Test kits for water analysis Macherey Nagel

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					                                                                   Test kits for water analysis

VISOCOLOR ® test kits and reagent cases · photometer PF-11
VISOCOLOR ® test kits are complete mini-laboratories with           Numerous VISOCOLOR ® test kits are not only available as
reagents and accessories for water analysis. They enable the        individual kits, but can be assembled in VISOCOLOR ® rea-
analysis in question to be performed without any additional         gent cases. For some fields of application, combinations of
equipment or prior experience in chemistry.                         important parameters are offered as complete reagent cases.
VISOCOLOR ® rapid tests are based on the chemical-                  The photometer PF-11 closes the gap between the visual-
 analytical methods of visual colorimetry and volumetric            colorimetric VISOCOLOR ® test kits and the NANOCOLOR ®
 analysis (titration).                                              system for photometric water analysis.
All VISOCOLOR ® test kits feature a low susceptibility to-
wards interferences and a high selectivity for the substance in
question. Different measuring principles and different chemi-
cal detection reactions cover a large measuring range for the
parameters from acidity to zinc.


                                             VISOCOLOR ® test kits for water analysis                                       34 – 53
                                                Summary and ordering information                                            34 – 39
                                                VISOCOLOR ® test kits
                                                VISOCOLOR ® alpha test kits (colorimetry and volumetric analysis)                  34
                                                VISOCOLOR ® ECO test kits (colorimetry and volumetric analysis)                    35
                                                VISOCOLOR ® HE test kits (high sensitivity colorimetry)                            36
                                                VISOCOLOR ® titration test kits (volumetric analysis)                              36




                                                                                                                                             ®
                                                VISOCOLOR ® comparator test kits (colorimetry)                                     37
                                                Description of individual parameters and tests                               40 – 53

                                             VISOCOLOR ® reagent cases                                                      54 – 57
                                                Programme                                                                          54
                                                Reagent case for soil analysis                                                     54
                                                Reagent cases for water analysis
                                                Reagent cases with visual test kits
                                                VISOCOLOR ® ECO reagent cases                                                      55
                                                VISOCOLOR ® reagent cases                                                          55
                                                Reagent cases with photometer PF-11
                                                VISOCOLOR ® reagent case ”Environmental analysis“                                  56

                                             VISOCOLOR ® photino                                          NEW!                     58

                                             Photometer PF-11                                                               60 – 62
                                                Properties, technical data, ordering information                                 60
                                                Tests which can be evaluated with the photometer PF-11                      60 – 61




Analytical principles
Colorimetry                                                         Volumetric analysis (titration)
In colorimetric procedures advantage is taken of the fact that      For certain substances it is difficult or even impossible to con-
certain reagents form coloured compounds with the sub-              vert them to compounds which can be colorimetrically evalu-
stances to be determined. The intensity of the colour is direct-    ated. In many of these cases titrimetric methods are used for
ly related to the concentration or the substance in question. In    analysis.
the case of the VISOCOLOR ® Nitrite e.g. the reagents form          This measuring principle is briefly explained as follows:
a blue-red dye with nitrite. The resulting colour intensity is      For volumetric analysis one adds drop by drop of a titration
proportional to the concentration of nitrite. In the case of pH     solution into a defined volume of the sample solution. The ac-
measurements the use of specific indicator mixtures permits         tive substance in the titration solution reacts with the sub-
the formation of a characteristic colour for each pH value. The     stance to be determined in the sample. After complete
reaction colours obtained are compared with a range of              reaction further addition of titration solution would cause an
standards in a sample vessel called comparator. As soon as          excess of the active substance. The point of complete reac-
the reaction colour has been matched to a comparison colour,        tion (end point or equivalence point) is visualised by the col-
the result can be read from the comparator or colour charts.        our change of an indicator added to the sample.



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                           Test kits for water analysis

         VISOCOLOR ® alpha
         VISOCOLOR® alpha uses colorimetric, as well as titrimetric            age, and also provides all information required for the test: in-
         procedures. Use of multicomponent reagents results in a very          structions for use in 6 languages with pictographs, as well as
         convenient, rapid and safe handling, because often only one           a colour comparison scale for colorimetric evaluations.
         reagent is needed for each test.                                      The blister packs of the VISOCOLOR® alpha test kits have a
         The reagent bottles are packed in practical blister packs. The        punched hole for convenient storage or display in showrooms
         cardboard back is slidden for opening and closing the pack-           or sale rooms.

         Colorimetric Tests                                                    Titration Test Kits
         Principle:                                                            Principle:
         Colorimetry with colour comparison card                               Titration with drop counting
             visual evaluation                                                     visual evaluation
             environment-friendly, without hazardous goods                         environment-friendly, without hazardous goods
             low-priced                                                            low-priced
             convenient handling, as easy as dip sticks                            convenient handling, as easy as dip sticks
             accurate results                                                      accurate results
             handy packages                                                        indicator and titration solution in one dropping bottle
             with pictographic instructions                                        handy packages
             reagent bottles with clear dosing instructions                        with pictographic instructions
                                                                                   reagent bottles with clear dosing instructions
®




         Test kit consists of plastic pack with:                               Test kit consists of plastic pack with:
         ✓  sample tube with 5 ml ring mark                                    ✓ sample tube with 5 ml ring mark
         ✓  colour coded bottles with liquid or powder reagents                ✓ one dropping bottle with mixture of indicator and
         ✓  measuring spoon for accurate dosage of solid reagents                 titration solution
         ✓  colour scale with at least 5 gradations




         Fill sample tube with   Add liquid reagent   ... add solid reagent.   Fill sample tube with      Add liquid reagent...   ...untill indicator
         the water sample.       or...                                         the water sample.                                  changes colour.


                                                                               Count drops: 1     = 1 measuring unit, e.g. °d




         Mix.                    Wait the indicated   View from above
                                 reaction time.       and compare with
                                                      colour scale.




    34     MN                                                                                                                          www.mn-net.com
                                                                      Test kits for water analysis

VISOCOLOR ® ECO
VISOCOLOR ® ECO presents a product group of colorimetric               sufficient accuracy. All VISOCOLOR ® ECO test kits are
and titrimetric test kits which avoids hazardous substances            packed in an environment-friendly box and contain easy to
wherever possible. With VISOCOLOR ® ECO even water                     understand instructions in 6 languages.
constituents with low limiting values can be determined with

Colorimetric Test Kits                                                 Titration Test Kits
Principle:                                                             Principle:
Colorimetry with colour comparison card                                Titration with drop counting
    visual and photometric evaluation (with PF-11 / photino)               visual evaluation
    environment-friendly, without toxic reagents                           environment-friendly, without toxic reagents
    economically priced                                                    economically priced
    convenient handling                                                    convenient handling
    higher accuracy and sensitivity                                        higher accuracy and sensitivity
    with pictographic instructions                                         sharper colour change due to separated
    reagent bottles with clear dosing instructions                         dropping reagents
    compensation of turbidities and colours                                reagent bottles with clear dosing instructions
    refill packs available




                                                                                                                                        ®
Test kit consists of cardboard box with:                               Test kit consists of cardboard box with:
✓   2 measuring tubes 20 mm diameter with screw caps                   ✓ sample tube with 5 ml ring mark
✓  holder for the measuring tubes                                      ✓ gradated plastic syringe 5 ml for convenient
✓  colour coded bottles with liquid or powder reagents                    sample dosage
✓  gradated plastic syringe 5 ml for convenient                        ✓ dropping bottle(s) with indicator solution
   sample dosage                                                       ✓ dropping bottle(s) with titration solution
✓ measuring spoon for accurate dosage of solid reagents
✓ colour comparison card with at least 8 gradations




          A   B                 A B              A    B
Fill both tubes with   Add liquid reagent   Add solid reagent          Fill sample tube with       Add indicator and
the water sample.      (tube B).            (tube B).                  water sample.               mix.




              B                                        A

      A
                                                       B
Close and mix.         Wait the indicated   Place on colour scale      Add titration solution      ... until indicator
                       reaction time.       and shift until colours    drop by drop...             changes colour.
                                            match.

                                                                      Count drops: 1       = 1 measuring unit, e.g. °d




www.mn-net.com                                                                                                              MN     35
                                   Test kits for water analysis

         VISOCOLOR ® HE
         VISOCOLOR® HE test kits are highly sensitive colorimetric                   Each VISOCOLOR® HE test kit is packed in a sturdy plastic
         test kits. In comparison with conventional VISOCOLOR® kits,                 box which contains the comparator block with colour compar-
         their sensitivity is enhanced by increasing the length of the               ison disk and all required reagents. The VISOCOLOR® titra-
         test tube and the use of highly sensitive reagents. This tech-              tion test kits are based on principles of volumetric analysis.
         nique allows a 10-fold to 100-fold increase of sensitivity.                 On the gradated syring the results can be read off in mg/l or
                                                                                     in a second alternative dimension.

         Colorimetric Test Kits                                                      Titration Test Kits
         Principle:                                                                  Principle:
         High sensitivity colorimetry with comparator block and                      High sensitive volumetric analysis with gradated syringe
         colour comparison disc
             visual evaluation                                                           visual evaluation
             environment-friendly, without toxic reagents                                economically priced
             economically priced                                                         convenient handling
             convenient handling                                                         highest accuracy due to narrow gradated syringe
             highest accuracy due to extremely narrow gradation                          reagent bottles with clear dosing instructions
             highest sensitivity down to 0.002 mg/l due to longer                        sharper colour change due to separated
             measuring tubes                                                             dropping reagents
             reagent bottles with clear dosing instructions                              refill packs available
             compensation of turbidities and colours
®




             refill packs available




         Test kit consists of plastic box with:                                      Test kit consists of cardboard box with:
         ✓ 2 measuring tubes 20 mm diameter with screw caps                          ✓ sample tube with 5 ml ring mark
         ✓ comparator block with colour comparison disk                              ✓ gradated syringe for precise reagent dosage
         ✓ colour coded bottles with liquid or powder reagents                       ✓ bottle(s) with indicator solution
         ✓ measuring spoon for accurate dosage of solid reagents                     ✓ bottle(s) with titration solution
         ✓ beaker for convenient sample dosage

                                                                                                                       ®




                          ®
                              HE                                                                                                                   ®




                                               A B                    A B                                                                   TL
         Insert colour com-            Fill both tubes with   Add liquid and/or      Fill sample tube with    Add the indicator   Fill the titration syringe.
         parison disk.                 the water sample.      solid reagents         the water sample.        and mix.
                                                              (tube B).




                     B
            A
                                                                            ®
                                                                                HE



         Close and mix.                Wait the indicated     Turn the disk until
                                       reaction time.         colours match.         Add titration solution   Read result.
                                                                                     until the indicator
                                                                                     changes colour.


    36     MN                                                                                                                         www.mn-net.com
                                                                          Test kits for water analysis

VISOCOLOR ® comparator test kits                                           VISOCOLOR ® applications
Each VISOCOLOR® comparator test kit is packed in a sturdy                  VISOCOLOR ® test kits are based on established reaction
plastic box, which contains a comparator for colour compari-               principles, which are described in various internationally ac-
son and all required reagents. VISOCOLOR® comparator kits                  knowledged regulations (EPA, ISO, EN normes).
contain useful analytical accessories and thus can be used as              VISOCOLOR ® water test kits can be used in various applica-
complete mini-laboratories.                                                tions.

Colorimetric Test Kits                                                         Agriculture and floriculture (soil analysis)
Principle:                                                                     Aquaculture and fish farming
Colorimetry with comparator cell
                                                                               Boiler feed water
    visual and photometric evaluation (with PF-11)
                                                                               Breweries
    convenient handling
    reagent bottles with clear dosing instructions                             Cement and concrete production
    compensation of turbidities and colours                                    Chemical industries
    refill packs available                                                     Cooling water
                                                                               Drinking water
                                                                               Electroplating industries
                                                                               Food and beverage industries
                                                                               Industrial waste water
                                                                               Leather industries




                                                                                                                                                 ®
                                                                               Metal processing industries
                                                                               Milk industries
                                                                               Municipal waste water
                                                                               Paper industries
                                                                               Photo industries
                                                                               Pool and spa care
                                                                               Surface water and sea water
Contents of a comparator test kit:                                             Textile industries
✓ comparator cell
✓ compensation cell for coloured or turbid samples
✓ colour coded bottles with liquid or powder reagents
✓ measuring spoon for accurate dosage of solid reagents
✓ beaker for convenient sample dosage


                                     ®




                                                                      ®
                                                                           Handling and Storage of
                                                                           VISOCOLOR ® test kits
                                                                           ✓   colour coded reagent bottles for clear identification of
Fill the comparator with   Add liquid reagent.   Add solid reagent.
the water sample.                                                              reagents
                                                                           ✓   fast dissolving reagents, no crushing of tablets, no
                                                                               stirring
                                                                           ✓   turbidity and colour compensation
                                                                           ✓   shelf life up to 3 years
                                                                           ✓   storage at 25 °C; dry and protected from direct sunlight
                                                                           ✓   up to 500 tests per kits
                                                                           ✓   instructions in many languages and with pictographs
                                                                           ✓   conversation table for alternative chemical forms
Close and mix.             Wait the indicated
                           reaction time.
                                                 Read off result.          ✓   easy to dispose after use




www.mn-net.com                                                                                                                     MN       37
                            Test kits for water analysis

         Programme of all VISOCOLOR ® test kits
         VISOCOLOR® single test kits are complete plastic boxes with all reagents and accessories for a test.
         Refill packs are for the replacement of used reagent in a test kit or reagent case. They cannot be used as individual test kits.
         VISOCOLOR® HE test kits, however, cannot be used in reagent cases.

                Type                                  VISOCOLOR ® test kit                                                          Cat. No.
         comp.
         alpha




                                                                                                           No. of
          ECO




                                                                                                                        single test
          titr.
           HE




                             for the determination of                  range                               tests                             refill pack
                                                                                                                            kit
                             Acidity AC 7 (base capacity)              0.2 – 7 mmol/l 1)                    200         915 006        915 206
                             Alkalinity AL 7 (total)                   0.2 – 7 mmol/l 1)                    200         915 007        915 207
                             Alkalinity (p/m)                                                                         see Carbonate hardness C 20
                             Aluminium               NEW!              0.10 – 0.50 mg/l Al3+                 50         931 006        931 206
                             Ammonium (Nessler)                        0.5 – 20 mg/l NH4+                   100            –           914 210
                             Ammonium 15                               0.5 – 15 mg/l NH4+                    50         931 010        931 210
                             Ammonium (DEV) 2)                         0.2 – 10 mg/l NH4+                   100            –           914 238
                             Ammonium                                  0.2 – 3 mg/l NH4+                     50         935 012           –
                             Ammonium 3                                0.2 – 3 mg/l NH4+                     50         931 008        931 208
                             Ammonium                                  0.02 – 0.50 mg/l NH4+                110         920 006        920 106
                             Calcium CA 20                             0.5 – 20 °d / 0.1 – 3.6 mmol/l 1)    200         915 010        915 210
                             Calcium                                   5 – 50 mg/l Ca2+ and higher          100         931 012           –
®




                             Carbonate hardness                        1 – 10 °d and higher                 100         935 016           –
                             Carbonate hardness                        1 – 10 °d and higher                 100         931 014           –
                             Carbonate hardness C 20                   0.5 – 20 °d / 0.2 – 7 mmol/l 1)      200         915 003        915 203
                             (p-/m alkalinity)
                             Carbonic acid                                                                                    see Acidity AC 7
                             Chloride                                  1 – 60 mg/l    Cl–                     90          931 018              931 218
                             Chloride CL 500                           5 – 500 mg/l Cl– 1)                   300          915 004              915 204
                             Chlorine                                  0.25 – 2.0 mg/l Cl2                   150          935 019                 –
                             Chlorine 2                                0.1 – 2.0 mg/l Cl2                    150          931 015              931 215
                             free Chlorine 2         NEW!              0.1 – 2.0 mg/l Cl2                    150          931 016              931 216
                             Chlorine 6 4)           NEW!              0.05 – 6.00 mg/l Cl2                  200             –                 931 217
                             free Chlorine 6 4)      NEW!              0.05 – 6.00 mg/l Cl2                  400             –                 931 219
                             Chlorine                                  0.1 – 2.0 mg/l Cl2                    100             –                 914 232
                             Chlorine                                  0.02 – 0.60 mg/l Cl2                2 x 160        920 015              920 115
                             Chlorine + pH see Swimming pool
                             Chromate                                  0.1 – 2 mg/l CrO42–                  100              –                 914 211
                             Chromium(VI)                              0.02 – 0.50 mg/l Cr(VI)              140           931 020              931 220
                             Copper                                    0.1 – 3 mg/l Cu2+                    100           914 034              914 234
                             Copper                                    0.1 – 1.5 mg/l Cu2+                  100           931 037              931 237
                             Copper                                    0.04 – 0.50 mg/l Cu2+                150           920 050              920 150
                             Cyanide                                   0.05 – 1 mg/l CN–                     60           914 042              914 242
                             Cyanide                                   0.01 – 0.20 mg/l CN–                 100           931 022              931 222
                             Cyanide                                   0.002 – 0.04 mg/l CN–                 55           920 028              920 128
                             Cyanuric acid                             10 – 100 mg/l Cya                    100           931 023              931 223
                             DEHA (diethylhydroxylamine)               0.05 – 1 mg/l DEHA                    75              –                 914 243
                             DEHA (diethylhydroxylamine)               0.01 – 0.30 mg/l DEHA                125           931 024              931 224
                             Detergents, anionic 3)                    0.1 – 5 mg/l MBAS                     50           914 014              914 214
                             Detergents, cationic 3)                   1 – 20 mg/l CTAB                      50           914 015              914 215
                             Fluorid                                   0.1 – 2.0 mg/l F–                    150              –                 931 227
                              only for photometric determination with PF-11
                             Hardness (total)                          1 – 10 °d and higher                 100           935 042                 –
                             Hardness (total)                          1 – 10 °d and higher                 110           931 029                 –
                             Hardness H 20 F (total                    0.5 – 20 °d / 0.1 – 3.6 mmol/l 1)    200           915 005              915 205
                             Hardness H2 (residual)                    0.05 – 2 °d/0.01 – 0.36 mmol/l 1)    200           915 002              915 202
                             Hardness (residual)                       0.04 – 0.30 °d                       200           935 080                 –
          1)   For titration test kits the range can be increased with additional syringes of reagent.
          2) DEV = based on the chemical procedures of the German Standard Methods 3) Contains chlorinated hydrocarbons; observe local regulations!
          4)   only for the photometric determination with PF-11 and VISOCOLOR ® photino


    38     MN                                                                                                                               www.mn-net.com
                                                                              Test kits for water analysis

Programm of all VISOCOLOR ® test kits

      Type                                  VISOCOLOR ® test kit                                                   Cat. No.
comp.
alpha




                                                                                               No. of
 ECO




                                                                                                        single test
 titr.
  HE


                   for the determination of                  range                             tests                       refill pack
                                                                                                            kit
                   Hydrazine                                 0.1 – 2 mg/l N2H4                   60      914 016              914 216
                   Iron (DEV) 2)                             0.1 – 50 mg/l Fe                   100      914 017              914 217
                   Iron (Triazine)                           0.1 – 2 mg/l Fe                    180      914 039              914 239
                   Iron                                      0.04 – 1.0 mg/l Fe                 100      931 026              931 226
                   Iron                                      0.01 – 0.20 mg/l Fe                300      920 040              920 140
                   Manganese                                 0.1 – 1.5 mg/l Mn                   70      931 038              931 238
                   Manganese                                 0.1 – 4 mg/l Mn                    100      914 018              914 218
                   Manganese                                 0.03 – 0.50 mg/l Mn                100      920 055              920 155
                   Nickel                                    0.2 – 10 mg/l Ni2+                  60         –                 914 219
                   Nickel                                    0.1 – 1.5 mg/l Ni2+                150      931 040              931 240
                   Nitrate                                   2 – 50 mg/l NO3–                   100      935 065                 –
                   Nitrate                                   1 – 120 mg/l NO3–                  110      931 041              931 241
                   Nitrate 50                                1 – 50 mg/l NO3–                   130         –                 914 245
                   Nitrite                                   0.05 – 1.0 mg/l NO2–               200      935 066                 –
                   Nitrite                                   0.05 – 2 mg/l NO2–                  60      914 020              914 220
                                                             0.02 – 0.5 mg/l NO2–




                                                                                                                                                 ®
                   Nitrite                                                                      120      931 044              931 244
                   Nitrite                                   0.005 – 0.10 mg/l NO2–             150      920 063              920 163
                   pH 5 – 9                                  pH 5.0 – 9.0                       200      935 075                 –
                   pH 4.0 – 9.0                              pH 4.0 – 9.0                       450      931 066              931 266
                   pH 4.0 – 10.0                             pH 4.0 – 10.0                      500      914 022              914 222
                   pH 4.0 – 10.0                             pH 4.0 – 10.0                      500      920 074              920 174
                   pH 6.0 – 8.2 4)                NEW!       pH 6.0 – 8.2                       150         –                 931 270
                   pH 6.9 – 8.2                              pH 6.9 – 8.2                       150         –                 914 330
                   Phosphate                                 2 – 20 mg/l PO43–                   70      935 079                 –
                   Phosphate                                 2 – 25 mg/l PO43–                   60         –                 914 223
                   Phosphate                                 0.2 – 5 mg/l P                      80      931 084              931 284
                   Phosphate (DEV) 2)                        0.1 – 1.5 mg/l P                    60      914 037              914 237
                   Phosphate                                 0.05 – 1.0 mg/l P                  300      920 082              920 182
                   Phosphate (DEV) 2)                        0.01 – 0.25 mg/l P                 100      920 080              920 180
                   Potassium                                 2 – 15 mg/l K+                      60      931 032              931 232
                   Residual hardness see under Hardness (residual)
                   Oxygene                                   1 – 10 mg/l O2                      50      931 088              931 288
                   Oxygene SA 10                             0.2 – 10 mg/l O2 1)                100      915 009              915 209
                   Oxygen consumption                                                            –       915 012                 –
                   can only be used with test kit Oxygene SA 10
                   Silica / silicon                          0.2 – 3.0 mg/l SiO2                100      931 033              931 233
                   Silica / silicon                          0.2 – 5 mg/l SiO2                   50      914 024              914 224
                   Silica / silicon                          0.01 – 0.30 mg/l Si                120      920 087              920 187
                   Sulphate                                  25 – 200 mg/l SO42–                100      914 035              914 235
                   Sulphide                                  0.1 – 0.8 mg/l S2–                  90      931 094              931 294
                   Sulphide                                  0.05 – 1.0 mg/l S2–                100      914 033              914 233
                   Sulphite                                  1 drop ≡ 1 mg/l SO32–               60      931 095                 –
                   Sulphite SU 100                           2 – 100 mg/l SO32– 1)              100      915 008              915 208
                   Swimming pool (chlorine + pH)             0.1 – 2.0 mg/l Cl2                 150      931 090              931 290
                                                             pH 6.9 – 8.2                       150
                   Swimming pool (chlorine + pH)             0.1 – 2.0 mg/l Cl2                 100          –                914 230
                                                             pH 6.9 – 8.2                       150
                   Zinc                           NEW!       0.5 – 3 mg/l Zn2+                  120      931 098              931 298
                   Zinc                                      0.25 – 3 mg/l Zn2+                  90      914 041              914 241
1)   For titration test kits the range can be increased with additional syringes of reagent.
2) DEV = based on the chemical procedures of the German Standard Methods 3) Contains chlorinated hydrocarbons; observe local regulations!
4)   only for the photometric determination with PF-11 and VISOCOLOR ® photino




www.mn-net.com                                                                                                                     MN       39
                        Test kits for water analysis

         Description of individual parameters and tests
                                                                                In accordance to the EU council guideline 98/83/EEC, the
                                                                                threshold value for drinking water is 0.2 mg/l Al3+.
                                                                       H+       In natural water, the concentration of aluminium compounds
         Acidity                                                                is even low, but in waste water aluminium can appear in high-
         In natural unpolluted waters mainly carbonic acid is present,          er concentrations, e.g. at electroplating companies or paper
         but also humic acids. With this test kit all acids, i. e. also those   mills. Different national regulations tolerate 2 – 3 mg/l Al3+ in
         present in industrial waters, can be determined.                       effluents from various industries (metal, electroplating and
                                                                                printing industries).
         Reaction basis:
         Titrimetric determination of acids with sodium hydroxide solu-         Reaction basis:
         tion against the p indicator.                                          Colorimetric determination with chromazurol S.
         Note:                                                                  VISOCOLOR ® ECO Aluminium                     Cat. No. 931 006
         To differentiate between mineral acids and carbonic acid,              Type:                  colorimetric test kit
         the sample should be titrated against indicator m from the
                                                                                Range & gradation:     0 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30
         VISOCOLOR® test kit Carbonate hardness C 20.
                                                                                                       0.40 0.50 mg/l Al3+
         VISOCOLOR ® Acidity AC 7                      Cat. No. 915 006         Sufficient for:        50 determinations
         Type:                  titration test kit                              Shelf life:            at least 2 years
         Range & gradation:     1 syringe is sufficient for the determi-        Sea water suitability: yes, after dilution 1:10
                                                                                                                                    NEW!
                                nation of 0.2 – 7 mmol/l H+,
                                1 gradation mark = 0.2 mmol/l H+
         Sufficient for:        about 200 tests with an average acid
                                content of 4 mmol/l H+
®




         Shelf life:            at least 2 years                                                                                           NH4
         Sea water suitability: yes                                             Ammonium
                                                                                Ammonium ions occur primarily in domestic waste waters,
                                                                                but frequently also in industrial waste waters. In surface and
                                                                       OH–      ground waters ammonium ions indicate decomposition of an-
         Alkalinity (total)                                                     imal or vegetable substances. Control of the ammonium val-
         All compounds which cause a pH increase above pH 7 are                 ues is therefore important to the water supply.
         determined, e. g. hydroxide, carbonate, hydrogen carbonate             Reaction bases:
         etc.                                                                   (a) DEV procedure: in alkaline medium ammonium ions re-
         Reaction basis:                                                        act with chlorine to form chloroamine which in the presence
         Titrimetric determination of the alkalinity with hydrochloric          of a catalyst forms a blue coloured indophenol with phenols.
         acid against the m indicator.                                          Primary amines react like ammonium ions resulting in high re-
         Note:                                                                  sults.
         To differentiate between hydroxide, carbonate and hydrogen             Chlorine-consuming substances can lower the result or even
         carbonate you should use the VISOCOLOR® test kit Carbon-               inhibit the reaction depending on their concentration.
         ate hardness C 20 (see German Standard Methods DIN
         38 409-H7).
         VISOCOLOR ® Alkalinity AL 7                     Cat. No. 915 007
         Type:                  titration test kit
         Range & gradation:     1 syringe is sufficient for the determi-
                                nation of 0.2 – 7 mmol/l OH–
                                (corresponds to 10 – 350 mg/l CaCO3)
                                1 gradation mark = 0.2 mmol/l OH–
         Sufficient for:        about 200 tests with an average acid
                                content of 4 mmol/l OH–
         Shelf life:            at least 2 years
         Sea water suitability: yes


                                                                       Al3+
         Aluminium
         Aluminium is the most common metal in our anthroposphere
         and after oxygen and silica even the most common element               (b) Procedure according to Nessler: in strongly alkaline so-
         of the earth’s crust. Because of its big affinity to oxygen, alu-      lution ammonium ions react with Nessler’s reagent to form a
         minium does not exist in elemental form in nature, but in dif-         yellow-coloured mercury salt of Millon’s base.
         ferent oxidized compounds.                                             This method is recommended for the determination of NH4+
         In swimming pools, aluminium salts are used as flocculant for          in surface, drinking and industrial waste waters which do not
         the water treatment.                                                   contain an excess of hardness constituents (Ca2+, Mg2+), iron
         For drinking water, the WHO recommends a guide value of                or sulphide ions. These interferences can be circumvented by
         0.2 mg/l Al3+.                                                         a distillation prior to the test.



    40     MN                                                                                                                   www.mn-net.com
                                                                 Test kits for water analysis

Description of individual parameters and tests

VISOCOLOR ® alpha Ammonium                    Cat. No. 935 012
Type:                  colorimetric test kit
                                                                                                                            Br2
Range & gradation:     0 0.2 0.5 1 2 3 mg/l NH4+                  Bromine
Reaction basis:        (a) DEV procedure with salicylic acid
                                                                  Bromine and brominating reagents such as 1,3-dibromo-5,5-
                       as coupling component
                                                                  dimethylhydantoin (DBH) are used – like chlorine – for disin-
Sufficient for:        50 determinations                          fecting swimming pool water. For determination of bromine
Shelf life:            at least 18 months                         you may use all VISOCOLOR® Chlorine tests (see page 42).
Sea water suitability: yes, after dilution 1:10                   A factor for conversion is given in the instructions.

VISOCOLOR ® ECO Ammonium 15                   Cat. No. 931 010
Type:                  colorimetric test kit                                                                                Ca
Range & gradation:     0 0.5 1 2 3 5 7 10 15 mg/l NH4+            Calcium
Reaction basis:        (a) DEV procedure with salicylic acid      Calcium is widely distributed in nature in rocks and in water.
                       as coupling component                      Water containing calcium and magnesium causes problems in
Sufficient for:        50 determinations                          industry as well as in households, since during boiling calcium
Shelf life:            at least 18 months                         carbonate is precipitated as detrimental boiler scale and since
                                                                  calcium ions inhibit the foaming of soaps.
Sea water suitability: yes, after dilution 1:10
                                                                  Reaction basis:
VISOCOLOR ® ECO Ammonium 3                    Cat. No. 931 008    Complexometric titration after precipitation of the magnesium
Type:                  colorimetric test kit                      salts.
Range & gradation:     0 0.2 0.3 0.5 0.7 1 2 3 mg/l NH4+          VISOCOLOR ® ECO Calcium




                                                                                                                                          ®
                                                                                                                 Cat. No. 931 012
Reaction basis:        (a) DEV procedure with salicylic acid      Type:                  titration test kit
                       as coupling component                      Range & gradation:     1 drop = 5 mg/l Ca2+
Sufficient for:        50 determinations                          Sufficient for:        sufficient for about 100 test with an
Shelf life:            at least 18 months                                                average calcium concentration of
Sea water suitability: yes, after dilution 1:10                                          50 mg/l Ca2+
                                                                  Shelf life:            at least 18 months
VISOCOLOR ® Ammonium (DEV)                    Cat. No. 914 238
Type:                  refill pack                                Sea water suitability: yes, after dilution 1:5 and addition of 4
                                                                                         drops Ca-1
Range & gradation:     0 0.2 0.5 1.0 2.0 5.0 10 mg/l NH4+
Reaction basis:        (a) DEV procedure with salicylic acid
                       as coupling component
Sufficient for:        100 determinations
Shelf life:            at least 18 months
Sea water suitability: yes, after dilution 1:10
VISOCOLOR ® HE Ammonium                       Cat. No. 920 006
Type:                  high sensitive test kit
Range & gradation:     0.0 0.02 0.04 0.07 0.10 0.15
                       0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 mg/l NH4+
Reaction basis:        (a) DEV procedure with salicylic acid
                       as coupling component
Sufficient for:        110 determinations
Shelf life:            at least 1 year                            VISOCOLOR ® Calcium CA 20                      Cat. No. 915 010
Sea water suitability: no                                         Type:                  titration test kit
VISOCOLOR ® Ammonium (Nessler)             Cat. No. 914 210       Range & gradation:     1 syringe is sufficient for the determi-
Type:                  refill pack                                                       nation of 0.5 – 20 °d or of
                                                                                         0.1 – 3.6 mmol/l Ca2+
Range & gradation:     0.5 1.0 2.0 5.0 10 20 mg/l NH4+
                                                                                         (corresponds to 4 – 145 mg/l Ca2+).
Reaction basis:        (b) Procedure according to Nessler;
                                                                  Sufficient for:        sufficient for about 200 tests with an
                       CAUTION: this test kit contains
                                                                                         average calcium hardness of 10 °d or
                       toxic potassium mercury iodide!
                                                                                         1.8 mmol/l Ca2+
Sufficient for:        100 determinations
                                                                  Shelf life:            at least 2 years
Shelf life:            at least 3 years
                                                                  Sea water suitability: yes, after dilution 1:5 and addition of 6
Sea water suitability: no                                                                drops Ca-1




www.mn-net.com                                                                                                             MN        41
                        Test kits for water analysis

         Description of individual parameters and tests
                                                                              ters and polluted rivers the chloride concentration can reach
                                                                              high values.
                                                                     CO3      Reaction bases:
         Carbonate hardness
                                                                              (a) Mercurimetric titration
         Carbonate hardness is that portion of calcium and magnesium
         ions which are present as carbonate or hydrogen carbonate.           (b) Mercury(II) thiocyanate method: chloride ions react with
                                                                              mercury(II) thiocyanate to form undissociated mercury(II)
         Reaction basis:                                                      chloride. The liberated thiocyanate forms a characteristic or-
         The determination is preformed as titration with hydrochloric        ange colour with iron(III) ions.
         acid against a mixed indicator, which changes colour at pH 4.5.
         Normally the carbonate hardness is smaller than the total
         hardness. If the carbonate hardness is larger than the total
         hardness, you should trace the origin of this abnormal condi-
         tions, e. g. discharge of alkali hydrogen carbonates or high
         buffer capacity.
         VISOCOLOR ® alpha Carbonate hardness Cat. No. 935 016
         Type:                  titration test kit
         Range & gradation:     1 drop = 1 °d
                                (corresp. to 18 mg/l CaCO3)
         Sufficient for:        about 100 tests with an average
                                hardness of 10 °d
         Shelf life:            at least 18 months
®




         Sea water suitability: yes
         VISOCOLOR ® ECO Carbonate hardness Cat. No. 931 014
         Type:                  titration test kit                            Bromide, cyanide, iodide, sulphide, thiocyanate and thiosul-
         Range & gradation:     1 drop = 1 °d                                 phate interfere, because they react like chloride. Fluoride in
                                (corresp. to 18 mg/l CaCO3)                   excess of 20 mg/l causes low results.
         Sufficient for:        about 100 tests with an average               VISOCOLOR ® Chloride CL 500                   Cat. No. 915 004
                                hardness of 10 °d                             Type:                  titration test kit
         Shelf life:            at least 2 years                              Range & gradation:     1 syringe is sufficient for the determi-
         Sea water suitability: yes                                                                  nation of 5 – 500 mg/l Cl–,
                                                                                                     1 gradation mark = 5 mg/l Cl–
         VISOCOLOR ® Carbonate hardness C 20 (p/m Alkalinity)
                                                         Cat. No. 915 003     Reaction basis:        (a) mercurimetric titration
         Type:                  titration test kit                            Sufficient for:        300 tests with an average chloride ion
         Range & gradation:     syringe is sufficient for the determination                          concentration of 200 mg/l Cl–
                                of 0.5 – 20 °d or 0.2 – 7 mmol/l H+           Shelf life:            at least 2 years
                                (corresponds to 10 – 350 mg/l CaCO3)          Sea water suitability: yes, after dilution 1:50
                                1 gradation mark = 0.5 °d =
                                0.2 mmol/l H+                                 VISOCOLOR ® ECO Chloride                     Cat. No. 931 018
         Sufficient for:        about 200 tests with an average               Type:                  colorimetric test kit
                                carbonate hardness of 10 °d                   Range & gradation:     1 2 4 7 12 20 40 60 mg/l Cl–
                                or 4 mmol/l H+                                Reaction basis:        (b) mercury(II) thiocyanate method
         Shelf life:            at least 2 years                              Sufficient for:        90 tests
         Sea water suitability: yes                                           Shelf life:            at least 1 year
                                                                              Sea water suitability: no


                                                                     CO2                                                               Cl2
         Carbonic acid                                                        Chlorine
         Carbonic acid is a natural component of the acidity of waters.       The addition of chlorine to swimming pools, water reservoirs
         Determination is performed with the test kit VISOCOLOR®              and water mains is an approved procedure to rid the water of
         Acidity AC 7 and is described in detail under that heading           germs. With the correct dose harmful microorganisms are de-
         (see page 40).                                                       stroyed, many impurities removed and the growth of algae is
                                                                              prevented. However it is imperative that the chlorine content
                                                                              is regularly checked, since excessive chlorine not only im-
                                                                              pairs the smell and taste of the water but can be hazardous.
                                                                              One distinguishes between free chlorine and bound chlorine
                                                                              (chloroamines); the sum of both is called total chlorine.
                                                                     Cl–
         Chloride
         Chloride ions occur in all natural waters. Their concentration
         depends on the geological and local situation. In waste wa-


    42     MN                                                                                                               www.mn-net.com
                                                                Test kits for water analysis

Description of individual parameters and tests
Reaction basis:
At a pH value of 5 – 6 free chlorine reacts with N,N-diethyl-
1,4-phenylene diamine (DPD) to form a red-violet dye. In the
presence of iodide ions the content of total chlorine can be
determined, too.
The determination of free chlorine includes the concentra-
tions of bromine, bromoamine, chloroamine, iodine and in
part chlorine dioxide.
1.0 mg/l Cl2 = 2.3 mg/l Br2 = 3.6 mg/l I2
              ˆ             ˆ
Higher-valency manganese compounds simulate free chlo-
rine.
Note:
When measuring the chlorine content in swimming pools it is
recommended to check the pH value as well. For this purpose
we supply combination test kits VISOCOLOR® ECO Swim-
ming pool.
VISOCOLOR ® alpha Chlorine                   Cat. No. 935 019
Type:                  colorimetric test kit
Range & gradation:     0.25 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 mg/l Cl2
Sufficient for:        150 tests
Shelf life:            at least 18 months
Sea water suitability: yes                                       VISOCOLOR ® HE Chlorine




                                                                                                                                       ®
                                                                                                               Cat. No. 920 015
VISOCOLOR ® ECO Chlorine 2                   Cat. No. 931 015    Type:                  high sensitive test kit
Type:                  colorimetric test kit                     Range & gradation:     0.0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.10 0.15
Range & gradation:     < 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4                                            0.20 0.30 0.40 0.60 mg/l Cl2
                         0.6 0.9 1.2 2.0 mg/l Cl2                Sufficient for:        2 x 160 tests
Sufficient for:        150 tests                                 Shelf life:            at least 2 years
Shelf life:            at least 18 months                        Sea water suitability: yes
Sea water suitability: yes
VISOCOLOR ® ECO free Chlorine 2              Cat. No. 931 016
Type:                  colorimetric test kit                                                                             CrO4
Range & gradation:     < 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4                     Chromate
                         0.6 0.9 1.2 2.0 mg/l Cl2
                                                                 Chromium compounds can be present in industrial waste wa-
Sufficient for:        150 tests                                 ters in trivalent form [chromium(III) ions] and in hexavalent
Shelf life:            at least 18 months          NEW!          form (chromate and dichromate ions). In order to determine
Sea water suitability: yes                                       the total chromium all other valencies must be oxidised to
                                                                 chromium(VI). Each test kit comes with a detailed description.
VISOCOLOR ® ECO Chlorine 6                   Cat. No. 931 217    Reaction basis:
Type:                   reagent set for photometric              In sulphuric acid chromate ions react with diphenylcarbazide
                        determination                            to form a red-violet dye.
Range & gradation:      0.05 – 6.00 mg/l Cl2                     Larger amounts of heavy metals interfere with the test.
Sufficient for:         200 tests
                                                                 VISOCOLOR ® ECO Chromium(VI)                 Cat. No. 931 020
Shelf life:             at least 2 years
Sea water suitability: yes                           NEW!        Type:                  colorimetric test kit
Note:                                                            Range & gradation:     0.02 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20
A visual colorimetric determination is not possible.                                    0.30 0.40 0.50 mg/l Cr(VI)
                                                                 Sufficient for:        140 tests
VISOCOLOR ® ECO free Chlorine 6              Cat. No. 931 219    Shelf life:            at least 18 months
Type:                   reagent set for photometric              Sea water suitability: yes
                        determination
Range & gradation:      0.05 – 6.00 mg/l Cl2                     VISOCOLOR ® Chromate                      Cat. No. 914 211
Sufficient for:         400 tests                                Type:                  refill pack
Shelf life:             at least 2 years             NEW!        Range & gradation:     0.1 0.2 0.3 0.5 1.0 2.0 mg/l CrO42–
Sea water suitability: yes                                       Sufficient for:        100 tests
Note:                                                            Shelf life:            at least 3 years
A visual colorimetric determination is not possible.             Sea water suitability: yes
VISOCOLOR ® Chlorine                      Cat. No. 914 232
Type:                  refill pack
Range & gradation:     0.1 0.3 0.6 0.9 1.3 2.0 mg/l Cl2
Sufficient for:        100 tests
Shelf life:            at least 18 months
Sea water suitability: yes

www.mn-net.com                                                                                                           MN       43
                       Test kits for water analysis

         Description of individual parameters and tests


                                                                  Cu                                                               CN–
         Copper                                                           Cyanide
         In water copper(II) can be found in dissolved as well as         Cyanide ions are very toxic because they block the iron of the
         in undissolved form. Copper(I) compounds and undissolved         respiratory enzyme and thus inhibit the oxygen transport. For
         copper(II) compounds are not determined unless they are de-      humans 1 mg cyanide per kg body weight is considered le-
         composed with concentrated nitric acid prior to the test.        thal.
         Reaction basis:                                                  Reaction basis:
         In weakly alkaline medium copper(II) ions react with cupri-      Cyanide ions react with chlorine to form cyanogen chloride,
         zone forming a blue colour complex.                              which splits the pyridine ring and forms glutaconedialdehyde.
         Strongly acidic and buffered solutions have to be adjusted to    By aldol condensation with barbituric acid a violet polyme-
         pH 9 with ammonia for the test. Iron(II), chromium(VI), nickel   thine dye is produced.
         and manganese ions interfere in concentrations above             This test covers free cyanide and cyanide complexes which
         10 mg/l. Cr(III) concentrations which exceed the copper con-     can be destroyed with chlorine. If interfering substances like
         centration cause low results, but can be eliminated by oxida-    heavy metal complexes, thiocyanate, sulphide, dyes or aro-
         tion to chromate using ammonium peroxodisulphate /               matic amines are present, a distillation according to DIN
         sulphuric acid). Cobalt ions form a red colour complex which,    38 405-D 13–2–2 must precede the cyanide test. For the de-
         depending on the copper concentration, can already interfere     termination of easily released and total cyanide as well as for
         above 1 mg/l. Cyanides and sulphides present in excess of        the determination of cyanide in stone fruit spirits please con-
         1 mg/l cause low results.                                        tact MACHEREY-NAGEL for special instructions.
                                                                          VISOCOLOR ® ECO Cyanide
®




                                                                                                                        Cat. No. 931 022
                                                                          Type:                  colorimetric test kit
                                                                          Range & gradation:     0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.05 0.07
                                                                                                 0.10 0.15 0.20 mg/l CN–
                                                                          Sufficient for:        100 tests
                                                                          Shelf life:            at least 1 year
                                                                          Sea water suitability: yes, after dilution 1:4
                                                                          VISOCOLOR ® Cyanide                          Cat. No. 914 042
                                                                          Type:                  colorimetric test kit
                                                                          Range & gradation:     0.05 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.5 1.0 mg/l CN–
                                                                          Sufficient for:        60 tests
                                                                          Shelf life:            at least 1 year
                                                                          Sea water suitability: yes
                                                                          VISOCOLOR ® HE Cyanide                        Cat. No. 920 028
                                                                          Type:                  high sensitive test kit
                                                                          Range & gradation:     0.0 0.002 0.004 0.007
         VISOCOLOR ® ECO Copper                       Cat. No. 931 037                           0.010 0.015 0.020 0.025
                                                                                                 0.030 0.040 mg/l CN–
         Type:                  colorimetric test kit
                                                                          Sufficient for:        550 tests
         Range & gradation:     0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.5 0.7
                                                                          Shelf life:            at least 1 year
                                1.0 1.5 mg/l Cu2+
                                                                          Sea water suitability: yes, but depending on the
         Sufficient for:        100 tests
                                                                                                 composition of the sea water
         Shelf life:            at least 2 years
         Sea water suitability: yes
         VISOCOLOR ® Copper                           Cat. No. 914 034
         Type:                  colorimetric test kit
         Range & gradation:     0.1 0.2 0.5 1.0 2.0 3.0 mg/l Cu2+
         Sufficient for:        100 tests
         Shelf life:            at least 2 years
         Sea water suitability: yes
         VISOCOLOR ® HE Copper                         Cat. No. 920 050
         Type:                  high sensitive test kit
         Range & gradation:     0.0 0.04 0.07 0.10 0.15 0.20
                                0.25 0.30 0.40 0.50 mg/l Cu2+
         Sufficient for:        100 tests
         Shelf life:            at least 2 years
         Sea water suitability: yes



    44     MN                                                                                                           www.mn-net.com
                                                                     Test kits for water analysis

Description of individual parameters and tests

                                                                      VISOCOLOR ® ECO DEHA                         Cat. No. 931 024
                                                                      Type:                  colorimetric test kit
                                                            Cya
Cyanuric acid                                                         Range & gradation:     0 0.01 0.03 0.05 0.10 0.15
                                                                                             0.20 0.25 0.30 mg/l DEHA
Chlorine for disinfection in swimming pools, is degraded by in-
                                                                      Sufficient for:        125 tests
tensive UV radiation. A common stabilizer for chlorine in
swimming pools is cyanuric acid. Chloroisocyanic acid is also         Shelf life:            at least 1 year
used directly as disinfecting agent. Forced by legal regula-          Sea water suitability: no
tions, or because of their personal interest in a good state of
their pools, many private and public owners use rapid tests for
frequent monitoring of cyanuric acid.
Reaction basis:                                                       Detergents see surfactants
Turbidity measurement
Cyanuric acid forms with a triazine derivative a fine precipi-
tate. The turbidity caused by this reaction can be measured
visually or photometrically to determine the cyanuric acid con-                                                                  S2O4
centration.                                                           Dithionite
Turbidities interfere and must be filtered prior to the analysis.     Dithionites (S2O42–), above all sodium dithionite (so-called
VISOCOLOR ® ECO Cyanuric acid                Cat. No. 931 023         hydrosulphite), are important aids in dying, textile and paper
Type:                  colorimetric test kit                          industries due to their reducing properties. They are especial-
                                                                      ly used for vat dying, for bleaching of wood-based paper
Range & gradation:     10 15 20 30 40 60 80 100 mg/l Cya




                                                                                                                                                ®
                                                                      stuffs, sugars, sirup, gelatines, starches, molasses, saccha-
Sufficient for:        100 tests                                      rine juice, soaps, technical fats, as decolorant for textiles, for
Shelf life:            at least 18 months                             desilvering of used fixing baths etc.
Sea water suitability: yes                                            For the titrimetric determination of dithionite with VISO-
                                                                      COLOR® Sulphite SU 100, please contact MACHEREY-
                                                                      NAGEL for special instruction.



                                                                                                                                   F–
                                                                      Fluoride
                                                                      Normally, the content of fluoride in surface and ground water
                                                                      is lower than 1 mg/l. Permanent consumption of water con-
                                                                      taining more than 2 mg/l fluoride can cause a drinking water
                                                                      fluorese (a stained discolouration of the tooth enamel). On the
                                                                      other hand a content of fluoride lower than 0.5 mg/l could lead
                                                                      to an increasing risk of caries. The optimal content of fluoride
                                                                      in drinking water is about 1 mg/l. To avoid problems with car-
                                                                      ies in some countries the content of fluoride in drinking water
                                                                      is artificially increased. However, WHO and EC drinking wa-
                                                                      ter regulations recommend a threshold value of 1.5 mg/l F–.
                                                                      In some European countries, the threshold value for mineral
                                                                      water is also 1.5 mg/l F–. For the suitability of water for the
                                                                      preparation of baby food a threshold value of 0.7 mg/l F– is
                                                           DEHA       recommended. Natural mineral waters with a fluoride content
DEHA (diethylhydroxylamine)                                           of more than 5 mg/l must be labelled with a warning.
In boiler houses the carcinogenic hydrazine is more and more          Reaction basis:
replaced by diethylhydroxylamine (DEHA) to remove oxygen.             Photometric determination of fluoride with 1,8-dihydroxy-2-(4-
Reaction basis:                                                       sulfophenylazo)naphthalene-3,6-disulfonic acid (SPADNS)
Measurement of the reduction properties of DEHA for iron(III)         with the photometer PF-11.
ions and determination of the iron(II) ions formed. Strictly ob-
serve the temperature and reaction time since they strongly
influence the colour intensity.                                       VISOCOLOR ® ECO Fluoride                       Cat. No. 931 227
Iron(II) ions interfere. This error can be taken into account by a    Type:                   reagent set for photometric
modified test procedure.                                                                      determination
                                                                      Range & gradation:      0.1 – 2.0 mg/l F–
VISOCOLOR ® DEHA                            Cat. No. 914 243
                                                                      Sufficient for:         150 tests
Type:                    refill pack
                                                                      Shelf life:             at least 18 months
Range & gradation:       0 0.05 0.1 0.2 0.5 1.0 mg/l DEHA
                                                                      Sea water suitability: yes, after distillation
Sufficient for:          75 tests
                                                                      Note:
Shelf life:              at least 1 year
                                                                      A visual colorimetric determination is not possible
Sea water suitability:   no




www.mn-net.com                                                                                                                   MN        45
                        Test kits for water analysis

         Description of individual parameters and tests

                                                                            VISOCOLOR ® ECO Hardness (total)              Cat. No. 931 029
                                                                            Type:                  titration test kit
                                                                    °d
         Hardness (total and residual)                                      Range & gradation:     1 drop = 1 °d
                                                                                                   (corresponds to 18 mg/l CaCO3)
         The total hardness of water is based on its content of alkaline    Reaction basis:        (a) titration
         earth ions (calcium and magnesium ions). This content de-
                                                                            Sufficient for:        110 tests with an average hardness
         pends on the geological conditions the water encounters dur-
                                                                                                   of 10 ˚d
         ing its course and may vary widely. Knowledge of the total
         hardness is important for the use of water in industrial as well   Shelf life:            at least 18 months
         as municipal applications, e. g. in the household as wash wa-      Sea water suitability: yes, after dilution 1:30
         ter or as boiler feed water in industry.
                                                                            VISOCOLOR ® Hardness H 20 F (total)           Cat. No. 915 005
         Reaction bases:                                                    Type:                  titration test kit
         (a) Complexometric titration in accordance with DIN 38406
         E3 and DIN 38409 H6.                                               Range & gradation:     1 syringe is sufficient for the determi-
                                                                                                   nation of 0.5 – 20 °d or
         Copper(II) ions can delay or (in higher concentrations) even                              0.1 – 3.6 mmol/l Ca2+ (corresponds to
         block the colour change of the indicator. For this reason allow                           10 – 360 mg/l CaCO3)
         enough water to run through copper pipes prior to sampling.                               1 gradation mark = 0.5 °d = 0.1 mmol/l
         (b) Colorimetry with a mixed indicator                             Reaction basis:        (a) titration
                                                                            Sufficient for:        100 tests with an average hardness
                                                                                                   of 10 ˚d
                                               VISOCOLOR ® alpha
                                                                            Shelf life:            at least 18 months
®




                                                                            Sea water suitability: yes, after dilution 1:30
                                                                            VISOCOLOR ® alpha Residual hardness Cat. No. 935 080
                                                                            Type:                  colorimetric test kit
                                                                            Range & gradation:     0.00 0.04 0.08 0.15 0.30 °d
                                                                                                   (corresponds to 0.7 – 5.3 mg/l CaCO3)
                                                                            Reaction basis:        (b) colorimetry
                                                                            Sufficient for:        200 tests
                                                                            Shelf life:            at least 1 year
                                                                            Sea water suitability: yes
                                                                            VISOCOLOR ® Hardness H 2 (residual)           Cat. No. 915 002
                slidable back with multilingual information                 Type:                  titration test kit
                                                                            Range & gradation:     1 syringe is sufficient for the determi-
                                                                                                   nation of 0.05 – 2.0 °d or
            and opened                                                                             0.01 – 0.36 mmol/l Ca2+
            evaluation chart                                                                       (corresponds to 1 – 36 mg/l CaCO3).
                                                                            Reaction basis:        (a) titration
                                                                            Sufficient for:        200 tests with an average hardness of
                                                                                                   1 °d or 0.18 mmol/l Ca2+
                                                                            Shelf life:            at least 18 months
                                                                            Sea water suitability: no
                                                                            This test kit is designed for the analysis of very soft water and
                                                                            as a function control of water softeners. In industry one often
                                                                            needs water which is absolutely free of hardness constitu-
                                                                            ents, e. g. for many chemical processes, in textile industry, as
                                                                            feed water for high pressure boilers etc.
         VISOCOLOR ® alpha Hardness (total)            Cat. No. 935 042
         Type:                  titration test kit
         Range & gradation:     1 drop = 1 °d
                                (corresponds to 18 mg/l CaCO3)                                                                         N2H4
         Reaction basis:        (a) titration                               Hydrazine
         Sufficient for:        100 tests with an average hardness          Hydrazine has been used in power plants to remove residual
                                of 10 ˚d                                    oxygen from condensation and feed water. The reaction
         Shelf life:            at least 18 months                          products are merely water and nitrogen so that the salt con-
                                                                            tent of the boiler water does not increase as is the case with
         Sea water suitability: yes, after dilution 1:30
                                                                            other reducing agents. Due to its toxicity, however, hydrazine
                                                                            is today mostly replaced by other substances like DEHA.
                                                                            Reaction basis:
                                                                            In acidic solution hydrazine reacts with 4-dimethylaminobenz-
                                                                            aldehyde to form a yellow-orange coloured compound.


    46     MN                                                                                                               www.mn-net.com
                                                                    Test kits for water analysis

Description of individual parameters and tests

VISOCOLOR ® Hydrazine                        Cat. No. 914 016        VISOCOLOR ® ECO Iron                         Cat. No. 931 026
Type:                  colorimetric test kit                         Type:                  colorimetric test kit
Range & gradation:     0.1 0.3 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 mg/l N2H4             Range & gradation:     0 0.04 0.07 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.30
Sufficient for:        60 tests                                                             0.50 1.0 mg/l Fe
Shelf life:            at least 1 year or until reagent 2            Reaction basis:        (a) triazine method
                       turns brown                                   Sufficient for:        100 tests
Sea water suitability: no                                            Shelf life:            at least 2 years
                                                                     Sea water suitability: yes
                                                                     VISOCOLOR ® Iron (Triazine)                  Cat. No. 914 039
Hydrosulphite                                                        Type:                  colorimetric test kit
see dithionite                                                       Range & gradation:     0.1 0.2 0.3 0.5 1.0 2.0 mg/l Fe
                                                                     Reaction basis:        (a) triazine method
                                                                     Sufficient for:        180 tests
                                                                     Shelf life:            at least 2 years
                                                            Fe       Sea water suitability: yes
Iron
                                                                     VISOCOLOR ® Iron (DEV)                       Cat. No. 914 017
Natural waters as well as waste waters often contain some
                                                                     Type:                  colorimetric test kit
iron. It can be present as Fe(II) or Fe(III) ions if the pH value
of the water is below 3 or if the water is free of oxygen. At        Range & gradation:     0.1 0.3 0.5 1.0 2.0 4.0
higher pH values Fe(III) forms an insoluble oxyhydrate. Fre-                                7.0 10 25 50 mg/l Fe




                                                                                                                                             ®
quently the sample is in a transition state with finely dispersed    Reaction basis:        (b) DEV procedure
iron oxides. In waste water and natural water containing hu-         Sufficient for:        100 tests
mic acids iron is often present in the form of a complex salt.       Shelf life:            at least 3 years
The VISOCOLOR® test kits only determine iron which is
                                                                     Sea water suitability: yes
present in dissolved form as Fe2+ or Fe3+ ions. Iron complex-
es are not covered unless they are decomposed by oxidation           VISOCOLOR ® HE Iron                           Cat. No. 920 040
with nitric acid and sulphuric acid.                                 Type:                  high sensitive test kit
Reaction bases:                                                      Range & gradation:     0.0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05
(a) Triazine method: iron(II) ions react with a triazine deriva-                            0.07 0.10 0.15 0.20 mg/l Fe
tive to form a violet complex. Iron(III) ions are reduced and        Reaction basis:        (a) triazine method
thus also determined.                                                Sufficient for:        300 tests
Copper(I) ions interfere forming a grey-violet complex. Nickel       Shelf life:            at least 2 years
ions cause low results. Cobalt ions and molybdate ions inter-
                                                                     Sea water suitability: no
fere forming yellow complex compounds. Nitrite ions interfere
because they shift the colour to yellowish-red.
(b) DEV procedure: iron(II) ions react with 1,10-phenanthro-
line to form an orange coloured complex. Iron(III) ions are re-                                                                Mg
duced and thus also determined.                                      Magnesium
Oxidising agents (H2O2, Cl2, CrO42–) interfere > 30 mmol/l,          In order to differentiate between the hardness constituents
but can be eliminated with sodium sulphite or ascorbic acid.         calcium and magnesium one can determine the total hard-
Complex iron compounds (hexacyanoferrates) are not deter-            ness (see VISOCOLOR® test kits Hardness (total) and the
mined unless they are decomposed with conc. sulphuric acid           calcium hardness (see VISOCOLOR® test kits Calcium). The
prior to the test.                                                   difference of both is the magnesium content – an important
                                                                     parameter in food and building industries.



                                                                                                                               Mn
                                                                     Manganese
                                                                     Natural waters contain manganese in the divalent, soluble
                                                                     form as well as in colloidal tri- and tetravalent states. Valen-
                                                                     cies are interchanged by oxidation-reduction reactions taking
                                                                     place in the water. The test procedure determines all oxida-
                                                                     tion states of manganese.
                                                                     Reaction basis:
                                                                     In alkaline solution manganese ions react with formaldoxime
                                                                     to form an orange-red complex.
                                                                     Nickel interferes causing a yellow-green reaction colour.




www.mn-net.com                                                                                                                 MN       47
                       Test kits for water analysis

         Description of individual parameters and tests

         VISOCOLOR ® Manganese                        Cat. No. 914 018    VISOCOLOR ® Nickel                          Cat. No. 914 219
         Type:                  colorimetric test kit                     Type:                    refill pack
         Range & gradation:     0.1 0.3 0.5 1.0 2.0 4.0 mg/l Mn           Range & gradation:       0.2 0.5 1.0 2.0 5.0 10.0 mg/l Ni2+
         Sufficient for:        100 tests                                 Sufficient for:          60 tests
         Shelf life:            at least 2 years                          Shelf life:              at least 3 years
         Sea water suitability: yes                                       Sea water suitability:   yes
         VISOCOLOR ® ECO Manganese                    Cat. No. 931 038
         Type:                  colorimetric test kit
         Range & gradation:     0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.5 0.7                                                                               NO3
                                0.9 1.2 1.5 mg/l Mn                       Nitrate
         Sufficient for:        70 tests
                                                                          Nitrates occur in most ground and surface waters in concen-
         Shelf life:            at least 18 months                        trations of up to 20 mg/l. In addition to mere geological influ-
         Sea water suitability: yes                                       ences nitrate concentrations can also increase from agricul-
                                                                          tural sources (fertilisers). The VISOCOLOR® test kits are
         VISOCOLOR ® HE Manganese                      Cat. No. 920 055   intended for the determination of nitrate in surface and drink-
         For the analysis of sea water, the method should be applied      ing water and in industrial waste waters which do not contain
         with caution.                                                    high concentrations of interfering ions.
         Type:                  high sensitive test kit                   Reaction basis:
         Range & gradation:     0.0 0.03 0.06 0.10 0.15 0.20              Nitrate is reduced to nitrite with an inorganic reducing agent.
                                0.25 0.30 0.40 0.50 mg/l Mn               Nitrite is then diazotised with an aromatic amine and simulta-
®




         Sufficient for:        100 tests                                 neously coupled to form an azo dye.
         Shelf life:            at least 2 years                          Nitrite interferes (same reaction), but can be eliminated by
         Sea water suitability: yes, but depending on the                 boiling with amidosulphuric acid (Cat. No. 918 973). Oxidising
                                composition of the sea water              substances such as chlorine can lower the result or complete-
                                                                          ly inhibit the reaction depending on their concentration.
                                                                          VISOCOLOR ® alpha Nitrate                    Cat. No. 935 065
                                                                          Type:                  colorimetric test kit
                                                                          Range & gradation:     2 8 15 30 50 mg/l NO3–
                                                                          Sufficient for:        100 tests
                                                                          Shelf life:            at least 18 months
                                                                          Sea water suitability: yes
                                                                          VISOCOLOR ® ECO Nitrate                      Cat. No. 931 041
                                                                          Type:                  colorimetric test kit
                                                                          Range & gradation:     0 1 3 5 10 20 30
                                                                                                 50 70 90 120 mg/l NO3–
                                                                          Sufficient for:        110 tests
                                                                          Shelf life:            at least 18 months
                                                                          Sea water suitability: yes, with conversion table
                                                                          VISOCOLOR ® Nitrate 50                       Cat. No. 914 245
                                                                          Type:                  refill pack
                                                                          Range & gradation:     1 2 5 10 20 50 mg/l NO3–;
                                                                                                 With the syringe included in the kit the
                                                                  Ni
         Nickel                                                                                  range can be extended up to 500 mg/l
                                                                                                 nitrate.
         Nickel can be present in industrial waste water. It occurs as    Sufficient for:        130 tests
         the divalent ion or as a nickel complex.
                                                                          Shelf life:            at least 18 months
         Reaction basis:                                                  Sea water suitability: no
         In ammonia solution nickel ions react with diacetyldioxime af-
         ter oxidation with bromine to form a reddish-brown dye.
         Insoluble nickel compounds (e. g. nickel cyanide, nickel car-
         bonate) and the nickel cyano complexes are not determined.
         VISOCOLOR ® ECO Nickel                        Cat. No. 931 040
         Type:                  colorimetric test kit
         Range & gradation:     0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.5 0.7
                                0.9 1.2 1.5 mg/l Ni2+
         Sufficient for:        150 tests
         Shelf life:            at least 18 months
         Sea water suitability: yes, after dilution 1:10

    48     MN                                                                                                            www.mn-net.com
                                                                        Test kits for water analysis

Description of individual parameters and tests


                                                              NO2                                                                    O2
Nitrite                                                                  Oxygen
In surface waters nitrite ions are generally present in low concen-      The solubility of oxygen in water depends on the temperature,
trations. Their presence in ground water is less common. In waste        the pressure and the other components of the water. The ox-
waters nitrite frequently occurs, even in fairly high concentrations.    ygen content of a water at the time of sampling is often quoted
Reaction basis:                                                          as the percentage of the possible saturation.
In acidic solution sulphanilic acid or sulphanilamide are diazo-         Reaction basis:
tised with nitrite. The diazonium salt is then coupled with an           Oxygen determination according to Winkler: in alkaline solution
aromatic amine, forming an intensely coloured azo dye. Or-               dissolved oxygen oxidises manganese(II) ions to higher-valent
ganic colloids, chlorine, humic acids and coloured heavy met-            manganese hydroxides. In a strongly acidic medium these
al ions interfere.                                                       form manganese(III) ions which can be determined either titri-
                                                                         metrically or colorimetrically after addition of a colour reagent.
VISOCOLOR ® alpha Nitrite                    Cat. No. 935 066            Most oxidising and reducing compounds interfere, as for ex-
Type:                  colorimetric test kit                             ample active chlorine, sulphite, sulphide, higher-valent man-
Range & gradation:     0.05 0.10 0.25 0.5 1.0 mg/l NO2–                  ganese compounds. Organic compounds interfere, if the
Sufficient for:        200 tests                                         potassium permanganate consumption exceeds 60 mg/l.
Shelf life:            at least 18 months                                This interference can be circumvented by subsequent addi-
Sea water suitability: yes                                               tion of ammonium hydrogen carbonate solution.
                                                                         1 mg/l Fe2+ simulates 0.14 mg/l O2.
VISOCOLOR ® ECO Nitrite                      Cat. No. 931 044
                                                                         VISOCOLOR ® ECO Oxygen




                                                                                                                                                   ®
Type:                  colorimetric test kit                                                                              Cat. No. 931 088
Range & gradation:     0 0.02 0.03 0.05 0.07                             Type:                  colorimetric test kit
                       0.1 0.2 0.3 0.5 mg/l NO2–                         Range & gradation:     0 1 2 3 4 6 8 10 mg/l O2
Sufficient for:        120 tests                                         Sufficient for:        50 tests
Shelf life:            at least 18 months                                Shelf life:            at least 1 year
Sea water suitability: yes                                               Sea water suitability: yes
                                                                         When ordering this test kit for the first time, you also need an
                                                                         oxygen bottle, Cat. No. 915 498
                                                                         VISOCOLOR ® Oxygen SA 10                        Cat. No. 915 009
                                                                         Type:                    titration test kit
                                                                                                  according to DIN EN 25 813
                                                                         Range & gradation:       1 syringe is sufficient for the determi-
                                                                                                  nation of 0.2 – 10 mg/l O2
                                                                                                  1 gradation mark = 0.2 mg/l O2
                                                                         Sufficient for:          100 tests with an average oxygen
                                                                                                  content of 9 mg/l
                                                                         Shelf life:              at least 18 months
                                                                         Sea water suitability: yes
                                                                         In combination with the BOD5 accessories package
                                                                         (Cat. No. 916 918) and the BOD5 nutrient mixture without N-
                                                                         allylthiourea (ATU) (Cat. No. 918 994) or the BOD5 nutrient
                                                                         mixture Plus with ATU (Cat. No. 918 995) this test kit can also
VISOCOLOR ® Nitrite                          Cat. No. 914 020            be used for determination of the BOD5 (sufficient for 25 – 50
Type:                  colorimetric test kit                             samples). Preparation of the samples is performed using the
Range & gradation:     0.05 0.1 0.25 0.50                                so-called dilution principle according to DIN ISO 1899-1-H51.
                       1.0 2.0 mg/l NO2–
                                                                         VISOCOLOR ® Oxygen consumption               Cat. No. 915 012
Sufficient for:        60 tests
                                                                         Organic substances in surface and waste waters are mostly
Shelf life:            at least 18 months                                mineralised by bacteria under oxygen consumption. Under
Sea water suitability: yes                                               unfavourable conditions, and if pollutant concentrations are
                                                                         high, this results in an oxygen deficit with negative conse-
VISOCOLOR ® HE Nitrite                         Cat. No. 920 063
                                                                         quences for higher organisms (fish). The oxygen consump-
Type:                  high sensitive test kit according to              tion is evaluated by an oxygen determination immediately
                       DIN EN 26 777                                     after sampling and another oxygen determination after 1 to
Range & gradation:     0.00 0.005 0.010 0.015 0.02                       5 days. This procedure additionally requires the test kit
                       0.03 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.10 mg/l NO2–                VISOCOLOR® Oxygen SA 10.
Sufficient for:        150 tests                                         Kit contents: 5 sample bottles, 1 thermometer, 1 titration sy-
Shelf life:            at least 2 years                                  ringe, 1 titration tube, no reagents
Sea water suitability: yes




www.mn-net.com                                                                                                                      MN        49
                        Test kits for water analysis

         Description of individual parameters and tests


                                                                    pH                                                                   PO4
         pH value                                                           Phosphate
         The pH value indicates whether a water reacts acidic, alkaline     The phosphate content in a surface water has direct conse-
         or neutral. It is determined by the concentration of hydrogen      quences for its ability to support the growth of certain organisms.
         ions. All biological processes in water are tied to specific pH    Since ever increasing quantities of phosphates are being fed
         ranges. For municipal and industrial applications, too, the        through domestic waste waters into rivers and lakes, these wa-
         control of specific pH limits is important since e. g. the effi-   ters have a tendency towards eutrophication. Exact data about
         ciency of sewage plants or the corrosive action of tap water       the phosphate content are important for boiler water and feed
         on the pipes depend in the pH value. Contrary to pH indicator      water. Precise dosing of phosphates in these waters can inhibit
         papers VISOCOLOR® pH test kits can also be used to deter-          formation of boiler scale. Pyro-, meta- and polyphosphates are
         mine accurate pH values in unbuffered sample solutions.            not determined with VISOCOLOR® test kits. The determination
         Reaction basis:                                                    of total phosphate requires a decomposition prior to the test.
         A special mixture of indicator dyes assumes a characteristic       Reaction basis:
         colour for every pH value within the range of the kit.             Ammonium molybdate reacts with phosphate ions to form
         The favourable ratio between sample volume and amount of           phosphomolybdic acid which is reduced to molybdenum blue.
         indicator minimises the indicator error (acid-base-error). This    The tests with the designation DEV use the same reagents as
         allows reliable pH measurements in weakly buffered solu-           the German Standard Methods.
         tions as well. High contents of neutral salts and colloids as      Larger amounts of oxidising compounds inhibit the formation of
         well as organic solvent concentrations above 10 % can cause        the blue colour complex and have to be destroyed prior to the
         wrong results.                                                     test. H2S interferes in concentrations above 2 mg/l, but can be
®




         VISOCOLOR ® alpha pH 5 – 9                   Cat. No. 935 075      expelled after acidification of the water sample. Heavy metals
                                                                            in excess of 10 mg/l can slightly decrease the colour intensity,
         Type:                  colorimetric test kit
                                                                            vanadium causes an increase in colour. Silica interferes and
         Range & gradation:     pH 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5                  causes falsely high results. Arsenates react like phosphates.
                                     8.0 8.5 9.0                            Citrate, oxalate, tartrate etc. reduce the sensitivity of the phos-
         Sufficient for:        200 tests                                   phate test.
         Shelf life:            at least 3 years
         Sea water suitability: yes                                         VISOCOLOR ® alpha Phosphate                   Cat. No. 935 079
                                                                            Type:                  colorimetric test kit
         VISOCOLOR ® ECO pH 4.0 – 9.0                 Cat. No. 931 066      Range & gradation:     2 5 10 15 20 mg/l PO43–
         Type:                  colorimetric test kit                       Sufficient for:        70 tests
         Range & gradation:     pH 4.0 5.0 6.0 6.5                          Shelf life:            at least 2 years
                                     7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0
                                                                            Sea water suitability: yes, after dilution 1:10
         Sufficient for:        200 tests
         Shelf life:            at least 3 years                            VISOCOLOR ® ECO Phosphate                    Cat. No. 931 084
         Sea water suitability: yes                                         Type:                  colorimetric test kit
                                                                            Range & gradation:     0 0.2 0.3 0.5 0.7
         VISOCOLOR ® pH 4.0 – 10.0                    Cat. No. 914 022
                                                                                                   1 2 3 5 mg/l PO4-P
         Type:                  colorimetric test kit
                                                                            Sufficient for:        90 tests
         Range & gradation:     pH 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5
                                     7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 10.0               Shelf life:            at least 3 years
         Sufficient for:        500 tests                                   Sea water suitability: yes
         Shelf life:            at least 3 years                            VISOCOLOR ® Phosphate                   Cat. No. 914 223
         Sea water suitability: yes                                         Type:                  refill pack
         VISOCOLOR ® HE pH 4.0 – 10.0                   Cat. No. 920 074    Range & gradation:     2 4 7 10 15 25 mg/l PO43–
         Type:                  high sensitive test kit                     Sufficient for:        60 tests
         Range & gradation:     pH 4.0 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0                  Shelf life:            at least 3 years
                                     7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 10.0                   Sea water suitability: yes
         Sufficient for:        500 tests
         Shelf life:            at least 2 years
         Sea water suitability: yes
         VISOCOLOR ® ECO pH 6.0 – 8.2                 Cat. No. 931 270
         Type:                   reagent set for photometric
                                 determination
         Range & gradation:      pH 6.0 – 8.2
         Sufficient for:         150 tests                    NEW!
         Shelf life:             at least 18 months
         Sea water suitability: yes
         Note:
         A visual colorimetric determination is not possible.
         For the determination of the pH value, see also at Swimming
         pool 53

    50     MN                                                                                                                www.mn-net.com
                                                                     Test kits for water analysis

Description of individual parameters and tests

VISOCOLOR ® Phosphate (DEV)                  Cat. No. 914 037
Type:                  colorimetric test kit
                                                                                                                                  SiO2
Range & gradation:     0.1 0.2 0.4 0.7 1.0 1.5 mg/l P                 Silica / silicon
Sufficient for:        60 tests
                                                                      Natural water contains silica in different amounts, depending
Shelf life:            at least 2 years
                                                                      on the geological conditions the water encounters during its
Sea water suitability: yes                                            course. The silica occurs partly as soluble silicate, partly col-
                                                                      loidal as polysilicic acids. The silica content in water for medi-
VISOCOLOR ® HE Phosphate                       Cat. No. 920 082
                                                                      um and high pressure boilers may not exceed certain limits;
Type:                  high sensitive test kit                        in power plants therefore constant measurement of the silica
Range & gradation:     0.0 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20                        content is required.
                       0.3 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 mg/l P
                                                                      Reaction basis:
Sufficient for:        300 tests                                      In acidic solution soluble silica or silicates react with ammoni-
Shelf life:            at least 2 years                               um molybdate to form yellow silicomolybdic acid, which is re-
Sea water suitability: yes                                            duced to silico-molybdenum blue with a reducing agent.
VISOCOLOR ® HE Phosphate (DEV)                 Cat. No. 920 080       Phosphates interfere only in high concentrations (> 30 mg/l
                                                                      PO43-).
Type:                  high sensitive test kit
Range & gradation:     0.0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.05 0.07                   VISOCOLOR ® Silica                             Cat. No. 914 024
                       0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 mg/l P                     Type:                    colorimetric test kit
Sufficient for:        100 tests                                      Range & gradation:       0.2 0.5 1.0 2.0 3.0 5.0 mg/l SiO2
Shelf life:            at least 2 years                               Sufficient for:          50 tests




                                                                                                                                                 ®
Sea water suitability: yes                                            Shelf life:              at least 3 years
                                                                      Sea water suitability:   yes
                                                                      VISOCOLOR ® ECO Silica                       Cat. No. 931 033
                                                            POx       Type:                  colorimetric test kit
Phosphonate                                                           Range & gradation:     0 0.2 0.4 0.6 1.0
Phosphonates are used as complexing agent for softening                                      1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 mg/l SiO2
process and cooling water. They can be determined with                Sufficient for:        100 tests
NanOx metal and VISOCOLOR® ECO Phosphate. Please                      Shelf life:            at least 3 years
ask for our special instructions.                                     Sea water suitability: yes
                                                                      VISOCOLOR ® HE Silicon                         Cat. No. 920 087
                                                                      Type:                  high sensitive test kit
                                                             K        Range & gradation:     0.0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.05 0.07
Potassium                                                                                    0.10 0.15 0.20 0.30 mg/l Si
The natural potassium content in ground water is generally            Sufficient for:        70 tests
about 1 – 2 mg/l K. Higher values may indicate faecal con-            Shelf life:            at least 2 years
taminations, but can also originate from potassium fertilisers.       Sea water suitability: yes
For the growth of plants and animals potassium is an essen-
tial factor. Especially in agriculture the determination of potas-
sium therefore gains increasing importance.                                                                                        Na
Reaction basis:                                                       Sodium
Potassium reacts with sodium tetraphenylborate to form a              About 2.43 % of the uppermost crust of the earth, with a thick-
precipitate. Under defined conditions this turbidity can be           ness of 16 km, consist of chemically bonded sodium; this is
used for concentration measurements.                                  place 6 in the frequency list of elements. In rocks and miner-
Turbidities interfere and have to be filtered prior to the test.      als it is mostly present as silicate (e.g. soda feldspar or albite)
Good reproducibility is obtained for drinking, surface and            and as sodium chloride (rocksalt), but also as carbonate, ni-
ground water. For polluted waste waters low potassium val-            trate (especially chile salpeter) and cryolite as well as in many
ues are measured.                                                     other minerals. Each ton of sea water contains an average of
                                                                      27 kg common salt (10.6 kg sodium), this is 77 % of all salts
VISOCOLOR ® ECO Potassium                    Cat. No. 931 032         present in sea water. Under the assumption, that in natural
Type:                  colorimetric test kit                          waters beside sodium mainly calcium and magnesium can
Range & gradation:     2 3 4 6 8 10 15 mg/l K+                        occur as cations, it is easily possible to determine the sodium
Sufficient for:        60 tests                                       content using VISOCOLOR® titration test kits. Please ask for
Shelf life:            at least 3 years                               the respective special instructions.
Sea water suitability: no



Residual hardness
see Hardness (total and residual)



www.mn-net.com                                                                                                                    MN        51
                       Test kits for water analysis

         Description of individual parameters and tests


                                                                  SO4                                                                SO3
         Sulphate                                                          Sulphite
         The determination of sulphate ions is of special importance to    Sulphite ions are not present in natural unpolluted waters, how-
         evaluate the aggressiveness of a water towards concrete.          ever they often appear in large quantities in industrial waste
         Sulphate, a component of natural water, is formed in many         waters (e. g. paper mills, dye works).
         manufacturing processes and is found in waste waters even         Reaction basis:
         after neutralisation.                                             Titrimetric determination with addition of iodine solution and
                                                                           reverse titration of unused iodine with sodium thiosulphate.
         Reaction basis:                                                   Larger concentrations of sulphide and nitrite ions interfere.
         Sulphate reacts with barium ions forming a precipitate of bar-    The method can be used for the analysis of sea water.
         ium sulphate. Under defined conditions this turbidity can be      For determination of dithionite (hydrosulphite) please ask for
         used for concentration measurements.                              our special instruction.
         Turbidities of the sample interfere and have to be filtered.
                                                                           VISOCOLOR ® ECO Sulphite                    Cat. No. 931 095
         Good reproducibility is obtained for drinking, surface and
         ground water. For polluted waste waters low concentrations        Type:                  titration test kit
         are measured.                                                     Range & gradation:     1 drop = 1 mg/l SO32-
                                                                           Sufficient for:        60 tests with an average sulphite
         VISOCOLOR ® Sulphate                          Cat. No. 914 035                           concentration of 10 mg/l SO32-
         Type:                  colorimetric test kit                      Shelf life:            at least 1 year
         Range & gradation:     25 30 35 40 50 60 70 80                    Sea water suitability: yes
®




                                100 120 150 200 mg/l SO42-
         Sufficient for:        100 tests                                  VISOCOLOR ® Sulphite SU 100                   Cat. No. 915 008
                                                                           Type:                  titration test kit
         Shelf life:            at least 3 years
                                                                           Range & gradation:     1 syringe is sufficient for
         Sea water suitability: yes, after dilution 1:50
                                                                                                  2 – 100 mg/l SO32–
                                                                                                  1 gradation mark = 2 mg/l SO32–
                                                                           Sufficient for:        100 tests with an average sulphite
                                                                                                  content of 100 mg/l SO32–
                                                                  S2–
         Sulphide                                                          Shelf life:            at least 3 years
                                                                           Sea water suitability: yes
         In water sulphides can be present as dissolved hydrogen sul-
         phide or as hydrosulphide or sulphide ions.
         Reaction basis:
         N,N-Dimethyl-1,4-phenylene diamine reacts with hydrogen           Surfactants
         sulphide to form an unstable compound which rearranges to         Detergents are surface-active substances which can be clas-
         leucomethylene blue. Oxidation with iron(III) ions yields meth-   sified into anionic, cationic and nonionic groups. They can be
         ylene blue.                                                       found in municipal and industrial waste waters.
         Thiocyanate and nitrite above 5 mg/l cause low results.           Reaction bases:
                                                                           (a) Under suitable conditions anionic detergents react with
         VISOCOLOR ® ECO Sulphide                     Cat. No. 931 094     methylene blue to form a coloured complex which is extracted
         Type:                  colorimetric test kit                      with an organic phase. The reference standard is methyl do-
         Range & gradation:     0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5                        decylbenzene sulphonate (MBAS: 342 g/mol).
                                0.6 0.7 0.8 mg/l S2–                       (b) Cationic detergents react with bromophenol blue to form
         Sufficient for:        100 tests                                  a coloured complex which is extracted with an organic phase.
         Shelf life:            at least 3 years                           The reference standard is N-cetyl-N,N,N-trimethylammonium
         Sea water suitability: yes                                        bromide (CTAB: 365 g/mol).
                                                                           If the water contains cationic and anionic detergents, equiva-
         VISOCOLOR ® Sulphide                         Cat. No. 914 033     lent quantities are combined and escape analysis. Normally
         Type:                  colorimetric test kit                      detergents are determined as a sum. For the analysis of spe-
         Range & gradation:     0.05 0.1 0.2 0.4 0.7 1.0 mg/l S2–          cific detergents a correction factor has to be determined.
         Sufficient for:        100 tests                                  VISOCOLOR ® Detergents, anionic              Cat. No. 914 014
         Shelf life:            at least 3 years                           Type:                  colorimetric test kit
         Sea water suitability: yes                                        Range & gradation:     0.1 0.25 0.5 1.0 2.0
                                                                                                  5.0 mg/ MBAS
                                                                           Reaction basis:        (a) methylene blue method
                                                                           Sufficient for:        50 tests
                                                                           Shelf life:            at least 2 years
                                                                           Sea water suitability: yes
                                                                           Extraction method (kit contains chlorinated hydrocarbons,
                                                                           observe local regulations)




    52     MN                                                                                                             www.mn-net.com
                                                                 Test kits for water analysis

Description of individual parameters and tests

VISOCOLOR ® Detergents, cationic             Cat. No. 914 015     VISOCOLOR ® Swimming pool                     Cat. No. 914 230
Type:                  colorimetric test kit                      Type:                   refill pack
Range & gradation:     0 1 3 5 10 15 20 mg/l CTAB                 Range & gradation:      Chlorine:
Reaction basis:        (b) bromophenol blue method                                        0.1 0.3 0.6 0.9 1.3 2.0 mg/l Cl2
Sufficient for:        50 tests                                                           pH:
                                                                                          6.9 7.2 7.4 7.6 7.8 8.2
Shelf life:            at least 2 years
                                                                  Sufficient for:         100 tests each
Sea water suitability: yes
                                                                  Shelf life:             at least 18 months
Extraction method (kit contains chlorinated hydrocarbons,         Sea water suitability: yes
observe local regulations)
                                                                  After addition of iodide ions the total chlorine can be deter-
                                                                  mined, too.
                                                                  VISOCOLOR ® pH 6.9 – 8.2                  Cat. No. 914 330
                                                                  Type:                  refill pack
                                                  Cl2    pH       Range & gradation:     pH 6.9 7.2 7.4 7.6 7.8 8.2
Swimming pool                                                     Sufficient for:        150 tests
Chlorination of water in swimming pools with chlorine or chlo-    Shelf life:            at least 18 months
rine compounds takes place within certain limits. One distin-     Sea water suitability: yes
guishes between free chlorine and bound chlorine
(chloroamines); the sum of both is called total chlorine. The
content of free chlorine should be between 0.3 and 0.6 mg/l.




                                                                                                                                          ®
Chlorination alters the pH value of the swimming pool water.
                                                                                                                             Zn
The ideal pH value is pH 7.4. This prevents formation of mal-     Zinc
odorous pollutants and irritants to the mucous membrane,
and prevents damage to the water treatment system.                Zinc is one of the most often used metals for surface finishing.
                                                                  Its content in waste water from e. g. electroplating companies
Reaction basis:
                                                                  has to be regularly checked.
Free chlorine reacts with N,N-diethyl-1,4-phenylene diamine
(DPD) to form a red-violet dye. The pH value is determined        Reaction basis:
with phenol red as indicator.                                     At a pH of 8.5 – 9.5 zinc ions react with zincon to form a blue
For test kits for the determination of chlorine alone see         colour complex. Acidic, alkaline and buffered samples have
VISOCOLOR® Chlorine.                                              to be adjusted to pH 9 for the test.
                                                                  VISOCOLOR ® ECO Zinc                          Cat. No. 931 098
                                                                  Type:                  colorimetric test kit
                                                                  Range & gradation:     0 0.5 1 2 3 mg/l Zn2+
                                                                  Sufficient for:        120 tests
                                                                  Shelf life:            at least 1 year
                                                                  Sea water suitability: yes, after dilution 1:10      NEW!


                                                                  VISOCOLOR ® Zinc                                Cat. No. 914 041
                                                                  Type:                     colorimetric test kit
                                                                  Range & gradation:        0 0.25 0.5 1.0 2.0 3.0 mg/l Zn2+
                                                                  Sufficient for:           90 tests
                                                                  Shelf life:               at least 1 year
                                                                  Sea water suitability: yes
                                                                  For determination of zinc in the presence of high concentra-
                                                                  tions of calcium, iron or manganese please ask for our special
                                                                  instructions.
VISOCOLOR ® ECO Swimming pool                Cat. No. 931 090     CAUTION: test kit contains very toxic reagents!
Type:                  colorimetric test kit
Range & gradation:     Chlorine:
                       0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.6
                       0.9 1.2 2.0 mg/l Cl2
                       pH:
                       6.9 7.2 7.4 7.6 7.8 8.2
Sufficient for:        150 tests each
Shelf life:            at least 18 months
Sea water suitability: yes




www.mn-net.com                                                                                                              MN       53
                        Reagent cases

         Combinations of several VISOCOLOR ® test kits

         Programme of VISOCOLOR ® reagent cases
          Type                           for the determination of                                                                   Cat. No.
          Reagent case for soil analysis
          VISOCOLOR ® reagent            phosphate, potassium, nitrogen (ammonium, nitrite and nitrate), pH, soil structure,        914 601
          case for soil analysis         incl. all requisite equipment and accessories
          Reagent case for water analysis · without photometer
          VISOCOLOR ® ECO                ammonium, carbonate hardness, total hardness, nitrate, nitrite, pH, phosphate              931 001
          reagent case
          VISOCOLOR ® ECO                without test kits for individual combination of up to 7 test kits of type                  931 100
          reagent case (empty)           VISOCOLOR ® ECO
          VISOCOLOR ®                    alkalinity, ammonium, total hardness, nitrite, pH, phosphate, oxygen, temperature          931 302
          reagent case
          VISOCOLOR ®                    without test kits for individual combination of up to 9 test kits of type                  931 307
          reagent case (empty)           VISOCOLOR ® ECO and VISOCOLOR ® titration test kits

          Reagent case for water analysis · with photometer PF-11
          Reagent case                   ammonium, carbonate hardness, iron, total hardness, nitrate, nitrite, pH, phosphate,       914 304
          ”Environmental analysis”       incl. photometer PF-11
®




          VISOCOLOR ® Reagent            without test kits for individual combination of up to 9 test kits of type                  914 309
          case with PF-11 (empty)        VISOCOLOR ® ECO and VISOCOLOR ® titration test kits
          For the carrying case with the photometer VISOCOLOR ® photino, please see page 58



         Soil analysis
         For its many ecological functions a biologically active soil,
         which is extensively used for agriculture, has to be main-
         tained and supported. The best, economically and ecological-
         ly most meaningful procedure is to analyse first the important
         parameters of the soil before planning measures such as fer-
         tilization, liming etc.
         The VISOCOLOR ® reagent case for soil analysis has been
         developed for the rapid, convenient and reliable determina-
         tion of the soil condition, even in the field.


         VISOCOLOR ® reagent case for soil analysis
                                                      Cat. No. 914 601
         The VISOCOLOR ® reagent case for soil analysis contains all
         reagents, instruments and accessories required for the prep-
         aration of soil extracts and the subsequent determination of
         ✓ phosphate (P)                         ✓ soil structure
         ✓ potassium (K)                         ✓ pH
         ✓ ammonium, nitrite, nitrate (N)
                                                                               As refills the following reagents can be used.
         The soil extracts are either prepared with Calcium-Acetate-           CaCl2 stock solution, for 300 soil samples           914 612
         Lactate (CAL) solution (prior to the determination of P and K)        CAL stock solution, for 10 soil samples              914 614
         or with CaCl2 solution (prior to the determination of N and           VISOCOLOR® HE pH 4-10                                920 174
         pH).
                                                                               VISOCOLOR® HE Phosphorus in soil                     920 183
         If required by national regulations for soil analysis or because      Pyrophosphate solution                               914 611
         of local geological conditions, the VISOCOLOR® reagent                VISOCOLOR® ECO Potassium                             931 232
         case for soil analysis can also be used together with extrac-         QUANTOFIX® Ammonium                                  913 15
         tion solutions other than CaCl2 or CAL. Please consult in-            QUANTOFIX® Nitrate/Nitrite                           913 13
         struction leaflets for possible interferences.                        pH-Fix 2 – 9                                         921 18
         Reagents are sufficient for 110 CaCl2 extractions, 7 CAL ex-          Folded filters MN 616 1/4, 18.5 cm ∅                 532 018
         tractions and 60 – 100 tests.
                                                                               In addition to the reagent case, various VISOCOLOR® rea-
         Shelf life of reagents: at least 18 months
                                                                               gents can also be used for soil analysis. Please request infor-
                                                                               mation about suitable extraction solutions.




    54     MN                                                                                                                   www.mn-net.com
                                                                                         Reagent cases

Reagent cases for water analysis
Reagent cases with VISOCOLOR® test kits give fish breed-            VISOCOLOR ® reagent case                   Cat. No. 931 302
ers, anglers and other interested parties the possibility to car-   This VISOCOLOR® reagent case contains the following test
ry out fast and simple analyses of the most important               kits:
constituents which are important for evaluation of the water
quality. No previous knowledge of chemistry is required for
                                                                    ✓ Alkalinity AL 7 (total) accuracy: 0.2 mmol/l or 0.5 °d
proper performance of the tests.                                    ✓ Ammonium                0.2 – 3 mg/l NH4+
The different VISOCOLOR® reagent cases contain a thermo-
                                                                    ✓ Hardness H 20 F (total) accuracy: 0.1 mmol/l or 0.5 °d
formed lining which holds all requisite reagents, comparators,      ✓ Nitrite                 0.02 – 0.50 mg/l NO2–
and accessories. Colour coding of reagent bottles prevents          ✓ Oxygen SA 10            accuracy: 0.2 mg/l O2
confusion of reagents. VISOCOLOR® ECO reagent bottles                                         (oxygen deficit)
are identified by unambiguous symbols. Reagents are suffi-          ✓ pH 4.0 – 9.0            pH 4.0 – 9.0
cient for at least 60 tests.                                        ✓ Phosphate               0.2 – 5 mg/l P
The high sensitivity VISOCOLOR® HE test kits cannot be              ✓ Temperature             –10 °C to +60 °C
placed in a VISOCOLOR® reagent case.                                Additionally the case can hold one VISOCOLOR® ECO test
                                                                    kit (Cat. No. 931 0...).
                                                                    Shelf life of reagents: at least 18 months
VISOCOLOR ® ECO reagent case          Cat. No. 931 001
This VISOCOLOR® ECO reagent case contains the following             As refill for this VISOCOLOR® reagent case you can use the
test kits:                                                          following refill packs:
✓ Ammonium           0.2 – 3 mg/l NH4+                              Alkalinity AL 7 (total)  915 207 Oxygen SA 10 915 209
✓ Carbonate hardness 1 drop = 1 °d                                  Ammonium                 931 208 pH 4.0 – 9.0   931 266
✓ total Hardness     1 drop = 1 °d
                                                                    Hardness H 20 F (total) 915 205 Phosphate       931 284




                                                                                                                                            ®
                                                                    Nitrite                  931 244
✓ Nitrate            4 – 120 mg/l NO3–
✓ Nitrite            0.02 – 0.5 mg/l NO2–
✓ pH                 pH 4.0 – 9.0
✓ Phosphate          0.2 – 5 mg/l P
Shelf life of reagents: at least 18 months
As refill for this VISOCOLOR® reagent case, you can use the
following refill packs:
Ammonium                 931 208     Nitrite      931 244
Carbonate hardness 931 214           pH 4.0 – 9.0 931 266
Hardness (total)         931 229     Phosphate    931 284
Nitrate                  931 241




                                                                    VISOCOLOR ® reagent case without test kits
                                                                                                             Cat. No. 931 307
                                                                    This VISOCOLOR® reagent case allows the individual com-
                                                                    bination of up to 9 test kits from the complete range of
                                                                    VISOCOLOR® ECO and titration test kits; e.g. for applica-
                                                                    tions in
                                                                       boiler water conditioning       cooling water conditioning
                                                                       water treatment                 irrigation
                                                                       beverage industries             breweries
                                                                       printing industries             education
                                                                       corrosion prevention            surface finishing
VISOCOLOR ® ECO reagent case without test kits                         construction industries         aquaculture
                                             Cat. No. 931 100       and others
This VISOCOLOR® ECO reagent case allows the individual
                                                                    To get your personal selection of specific test kits, please see
combination of up to 7 test kits from the VISOCOLOR® ECO
                                                                    on page 57 or contact us prior to ordering.
programme.




www.mn-net.com                                                                                                                MN       55
                        Reagent cases

         Reagent cases for water analysis

         VISOCOLOR ® reagent cases with the photometer PF-11
         Reagent cases with the photometer PF-11 give persons inter-        In addition to the photometric measurement, all colorimetric
         ested in water analysis the possibility to obtain very precise     tests can also be evaluated with the large colour comparison
         and meaningful analytical results for the evaluation of a water    chart. Carbonate hardness (p/m alkalinity) and total hardness
         sample in a short time using VISOCOLOR® test kits or               are determined titrimetrically, pH only by visual colorimetry,
         NANOCOLOR® tube tests. No previous knowledge of                    i. e. not with the photometer.
          chemistry is required for proper performance of the tests.        Additionally, the photometer PF-11 can be used for the eval-
         The different VISOCOLOR® reagent cases contain a thermo-           uation of all other VISOCOLOR® comparator tests, for the
         formed lining which holds the photometer PF-11, all requisite      VISOCOLOR® ECO tests with colour comparator scale and
         reagents and accessories. Colour coding of the reagent             for NANOCOLOR® tube tests.
          bottles prevents confusion of reagents. The reagents are suf-     As refill packs for the VISOCOLOR® reagent case ”Environ-
         ficient for at least 60 tests.                                     mental analysis” you can use the following test kits:
         In addition to the tests in the respective reagent case certain
                                                                            Ammonium (DEV)                914 238
         other VISOCOLOR® tests or NANOCOLOR® tube tests can
                                                                            Carbonate hardness C 20       915 203
         be used and evaluated directly.
                                                                            Iron (triazine)               914 239
         VISOCOLOR® refill packs can be used to replace used rea-           Hardness H 20 F (total)       915 205
         gents in the reagent cases.                                        Nitrate 50                    914 245
         The high sensitivity VISOCOLOR® HE test kits cannot be             Nitrite                       914 220
         used in VISOCOLOR® reagent cases.                                  pH 4.0 – 10.0                 914 222
                                                                            Phosphate (DEV)               914 237
®




         VISOCOLOR ® reagent case "Environmental analysis"                  VISOCOLOR ® reagent case with photometer PF-11,
                                                        Cat. No. 914 304    without test kits                               Cat. No. 914 309
         This VISOCOLOR® reagent case is intended for the ecologi-          This VISOCOLOR® reagent case contains the photometer
         cal evaluation of very different types of water and contains the   PF-11 and allows the individual combination of up to 9 test
         photometer PF-11 and the following VISOCOLOR® tests:               kits from the VISOCOLOR® ECO and VISOCOLOR® titration
         ✓   Ammonium (DEV)             0.2 – 10 mg/l NH4+                  kits for photometric and titrimetric evaluation, e.g. for applica-
         ✓   Carbonate hardness C 20    accuracy: 0.1 mmol/l or 0.5 °d      tions in
         ✓   Hardness H 20 F (total)    accuracy: 0.1 mmol/l or 0.5 °d          boiler water conditioning        cooling water conditioning
         ✓   Iron (triazine)            0.1 – 2.0 mg/l Fe                       water treatment                  irrigation
         ✓   Nitrate 50                 1 – 50 mg/l NO3–                        beverage industries              breweries
         ✓   Nitrite                    0.05 – 2.0 mg/l NO2–                    printing industries              education
         ✓   pH 4.0–10.0                pH 4.0 – 10.0                           corrosion prevention             surface finishing
         ✓   Phosphate (DEV)            0.1 – 1.5 mg/l P                        construction industry            aquaculture
         Reagents are sufficient for 60 – 120 tests.                        and others.
         Shelf life of reagents: at least 18 months                         To get your personal selection of specific test kits, please see
                                                                            page 57 or contact us prior to ordering.




    56     MN                                                                                                               www.mn-net.com
                                                                                    Reagent cases

Reagent cases for water analysis

Individual VISOCOLOR ® reagent cases for different applications
Choose from different empty VISOCOLOR ® reagent cases to        4. Which kind of samples have to be analysed?
fill them with various VISOCOLOR ® test kits and refill packs   5. Which method should be used (colorimetric, titrimetric,
to customize your own portable environmental laboratory.           or photometric)?
The empty VISOCOLOR ® reagent cases are available with          You only have to order your desired empty VISOCOLOR ® re-
or without the photometer PF-11.                                agent case and the suitable test kits or refill packs. On re-
To customize your individual reagent cases please keep the      quest we can check which arrangement is the most practical
following in mind:                                              way and make an attractive offer for you.
1. Which parameters you want to check?                          Some examples for customized VISOCOLOR ® reagent cas-
2. Which measuring range you are looking for?                   es are as follows:
3. How many samples you have to analyse?


Example of a reagent case for aquaculture and fish farming       Example of a reagent case for electroplating industry

                                            Ammonium 3                                                      Chlorine
                                            931 008                                                         914 232
                                            Carbonate                                                       Chromate
                                            hardness                                                        914 211
                                            931 014                                                         Coppper




                                                                                                                                     ®
                                            Hardness                                                        914 234
                                            931 029                                                         Cyanide
                                            Iron                                                            914 242
                                            931 026                                                         Nickel
                                            Nitrate                                                         914 219
                                            931 041                                                         Sulphate
                                            Oxygen                                                          914 235
                                            931 088                                                         Zinc
                                            pH 4.0 – 9.0                                                    914 241
                                            931 066
                                            Phosphate
                                            931 084

This reagent case is equipped with VISOCOLOR ® ECO test         This reagent case is equipped with VISOCOLOR ® refill
kits.                                                           packs in combination with photometer PF-11.


Example for a reagent case for constructions industry           Example for a special reagent case
                                            Acidity AC 7                                                    Chromium(VI)
                                            931 014                                                         931 220
                                            Ammonium                                                        Copper
                                            913 15                                                          931 237
                                            Chloride                                                        Cyanide
                                            931 018                                                         931 222
                                            Hardness                                                        Hardness
                                            931 029                                                         931 029
                                            Magnesium                                                       Iron
                                            931 029                                                         931 226
                                            pH 4.5 - 10.0                                                   Nickel
                                            921 20                                                          931 240
                                            Sulphate                                                        pH 6.0 – 8.2
                                            913 29                                                          931 270
                                            Sulphide                                                        Phosphate
                                            931 094                                                         931 284
                                                                                                            Sulphate
                                                                                                            914 235
This reagent case is equipped with test papers, test sticks     This reagent case is equipped with VISOCOLOR ® ECO test
and VISOCOLOR ® ECO test kits.                                  kits and refill packs in combination with photometer PF-11.




www.mn-net.com                                                                                                          MN      57
                       Photometer for water analysis

         VISOCOLOR ® photino

         Portable photometer for drinking water and pool analysis
         The VISOCOLOR ® photino is an irreplaceable analytical            Technical Data
         tool for the determination of:
             Chlorine                                                      Type:                handheld LED photometer,
                                                                                                preprogrammed with 3 calibrations
             pH and
             Cyanuric acid.                                                Optics:              narrow band LED with 525 nm
         Modern optics - Accurate results                                  Detector:            photovoltaic cell
         Highest accuracy is obtained by an optimal match of calibra-      Display:             alphanumeric LC display 2 x 16 cha-
         tions due to a state of the art microprocessor and signal aver-                        racters
         aging over the complete measurement period. The results           Operation:           microswitch for automatic release of
         are directly displayed in mg/l. An off scale warning occurs, if                        measurements 2 foil-covered keys
         results are out of the measuring range.The LED technology         User languages:      operator controlled selection of various
         assures a long term stability of the light source and low power
                                                                                                languages (4 per instrument)
         consumption.
                                                                           Autoblank:           optional operator controlled feature
         Auto zero function
                                                                           Automatic            after 15 min
         The auto zero function speeds up analysis time and reduces
         preparation of blank values to a minimum.                         shutt off:
         Easy to use                                                       Stability:           < 0.005 E/h
         The one button operation allows                                   Power supply:        3 AA batteries (included)
         an extremely simple measure-                                      Temperature          0 – 50 °C (operating);
®




         ment procedure. All                                               range:               0 – 95 % rel. humidity
         methods are factory                                               Housing:             corrosion and water resistant ABS
         programmed, no user
         calibrations are                                NEW!                                   plastic; sealed and splash prooved foil
                                                                                                keypad, IP 54
         needed.
                                                                           Dimensions:          146 x 91 x 50 mm
                                                                           Weight:              340 g
                                                                           Warranty:            2 years




                                                                           Reagents
                                                                           The VISOCOLOR ® photino case can be supplemented with
                                                                           VISOCOLOR ® colorimetric reagents for determination of free
                                                                           and total chlorine (0.05 – 6.00 mg/l), pH 6.0-8.2 and cyanuric
                                                                           acid (10-100 mg/l) - up to 150 determinations each. The rea-
                                                                           gents do not contain any hazardous chemicals and the result-
                                                                           ing preparations are easy to dispose after use. The
                                                                           economically priced refill reagents remarkably reduce the
                                                                           price per test.




         Auto switch technology
         The photometric measurement is released automatically after
         the cuvette has been inserted into the cuvette slot. No addi-
         tional keystroke is necessary.

         Economic power management
         Up to 2000 measurements can be done with a set of 3 AA bat-
         teries. The power consumption is reduced to a minimum due
         to the modern LED technology and power saving auto-off
         function after 15 min of non-use. A low battery warning indi-
         cates when you need to replace the batteries.




    58     MN                                                                                                            www.mn-net.com
                                                             Photometer for water analysis

VISOCOLOR ® photino




                                                                 Clear dosage and test instructions
                                                                 Coloured pictograms guide you through the tests step by
                                                                 step. All VISOCOLOR ® reagent bottles are epquiped with
                                                                 clear dosing instructions.


                                                                 VISOCOLOR ® reagent case with portable photometer
                                                                 VISOCOLOR ® photino
                                                                 The compact photometer VISOCOLOR ® photino and the
                                                                 easy to handle VISOCOLOR ® ECO reagents – a perfect
                                                                 combination for daily analysis of water quality.
                                                                 Ordering information

                                                                 Description                                         Cat. No.
                                                                 Carrying case with photometer    VISOCOLOR ®      photino,
                                                                 3 AA batteries, 4 test tubes, 1 syringe 10 ml, 1 funnel,




                                                                                                                                     ®
                                                                 1 plastic beaker 25 ml, 1 instrument manual and test
                                                                 instructions; available with different combinations of rea-
                                                                 gents. User languages: German, English, Spanish and
Portable laboratory                                              Portuguese (French version on request)
The VISOCOLOR ® photino with its lightweight but rugged          VISOCOLOR ® photino carrying case for the
carrying case is a complete portable laboratory with space for   determination of Chlorine with liquid DPD reagent
reagents and analytical accessories.                             (Range 0.10 – 2.50 mg/l)
                                                                 Carrying case without reagents                     931 300.1
                                                                 Carrying case with reagents VISOCOLOR ®            931 311.1
                                                                 ECO Chlorine 2
                                                                 Carrying case with reagents VISOCOLOR ®            931 322.1
Easy handling – no more stirring, no more crushing               ECO Chlorine 2 and pH 6.0 – 8.2
Whether liquid DPD reagents for chlorine, NANOFIX indicator      Carrying case with reagents VISOCOLOR ®            931 333.1
capsules for pH or finest reagent powder for chlorine and cy-    ECO Chlorine 2, pH 6.0 – 8.2 and Cyanuric acid
anuric acid; all reagents are easy to dose and dissolve imme-    VISOCOLOR ® photino carrying case for the
diately.                                                         determination of Chlorine with solid DPD reagent
                                                                 (Range 0.05 – 6.00 mg/l)
                                                                 Carrying case without reagents                     931 600.1
                                                                 Carrying case with reagents VISOCOLOR ®            931 611.1
                                                                 ECO Chlorine 6
                                                                 Carrying case with reagents VISOCOLOR ®            931 622.1
                                                                 ECO Chlorine 6 and pH 6.0 – 8.2
                                                                 Carrying case with reagents VISOCOLOR ®            931 633.1
                                                                 ECO Chlorine 6, pH 6.0 – 8.2 and Cyanuric acid
                                                                 Reagent refill packs
                                                                 VISOCOLOR ® ECO Chlorine 2                          931 215
                                                                 (0.10 – 2.50 mg/l)
                                                                 VISOCOLOR ® ECO free Chlorine 2                     931 216
                                                                 (0.10 – 2.50 mg/l)
                                                                 VISOCOLOR ® ECO Chlorine 6                          931 217
                                                                 (0.05 – 6.00 mg/l)
                                                                 VISOCOLOR ® ECO free Chlorine 6                     931 219
                                                                 (0.05 – 6.00 mg/l)
                                                                 VISOCOLOR ® ECO pH 6.0 – 8.2                        931 270
                                                                 VISOCOLOR ® ECO Cyanuric acid                       931 223
                                                                 (10 – 100 mg/l)




www.mn-net.com                                                                                                           MN     59
                        Photometer for water analysis

         Photometer PF-11

         Portable photometer for field and laboratory use
         The photometer PF-11 offers an easy start into photometric              Technical data
         water analysis. When evaluated with PF-11 our economically
         priced VISOCOLOR ® reagents, which have been successful-                Type:             Single beam filter photometer
         ly used in our colorimetric or photometrictest kits for years,          Optics:           Filter wheel with 6 coloured glassfilters
         give rapid and accurate results, which are even more precise            Wavelengths       380/405/470/520/605/720 nm
         than a visual evaluation. Photometry allows reliable measure-
         ments, independent of surrounding light conditions or person-           Light source:     Tungsten lamp
         al colour assessments.                                                  Detector:         Silicon photoelement
         If there is a need for more accurate results, a lower detection         Display:          2 x 16 characters, 5 mm high
         limit or simply, if a large variety of test kits with various meas-     Operation:        3 foil-covered keys
         uring ranges is requested, the use of NANOCOLOR® tube
         tests is the choice.                                                    Measuring         ± 2.5 E
                                                                                 range:
              Portable multiparameter photometer
                                                                                 Stability:        < 0.01 E/h
              Field and laboratory use
                                                                                 Data              RS 232 serial interface
              Battery and mains operable                                         interface:
              More than 100 preprogrammed calibrations                           Power             1600 mAh, 4 rechargeable batteries with
              27 VISOCOLOR® ECO calibrations                                     supply:           external charger, sufficient for at least
              26 VISOCOLOR® calibrations                                                           1000 measurements or via socket with a
              89 NANOCOLOR® calibrations
                                                                                                   separate mains adaptor (9 V/1.5 A)
®




              Direct reading in mg/l                                             Dimensions:       195 x 100 x 40 mm
              Extinction measurement                                             Weight:           480 g incl. rechargeable batteries
              Cuvette slot for 16 mm round tubes
              User-friendly
              Large display with clear user guidance in 8 languages
              Photometric pH-measure-
              ment
              Interface for data
              transfer to a PC




                                                                                 Ordering information

                                                                                 Description:                                      Cat. No.
                                                                                 Photometer PF-11, complete in a case, incl.       919 05
                                                                                 manual, 4 rechargeable batteries, charger,
                                                                                 2 empty test tubes and funnel for sampling
                                                                                 External mains adaptor (100 – 240 V)              919 06
                                                                                 9 V / 1.5 A
                                                                                 GB plug for mains adaptor                       919 06.GB
                                                                                 USA plug for mains adaptor                      919 06.USA




         VISOCOLOR ® and NANOCOLOR ® tests wich can be evaluated with the photometer PF-11
          Test                                                                         Ranges                                      Cat. No.
          VISOCOLOR ® ECO test kits
          Ammonium 3                                      0.1   – 1.2     mg/l NH4-N       0.1 –      1.5 mg/l NH4+/NH3            931 208
          Chloride                                        1     – 40      mg/l Cl–                                                 931 218
          Chlorine 2                                      0.1   – 2.0     mg/l Cl2                                                 931 215
          free Chlorine 2                       NEW!      0.1   – 2.0     mg/l Cl2                                                 931 216


    60     MN                                                                                                                  www.mn-net.com
                                                    Photometer for water analysis

Photometer PF-11

VISOCOLOR ® and NANOCOLOR ® tests wich can be evaluated with the photometer PF-11 (cont.)
Test                                                             Ranges                            Cat. No.
Chlorine 6                      NEW!  0.05 – 6.00 mg/l Cl2                                         931 217
free Chlorine 6                 NEW!  0.05 – 6.00 mg/l Cl2                                         931 219
Chromium(VI)                          0.02 – 0.50 mg/l Cr(VI)        0.04 –    1.00 mg/l CrO42–    931 220
Copper                                0.2 – 1.5 mg/l Cu2+                                          931 237
Cyanide                               0.01 – 0.20 mg/l CN–                                         931 222
Cyanuric acid                        10    – 100  mg/l Cya                                         931 223
Fluoride                              0.1 – 2.0 mg/l F–                                            931 227
Iron                                  0.04 – 1.00 mg/l Fe                                          931 226
Manganese                             0.1 – 1.5 mg/l Mn                                            931 238
Nickel                                0.1 – 1.5 mg/l Ni2+                                          931 240
Nitrate                               1    – 27   mg/l NO3-N         4    – 120  mg/l NO3–         931 241
Nitrite                               0.01 – 0.15 mg/l NO2-N         0.02 – 0.50 mg/l NO2–         931 244
Oxygen                                1    – 10   mg/l O2                                          931 288
pH 6.0 – 8.2                    NEW! 6.0 – 8.2 pH                                                  931 270
Phosphate                             0.2 – 5.0 mg/l PO4-P           0.6 – 15.0 mg/l PO43–         931 284
Potassium                             2    – 15   mg/l K+                                          931 232
Silica                                0.2 – 3.0 mg/l SiO2            0.1 –     1.4 mg/l Si         931 233




                                                                                                                   ®
Sulfide                                0.05 – 0.80 mg/l S2–                                         931 294
Zinc                            NEW! 0.1 – 3.0 mg/l Zn2+                                           931 298


VISOCOLOR ® comparator test kits
Ammonium (DEV)                          0.1 – 1.6 mg/l NH4-N         0.1 –     2.0 mg/l NH4+/NH3   914 238
Chlorine                                0.10 – 2.00 mg/l Cl2                                       914 232
Chromate                                0.1 – 1.0 mg/l Cr(VI)        0.1 –     2.0 mg/l CrO42–     914 211
Copper                                  0.1 – 3.0 mg/l Cu2+                                        914 234
Cyanide                                 0.05 – 1.00 mg/l CN–                                       914 242
Iron (Triazine)                         0.1 – 2.0 mg/l Fe                                          914 239
Iron (DEV)                              0.1 – 7.0 mg/l Fe                                          914 217
Manganese                               0.1 – 4.0 mg/l Mn                                          914 218
Nickel                                  0.2 – 10.0 mg/l Ni2+                                       914 219
Nitrate 50                              0.2 – 9.0 mg/l NO3-N         1    – 40   mg/l NO3–         914 245
Nitrite                                 0.02 – 0.60 mg/l NO2-N       0.05 – 2.00 mg/l NO2–         914 220
Phosphate (DEV)                         0.1 – 1.5 mg/l PO4-P         0.2 – 5.0 mg/l PO43–          914 237
Phosphate                               0.6 – 8.0 mg/l PO4-P         2    – 25   mg/l PO43–        914 223
Silica                                  0.1 – 2.5 mg/l Si            0.2 – 5.0 mg/l SiO2           914 224
Sulphate                               20    – 200  mg/l SO42–                                     914 235
Sulphide                                0.05 – 1.00 mg/l S2–                                       914 233
Zinc                                    0.2 – 3.0 mg/l Zn2+                                        914 241


NANOCOLOR ® tube tests
Aluminium 07                             0.02 –    0.70 mg/l Al3+                                  985 098
Ammonium 3                               0.04 –    2.30 mg/l NH4-N    0.05 – 3.00 mg/l NH4+/NH3    985 003
Ammonium 10                              0.2 –     8.0 mg/l NH4-N     0.2 – 10.0 mg/l NH4+/NH3     985 004
Ammonium 50                              1     – 40     mg/l NH4-N    1    – 50   mg/l NH4+/NH3    985 005
Ammonium 200                            30     – 160    mg/l NH4-N   40    – 200  mg/l NH4+/NH3    985 006
AOX 3                                    0.01 –    3.0 mg/l AOX                                    985 007
BOD5 (biochem. oxygen demand)            0.5 – 12.0 mg/l O2          (2 – 3000 mg/l O2)            985 822
BOD5-TT                                  0.5 –     7.0 mg/l O2       (2 – 3000 mg/l O2)            985 825
Cadmium 2                                0.10 –    2.00 mg/l Cd2+                                  985 014
Carbonate hardness 15                    1.0 – 15.0 °d                0.4 –     5.4 mmol/l H+      985 015
Chloride 50                              0.5 – 50       mg/l Cl–                                   985 021
Chloride 200                             5     – 200    mg/l Cl–                                   985 019
Chlorine/Ozone 2                         0.05 –    2.50 mg/l Cl2      0.05 –    2.00 mg/l O3       985 017
Chlorine dioxide 5                       0.2 –     5.0 mg/l ClO2                                   985 018
Chromate 5                               0.03 –   1.80 mg/l Cr(VI)    0.1 –     4.0 mg/l CrO42–    985 024


www.mn-net.com                                                                                          MN    61
                     Photometer for water analysis

         Photometer PF-11

         VISOCOLOR ® and NANOCOLOR ® tests wich can be evaluated with the photometer PF-11 (cont.)
         Test                                                               Ranges                              Cat. No.
         COD 160                                 15    – 160      mg/l O2                                       985 026
         COD 160 Hg-free                         15    – 160      mg/l O2                                       963 026
         COD 300                                 50    – 300      mg/l O2                                       985 033
         COD 1500                               100    – 1500     mg/l O2                                       985 029
         COD 10000                                1.00 – 10.00 g/l O2                                           985 023
         COD 15000                                1.0 – 15.0 g/l O2                                             985 028
         Colour                                  10    – 500      mg/l Pt                                          –
         org. Complexing agents 10                0.5 – 10.0 mg/l lBiK                                          985 052
         Copper 7                                 0.1 –       7.0 mg/l Cu2+                                     985 054
         Cyanide 08                               0.01 –    0.80 mg/l CN–                                       985 031
         DEHA 1 (diethylhydroxylamine)            0.05 –    1.00 mg/l DEHA                                      985 035
         Ethanol 1000                             0.10 –    1.00 g/l EtOH        0.013 – 0.130 Vol% EtOH        985 838
         Extinction                               0.010 –     2.500 E
         Fluoride 2                               0.1 –     2.0 mg/l F–                                         985 040
         Formaldehyde 8                           0.1 –     8.0 mg/l HCHO                                       985 041
         Hardness 20                              1.0 – 20.0 °d                  5 – 50 mg/l Mg2+               985 043
                                                  0.2 –     3.6 mmol/l          10 – 50 mg/l Ca2+
®




         HC 300 (hydrocarbons)                    0.5 –     5.6 mg/l HC         30 – 300 mg/kg HC               985 057
         Iron 3                                   0.1 –     3.0 mg/l Fe                                         985 037
         Lead 5                                   0.1 –       5.0 mg/l Pb2+                                     985 009
         Manganese 10                             0.1 – 10.0 mg/l Mn                                            985 058
         Methanol 15                              0.2 – 15.0 mg/l MeOH                                          985 859
         Molybdenum 40                            1.0 – 20.0 mg/l Mo(VI)        1.6 – 32.0 mg/l MoO42-          985 056
         Nickel 7                                 0.1 –     7.0 mg/l Ni  2+                                     985 061
         Nitrate 50                               0.5 – 16.0 mg/l NO3-N          2    – 70      mg/l NO3–       985 064
         Nitrite 2                                0.01 –    0.45 mg/l NO2-N      0.03 – 1.50 mg/l NO2–          985 068
         Nitrite 4                       NEW!     0.1 –     4.0 mg/l NO2-N       0.3 – 13.0 mg/l NO2–           985 069
         total Nitrogen 22                        0.5 – 16.0 mg/l N                                             985 083
         total Nitrogen 220              NEW!     5    – 160     mg/l N                                         985 088
         Nonionic surfactants 15         NEW!     0.3 – 10.0 mg/l                                               985 047
         Organic acids 3000              NEW!    30    – 3000    mg/l HOAc       0.5 – 50.0 mmol/l HOAc         985 050
         Oxygen 12                                0.5 – 12.0 mg/l O2                                            985 082
         Peroxide 2                               0.1 –     2.0 mg/l H2O2                                       985 871
         pH 6.5 – 8.2                             6.5 –     8.2 pH                                              918 72
         Phenolic index 5                         0.2 –     5.0 mg/l                                            985 074
         Potassium 50                             2    – 50      mg/l K+                                        985 045
         ortho- and total Phosphate 1             0.1 –     1.5 mg/l PO4-P       0.2 – 5.0 mg/l PO43–           985 076
         ortho- and total Phosphate 5             0.2 –     5.0 mg/l PO4-P       0.5 – 15.0 mg/l PO43–          985 081
         ortho- and total Phosphate 15            0.3 – 15.0 mg/l PO4-P          1.0 – 45.0 mg/l PO43–          985 080
         ortho- and total Phosphate 45   NEW!     5.0 – 50.0 mg/l PO4-P         15    – 150     mg/l PO43–      985 055
         ortho- and total Phosphate 50           10.0 – 50.0 mg/l PO4-P         30    – 150     mg/l PO43–      985 079
         POC 200                                 20    – 120     mg/l            2    – 40      mg/l            985 070
         (polyoxycarboxylic acids        NEW!
         Residual hardness 1                    0.05 –    1.00 °d              0.009 –   0.18 mmol/l            985 084
         Starch 100                             5    – 100     mg/l                                             985 085
         Sulphate 200                          10    – 200     mg/l SO42–                                       985 086
         Sulphate 1000                        200    – 1000    mg/l SO42–                                       985 087
         Sulphite 10                            0.2 – 10.0 mg/l SO32–                                           985 089
         Sulphite 100                           5    – 100     mg/l SO32–                                       985 090
         Thiocyanate 50                         1.0 – 50.0 mg/l SCN–                                            985 091
         Tin 3                                  0.1 –     3.0 mg/l Sn                                           985 097
         TOC 70                          NEW!   2    – 70      mg/l C                                           985 094
         Turbidity                             10    – 400     FAU               2   – 70    1/                    –
                                                                                               m
         Zinc 4                                 0.1 –     4.0 mg/l Zn2+                                         985 096




    62    MN                                                                                                 www.mn-net.com

				
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