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									C6.2 – From Republic to Empire
     C6.2 - From Republic to Empire
                     Main Idea
Governmental and social problems led to the end of
the Roman Republic and the creation of a new form of
government.


                  Reading Focus
• What problems did leaders face in the late Roman
  Republic?
• How did Rome become an empire?
• What helped tie the Roman empire together during
  the Pax Romana?
I. Problems in the Late Republic
By 133 BC, Rome was the supreme power in
the Mediterranean world
I. Problems in the Late Republic
Political and social revolution began because
of tensions between social classes
A. Social Unrest
133 BC - The Gracchi, brothers Tiberius and
Gaius Gracchus, tried to resolve problems




        TIBERIUS GRACCHUS (c.163-133 BC)
          GAIUS GRACCHUS (c.153-121 BC)
A. Social Unrest
Soldier/farmers returned from the Punic Wars
to find their homes and farms destroyed
A. Social Unrest
The Gracchi instituted public reforms such as
redistributing public land to the farmers




                     Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus
                      with their mother, Cornelia
A. Social Unrest
 Both were elected tribunes, both were
 assassinated after angering the Senate




Death of Tiberius Gracchus   Death of Gaius Gracchus,
by members of the Roman               121 BC
     Senate, 133 BC
A. Social Unrest
Their deaths marked a turning point – violence,
not law, began to control politics




   Cornelia Refuses the Crown of the Ptolomai The daughter of
  Scipio Africanus and mother of Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus -
refuses the crown of the King of Egypt and his marriage proposal.
A. Social Unrest
91 BC - the Social War resulted in Rome’s
allies becoming Roman citizens




 This map depicts the landscape of Italy during the period of the
Social War and portrays select sites relating to the history of Rome
B. The Military in Politics
Generals created loyal private armies and
forced the Senate to do their bidding




      Gaius Marius        Lucius Cornelius Sulla
       157– 86 BC               138-78 BC
B. The Military in Politics
107 BC - Gaius Marius elected consul;
eliminated army’s restrictions and enlisted
anyone




   As counsel, Gaius Marius decreed that the eagle would
      be the symbol of the Senate and People of Rome
B. The Military in Politics
88 BC - Sulla became consul; Marius tried to
prevent Sulla from taking military command
B. The Military in Politics
Sulla marched on Rome with his legion, won
a civil war, and became dictator




             Sulla Fights his Way into Rome
II. Rome Becomes an Empire
A. The First Triumvirate
60 BC - Caesar and two other generals,
Gnaeus Pompey and Licinius Crassus, formed
the First Triumvirate




  Julius Caesar   Gnaeus Pompey   Licinius Crassus
   100 - 44 BC      106 - 48 BC    115 BC – 53 BC
A. The First Triumvirate
Crassus died; Caesar defeated Pompey in a
civil war; named dictator for life in 44 BC




   Julius Caesar and the Crossing of the Rubicon
A. The First Triumvirate
44 BC - Caesar instituted popular reforms;
Senate feared he wanted to be king, murdered
him March 15th – the Ides of March




                    The Assassination of Caesar
                         March 15th, 44 BC
                     “Beware the Ides of March”
                           “Et tu, Brute?”
B. The Second Triumvirate
43 BC - Octavian, Marc Antony, and Lepidus
seized power; formed the Second Triumvirate




    Octavian       Marc Antony       Lepidus
  63 BC - AD 14   83 BC – 30 BC   90 BC - 13 BC
B. The Second Triumvirate
Lepidus forced out; Antony and Octavian
each governed half the empire
B. The Second Triumvirate
31 BC - Civil war between Octavian and Antony;
Octavian defeated Antony and Egypt’s Cleopatra




               The Battle of Actium
B. The Second Triumvirate
Cleopatra, Antony committed suicide; Octavian
controlled Rome; republic ended, beginning a
new period in Roman history




              Antony and Cleopatra
C. From Octavian to Augustus
Octavian called himself princeps, government
called Principate; new political order emerged –
the empire




                       Augustus (63 B.C. – AD 14)
                          First Roman Emperor
                             (27 BC - AD 14)
                      “He subjected the whole wide
                         earth to the rule of the
                             Roman people”
C. From Octavian to Augustus
27 BC - Senate gave Octavian title of Augustus,
“the revered one”




                               Birth name:
                         Gaius Octavius Thurinus


                            Name as Emperor:
                       Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus
D. The Augustan Age
Ruled 40 years, power divided between him
and Senate; conquests expanded the empire
and brought peace
D. The Augustan Age
Life in Rome improved; period of cultural
creativity, greatest writers in Roman history –
Horace, Ovid, Livy, and Virgil
E. The Emperors
AD 14 - Augustus died; empire ruled by
Caesar’s relatives next 54 years – the Julio-
Claudian Emperors
E. The Emperors
Abilities varied: Tiberius a good soldier and
ruler; Caligula brutal, mentally unstable; Nero,
last Julio-Claudian, committed suicide in AD 68




 Tiberius (A.D. 14-37)   Caligula (37 to 41)   Nero (54-68 A.D.)
E. The Emperors
After Nero, civil wars raged in Rome; four
military leaders ruled in AD 69; last was
Vespasian



   Titus Flavius Caesar
  Vespasianus Augustus
      (AD 9 – AD 79
E. The Emperors
69 to 96 AD - Vespasian re-established order;
stability returned under the Flavians - Vespasian
and his two sons




                               The Flavian family,
                             Vespasian and his sons
                               Titus and Domitian,
                             depicted in The Triumph
                                     of Titus
E. The Emperors
AD 96: reign of the Good Emperors began – five
rulers who governed Rome almost a century




   The Five Good Emperors - Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian,
         Antoninus Pius, and Marcus Aurelius
E. The Emperors
Empire grew under the Good Emperors;
reached limits of expansion under Trajan




            Aureus issued by Trajan to
            celebrate the conquest of
                     Parthia
E. The Emperors
Trajan added Romania, Armenia, Mesopotamia,
and the Sinai Peninsula
E. The Emperors
Hadrian thought empire too large, withdrew from
the east; built defensive fortifications as guard
against invasions




                           Hadrian's Wall in
                           northern England
III. The Pax Romana
27 BC to AD 180 – Period of the Pax Romana:
stable government, strong legal system,
widespread trade, and peace
A. Government
Government strongest unifying force in empire:
maintained order, enforced laws, defended
frontiers
A. Government
Empire divided into provinces ruled by
governors appointed and monitored by Rome
B. Laws, Trade, Transportation
Law unified the empire; specified crimes and
penalties; applied to everyone in empire - the
“Rule of Law”
B. Laws, Trade, Transportation
Agriculture remained primary occupation;
tenant farmers began replacing slaves on large
farms
B. Laws, Trade, Transportation
Manufacturing increased; produced everything
from cheap pottery to world’s finest goods




Ancient Roman drinking vessels,   Ancient glassware from the
         bowls and jars                   Roman era
B. Laws, Trade, Transportation
Imported grain, meat, raw materials from
provinces; Rome and Alexandria became
commercial centers
B. Laws, Trade, Transportation
Commercial activity possible because of
empire’s location and extensive (about 50,000
mile) road network

								
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