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					                            Canadian Aviation Regulations (CARs)
                                          and
                         Commercial Air Service Standards (CASS)
                                  Part VII - Subpart 4
                                   Guidance Material
Preamble
The Guidance Material provided in this publication is Transport Canada policy. It is for use by
Transport Canada - Civil Aviation and the aeronautical industry. The Guidance Material is part
of an evolving process in Canadian Aviation Regulations and will be developed on an ongoing
basis.
Being explanatory by nature, guidance material is provided for any regulation or standard when:
        1. the subject area is complex and needs a detailed explanation so that there is a
           consistent understanding by all constituents;
        2. the words used could have multiple meanings or could be interpreted differently when
           used in a different context; or
        3. questions have arisen regarding the interpretation or intent of the regulations or
           standards.
Canadian Aviation Regulation Numbering System
The Canadian Aviation Regulations provides an integrated numbering system. The following is a
brief explanation of this numbering system.
Using section number 704.15 as example, we will describe the meaning of each digit:
7       The first digit identifies to which Part of the Canadian Aviation Regulations this
        section refers. The example is showing that regulation 704.15 will be found in Part VII
        (Commercial Air Services).
0       The second digit refers to the applicable publication and may vary as follow:
        704.15 is the regulation imposing the requirements for an Operational Control System
        and it is found in the Canadian Aviation Regulations;
        724.15 is the corresponding section of the Commercial Air Service Standards where the
        various options for Operational Control System are described.

       744.15 is the corresponding section of the guidance material where the various aspects of
       the Operational control system, such as approval procedures, inspection, etc. are found.
4      The third digit identifies the subpart of the Canadian Aviation Regulations to which this
       section refers. The example shows that regulation 704.15 will be found in subpart 4 of
       Part VII (Commuter Operations).
.15    The two or three digits right of the dot are a unique number attributed to each individual
       section. Number ".15", when used in 704/724/744 deals with Operational Control System
       throughout all publications.
Guidance Material Numbering System
Guidance material may provide explanations on either publication, the Canadian Aviation
Regulations (CARs - 704 numbers) or the Commercial Air Service Standards (CASS - 724
numbers).


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For ease of reference, guidance material is numbered as follows:
-        numbers preceded by the letter "R" provide explanation to a section of the CARs (e.g.
R744.15 provides explanation on CAR 704.15);
-        numbers preceded by the letter "S" provide explanation to the appropriate section of the
CASS (e.g. S744.15 provides explanation on CASS 724.15); and
-        numbers preceded by both letters, "R" and "S", provide explanation to both, CARs and
CASS (e.g. RS744.15 provides explanation on both CAR 704.15 and CASS 724.15).
Alternate Methods of Complying with the Regulation
Where an air operator proposes a different means of conforming with a regulation or standard it
will be assessed for acceptability against the following criteria:
1.       Does it provide an equivalent level of safety?
2. Is it less or more restrictive than the "normal" means of compliance?
2. 3. Does it address the same intent and issues as the "normal" means of compliance?               Formatted: Bullets and Numbering
6. 4. Does it utilise the most advanced or proven information available?
The above list may not be appropriate in some circumstances and additional criteria will be
considered as necessary.

For questions, proposals or comments concerning this publication, please contact the following:
Commercial & Business Aviation
Operational Standards
Phone: (613) 990-1065
Facsimile: (613) 954-1602
Address:       Transport Canada Building
               Place de Ville
               Tower 'C' (AARXB)
               330 Sparks Street
               Ottawa, Ontario
               K1A 0N8




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R744.01      Commuter Operations - Aeroplanes

             The passenger limits intended for Commuter Operation are:

             (a)    The total number of persons other than pilots occupying pilot seats cannot
                    exceed 19.

             (b)    All turbojets certified to carry 19 passengers or less with a Maximum
                    Certificated Zero Fuel Weight of 50,000 pounds or less operate under
                    these rules. Turbojet operation is not permitted under Air Taxi.

             (c)    Aircraft such as the DHC-6 Twin Otter weigh less than 19,000 pounds and
                     were certified to carry more than 19 passengers, but are not configured for
                    20 or more seats in Canadian commercial service. Provided the air
                    operator configures the aircraft to respect (a) above, their operation may be
                    considered under Commuter rules. (The 19,000 pound limit comes from
                    the certification basis for FAR 23 Commuter aircraft)

             (d)    There may be circumstances where the air operator may want to restrict
                    the number of passenger seats to nine or fewer. This would reduce
                    performance criteria under some circumstances. The air operator
                    certificate would have to be changed to reflect the configuration of these
                    aircraft.

R744.01      Commuter Operations - Helicopters

             The passenger limits intended for Commuter Operations - Helicopter are:

             (a)    All twin-engined helicopters with more than 9 passenger seats excluding
                    pilot seats.

             (b)    Helicopters having more than 19 passenger seats excluding pilot seats,
                    regardless of weight.

             All single engine helicopters are to be operated under Air Taxi, regardless of the
             number of passenger seats.




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             There may be circumstances where the air operator may want to restrict the
             number of passenger seats to nine or fewer. In this case, an Air Taxi air operator
             certificate would be necessary.




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RS 744.07     Application for an Air Operator Certificate (AOC)

              All air operators are required demonstrate to Transport Canada that they are
              adequately equipped for the proposed operation and that they have the ability to
              operate safely, properly and in accordance with prescribed standards and
              procedures.

              An applicant for an Air Operator Certificate (AOC) should request from Transport
              Canada the documents "Canadian Commercial Air Services Certification
              Requirements" and "Starting a Commercial Air Service". These documents
              provide advice on what matters should be considered when planning a proposed
              air service and they set out the basic requirements of Transport Canada. These
              documents may be requested from the appropriate Regional Director, Air Carrier.
              The certification process is initiated by completing and submitting a Statement of
              Intent form ( #25-0380) to Transport Canada. Certification involves a
              comprehensive Transport Canada program of inspection which can take
              approximately 60 days from the time of making formal application. A formal
              application is considered to have been made when all documentation is complete,
              accurate and has been submitted to Transport Canada.

              Applicants for an AOC must also apply for a licence from the National
              Transportation Agency (NTA).

              Amendments to the AOC shall be applied for through the Regional Director, Air
              Carrier. Information on the various required forms is contained in the Air Carrier
              Certification Manual (TP4711). This is an internal manual that is referred to by air
              carrier inspectors, however, it is available if requested.

R744.07(2)(b)(i)     Qualifications and Responsibilities of the Operations Manager

              An air operator must designate a person and position whose responsibilities and
              functional duties encompass those that are set out in Standard 724.07. The air
              operator may use a different title for this position, however it shall be identified
              for Transport Canada purposes as an Operations Manager. An organization may
              have one individual filling the roles of Operations Manager and Chief Pilot as
              long as the required duties and responsibilities for both positions are assumed by
              the designated individual.



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              A sample of some of the questions asked of a potential Operations Manager or
              Chief Pilot may be found in Appendix A to this document.

R744.07(2)(b)(ii)    Qualifications and Responsibilities of the Chief Pilot

              An air operator must designate a person and position whose responsibilities and
              functional duties encompass those that are set out in Standard 724.07. The air
              operator may use a different title for this position, however it shall be identified
              for Transport Canada purposes as a Chief Pilot. An organization may have more
              than one Chief Pilot if desired, as long as required duties and responsibilities are
              assumed by each designated individual. If more than one Chief Pilot is identified,
              there must be a clear delineation of responsibility( i.e. individual Chief Pilots may
              be responsible for specific geographic regions, aircraft type etc).

              A sample of some of the questions asked of a potential Operations Manager or
              Chief Pilot may be found in Appendix A to this document.


S744.07(2)(a),(2)(b) Absence from Duty, Operations Manager, Chief Pilot,

              There must be some mechanism to allow delegation of authority for the position
              when the Operations Manager or Chief Pilot is unable to exercise their authority
              for either the short or long term. The individual assuming the duty must be
              competent and capable of carrying out the responsibilities assigned to the position.

              The intent is to ensure that a capable person is in charge at any time that flight
              operations are being conducted. The Operations Manager or Chief Pilot need not
              be physically present at the company but must be able to fully exercise their
              authority as required.

              When the Operations Manager or Chief Pilot are unable to exercise their full
              authority over flight operations, another individual qualified in accordance with
              the standards must be available to do so on their behalf.




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R744.07      Recovery of Costs for Providing Regulatory Services

             Outside Canada

             General

             This section provides direction to air operators, Transport Canada managers and
             inspectors for recovering the costs of performing evaluations and inspections
             outside Canada.

              Procedure

             Each air operator requiring a regulatory approval will be required to sign an
             agreement with the Crown, accepting liability for:

             (a)    air and ground transportation;
             (b)    accommodation;
             (c)    meals and incidental expenses; and
             (d)    overtime worked on weekends and statutory holidays except when the
                    overtime requirement is beyond the control of the air operator.

             Overtime costs incurred during weekdays and under exceptional circumstances
             (e.g., work scheduled during normal working days, but for reasons beyond the
             control of the air operator, was not completed on schedule) will be covered by
             Transport Canada.

             Travel and accommodation costs shall be in accordance with Treasury Board
             Travel Directives. In instances where the air operator provides these directly, it is
             imperative that managers ensure that they are not in excess of the Travel
             Directives.

             It is essential that there is no real or perceived conflict of interest. TC
             Responsibility Centre Managers are authorized to sign the Agreement for
             Provision of Regulatory Services outside Canada for the Minister of Transport.




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             The administrative procedures have been distributed by the Director, Program
             Planning and Resource Management (AARA) to respective regional
             administration officers. They include an Aviation Regulation Confirmation of
             Inspection Request. This form will be completed by the Responsibility Centre
             Manager, or others whom they may authorize, and forwarded to the air operator as
             soon as practicable after a request for a regulatory evaluation or inspection outside
             Canada is received. This form, once completed, becomes a work order and
             constitutes the controlling document for subsequent billing.

             The air operator should not be billed for costs in excess of the estimated costs
             unless agreement to amend the estimate has been reached.

             RDACs should develop agreements with air operators who require out-of-country
             services as soon as practicable.

             Types of Evaluation and Inspection

             There are several types of evaluation and inspection that may be conducted
             outside Canada as a prerequisite for an air operator requiring a regulatory
             approval. Those involving ACIs Include:

             (a)    evaluation of simulators and training facilities and courses conducted
                    abroad, as a basis for licensing and certification approvals;

             (b)    air crew flight tests, as a basis for issuing or maintaining licences, e.g.,
                    pilot proficiency checks and instrument flight tests, or for exercising
                    delegated authority, e.g., CCPs;

             (c)    in-flight inspections of on-board navigation systems required for approval
                    of new routes; and

             (d)    audits, when required.

             Domestic Cost Recovery

             Regions may occasionally receive requests to provide regulatory services beyond
             normal working hours or outside of published operational plans. If the cost of
             providing such services exceeds budgeted resources, RDACs may negotiate the
             recovery of travel costs and overtime with the air operator.

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R744.08(g)(vi)       Navigation System Authorization

             Transport Canada approval for long range navigation systems which are not
             dependent on VOR or NDB information (INS, GPS, IRS/FMS, LORAN,
             OMEGA etc) will be accomplished by means of an Operations Specification.

             The air operator must apply for an Operations Specification detailing equipment
             to be used, pilot training, operating conditions and any other information
             considered pertinent to the accuracy and safety of the operation. Unless otherwise
             specified, the Operations Specification will not permit the use of non-ground
             based navigation aids within the terminal area.

R744.12      Operations Personnel

             All operations personnel shall be trained and competent in their duties.

              "Operations personnel" is defined as those personnel whose duties and
             responsibilities involve maintenance, loading, unloading, dispatching, servicing,
             weight and balance, passenger escort, flight crew, cabin crew, schedulers, deicing
             crews, ramp people and anyone whose position involves them with the aircraft
             operation.

R744.13                      Operational Information

             Dissemination of information may be done in any way that allows crews to
             receive it in a timely manner. If it is necessary to the safe conduct of the flight it
             must be received prior to flight time. The dissemination method is at the
             discretion of the operator, but must be outlined in the operations manual.

             Acknowledgement of this information can be accomplished in writing, verbally to
             a responsible company person who records the acknowledgement or through other
             approved procedures outlined in the operations manual. This could mean a pilot
             signature on an operational flight plan if SOPs require the pilot to check certain
             sources of information prior to flight.




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R744.14(2)   Scheduled Air Service Requirements

             Transport Canada must assess an aerodrome as safe for the aircraft type that is
             being operated under an Operations Specification before its use in scheduled
             service.

             For the purposes of this section a military aerodrome is considered to be a
             certified airport.

             A scheduled service will be permitted to operate into an aerodrome provided:

             (a)    navigation aids, approach aids, runway length, runway surface, facilities,
                    and obstacle clearance criteria permit safe operation of the aircraft type
                    under consideration. This will be determined by Transport Canada
                    Regulatory and Air Navigation Services Inspectors;

             (b)    an obstacle clearance assessment ensures compliance with 704.44 through
                    704.51 (performance requirements); and

             (c)    the aerodrome has been approved for scheduled service. This approval
                    will be in the form of an Operations Specification.

RS744.15                    Type C Flight Following

             The Standard for a Type C Operational Control System calls for an individual to
             be "on duty" and able to provide, among other things, uninterpreted meterological
             information to the pilot-in-command.

             Certain operations such as charters involving multiple stops over several days
             necessitate some flexibility in the interpretation of "on duty". For example, where
             a flight is operating self-dispatch, the flight follower need not be physically
             present on company premises to be considered "on duty". Depending on the
             company make-up, flight following may be provided for a self-dispatch operation
             in a number of ways, for example:

             (a)    Contracted to a third party (e.g. ARINC) with company contacts in the
                    event of an emergency;



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             (b)    Reduced or remote Flight Following using company personnel, such as
                    permitting a Flight Follower to note flight details only, referring the crew
                    to Flight Service Stations for weather and NOTAM information.

                    When operating with reduced Flight Following, the Flight Follower
                    remains the first point of contact for the crew passing information to the
                    company. Under these conditions it is imperative that the Follower be
                    reachable with a single step. Pagers or voice mail would not be
                    acceptable under these conditions for two reasons:

                    (i)     In event of an emergency there may be no way for the Flight
                            Follower to re-establish contact with the crew or initial caller; and

                    (ii)    Pagers and voice mail do not provide positive confirmation that the
                            message has been passed.

R744.16      Flight Authorization

             Flights will only depart after proper authorization is obtained in accordance with
             the procedures laid out in the Operations Manual.

             In the case of cargo air operators, and generally at locations where a lack of
             communications facilities prevents co-authority dispatch, authorization may come
             from the Operations Manager, Chief Pilot or the pilot-in-command, where
             stipulated in the Operations Manual. Typical pilot-in-command designation
             criteria which might be approved in the Operations Manual are as follows:

             (a)    the Operations Manager has delegated authorization authority to the pilot
                    in command in writing, including the conditions and limits of the
                    authority;

             (b)    all aspects of the flight are conducted in accordance with the air operator's
                    AOC and;

             (c)    the Operations Manager, Chief Pilot or his delegate are unavailable to
                    authorize the flight




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R744.17(2)   Operational Flight Plan - Location

             The pertinent details of each flight must always in the possession of, and available
             to, a responsible, ground-based authority.

             A copy of the operational flight plan remains with a responsible ground-based
             authority. An electronic or hard copy may be left at a departure station or stored
             in a central location. This copy needs to be immediately available for reference
             should it be required by anyone involved in flight watch, operational control or
             accident alarm procedures in connection with the flight.

R744.17(3)   Retention of Operational Flight Plans

             Transport Canada requires adequate information to be able to recreate the
             operation flight data for the purpose of audit, inspection, investigation and flight
             safety.

             The air operator is required to retain copies of the flight plans and the actual flight
             results. The period of retention will be designated in the Operations Manual.

             The details of the actual flight should include:

             (a)    the route flown;
             (b)    fuel on board, for departure, landing; and
             (c)    times - out, off, on, and termination.

             This data may be stored electronically if the following criteria are met:

             (a)    the air operator shows that they have a system for safe storage of electronic
                    data;
             (b)    a hard copy is retained for documents that require verification unless the
                    air operator has a system of electronic document verification;
             (c)    the air operator has a documented plan detailing procedures for the
                    recovery of all stored data; and
             (d)    stored data can be presented to Transport Canada in an acceptable hard
                    copy format within 72 hours of a request.




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S744.17(17) Helicopters         Flight Planning - Persons on Board
S744.17(30) Aeroplanes

                 The pilot in command and flight dispatcher, a responsible person at the departure
                 station or other responsible ground based party have in their possession a record
                 of the number of persons on board the aircraft, and that it be readily available for
                 transmission to an appropriate agency in the event of an accident, incident or as
                 otherwise required.

                 The pilot in command should be aware of the number of crew members on board
                 and their respective positions. The flight crew must possess actual load data prior
                 to departure, a part of which is the actual number of persons on board. Where the
                 "persons on board" count does not include crew members then flight dispatch or
                 other responsible ground based authority must be aware of the number of crew (as
                 well as passengers) on board.

R744.19(1),(2)          Checklists

                 The checklists referred to in the regulation can include placarded or memory items
                 and use any method which complies with the approved aircraft flight manual or
                 operations manual.

R744.20          Flight Planning - Fuel Contingencies

                 Among contingencies, air operators of a pressurized aeroplane must consider a
                 loss of pressurization at any point along the route. The aeroplane must be able to
                 reach the origin, destination, or an enroute alternate after the completion of an
                 emergency descent to 13,000 feet, cruise at 13,000 feet for 30 minutes and at
                 10,000 feet thereafter.

                 If the single engine service ceiling is less than either 13,000 or 10,000 feet then it
                 becomes the altitude for diversion fuel planning. Upon completion of the low-
                 altitude cruise, the aeroplane must have fuel sufficient to complete an approach
                 and missed approach plus holding reserve.

                 In the event that an operator wishes to use a higher altitude for diversion and can
                 demonstrate that aeroplane performance and passenger safety considerations can
                 be met, the air operator may be granted an exemption permitting the use of a
                 higher altitude for diversion.

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RS744.26(1) Take-Off Minima - Weather below Landing Limits- Aeroplanes

             By specifying a take off alternate an aeroplane can depart when the weather
             conditions are above take off minima but below landing minima for the runway in
             use. Depending on the number of passengers being carried the air operator has
             two options:

             (a)    when carrying 9 or fewer passengers (infants are not counted) then the
                    take off alternate must be within 60 minutes or 120 minutes (depending on
                    the number of engines) at normal cruising speed.

             (b)    when carrying 10 or more passengers (infants are not counted) then the
                    take off alternate must be within 60 minutes or 120 minutes (depending on
                    the number of engines) at one engine inoperative cruise speed.

RS744.26     Take off Minima - Weather below Landing Limits - Helicopters

             By specifying a take off alternate, a helicopter can depart when the weather
             conditions are above takeoff minima but below landing minima for the runway in
             use.

             A takeoff alternate which is within 60 minutes flying time at normal cruise must
             be specified in the IFR flight plan.

RS744.26(2)(a)      Take-Off - Weather Below Published Take-Off Minima
                    Aeroplanes With Certified Engine-Out Performance

             Certified engine out take off data is where the manufacturer has gone through the
             process of having a regulatory body (TCA, FAA, JAA etc) certify as correct the
             information that they have produced for engine out performance. This ensures
             that the loss of one engine the aeroplane will be able to meet specific climb
             criteria. It is up to the air operator to ensure that the aeroplane will meet the
             unique climb criteria for the particular runway in use or aerodrome.

             An air operator may be able to achieve the same results by having the
             manufacturer provide their performance data to TCA. This data must be actual
             data and not extrapolated. Should this data meet the requirements then the air

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             operator could achieve the same operational limits as those aircraft with certified
             performance data.

             Further information concerning performance requirements may be found in
             TP12772 - Aeroplane Performance.


RS744.26(2)(b)      Take-Off - Weather Below Published Take-Off Minima
                    Aeroplanes Without Certified Engine-Out Performance

             Aeroplanes that are not certified for continued takeoff and climb in the event of an
             engine failure present unique problems when operating in reduced visibilities. In
             the event of an engine failure up to, and sometimes beyond lift-off, these aircraft
             are generally unable to successfully recover from a power loss in any manner
             other than landing immediately straight ahead. While this carries a good deal of
             risk at the best of times, when visibilities drop as low as 1200 RVR a re-land
             following an engine failure will nearly guarantee aircraft damage.

             In many cases a manufacturer will provide "unapproved" or advisory data that
             describes engine-out takeoff performance. In these cases, it is often possible to
             find a combination of aircraft weight and ambient conditions that permit a
             sustained climb after takeoff with an engine out. This information is not subject
             to the same factors as approved data, but may be used to permit these aircraft to
             operate in reduced visibilities. The performance requirements are set out in the
             Standard.

             The combination of relatively low aircraft performance and reduced visibility
             leads to an increased probability of a rejected take-off (RTO) at or near lift-off
             speed in poor conditions. It is a common fact that high-speed RTO's rank near the
             top in the list of accident causes. In order to ensure an adequate level of safety in
             this environment specific training in high-speed RTO's is essential. Clearly,
             conducting this training in an actual aeroplane would create the very accident
             scenario itself. The only suitable training platform , then is a simulator. For this
             reason, simulator training is a requirement for 1200 RVR operations using
             aeroplanes without certified engine-out takeoff and climb performance.

             Further information concerning performance requirements may be found in
             TP12772 - Aeroplane Performance.


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R744.32          Automatic Weight and Balance Control

                 Weight and balance can be manually or automatically derived. In either case it
                 will meet the standard 724.32.

                 The implementation of a new automatic weight and balance program should be
                 carried out over a period of at least 6 weeks in a representative operation. The
                 new and previous methods of weight and balance control should be run in parallel
                 operation until the air operator is confident that the new system provides a level of
                 safety that meets or exceeds that of the old system.
R744.32 Weight and Balance Control Program Aeroplane

        Implementation of Weight and Balance System

1. General

Weight and balance can be manually or automatically derived. In either case it shall meet section
724.32 of the standard.

(a) the weight and balance system shall be specified in the COM in accordance with subsection
704.32(3) of the Canadian Aviation Regulations (CARs). It may be published under separate
cover, in which case it must be referred to and be considered as part of the COM.

(b) training is to be in accordance with subsection 724.32(9) of the Commercial Air Service
Standards (CASS).

(c) when an air operator elects to implement an automatic weight and balance system, it should
be carried out over a period as stated in the COM in a representative part of the operation. The
previous method of weight and balance should be run as a shadow operation until the air operator
is satisfied that the new system is safe and meets section 704.32 of the CARs.

2. Definitions

"air operator standard weight" means approved standard weights determined by the air operator
through an approved survey and statistical computation in accordance with this guidance. They
are applicable only to that air operator and may be used in lieu of published standard weights in
circumstances consistent with those under which the survey was conducted;

"basic empty weight" (see definition in section 101.01 of the CARs);

"operational empty weight" (see definition in subsection 724.32(2) of the CASS);


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"published standard weight" means the weights published by Transport Canada as the weight of
passengers, including carry-on baggage, for use by air operators in weight and balance
calculations, without the actual weighing.

3. Duties and Responsibilities

(a) the air operator is responsible for the weight and balance system;

(b) a management plan will identify the following:

       (i) the flight operations management position having overall responsibility for the system;

       (ii) each subordinate position with associated duties and responsibilities;

       (iii) the chain of command;

       (iv) the management position(s) responsible for ensuring that:

               (A) all necessary elements of the system have been developed, properly
               integrated, and co-ordinated;

               (B) all personnel who have duties, responsibilities, and functions to perform
               receive adequate training;

               (C) sufficient competent personnel and adequate facilities and equipment to effect
               the system are available at each airport of planned operations; and

               (D) adequate management supervision of the system is maintained.

(c) responsibility during operations:

       (i) the air operator shall establish a chain of responsibility for the loading and
       establishment of the weight and balance of the aeroplane for every flight;

       (ii) individuals, being either air operator personnel or other personnel authorized by the
       air operator to act on his behalf, must be accountable and identifiable, whether by
       signature or computer input identification, for load data or services provided in
       accordance with their duties and responsibilities as detailed in system.

4. Operational Requirements

The weight and balance system shall identify the following:



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(a) how, before each flight, the air operator will establish the accuracy of items listed in
subsections 724.32(1) to (7) of the CASS;

(b) preparation and disposition of all required documentation, whether completed by the air
operator or other qualified personnel authorized by the air operator to act on his behalf;

(c) the procedure to establish the maximum allowable weight for the flight which must not
exceed the maximum allowable take-off weight specified in the Aircraft Flight Manual;

(d) Storage of weight and balance documentation (same procedure as operational flight plan in
704.18 of the CARs):

       (i) Transport Canada shall be able to recreate the weight and balance data for the purpose
       of audit, inspection, investigation and flight safety;

       (ii) the air operator is required to retain a copy of the weight and balance;

       (iii) period of retention of weight and balance:

               (A) an air operator shall retain a copy of the weight and balance forms, including
               amendments to the forms, for a period of not less than six months. The period of
               retention of weight and balance will be designated in the COM;

       (iv) electronic storage of operational flight plan must meet the following criteria:

               (A) the operator must show that he has a system for safe storage of electronic
               data;

               (B) a hard copy must be retained for documents that require verification by
               signature, except where the operator has an approved system of electronic
               signature verification and document authenticity;

               (C) the operator shall have a documented plan detailing procedures for the
               recovery of all stored data. The company plan shall provide a list of the stored
               information pertinent to a flight and examples of the form and content of the data
               that can be recovered; and

               (D) retrieval of stored data must be presented in a format that is acceptable to
               Transport Canada, within 48 hours from the time of a request;

(e) computerized systems:



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       (i) where load data are generated by a computerized weight and balance system, the
       operator must verify the integrity of the output data by a check to be performed at
       intervals not exceeding 6 months; and

       (ii) there must be a means in place to identify the person inputting the data for the
       preparation of every load manifest and the identity must be retained as in 4(d)(iv)(B)
       above.

(f) on-board weight and balance systems - an air operator must obtain approval to use an on-
board weight and balance computer system as a primary source for dispatch;



5. Passenger and Baggage Weights

(a) a procedure specifying when to select actual or standards weights must be included in the
COM. The methods used to compute the weight of passengers, carry-on baggage and checked
baggage are as follows:

       (i) actual weight of each person and the actual weight of baggage;

       (ii) standard weights:

               (A) published standard weight; or

               (B) air operator standard weights;

(b) actual weights:

In determining the actual weight by weighing, an air operator must ensure that all passenger's
personal belongings and carry-on baggage are included. Infants shall be weighed together with
the accompanying adult. Such weighing must be conducted at a location immediately prior to
boarding;

(c) standard weights:

       (i) weight of passengers as per published standard weights or air operator standard
       weights include carry-on baggage weight for each passenger carried, and the weight of
       any infant below 2 years of age carried by an adult occupying one passenger seat. Infants
       occupying separate passenger seats must be considered as children for the purpose of this
       paragraph;



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       (ii) on any flight identified as carrying a significant number of passengers whose weights,
       including carry-on baggage, are expected to exceed the standard passenger weight, the air
       operator must determine the actual weight of such passengers by weighing or by adding
       an adequate weight increment;

d) checked baggage:

       Use actual weight of baggage.



PUBLISHED STANDARD WEIGHTS
(Note: These average weights are derived from a Statistics Canada Survey, Canadian Community
Health Survey Cycle 2.1, 2003)




       Summer                                                   Winter

       200 lbs or 90.7 kg          MALES 12yrs up               206 lbs or 93.4 kg



       165 lbs or 74.8 kg          FEMALES 12 yrs up            171 lbs or 77.5 kg



       75 lbs or 34 kg             Children 2-11yrs             75 lbs or 34kg



       30 lbs or 13.6 kg           *Infants 0 – to less than    30 lbs or 13.6 kg
                                   2yrs

* Add where infants exceed 10% of Adults

Note 1: On any flight identified as carrying a number of passengers whose weights, including
carry-on baggage, will exceed the company approved standard weights, or the average weights,
the actual weight of such passengers are to be used


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Note 2: Where no carry-on baggage is permitted or involved, the average weights for males and
females may be reduced by 13 lbs or 5.9 kg.




6. Establishment of Air Operator Standard Weights (Survey)

(a) general:

       (i) air operators have the option to submit air operator standard passenger weights for
       approval and subsequently be authorized to use standard weights different from the
       published standard weights. The air operator standard weights must be derived via an
       approved weighing survey and the statistical analysis method detailed in this guidance.
       After verification and approval by the Minister, the revised standard weights, applicable
       only to that air operator, may be used in circumstances consistent with those under which
       the survey was conducted. Where air operator standard weights exceed those published by
       the Minister, then such higher values must be used;

       (ii) air operator standard weights must be reviewed at intervals not exceeding five years;
       and

(b) detailed weight survey plan:

       (i) the air operator should submit a detailed weight survey plan prior to conducting a
       weight survey; and

       (ii) the survey must be fully representative of the operation, i.e. the network or route, time
       of year, in/outbound, etc., for which the standard weights are intended to be used. The
       detailed plan must be specific in terms of weighing locations, dates, flight numbers and
       number of passengers/bags to be weighed in the survey. The actual survey must then be
       conducted in accordance with the plan and any deviations explained and the potential
       impact of the deviations on the survey results addressed.

(c) passenger weight survey:

       (i) weight sampling method:

               (A) the average weight of passengers and their carry-on baggage must be
               determined by random sample weighing; and



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             (B) the selection of random samples must, by nature and extent, be representative
             of the passenger volume, considering the type of operation, the frequency of
             flights on the routes, in/outbound flights, applicable season and seat capacity of
             the aeroplane.

      (ii) sample size - the survey plan must cover the weighing of at least the greatest of:

             (A) a number of passengers calculated from a sample survey of two weeks, using
             normal statistical procedures and based on a relative confidence range (accuracy)
             of 1% for all adult and 2% for separate male and female average weights (see
             paragraph 6(c)(iii)(E) below); or

             (B) a total number of 50 x (the passenger seating capacity of an aeroplane
             representative for the operation).




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       (iii) collecting data for passenger weights:

              (A) adults and children - adults are defined as persons 12 years of age and above.
              They are further classified as male or female. No differentiation according to sex
              shall be made for children who are defined as persons from two years of age up to
              and including 11 years of age. Passenger weights include the weight of their
              belongings which are carried onto the aeroplane;

              (B) infants are defined as persons less than two years of age. When taking random
              samples of passenger’s weights, infants shall be weighed together with the
              accompanying adult;

              (C) weighing location:

                      (I) the location for the weighing of passengers shall be selected as close as
                      possible to the aeroplane, at a point where a change in the passenger
                      weight by disposing of or by acquiring more personal belongings is
                      unlikely to occur before the passengers board the aeroplane;

              (D) weighing scales:

                      (I) the scales to be used for passenger weighing shall have a capacity of at
                      least 150 kilograms or 300 pounds;

                      (II) the weight shall be displayed at minimum intervals of 500 grams or 1.0
                      pound; and

                      (III) the scales must be accurate to within 0.5%, or 200 grams or 0.5
                      pounds, whichever is the greater;

              (E) recording of data:
                                                                                                      Formatted: Bullets and Numbering
                      (I)     for each flight the weight of the passengers, the corresponding
                              passenger category (i.e. male/female/children), the date and the
                              flight number must be recorded.



7. Training Program

Training on the weight and balance control system must be provided in accordance with
subsection 724.32(9) of the CASS and be part of the air operator training program.


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RS744.32(3) Weight and Balance Document Retention

             Transport Canada will be able to recreate the operational flight data for the
             purpose of audit, inspection, investigation and flight safety.

             The air operator is required to retain copies of the weight and balance
             documentation if not incorporated in the operational flight plan. The period of
             retention will be designated in the Operations Manual but shall be for a period at
             least equal to the retention time for the operational flight plan.

             This data may be stored electronically if the following criteria are met:

             a)     the air operator must show that they have a system for safe storage of
                    electronic data;
             b)     a hard copy must be retained for documents that require verification
                    unless the air operator has s system of electronic verification and
                    document verification;
             c)     the air operator should have a documented plan detailing procedures for
                    the recovery of all stored data; and
             d)     stored date must be presented to Transport Canada in an acceptable hard
                    copy format within 72 hours from the time of a request.

R744.33(e)   Visual and Aural Control of Passengers

             Passengers can be controlled in a number of ways without direct intervention on
             the part of the flight crew. This can be accomplished by:

             a)     briefing the passengers before hand and monitoring their progress;
             b)     placing a competent individual in charge of the passengers and then
                    through visual or aural means direct their progress; or
             c)     any other procedure that the air operator wants to utilize so long as it is
                    documented in the company operations manual.

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S744.33(2)(a) Fuelling With Passengers On Board

              Two way communication shall be maintained between the ground crew
              supervising refuelling and the qualified personnel on board the aircraft.

              In this context qualified personnel on board means pilots, flight attendants or any
              other personnel who have received training. Communication may be maintained
              in any way that allows the fuelling personnel and the qualified person on board the
              aircraft to communicate with each other at any time during the fuelling process.
              This could also be through an intermediary such as a maintenance person assigned
              to operate fuelling controls.

              Communications methods will vary dependent upon aircraft type. This can entail
              direct verbal communications, hand signals or any other means that meets the with
              the requirement.

S744.33(2)(d)(xi)    Photography When Fuelling is Taking Place

              Open flash photography shall not be used in close proximity when refuelling is
              taking place.

              All operations personnel must be aware of the potential danger of sparks when
              refuelling is taking place. Where a person wishes to use photographic equipment
              that poses no danger of a spark the air operator may choose to authorize its use.

S744.44(1)(a) Operations To or From Unprepared Surfaces- Aeroplanes

              A pilot shall be familiar with operations involving take-offs and landings from
              unprepared surfaces.

              Training and line indoctrination experience on unprepared surfaces is required
              when planning operations on to any surface not specifically addressed in the
              aircraft AFM.

              This training and experience may be acquired while operating as second in
              command on the same aircraft type. Any pilot with operating experience on
              unprepared surfaces at the time the CARS are promulgated, will be considered as
              having received the required training.

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R744.47(1)    Visual departures - Aeroplanes

              It is not always possible to accurately determine an obstacle's height and bearing
              on departure. Visual obstacle separation may be used, but there are several
              considerations:

              a) All relevant parts of the obstacle must be clearly discernable. At night,
              obstacles and any relevant supporting structures (guywires, etc) must be
              sufficiently lit.

              b) Visual contact with the obstacle must be established and maintained
              continuously from the start of the takeoff roll until it is no longer a factor;

              c) The pilot must be able to maintain visual contact with the obstacle at the deck
              angle anticipated during an all-engines climb;

              d) The crew must be able to maintain visual contact at anticipated bank angles
              during departure (This permits assessment of the effectiveness of the turn with
              respect to the obstacle and winds); and

              e) Where a group of obstacles exist, visual turns to avoid one obstacle may not
              lead toward another (any turn must be away from all obstacles).

R744.47(2)(a)(v)      Crosswind components- Aeroplanes

              While specific factors are applied to headwind and tailwind components, there is
              no relief in this wording from consideration of crosswind. These rules are
              consistent with the F.A.A. requirements, which also currently require
              consideration of crosswind [Reference FAR 121.189 (e)]. The F.A.A. has
              acknowledged that application of the "still-air" 600 foot wide corridor in
              crosswind conditions is a common misapplication of their rules, one they hope to
              address in part with an Advisory Circular now in draft form.

              Under CAR 704 criteria , the operator of an aircraft with a 120 knot groundspeed
              and expecting a 15 knot crosswind on a straight-out departure would remain
              within an obstacle clearance area identical to existing ICAO requirements for the
              first two nautical miles after takeoff, and more conservative than ICAO after that.


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             For aircraft operating with low groundspeeds or in high crosswinds, a fully wind-
             corrected track analysis may be very difficult to produce, and may impose an
             unacceptable weight penalty. In such cases the air operator may utilize an engine
             out departure routing to overcome the obstacle limit. This analysis can be based
             on IFR or VFR criteria, but must consider all of the effects of wind on the
             departure path.

             Wind effect in turns can produce paradoxical results. A crosswind that moves the
             departure track away from a straight ahead obstacle may bring a previously
             unconsidered obstacle into play. For turns greater than 90 degrees from runway
             heading, winds that favour the runway in use may result in a significant
             degradation of climb gradient in the turn and subsequent climb, resulting in
             inadequate obstacle clearance following the turn.

             The ICAO "area analysis" obstacle clearance criteria is acceptable as an
             alternative means of compliance with Part 705.47(2)(a)(v). When using the ICAO
             method, air operators are reminded that headwind and tailwind components must
             still be considered for their effect on climb gradient.

             Further information concerning performance requirements may be found in
             TP12772 - Aeroplane Performance.

R744.47(3)   Turns Exceeding 15 Degrees of Bank or 15 degrees of Heading Change -
             Aeroplanes

             Most aircraft performance charts are valid up to 15 degrees of bank, provided that
             bank is not sustained for more than 15 degrees of heading change. Once outside
             either parameter, climb performance may degrade significantly, and the selected
             engine-out climb speed may no longer provide adequate margin above stall. Air
             operators considering turning departures must account for reduced climb gradient
             and stall margin, and adjust speed, obstacle clearance heights and turn radii as
             appropriate. Operators that wish to use more than 15 degrees of bank to meet
             departure obstacle clearance requirements must have approved performance charts
             in the AFM showing the effect of the selected bank angle on OEI climb
             performance or, alternatively, have paid for a commercially prepared runway
             analysis.

             Further information concerning performance requirements may be found in
             TP12772 - Aeroplane Performance.

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R744.49      Dispatch Limitations - Landing at Destination - Aeroplanes

             An aircraft shall not be dispatched nor shall it depart for a destination airport
             unless the required landing distances are available at destination or the alternate.
             Once airborne, if a runway closure or other unforeseen circumstances reduce the
             runway length available, the flight may be continued to planned destination
             provided that the performance calculations show that a safe landing can be
             accomplished within 100% of the landing distance available.

             Where an aircraft malfunction in flight increases the landing distance required,
             the flight may be continued to planned destination provided that the performance
             calculations for the malfunction show that a safe landing can be accomplished
             within 100% of the landing distance available.

             There is some relief to landing distance factors. A destination that normally
             satisfies all dispatch factors may still be used on days when ambient conditions
             preclude compliance, provided the air operator files an alternate that fully meets
             all dispatch limitations. Clearly, this relief is not compatible with No Alternate
             IFR. For these purposes an ISA day and 5 knots of headwind may be considered
             "Normal". An air operator may other conditions as "normal" when authorized by
             their respective Region.

             Further information concerning performance requirements may be found in
             TP12772 - Aeroplane Performance.



R744.50      Dispatch Limitations - Wet Runway - Turbojet Powered Aeroplanes

             A runway is deemed to be wet when there is sufficient moisture on it's surface to
             cause it to be reflective. In this case, additional landing distances required for
             dispatch must be available. Most AFMs do not contain wet runway landing
             distances. Should an air operator wish relief from the 115% requirement, wet
             runway landing distances must be demonstrated to Transport Canada in
             accordance with an approved test program.

             Further information concerning performance requirements may be found in
             TP12772 - Aeroplane Performance.

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R744.68      First Aid Oxygen

             The requirement that sufficient oxygen be available for the duration of the flight
             above a cabin altitude of 8000 feet does not necessarily mean that it is required for
             the duration of the originally planned flight. If the flight is to be diverted, first aid
             oxygen need only be boarded to cover the duration of flight to the diversion
             airport. If diversion, or even continuance of the flight to planned destination, can
             be accomplished at a cabin altitude of less than 8000 feet then first aid oxygen
             need not be carried. If first aid oxygen carriage is to be predicated on flight
             continuance at a cabin altitude of less than 8000 feet or to a diversionary airport,
             standard operating procedures following a rapid depressurization should be
             detailed in the Operations manual.

R744.108     Flight Crew Member Qualifications

             When the air operator is using an aircraft for non revenue flying then the
             commercial standard requirements are not necessary. A pilot that has passed the
             PPC, but may not have completed line indoctrination could be used to position
             the aircraft but could not fly the same aircraft with passengers on board.

S724.108       Pilot Proficiency Check - Simulated Engine Failure - Aeroplane
Schedule II (2)(c)(iv)

              Simulated engine failures in the aircraft will take place at sufficient altitude and
             speed so as not to jeopardize the safety of the flight.

             Safe altitude and speed will vary with the type of aircraft involved and should be
             detailed for Transport Canada approval. Generally speaking, simulated engine
             failures on takeoff should not take place with the gear down or below a minimum
             of 200 AGL and V2 plus 10 knots. Certain aircraft types will require greater
             altitudes and speeds for this exercise. Minimum altitudes and speeds should be
             included in the Operations Manual or Aircraft Flight Manual.


S724.108      Pilot Proficiency Check - Simulated Engine Failure - Helicopter
Schedule 2(b) vi



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               At some point during the test, from a safe altitude and within the safe flight
               envelope for the type and configuration, a simulated engine failure will be
               initiated. The exercise may be terminated in a power recovery or an overshoot
               depending on the circumstances but it must be managed to ensure safety.

               The simulated engine failure is conducted to determine that the pilot is proficient
               in one engine inoperative (OEI) procedures, can select the most practical
               procedures considering weight/altitude/temperature and carry out an OEI
               approach and landing. The simulated failure must not be conducted below Vtoss
               unless a predetermined suitable landing area is available.

S744.108       Groupings for PPC Purposes - Aeroplanes
Schedule III
               Where aeroplanes exhibit common cockpit and flight characteristics TC develops
               a grouping for PPC purposes. Should an air operator have another grouping
               requirement, this approval may be possible by demonstrating to TC the common
               flight and cockpit characteristics of the particular aeroplanes.

R744.109       Flight Dispatcher Qualifications

                Qualified company flight dispatchers shall possess a flight dispatcher's certificate.
               The certificate, granted by an authorized person who is an employee of the air
               operator, signifies successful completion of the Transport Canada approved flight
               dispatcher course. The air operator shall advise the minister of the names of
               people in the air operator's employ who have been granted certificates. Similarly,
               the operator shall advise the minister of dispatchers who no longer hold a valid
               certificate. This would be due to loss of competency or ceasing employment with
               the air operator.

R744.110       Check Authority

               All PPCs will be conducted by a TCA inspector or a designated company check
               pilot, which is a delegated authority.

               Other checks may be done by a TCA inspector or done by an individual assigned
               by the air operator.

R744.111(3) Validity Period


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             Extensions of up to 60 days to the normal expiry date may be granted under the
             following circumstances:

             (a)    illness, accident, injury or medical requirements preclude completion of
                    checking/training within the appropriate time;
             (b)    simulator or training aid breakdown;
             (c)    simulator unavailability for reasons beyond the air operator's control;
             (d)    pilot inability to attend scheduled session due to airplane mechanical,
                    weather related difficulties, flight cancellation;
             (e)    family emergency;
             (f)    any other item which, in the opinion of the issuing authority, merits an
                    extension and will not compromise safety; or
             (g)    The elapsed time from the date of the last completed check does not
                    exceed 15 months.

             Normally, the validity period will be extended by 30 days and a further 30 day
             extension will be granted (subject to number 7 above) if required. If it is known at
             the outset that the issue requiring an extension will not be resolved within 30
             days, the validity shall be extended for 60 days or compliance with number 7
             above, whichever is shorter.




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       R744.115            Training Program - Minimum Training Matrices - Aeroplanes

                           Flight training time in this matrix is expected to be “air time”.

                           It is expected that pilots will receive some PNF time in the simulator in addition
                           to the PF times given in the chart.

                           The terms “LVL A”, “LVL B” and “LVL C” refer to the approved training
                           program, not to the certification level of the simulator used.

                           Minimum Initial Training - Aeroplanes

                                          Ground Training                      Flight Training Simulator and Aircraft
                                                                                          (PF - Pilot Flying)             Aircraft
                                                                                                                           Only
                               Basic       Pressurized       Turbine       Lvl A1       LVL B       LVL C      Aircraft

Single-Engine                    5.5             .5             .5                                                          3.0

S-E (Turbine) IFR/Cargo         16.0                                                                                        3.0

S-E (Turbine) IFR/PAX           16.0                                           6.0                               2.0

Multi-Engine 6* or Less          7.5            4.0             4.0                                                         3.0

Multi-Engine 7 to 9             12.0            4.0             4.0            7.5       7.5         10.0        1.5        4.0

Multi -Engine 10 to 19          16.0            4.0             4.0            8.0       8.0         10.0        2.0        5.0

Multi-engine Piston 20+         18.0            2.0                                                                         6.0

Multi-Engine Turbine 20+        45.0                                       10.0          10.0        12.0        2.0        8.0

Citation 500 Series             35.0                                       10.0          10.0        12.0        2.0        8.0

Turbo-Jet                       40.0                                       12.0          12.0        14.0        2.0        8.0

Turbo-Jet Adv Technology        40+                                                                  16.0                   N/A

                 *         Denotes the number of passenger seats for which the aircraft was certificated.

                 1         Training on Aircraft required




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                                       Minimum Recurrent Training - Aeroplanes (Annual)


                                         Ground Training                       Flight Training Simulator and Aircraft
                                                                                          (PF - Pilot Flying)                 Aircraft
                                                                                                                               Only
                               Basic       Pressurized      Turbine       LVL A1        LVL B       LVL C        Aircraft

Single-Engine                    2.5            .5              .5                                                               1.0

S-E (Turbine) IFR/Cargo          7.5                                                                                             1.0

S-E (Turbine) IFR/PAX            7.5                                                                               1.0

Multi-Engine 6* or Less          3.5           2.0             4.0                                                               1.5
                                                                                                                      2
Multi-Engine 7 to 9              5.0           2.0             4.0          4.0           4.0         4.0          1.0           1.5

Multi -Engine 10 to 19           7.0           2.0             4.0          4.0           4.0         4.0          1.02          2.0

Multi-engine Piston 20+          7.5                                                                                             3.0

Multi-Engine Turbine 20+        20.0                                        4.0           4.0         4.0          1.02          3.0

Citation 500 Series **          12.0                                        4.0           4.0         4.0          1.01          3.0
                                                                                                                      1
Turbo-Jet                       15+                                         4.0           4.0         4.0          1.0           3.0

Turbo-Jet Adv Technology        15+                                                                   4.0                       N/A

                 *         Denotes the number of passenger seats for which the aircraft was certificated.
                 2
                           An Operations Specification may be issue to give relief from the requirement to conduct training on the aircraft
                           when a visual simulator is used for Recurrent Training.


       R744.115(2)(a)(v)(D) Contamination Training

                           All personnel involved in flight operations need to be competent to recognize,
                           report and deal with surface contamination as appropriate to their position.

                           A training program, approved by Transport Canada, shall be successfully
                           completed by personnel involved in flight operations. Flight operations personnel
                           are comprised of pilots, cabin attendants, deicing personnel, maintenance
                           personnel ( involved with servicing flights on the ramp prior to departure) and
                           ramp personnel involved with loading, towing or pushing back flights prior to
                           departure. The training program should be appropriate to the position held by the
                           individual undergoing the training (i.e. training for flight crew would be different
                           from training for ramp personnel).




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R744.115(3)(c)       Contamination Training - Safety Awareness Program

              Anyone whose job may, at some time, put them in a position to observe possible
              surface contamination shall be aware of its hazardous effects and how to report it.
              This safety awareness program containing information regarding aircraft critical
              surface contamination be established for personnel involved in flight operations
              that are not included in (2(a)(v)(D).

              A safety awareness program can consist of posters, articles, videos or any other
              medium that is circulated to appropriate personnel. The program must identify the
              hazards of contamination and to whom it should be reported. Recipients of the
              program are flight dispatchers, passenger escorts, fuelling personnel, ramp
              personnel not directly involved in aircraft servicing prior to departure and anyone
              also who has, or may have, visual contact with an aircraft such that they would be
              able to detect aircraft critical surface contamination.

S744.115(4)(b)(i)    Qualifications and Responsibilities of a Training Pilot

              The Chief Pilot should set out their minimum qualifications for a training pilot in
              the Operations Manual. These qualifications can be more demanding but will not
              be less than those indicated in the standard. Candidates for Chief Pilot in an
              aeroplane operation will normally have 250 hours or more on type.

              The Chief Pilot will internally produce a list of training pilots for line
              indoctrination that meet this standard. All prospective training pilots must be
              approved by the Chief Pilot prior to serving in the role. The POI may request that
              the training pilot list be forwarded to TCA whenever there is a change.

              Training pilots who do not have pilot in command status with the air operator
              must be qualified to the standard of a pilot in command on that aircraft type before
              conducting line indoctrination on captains or first officers.

S744.115(8)   Synthetic Flight Training Device

              Synthetic training devices should be used for training at every possible
              opportunity. The term synthetic training device refers to full flight simulators and
              flight training devices. Training and checking referred to in connection with
              synthetic devices must be approved by Transport Canada. For an in depth


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             description of the various classes of synthetic training devices, consult TP 9685
             Aeroplane and Rotorcraft Simulator Manual.

             Following are the characteristics of different levels of synthetic training devices:

             Flight Training Device: this is a cockpit replica with operative switches, gauges,
             dials etc and is mainly used for cockpit procedures training. It may have a motion
             or visual system but unless approved gets no credit for the extra systems. The
             devices are certified by Transport Canada and are assigned a level of from one to
             seven, with one being the least sophisticated. A higher level of sophistication
             permits the device to be used for more advanced training requirements.

             Level A Full Flight Simulator(FFS): this synthetic training device has a motion
             and visual system that permits completion of a visual training program and PPC.
             When a Level A FFS is used for initial training there is also a requirement to
             complete airborne training and an airborne PPC. Recurrent training (and PPCs)
             may be conducted wholly in a level A FFS.

             Level B: has a higher fidelity visual and motion system than that of Level A
             devices. The system allows the device to accurately replicate aircraft handling
             when within ground effect and permits accurate depth perception and visual cues
             to assess sink rate. As a result it has "landing credits" attached to it (i.e. all
             recurrent training and 90 day currency requirements may be completed in a Level
             B FFS). A Level B FFS is compatible with Level A training programs.

S744.115(8) Synthetic Flight Training Device- Use of Foreign Flight Simulators

             Canadian air operators may use a foreign simulator for the purpose of training,
             licensing or checking flight crews, provided these simulators have TCA approval.
             An FAA simulator approval up to Level A also has TCA approval.

             Approval - An air operator seeking approval to use a foreign simulator for
             training, checking or licensing flight crew members must apply, in writing, to the
             appropriate TCA regional office requesting an evaluation of the foreign simulator.
             This request shall contain the simulator's Approval Test Guide (ATG) and a
             compliance statement certifying that:

             a)     the simulator meets the technical specifications for the level (A, B, C or D)
                    requested; and

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             b)     specific hardware and software configuration control procedures have been
                    established.

R744.115(22)(b)    Ground Training - Non-Integrated Receivers (Panel Mount GPS
             Receivers)

             As GPS gains in popularity and more operators install TSO’d approach capable
             equipment, GPS receivers should become as commonplace as VORs and ADF.
             We should expect an increase in knowledge and pilot proficiency. Eventually, like
             an ILS it will make little difference to the pilot who the equipment manufacturer
             is. Until we reach this acceptance level, we will live with some restrictions. At
             first we wanted people to be checked out for each type of GPS and for each
             different aircraft installation. Now that we have observed several GPS/aircraft
             type combinations, we feel we can relax some of the initial restrictions.
             Experience has demonstrated that when someone completes training for and
             qualifies on a particular model of GPS, he can be deemed competent on that GPS
             regardless of the aircraft it is installed on.

             Unless the GPSs are dissimilar types, there should only be a need for a company
             differences training. Similarly, GPS certification should be deemed transportable
             between companies provided the gaining company has an established GPS
             training programme of its own.

S744.115(25) Survival Equipment Training

             Even when they are found quickly, it has been demonstrated time and again that
             simple actions taken by a downed crew can make the difference between survival
             and death. The training program should at least address the following details:

             a)     basic steps following a crash, presented in a simple, easily remembered
                    format, ie first aid, fire, signals, shelter, food;
             b)     survival equipment inventory ( There have been cases where survivors
                    froze to death because they were not aware that a sleeping bag was on
                    board the aircraft!) ; and
             c)     instructions on the use of survival equipment. Many of the items in the
                    survival kit have more than one use and in some cases incorrect assembly
                    or improper use can damage the equipment.

R744.117(2) Retention of Records

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             Air operators are required to retain the records required by 704.117(1)(c) and (d)
             and any pilot proficiency check for a minimum of 3 years after the date of
             completion.

             These records are to be maintained for a full 3 year period after the individual
             leaves the employ of the air operator.

R744.120     Company Operations Manual(COM) - Titles

             The air operator may title this manual anyway that they see fit. If titled
             differently then an instruction in the preface or introduction of the manual must
             state that this manual is the COM.

             If the contents of the COM are found in more than one manual then each of these
             manuals must indicate the areas of the COM that they address and where the other
             contents of the COM can be found.




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R744.121     Company Operations Manual - Structure

             Transport Canada has made available Company Operations Manual Guides for
             both VFR and IFR air operators. These guides are available in either paper or
             electronic format. These guides will allow the air operator to build their own
             COM without continually referring to the regulations. These guides may be
             obtained from the Regional Director, Air Carrier.


RS744.121    Company Operations Manual

             The company operations manual should accurately reflect on how operations are
             performed within the company

             As the approved document of a company's method of operation, then actual
             practices should reflect what is written. When there is a requirement for
             amending the operation it is imperative that approval and amendment occur
             before the actual change of procedures. Where time is of the essence then this
             process can be simplified - but all affected personnel must be aware of the
             change, before change is implemented.




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                                         Appendix A

        Sample Questionnaire for Prospective Operations Managers/Chief Pilots

1)    Which subpart(s) of the Canadian Aviation Regulations governs the commercial
      operation of aircraft in your company?

2)    Define "Operations Specification" and list several that are applicable to your company?

3)    What radio navigation equipment is required to dispatch an aircraft for IFR flight?

4)    Can GPS be used as a navigation aid for IFR operations? Explain.

5)    Explain the type of Operational Control system used by your company. What are your
      responsibilities under this system?

6)    What is an operational flight plan and when must it be completed? How long must the
      operational flight plan be retained by the company following completion of the flight?

7)    Who is responsible for amending and controlling distribution of your Company
      Operations Manual? Describe the amendment procedure.

8)    How is the distribution of Company Operations Manuals controlled within your
      company?

9)    Is it necessary to carry the Company Operations Manual on board your aircraft? What
      other documents are required on board?

10)   When is high altitude training required for flight crew members?

11)   Before a pilot is assigned to flying duty with your company, what initial training must be
      completed?

12)   If an aircraft becomes damaged in service, what steps must be take before the aircraft may
      be flown again?

13)   What document outlines your company's area of operation, types of commercial air
      services, types of aircraft authorized, and bases.


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14)   Where actual weights are not known, what standard weights would be used for the winter
      period for males, females and children? Does this include carry-on baggage?

15)   Explain the weight and balance system used by your company. When is a weight and
      balance calculation required?

16)   When are you required to carry emergency survival gear? Where can you find a list of
      survival gear required for your aircraft? How often must the food contents of the survival
      kit be inspected?

17)   Where would you find the training requirements your flight crews need to maintain
      currency?

18)   Does your company have dangerous goods authority? If yes, what document gives you
      this authority?

19)   Explain the management structure and reporting relationships within your company.

20)   Describe the company's procedure for disseminating operational information.

21)   Where can you find the qualification requirements for chief pilots and operations
      managers?

22)   What annual training is required to keep your pilots current?

23)   Who are the personnel that should be issued a copy of the Company Operations Manual?

24)   hat are company's procedures for reporting aircraft defects? When must they be reported?

25)   What are your company's procedures for handling defects away from a company base?

26)   How far in advance of the expiry date may annual training and PPCs be completed and
      still maintain the original expiry date?

27)   Who is responsible for approving and signing an operational flight plan?

28)   Who has overall responsibility for safe flight operations within your company?



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29)   Explain flight and duty time limitations as they apply to your pilots. What system is
      employed to ensure pilots do not exceed the limitations?

30)   How are company routes established in uncontrolled airspace?

31)   What is the purpose of the Company Operations Manual?

32)   Where can you find the required minimum contents of a Company Operations Manual?

33)   Define:
                -Airtime

                -Flight Time

      Which applies to maximum flying time limitations?

34)   Where would you find information on aircraft accidents or incidents, and what constitutes
      an "aviation occurrence" or a "reportable aviation incident"?

35)   What is your company's procedure for an overdue or missing aircraft?

36)   What is accelerate-stop distance? Are you required to calculate it in your operation? If
      yes, how is it done.

37)   Does your company have authority for lower than standard take-off or landing limits? If
      yes, what document authorizes the lower limits and what are the conditions associated
      with their use.

38)   Describe your company's flight watch or flight following procedures for flights operating
      outside normal working hours?

39)   What are the fuel requirements for a VFR flight? For an IFR flight?

40)   Define "Operational Support Services and Equipment". Who is responsible for ensuring
      that these services and equipment are in place?

41)   Who is responsible for the professional standards of flight crews within a company?



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42)   When carrying passengers and freight, (no baggage compartment), how should the freight
      be loaded?

43)   Where could you find the information as to whether an aircraft has sufficient equipment
      for IFR flight at night?

44)   How do you determine that an aircraft is capable of operating safely from an airport
      which has not previously been used by your company?

45)   How do pilots in your operation calculate take-off and landing performance data?

46)   How are obstacles in the net take-off flight path determined by your pilots and what
      method do they use to ensure obstacle clearance. How do you ensure that obstacle data is
      accurate and up to date?

47)   Describe in detail the communications system used for flight following or flight watch
      including off-line/charter procedures.

48)   What conditions apply to refuelling with passengers on board the aircraft?

49)   Who is responsible for developing or amending Standard Operating Procedures?

50)   Is "No Alternate Aerodrome IFR Flight" authorized for your company? If yes, what
      conditions apply?




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R744.115(22)(b)    Ground Training - Non-Integrated Receivers (Panel Mount GPS
             Receivers)

             As GPS gains in popularity and more operators install TSO’d approach capable
             equipment, GPS receivers should become as commonplace as VORs and ADF.
             We should expect an increase in knowledge and pilot proficiency. Eventually, like
             an ILS it will make little difference to the pilot who the equipment manufacturer
             is. Until we reach this acceptance level, we will live with some restrictions. At
             first we wanted people to be checked out for each type of GPS and for each
             different aircraft installation. Now that we have observed several GPS/aircraft
             type combinations, we feel we can relax some of the initial restrictions.
             Experience has demonstrated that when someone completes training for and
             qualifies on a particular model of GPS, he can be deemed competent on that GPS
             regardless of the aircraft it is installed on.

             Unless the GPSs are dissimilar types, there should only be a need for a company
             differences training. Similarly, GPS certification should be deemed transportable
             between companies provided the gaining company has an established GPS
             training programme of its own.




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