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					EGYPTOLOGY     by Dugald A. Steer


 Teachers’ Notes
 by Bridget Carrington and Nikki Gamble
                                                                               Egyptology Teachers’ Notes


CONTENTS

INTrODuCTION                                                                                         1
CurrICuLum CONTExT                                                                                   1
FrONT COvEr                                                                                          2
ENDPAPErS - ThE FrAmING NArrATIvE                                                                    3
ArrIvAL AT CAIrO                                                                                     4
NOTES ON ANCIENT EGYPT                                                                               5
A TrIP TO GIzA                                                                                       8
SAqqArA AND mEmPhIS                                                                                  9
BENI hASAN AND AmArNA                                                                               10
AT SACrED ABYDOS                                                                                    11
DEIr EL BAhrI                                                                                       12
ThE vALLEY OF ThE KINGS                                                                             13
KArNAK AND ThE COLOSSI                                                                              16
ThE CITY OF ThE hAwK                                                                                17
A TrIP TO NuBIA                                                                                     17
BACK TO PhILAE                                                                                      19
ThE TOmB OF OSIrIS?                                                                                 20

FurThEr rEADING                                                                                     21
rECOmmENDED wEBLINKS                                                                                21



                             IP FILTERED ON www.ologyworld.com
                 Egyptology: Search for the Tomb of Osiris, ISBN 978-1-84011-852-0

   The book Egyptology was first published in the UK in 2004 by Templar Publishing, an imprint of
   The Templar Company Limited, The Granary, North Street, Dorking, Surrey, RH14 1DN, UK
           Illustrations copyright © 2004 by Ian Andrew, Nick Harris and Helen Ward
                 Text and design copyright © 2004 by The Templar Company Ltd
                The Egyptology logo is a trademark of The Templar Company Ltd
                                                                                                     Egyptology Teachers’ Notes


EGYPTOLOGY
Introduction
On 1st November 1926, Miss Emily Sands arrives in Cairo. Her
interest in Ancient Egypt has been whetted by a friend’s family
heirloom – the Farncombe papyrus – and a lecture by the
renowned discoverer of Tutankhamen’s tomb, Howard Carter.

Eighty years later, the journal she wrote between that day and
the day of her unexplained disappearance in January 1927 was
sent to her great niece, who sought its publication. The journal
was extensively illustrated and contained many paper crafts
and novelties, including cutaway diagrams of the pyramids
and of mummified bodies, postcards, and guides to Egyptian
history, art, writing and mythology. There were also tables
of advice for travellers and many more flaps, fold-outs and
surprises. The journal was Miss Sands’ record of her encounters
and experiences on her journey to unravel the mystery of               Primary Framework, these suggestions can most readily
the Farncombe papyrus and discover the lost tomb of the                be accommodated in one of the Narrative units for Year 5
god Osiris. Her work was accompanied by the illustrations              – Myths, Legends and Fables – as well as when using these
of draughtsmen and artists who accompanied her on the                  types of story earlier in Key Stage 2. A range of writing
expedition. At the point Miss Sands eventually reached the lost        genres are suggested, each of which can be developed over
tomb, her journal appears to end abruptly. Nothing further was         several lessons. These include persuasive writing (e.g. travel
heard from her or her companions, who seem to have vanished            brochures and adverts), reports, obituaries and journals.
into the mists of time…                                                Topics for research are highlighted and various outcomes for
                                                                       presenting research are suggested. The conventions of drama
Curriculum context                                                     are discussed and their use in exploring emotional topics is
The suggested activities are intended to support a creative            recommended.
curriculum with opportunities for links to be made across
subjects. Where possible, it is suggested that learning                Art and Design: Several art-related topics can be explored.
can be enhanced by visits and opportunities for on-site                Pattern, colour, sculpture, jewellery, textiles and architecture
learning outside the classroom. In line with the thinking              afford opportunities for pupils’ own artwork as well as
behind Excellence and Enjoyment, opportunities to build on             opportunities to learn more about the history of art and the
children’s cultural capital are promoted. This includes making         legacy of the Egyptians. Egyptian influences in works of art
connections with, and building on, existing knowledge that             and design through the ages provide further opportunities
may have been acquired through film, television and computer           for learning about art and artists, as well as providing a
games, as well as books and more traditional sources. This             stimulus for further cross-arts work, including writing. Finally,
is not a scheme of work but a menu of possibilities, which             it is suggested that where possible, opportunities for visiting
teachers can draw upon to aid their planning.                          art galleries and museums are integrated in the study of
                                                                       Egyptology.
History: This work links to QCA Unit 10, the study of Ancient
Egypt, which is recommended for pupils in Years 3–4. It also
has relevance for Unit 2, and for Unit 16 (as a comparison).
                                                                       EGYPTOLOGY
The activities presented here can also be used for extending           The following teaching suggestions have been organised
and adapting the unit for use with Years 5–6. In addition, there       according to the order of chapters in Egyptology. However,
are links to Citizenship Unit 5. Where appropriate, links to the       many of the suggested activities allow you to draw on material
relevant QCA unit and section have been included.                      from several chapters. For instance, the activity ‘Storytelling
                                                                       performance’ is outlined in the notes for the chapter ‘Notes on
Literacy: These suggestions provide opportunities for                  Ancient Egypt’ but is also relevant to other chapters, and the
studying Egyptian myths and legends. They can be adapted               teaching suggestions for archaeological investigation can be
for different age groups. For those working with the revised           applied at any point.

                                                                   
                                                                                                     Egyptology Teachers’ Notes

FrONT COvEr
Teaching suggestions

Discuss the front cover:

 • What is written at the top and
   bottom edges of the cover?
   What is the central image? Why
   is the cover gold, and the image
   decorated in this way?
 • Do the pupils know the
   word ‘Egyptology’? In what
   context have they heard it?
   Encourage them to draw as
   widely as possible on their own
   cultural referents. They may,
   for instance, be familiar with
   computer games, stories, films
   and comic strips based around
   characters like Indiana Jones.
   Invite them to share what they
   know with talk partners or in
   small storytelling circles.
 • Talk about the image in the
   centre of the cover. What does
   this represent? Investigate the
   scarab pectoral and the vulture
   pendant found among the
   grave goods of Tutankhamen.
 • Vocabulary: Discuss the word
   ‘ancient’. Locate a dictionary
   definition. Make a timeline and
   place the Ancient Egyptian
   Empire on that timeline.                                          Additional ideas
 • Make sure pupils understand the use of ‘B.C.’ and ‘A.D.’ as
   well as the newer descriptions ‘B.C.E.’ (‘Before Common Era’)         • Make a display. This might include:
   for ‘B.C.’ and ‘C.E.’ (Common Era) for ‘A.D.’ Pupils might like         · books and images about Ancient Egypt and Egyptology,
   to consider why some dating methods use B.C.E. and C.E.                   especially the mystery surrounding excavation and grave
   instead of B.C. and A.D.                                                  goods
 • Note that there are differences of opinion about the start              · postcards, photographs or travel posters showing
   and finish of the Ancient Egyptian era. The start date is                 Egyptian monuments
   traditionally said to be 3100 B.C. (B.C.E.) – the date when             · holiday souvenirs from pupils. If they have been to Egypt,
   north and south Egypt were united by the first pharaoh,                   they may be able to provide photos, postcards or other
   Namer. The fall of the Roman Empire in A.D. 395 (or C.E.)                 mementoes. They can produce informative labels for their
   usually marks the end date. Alternative end dates might be                objects and place them in a class ‘museum’.
   used, so explain this to the pupils.                                    · maps and an atlas
 • Names: Why are there so few Ancient Egyptian names                      · dictionaries (for identifying word origins)
   in use today? Unlike other ancient civilisations, such as
   those of Rome and Greece, Ancient Egyptian names have                 • Transform the classroom into an Egyptian tomb interior. Run
   not been adopted widely in Europe. Explore explanations                 a frieze around the top of the wall with hieroglyphs, Egyptian
   for this, such as the history and culture of Egypt after the            patterns and stylised people and scenes. Grave goods could
   Ancient Egyptian era.                                                   be made from metallic papers. There is more information

                                                                     
                                                                                                     Egyptology Teachers’ Notes
   about making (fake) mummies and death masks in later             Teaching suggestions
   chapter notes. Egyptian columns made from paper can be
   used to mark display areas (see page borders for inspiration).       • Mystery: What do the pupils think has happened to the
                                                                          English explorer when Joanna Sutherland (Emily Sands’
                                                                          niece) writes the following in her letter to the publishers?
ENDPAPErS – ThE                                                           ‘…my great aunt and her companions vanished into the
FrAmING NArrATIvE                                                         desert, never to be heard of again.’ Ask pupils to consider the
                                                                          story that is being set up and to predict how it will unravel.
Description
The endpapers show a collection of items relevant to the                • Character: What image do pupils have of Miss Emily Sands?
journey of Miss Emily Sands and the subsequent history of her             Use a ‘role-on-the-wall’ technique to develop character
journal. Some of them are displayed over a map of the Nile                profiles based on the information presented here and the
Valley, which marks the places visited on the journey. These              inferences that the pupils make.
items include:
  • a photograph of the expedition team with Lord and Lady              • Research the discovery of the tomb of Tutankhamen.
    Farncombe                                                             See also the journal entry in the chapter ‘The Valley of
  • a ticket for a lecture given by Howard Carter (like T.G.H.            the Kings’. How scientific and careful was Howard Carter’s
    James, a real person)                                                 excavation compared with those in earlier centuries, and
  • rail tickets from Waterloo to Portsmouth and from Dorking             with current excavation?
    to Waterloo
  • a letter to the publisher from Miss Sands’ great niece                Look at the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography to find
  • a postcard from Miss Sands to her friend and sponsor,                 out about Howard Carter. Details of his life and career can
    Lady Farncombe                                                        also be found at:
  • a letter from a former Keeper of Egyptian Antiquities at the
    British Museum, commenting on the journal’s provenance                http://www.archaeologyexpert.co.uk/HowardCarter.html
  • a note from the publishers giving modern spellings for
    some of the names mentioned in the journal                            and extracts from his excavation diary can be found at:
  • a collection of cards and labels in an envelope addressed
    to Miss Sands at her hotel in Cairo                                   http://griffith.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/gri/4sea1not.html




                                                                    
                                                                                                   Egyptology Teachers’ Notes
  Original photographs of the discovery of Tutankhamen’s                 · What preparations would they make?
  tomb can be found at:                                                  · How would they feel about leaving their families behind?
                                                                         · How would they travel?
  http://griffith.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/gri/carter/gallery/
                                                                          Drama is a useful vehicle for creating a ‘need to know’
  Information on the pharaoh can be found at:                             about a period and place depicted. After the role-play,
                                                                          investigate travel in the 1920s. What methods of transport
  http://www.akhet.co.uk/amarna/tutankh.htm                               would have been used? Use a map or an atlas to chart
                                                                          your journey. Find out about the great explorations of
  Many museums all over the world have Egyptian antiquities               the period.
  (particularly statues, mummies and mummy cases).
                                                                       • Writing in role: Following the role-play, pupils could be
• Fact or fiction? Research the railway company named on                 invited to write in role. They might write a diary entry in
  the tickets. What other clues are there in the journal to help         the role of a traveller on the night before leaving for Egypt,
  us decide what is fact and what is fiction?                            or write postcards back to England once they have arrived
                                                                         in Egypt.
• Organise a debate with one half of the class arguing that
  Egyptian antiquities should remain in Egypt (the position            • Narrative: If you are planning to base your teaching about
  taken by many countries whose treasures have been taken                Ancient Egypt around Egyptology and the chapter-by-
  for permanent display in other countries), and the other               chapter organisation, you may want to use the framing
  half arguing in favour of foreign museum collections (the              narrative to structure an extended journey drama.
  position taken by museums who ‘own’ these artefacts and
  justify their better preservation as a result).
                                                                   ArrIvAL AT CAIrO
• Journey drama: Preparing for a tour. Using the ‘teacher-
  in-role’ drama convention, talk to the class as though you       Description
  were the leader of a tour to Ancient Egypt, with the pupils
  in role as fellow travellers.                                    The left- and right-hand pages begin the travel diary of Miss
  · Ask pupils to reflect on their expectations for the trip.      Emily Sands and include:




                                                                   
                                                                                                          Egyptology Teachers’ Notes
  · the ‘Farncombe papyrus’ in a pocket on the left-hand                     • Ancient meets modern: Investigate influences on art.
    page – this is the document that suggests that the god                     · ‘The Egyptian palette’ – Pupils may be familiar with the
    Osiris was a ‘real’ person with an actual tomb, which gives                  highly patterned ‘op-art’ pictures of British artist Bridget
    rise to the expedition                                                       Riley. On a visit to Egypt, Riley noticed the recurring
  · a central painting of 1920s archaeologists near the                          colour palette used in Egyptian painting and decorative
    pyramids at Giza                                                             arts. You can view examples of her work inspired by this
  · smaller sketches, which fill in the detail of street life in Cairo           colour palette here:
  · a drawing of a dahabeeya – the sailing barge in which the
    expedition will travel up the Nile                                         http://www.artcyclopedia.com/artists/riley_bridget.html
  · small images of some of the artefacts in the Egyptian
    Museum at Cairo                                                            · Using these colours, pupils could make their own stripe
  · Egyptian columns, with relief images of figures and leaves                   paintings in the style of Riley.
    on either side of the spread                                               · Can you find other examples of Egyptian-inspired art and
                                                                                 architecture? For example, pupils may wish to look at the
Teaching suggestions                                                             Pyramid Arena in Tennessee, the Luxor Hotel in Las Vegas
                                                                                 or the Egyptian Bridge in St Petersburg.
• Investigate papyrus:
  · What is it?                                                              • Travelogue: Introduce the term ‘travelogue’ for a travel
  · How is it made?                                                            journal. Have any pupils kept travel journals while on
  · Make papyrus – full instructions on this and other                         holiday? You could suggest that this is a way of keeping
    Egyptian crafts can be found at:                                           a record of special holidays.

  http://www.pioneerthinking.com/makingpaper.html
  http://www.lib.umich.edu/pap/k12/materials/papyrus.html                NOTES ON ANCIENT EGYPT
  http://www.historyforkids.org/crafts/projects/papyrus.htm
                                                                         Description
• Research The Egyptian Museum’s collection in Cairo:
                                                                         This spread provides a map of Ancient Egypt, as well as
  http://www.egyptianmuseum.gov.eg/                                      the story and background to the legend of Isis and Osiris.
  · What is a ‘curator’?                                                 A fold-out flap shows the chronology of Ancient Egypt.




                                                                         
                              Egyptology Teachers’ Notes
The reverse side illustrates the crowns of the different
kingdoms of Ancient Egypt.

Flaps covering the map provide data on international distances
from Egypt and monthly temperatures at different locations
along the Nile.

Teaching suggestions

The seven sections in the QCA unit on Ancient Egypt can all be
addressed via the teaching suggestions that follow.

http://www.standards.dfes.gov.uk/schemes2/history/his10/
10q2?view=get

 • The journey: Create an enlarged copy of the map and
   display it alongside a map of modern Egypt. Chart the
   journey taken by Emily Sands and her party, using coloured
   wool or marker pins. As you read each chapter, you can add
   the next stage of the journey to your map.

 • Then and now: Accompany the map display with stimulus
   questions to encourage pupils to explore the maps.
   For example:
   · Why is Suez famous now?
   · What is there at Aswan now that wasn’t there in Ancient
     Egyptian times?
   · Where was Upper Egypt?
   · Where was Lower Egypt?
   · Where was Nubia?
You can extend this activity by considering places the
Egyptians might have traded with using the River Nile.
   · Look at the full course of the River Nile. How far does
     it flow?
   · What countries does it pass through?

   The questions accompanying the map display can be changed
   periodically to inspire fresh engagement. Provide paper and
   pens to encourage pupils to add their own questions.

 • Important sites of Ancient Egypt: Obtain copies of travel
   brochures, tourist-information leaflets and web pages with
   information about the sites shown on the map. If you have
   a good local travel agent you might arrange a talk about
   cultural tours to Egypt.
   · Ask pupils, in pairs, to research a site, finding out about
     its significance in Ancient Egypt and its modern status.
     Do all of these places still exist?
   · Alexandria
   · Cairo
   · Aswan
   · Memphis
   · Thebes
   · What city was originally sited at Luxor?
                                                                                                     Egyptology Teachers’ Notes
   Note: This work can be aligned to QCA Unit 10 on                          of Moses and the Plagues. A storytelling activity could be
   Ancient Egypt. Topic 3 requires pupils to investigate                     used to tell stories about these Biblical characters.
   what the landscape tells us about what life might have                  · This activity could also be used to tell stories about
   been like in Ancient Egypt. This could form the core                      other Egyptian gods that are mentioned elsewhere in
   work, with pupils researching other cities as extension                   Egyptology.
   activities.
                                                                         • Vocabulary: Generate an interest in words. This will help
 • The information resulting from this research could be used              establish good spelling strategies for pupils who are
   to produce one of the following:                                        ‘transitional’ or ‘good’ spellers. For example:
   · a travel brochure                                                     · Ask pupils to define ‘archaeology’. Check definitions in a
   · a short tourist-information film                                         dictionary.
   · a tourist-information leaflet                                         · Find out about the etymology of the word. For example,
   · a web page for the city                                                  the root ‘archae-’ comes from the Greek for ‘ancient’, and
                                                                              the suffix ‘-ology’ comes from the Greek ‘logos’, meaning
Some pupils might like to produce an itinerary and travel                     ‘knowledge’. It is easy to work out how Egyptology got
advice for a ‘Rambling Rameses’ walking tour of Egypt in the                  its name!
1920s, using the information provided on the flaps.                        · Make a collection of other ‘-ology’ words and display
                                                                              them.
 • Egypt is in Africa: The Petrie Museum has an excellent class            · Choose one of these words as ‘Word of the Week’ and
   pack focussing on this topic:                                              create a vocabulary focused display.

   http://www.petrie.ucl.ac.uk/                                          • Mythology: The Ancient Egyptians had their own gods and
                                                                           goddesses and their own mythical stories.
 • Storytelling performance: Provide small groups                          · Ask pupils to propose a definition for ‘mythology’. Ask
   (4–6 pupils) with copies of the legend of Isis and Osiris.                them to recall contexts in which they have heard the
   The account given in Egyptology is brief and can be                       word. Encourage them to use a range of dictionaries to
   expanded on.                                                              check their suggestions. Write the dictionary definition
   · Ask each group to read the story aloud and then retell the              on a large sheet of paper and display this in the
     story in a storytelling circle. This informal oral rehearsal            classroom.
     will help the pupils internalise the story.                           · Explain that different cultures gave rise to their own
   · Provide each group with a large sheet of paper on which                 mythologies. There are many similarities in these
     they can storyboard their version. They need to include                 mythologies, e.g. creation stories and hero tales are
     six to eight key scenes, making sure the beginning,                     widespread. Cultural differences are also evident.
     developing conflict and resolution have all been drawn.
     They may want to add some dialogue in speech bubbles,           Useful resources:
     or sound effects (e.g. the sounds of the desert, or a fight).      · Stories from Ancient Egypt, Joyce Tyldesley (Rutherford
     This activity should involve collaborative drawing. All              Press, 2005) ISBN 978-0-95476-221-6
     members of the group need to participate rather than                 This collection includes stories about the gods, such as
     giving one person instructions. This further reinforces              ‘The Creation of the World’, ‘Hathor and the Red Beer’
     the story and is vital preparation for the storytelling              and the myths about Osiris, Isis and Horus. Fairy stories
     performance.                                                         and incredible adventures are represented in ‘The Story
   · The storyboards are a visual aid that the pupils can use to          of the Shipwrecked Sailor’, ‘The Adventures of Sinuhe’
     support their storytelling performances.                             and ‘The Prince, the Dog, the Snake and the Crocodile’,
   · Ask groups to decide how they will perform their stories.            while good and bad behaviour are to be found in
     They could use instruments and sound collage, as well as             ‘Three Magical Stories’ and ‘The Story of Truth and
     acting out sections of dialogue.                                     Falsehood’. King Rameses II himself tells us about
   · Groups perform stories to the class or perhaps a parallel            ‘The Battle of Kadesh’.
     class or school assembly.                                          · The Orchard Book of Stories from Ancient Egypt, Robert
   · For an extra special performance, set the scene with                 Swindells (Orchard Press, 2003) ISBN 978-1-84362-306-9
     Egyptian music, a PowerPoint presentation showing                    Stories from Egyptian mythology, retold by prize-winning
     Ancient Egyptian scenes or pictures showing a                        author Robert Swindells. This accessibly written, lively
     reconstruction of a pyramid.                                         collection vividly brings to life these powerful characters
   · Other stories that include information about Ancient                 and their amazing stories. Includes tales of Ra, Thoth, Isis
     Egypt can be found in the Bible, and include the stories             and Osiris, as well as famous pharaohs.

                                                                     
                                                                                                  Egyptology Teachers’ Notes




   · Tales of Ancient Egypt, Roger Lancelyn Green (Puffin, 1995)           Where and what are they?
     ISBN 978-0-14036-716-4                                              · What are the other six Wonders of the Ancient World?
     An older collection by the classic reteller of myths and            · How many still survive?
     legends.                                                            · Seven ‘Modern Wonders’ have been proposed: what are
                                                                           they? How do they compare with the Ancient Wonders?
                                                                         · What can pupils find out about the New Open World
A TrIP TO GIzA                                                             Corporation’s ‘New Seven Wonders of the World’? Are any
                                                                           of the Ancient Wonders on this list?
Description                                                              · Show the pupils how to record sources for the
                                                                           information they find. Introduce them to the idea of
This spread gives background information on the pyramids,                  checking information by using more than one source.
with historical photographs. There are also images of what an            · This could be set as a homework task.
Ancient Egyptian funeral procession might have looked like.
                                                                       • Maths Pyramids: These provide great technology
Three pyramid flaps lift to show their interior layout.                  opportunities! Investigate how a pyramid can be made.
                                                                         Some pupils may be able to produce a net to make a
The text that accompanies a small photograph of the Sphinx               pyramid. A variety of different nets, some based on
gives clues about how it used to look.                                   the proportions of specific Egyptian pyramids, can be
                                                                         found at:
Teaching suggestions
                                                                         http://www.korthalsaltes.com/pyramid.htm
These activities support sections 4, 5 and 7 of QCA Unit 10 on
Ancient Egypt.                                                           Pupils could make paper or card pyramids from their own
                                                                         nets or from pre-printed ones. These could be used to start
http://www.standards.dfes.gov.uk/schemes2/history/his10/                 a table-top scene of Giza.
10q7?view=get
                                                                       • The Sphinx at Giza should not be confused with the
 • The Seven Wonders of the Ancient World:                               Sphinx in the Greek myth of Oedipus. Although there are
   · What do pupils already know about the pyramids at Giza?             cities called Thebes in both Greece and Egypt, it is the

                                                                   
                                                                                                  Egyptology Teachers’ Notes
   Greek city outside which Sophocles’ Sphinx sat and posed         making a visit to see Egyptian subjects in works of art. You may
   Oedipus a riddle.                                                be able to arrange a curator talk. This can be linked to the QCA
   · Pupils could investigate the difference between Greek          Art and Design unit ‘Visiting a Museum’:
     and Egyptian sphinxes.
   · Would the Greeks have known about the Sphinx at Giza?          http://www.standards.dfes.gov.uk/schemes2/art/museum/
                                                                    ?view=get
 • Art history and architecture: Ancient Egyptian subjects
   and images have been popular at various times as
   inspiration for artists and designers. Find out about:           SAqqArA AND mEmPhIS
   · paintings of Biblical scenes about Egypt
   · images of famous Egyptians, such as Cleopatra                  Description
   · rooms, furniture and decoration – Egyptian Halls were
     created in some great houses, such as the Mansion House        These pages describe a visit to the tombs and a catacomb near
     in London. There is also a grandiloquent Egyptian Hall in      Memphis, and show mummified animals from baboons to cats.
     Harrods, Knightsbridge!                                        Continuing the information about pyramids, these pages
   · furniture with sphinx heads and feet, designed after Admiral   describe the Step Pyramid at Zoser and the finds associated
     Nelson’s victory at the Battle of the Nile in 1798             with both sites.
   · buildings with Egyptian motifs in their masonry
     – these were particularly popular in the eighteenth and        Enclosed in a small packet attached to the page is a
     nineteenth centuries, and again as part of the twentieth       sample of mummy cloth. More detailed information about
     century Art Deco movement. Many cinemas that date              the mummification process is found later in ‘The Valley of the
     from the 1920s and 1930s have elaborate Egyptian-style         Kings’ and ‘Back to Philae’, and on most of the websites about
     pillars outside, and lavish Egyptian interiors.                Ancient Egypt listed at the end of these Teachers’ Notes.
   · Cleopatra’s Needle, London, placed on the Embankment
     near Charing Cross. It was brought here in Victorian times     Teaching suggestions
     and is flanked by two sphinxes at its base. It comes from
     Heliopolis and dates from 1450 B.C.                                • Research could be undertaken about:
                                                                          · the Step Pyramid. Can pupils construct a Step Pyramid
If you are in travelling distance of an art gallery, consider               using the pyramid nets?




                                                                    
                                                                                                     Egyptology Teachers’ Notes
   · animal mummies. Many museums around the country                 description of the Egyptian system of hieroglyphics. A
     have mummified animals among their displays, which              description of the discovery of the Rosetta Stone and the
     pupils may have seen on a past visit. Which animals have        resulting decoding of hieroglyphs is given.
     been mummified?
                                                                     Teaching suggestions
 • Discuss the importance of birds and animals in Ancient
   Egyptian religion.                                                    • Research hieroglyphs: The Ancient Egyptian systems of
   · Can pupils find out which creatures were considered                   writing and mathematics both used hieroglyphs.
     sacred to the Ancient Egyptian gods?
   · What reasons can pupils suggest for the deification of                An excellent tool for English- and Maths-related work can
     animals?                                                              be found at:
   · Which animals and birds are depicted on Egyptian friezes?
                                                                           http://www.greatscott.com/hiero/

BENI hASAN AND AmArNA                                                      A simple transliterating tool for pupils’ names can be
                                                                           found at:
Description
                                                                           http://www.upennmuseum.com/hieroglyphsreal.cgi
The text of these pages further describes the passage of the boat
up the Nile and a visit to the tombs of nobles at Beni Hasan.            • Art and Design: Ask each pupil to make a cartouche with
                                                                           their name in hieroglyphs on it:
An explanation of changes in Ancient Egyptian beliefs is                   · A cartouche is an oval ring with a name in hieroglyphs
given, and we are told that at one time, a single god, the Aten,             inside it. Ancient Egyptians made cartouches for kings,
was worshipped. We are reminded that Osiris was god of the                   queens and other high-ranking people.
underworld, and that not only kings and queens, but also                   · Firstly, ask pupils to find out how to transliterate their
Egyptian nobles, were mummified and buried in great tombs.                   first names.
                                                                           · Arrange the hieroglyphs vertically on yellow or gold card,
A small booklet called ‘Understanding Hieroglyphs’ is                        then cut each cartouche into an oval shape.
attached to the right-hand page. This booklet gives a simple               · Display the finished cartouches.




                                                                                                              Understanding
                                                                                                              HieroglypHics




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