12 to 14 November 2009, at the invitation of the
Government of Libya. The Business Session was chaired
by Dr. Rita Sharma, Secretary, Rural Development,
Government of India and the President of the Executive
Committee of AARDO. The Business Session covered
issues such as the review of its core activities, income
and expenditure review, member relations, ratiﬁcation of
mutual collaboration and assistance agreements among
others. All the agenda items were adopted by the members
of the Executive Committee.`
Grameen Bharat Vol.9 Issue 62: August 209
Every month we focus on a signiﬁcant aspect of the Ministry of Rural Development’s ﬂagship programme,
NREGA Feature NREGA. We have already featured articles on ‘Job Cards’, ‘Social Audits’, ‘Muster Rolls’,‘Financial
Inclusion’, ‘Phases of Implementation’ , ‘ICT’ and others. In this issue, we discuss the NREGASoft.
National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme Software (NREGASoft)
NREGASoft is a Ministry of Rural Development and National Informatics Center initiative.
NREGASoft is the governance management system and transaction processing system to implement NREGS.
NREGASoft will facilitate e-governance by enabling a transparent and efﬁcient IT based solution to implement National
Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (NREGS) across States, districts and three tiers of the Panchayati Raj Institution.
It strives to provide an information exchange platform, a people’s information system and a grievance redressal system
which are directly accessible to the public. It provides public information dissemination of all the documents like muster rolls,
registration, job card, employment register, issue register, muster roll receipt register which were otherwise inaccessible
to the public. It facilitates faster information exchange between the various stakeholders through the network.
Salient Features as speciﬁed in the guidelines of Labour, material ratio analysis.
Multilingual interface; supports NREGA. Expenditure on work.
various local languages. Ensures that a worker should Households getting more than
Application is available in both not work on two worksites 100 days and less than 14 days
ofﬂine and online mode; overcoming simultaneously. employment.
challenges of connectivity in remote Provides status of available funds Persons earning wages more than
areas. in the accounts at Panchayat / twice the wage rate.
Connected with GRS and block / district level. It can generate MPR at Gram
e-Lekha for streamlined funds Provides the details of unfulﬁlled Panchayat level, block level, district
management. demands, works which can be level and State level.
Connected with BPL census for taken up and the unemployment The stafﬁng position module of the
common family identification allowance. software enhances the coordination
numbers. and communication among the
Beneﬁts to all Stake Holders
Exposed data to bank / post ofﬁces various stake holders of NREGA.
The software provides a comprehensive
for opening accounts, crediting Capacity Building
wage list. NIC project team has been actively
Modular design with role based engaging and collaborating with
access. NREGS State and district teams
Funds transferred and availability
Single window solution for all stake for training and knowledge transfer.
at each level.
holders. Training methodology included face-
Work approval time analysis.
Beneﬁts Accrued Gender, caste, wage earned on to-face training at the State and
E-governance for masses, the software work analysis. district level and utilisation of VC and
computerises all the activity of NREGS; Work execution level analysis. e-learning technologies.
from registration of the worker by the
Gram Panchayat to the muster roll and Application Coverage
NREGASoft spans across
Assists Gram Panchayats 31 States (89% coverage) Job Cards
The application enables Gram 567 districts (94.5%
Panchayat to: coverage)
Keep track of 100 days of 188,411,233 20,000,000+
employment of families. Registered Muster Rolls
Keep track of funds released from 555,302 villages(92.5% Persons
MoRD to Gram Panchayats. coverage)
Generates all registers / documents
Campaign Ecological Sanitation
Ecological Sanitation (Ecosan) is one of the options of sanitation practice. The Ecological Sanitation is beneﬁcial to the
environment as it saves water as well as recycles valuable nutrients back to nature. This article, contributed by
Mr. Amit Kumar Saha , Asst. Advisor (PHE) of DDWS tells us how Ecosan is being initiated
in some parts of the country.
The pour ﬂush latrine requires at least 1-2 litre of water for
each use. The Ecosan toilet does not need water for ﬂushing
but ash, sawdust or soil needs to be applied over the faeces.
In Ecosan toilets faeces and urine are collected separately
by a specially designed toilet seat. Faeces is collected in a
chamber below the toilet seat and converted into compost
after a period of about six months by natural process and urine
can be used in agricultural ﬁelds after dilution. An alternate
chamber is also constructed for composting and utilised
when the previous chamber becomes full and is opened for
removal of compost.
Fibreglass squatting pan in Fibreglass squatting pan in
a school in Mahabalipuram the community toilet complex An adult excretes about 500 litres of urine and 50 to 60
Tamil Nadu in Trichy, Tamil Nadu kilograms of faeces per year. Of the 150-200 grams of faeces
(Paul Calvert eco-solution) (photo SCOPE, Trichy)
produced per capita per day, 80% is water and the remaining
is organic material which can be converted into compost. The compost contains nutrients like nitrogen (N), phosphorous
(P), potassium (K). The value of nutrient in human excreta is shown in the following table -
Value of nutrients in human Nitrogen (N) Phosphorous (P) Potassium (K) The Ecosan toilet is very useful
excreta kg/person/year in case of high water table/
dry area and in water logged
Urine 2.4 0.3 1.1 situations. These toilets save
Faeces 0.3 0.1 0.4 water and also generate manure
for agricultural production.
Total 2.7 0.4 1.5
Various designs have been
prepared and applied in various geographical regions of the country as pilot studies. A few
studies have been taken up by various institutes like National Research Centre for Banana
(NRCB), IIT Delhi for application of urine and human compost for agricultural production.
The compost and application of urine can be an alternative to the chemical fertilizers.
The Society for Community Organisation and Peoples Education (SCOPE) has constructed
1000 units of Ecosan toilets in Tiruchirapally of Tamil Nadu. They provide 10 paise for each
time the toilet is used and collected urine is being utilised for research in banana production
by NRCB. This 'use toilet and get paid' concept is very popular in the area.
Human excreta has been productively used as a fertilizer and soil amendment in many
countries. However, this practice is still limited and not very common in India. Measures to Chinese ﬁbreglass model
recycle urine and its efﬁcacy in agriculture for food production will lessen our dependency used in a private household
in Bangalore (courtesy of S.
on chemical fertilizers.
Grameen Bharat Vol.9 Issue 62: August 209
Success Story Assured Drinking Water Supply through Community
This success story was sent by Mr. D. Rajasekhar (Asst. Adviser) of Department of Drinking Water Supply, as an exemplary
instance of community involvement for the sustainability of drinking water in Gujarat.
Particulars of Total Community Percentage of
scheme cost contribution contribution
Drinking water 18.00 0.55 (O&M) 3%
Check dam 12.00 1.20 10%
Tidal control 24.00 2.40 10%
Well recharging 1.55 0.15 10%
Avaniya village in Gujarat is situated in Bhavnagar district
and has a population of 2750 people with 483 households, Sanitation 2.50 0.81 30%
and 1200 cattle. Being a coastal village and due to geological
reasons, the drinking water sources have high amounts of
Impacts and Beneﬁts Accrued
ﬂuoride (6.5 mg/l) and high total dissolved solids (upto 3000
mg/l) making it unsafe for drinking purposes. Further, during Dual water supply has been introduced for availability
summer seasons, the local sources also dry up. of Narmada water for drinking and local source water
for domestic use.
Community Involvement and Government hand-
holding Water table has increased and quality of water has
People are getting safe drinking water regularly.
Eighty percent households have water connection.
Hundred percent water tariff is collected.
Water quality monitoring by the community, regular
chlorination at village level.
Roof-top rain water harvesting structures in 50
households and a school.
Storage structures in every household for water
The community here is actively involved in solving the
drinking water quality problems. They decided to construct
one pond, three check dams having a capacity of 0.019
Mcum, one well recharging structure and 50 roof-top
rainwater harvesting structures in households and in one
school. The community contributed a part of the capital
cost as given below:-
SGSY Feature Phulkari Craft from Punjab
Swarnjayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana (SGSY) is a self-employment programme of the Ministry of Rural Development which aims at providing
assistance to the rural poor living Below the Poverty Line (BPL) for establishing micro-enterprises with the help of bank credit and Government subsidy.
Phulkari embroidery is a striking feature was used at a time, each
of Punjabi culture. Phulkari means part worked in one colour
ﬂower work and this art of decorating and the varied colour
shawls, dupattas with embroidered effect is obtained by clever
floral motifs developed in the 15th use of horizontal, vertical
century. The women of Punjab created or diagonal stitches. The
Phulkari mostly for personal use and it thread used was of a silk
has become a symbol of familial ties. yarn called pat. In the
The cycle began with a young girl past, the silk thread was becomes visible; Bawan Bagh (52 in
who followed her mother's chores and brought in from different parts of India, Punjabi) is full of geometrical patterns.
learned household work including this like Kashmir and Bengal and also from Darshan Dwar is speciﬁcally made
embroidery. When the girl got married, Afghanistan and China. (always on a red cloth) to adorn the
phulkari formed a part of her bridal walls as a canopy in the home when
The cloth primarily used was the home-
trousseau. If a son was born to her, the Holy Book of Sikhs, Guru Granth
spun, locally woven and dyed khadi. It
her mother would start preparing a Sahib, is brought to a house. Suber
was strong, long-lasting, and cheap
‘vari da bagh’, a gift she would present Phulkari is worn by a bride during
and served the purpose of keeping
to her grand daughter-in-law. With marriage rites.
the wearer warm during winters. Also,
time, the Phulkaris became closely
the coarse weave made the counting
interwoven with the lives of the women The Government helps the creative
of thread easier. The thick cloth did not
of Punjab. The joys, sorrows, hopes, and skilful artists in Punjab by selling
pucker and pull and could be worked
dreams and yearnings of the young their handicrafts in the SARAS melas
upon without a frame.
girls and women who embroidered at various places in India and extends
the phulkaris were often transferred Phulkari for Different Occasions marketing support to them. Using
onto cloth. Many folk songs grew out its extensive reach at the grassroot
There are various Phulkari styles
of this expressive combination of skill level, MoRD is helping artisans and
used for different religious and social
and intense feeling. craftsmen market their handicrafts.
occasions. Chope is presented to
Apart from training craftspersons, the
the bride by her grandmother during
The Craft Ministry organises exhibitions, crafts
a ceremony before the wedding (it is
bazaars and fairs in different parts of
Phulkari is a skilful manipulation of a red coloured cloth with beautifully
India to popularise the art and culture
single stitch that provides interesting embroidered borders). Vari-da-bagh
of Punjab. The Punjab Government's
patterns on the cloth. The smaller the symbolises happiness and fertility
Emporium, Phulkari, boasts of the best
stitch, the ﬁner is the quality of the (it is a red cloth with golden yellow
embroidery). Ghungat bagh or sari- collection of this form of embroidery in
embroidery. Silk threads in golden
pallau has a small border on all the the country. Many of these are being
yellow, red, crimson, orange, green,
sides and is designed in a way that exported, especially to the Middle-
blue, and pink are usually employed
as one covers the head, a triangular East.
for the embroidery. The notable aspect
of this technique is that a single strand motif worked in the center of each side
Grameen Bharat Vol.9 Issue 62: August 209
and Innovations Simple and Low Cost Technology for Removal of Excess Iron
and Turbidity in Drinking Water
Bacteriological contamination of drinking water when consumed may result in diseases like diarrhoea, dysentery, typhoid,
cholera, etc. Some of the chemicals when present in excess of permissible limits in drinking water may also cause a variety of
diseases. Amongst these, excess arsenic, ﬂuoride and chromium may cause chronic diseases. Though the ill effects of consuming
excess iron in drinking water is yet to be established even by the World Health Organisation (WHO), there are some sporadic
cases of causing stomach disorders. The concentration of soluble iron in drinking water should not exceed 1 mg/litre. There are
many technologies for iron removal like ion exchange, aeration, RO, etc. These technologies may result in high operation and
maintenance cost and pose environmental threats of safe sludge / spent-water disposal. Mr. D. Rajasekhar (Assistant Technical
Advisor for DWS) sent us this write up of a viable water ﬁlter alternative called TERAFIL, which has been devised in Institute of
Minerals and Materials Technology (IMMT), Council of Scientiﬁc and Industrial Research, Bhubaneswar.
TERAFIL water ﬁlter is a low cost device to ﬁlter impure of ﬁltration varies from
water into clean drinking water. The ﬁlter is developed to 1 to 10,000 litres/hr
cater to the need for clean drinking water, especially when depending upon the
the water is rich in sediments, suspended particles, iron type and number of
and certain micro-organisms causing water borne diseases. filter discs used. The
The ﬁlter is already in use in thousands of households in cost is only Rs. 2 per
the States of Orissa and Karnataka. TERAFIL ﬁltration discs KL of filtered water
are prepared under license and training from IMMT. including cost of plant
and excluding cost of
TERAFILTM is produced from a mixture of red clay raw water.
(silt clay), river sand and wood saw dust, without using
TERAFIL ﬁltration disc can be manufactured by small
chemicals. The dough of the mixture of these materials is
and micro-entrepreneurs, like tiny, cottage, small scale
sintered at high temperature in a low cost coal / wood ﬁred
industries and Self Help Groups (SHGs) in any part of
furnace to make the terracotta disc porous. It is reported
India, without any prerequisite conditions. However, raw
that about 99% of turbidity, 90-95% of micro-organisms,
materials such as red clay (clay used by potters), river sand
90-95% of soluble iron, colours etc. may be removed from
and wood saw dust should be available in the locality. IMMT
the raw water during ﬁltration process through the TERAFIL.
Bhubaneswar will be able to transfer the technology with a
Hundred percent bacteria can be removed when a pinch
technology fee for licensing
(0.01 gm) of bleaching
manufacture of TERAFIL
powder is added to a litre
disc of Rs.1000 as onetime
of ﬁltered water. Iron gets
payment for micro and
precipitated and collected
small entrepreneurs and
on the filter disc, which
Rs.60,000 as onetime
can be easily removed by
payment for other
scraping. entrepreneurs (12.3%
Electricity is not required service tax extra).
for operation of domestic
For further details or trade enquiries, Shri S. Khuntia, the Head of Design
and community TERAFIL
& Rural Technology of IMMT (Bhubaneswar) may be contacted at
filtration units except P.O. RRL, Bhubaneswar – 751013, India.
pumping of water into the Tel. (off.) : 0674 2581635-39, Fax: 0674 2581637, 2581160
Email- firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org
plant if necessary. Rate
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