Chile Earthquake and Tsunami
February 27, 2010
February 27, 2010 | 1605 GMT
CHILE EARTHQUAKE AND
TSUNAMI OF 22 MAY 1960
What is the Earthquake?
The shaking of earth caused by waves
moving on and below the earth's surface and
causing: surface faulting, tremors vibration,
liquefaction, landslides, aftershocks and/or
How Earthquake Happens?
It caused by a sudden slip on a FAULT.
Stresses in the earth's
outer layer push sides of
Stress builds up & rocks
slips suddenly, releasing
energy in waves that travel
through the earth's CRUST
& cause the shaking that we
Feel during an earthquake.
Earthquake Strength Measures
I) Magnitude & II) Intensity
Definition: A measure of actual physical energy
release at its source as estimated from
Scale: Richter Scale
By Charles Richter, 1936
The oldest & most widely used
Earthquake Strength Measures
I) Magnitude & II) Intensity
Definition: a measure of the felt or perceived effects
of an earthquake rather than the strength of the
Scale: Modified Mercalli (MM) scale
12-point scale, ranges from barely
perceptible earthquakes at MM I to
near total destruction at MM XII
Magnitude versus Intensity
Magnitude refers to the force of the earthquake as
a whole, while intensity refers to the effects of an
earthquake at a particular site.
An earthquake can have just one magnitude, while
intensity is usually strongest close to the epicenter
& is weaker the farther a site is from the epicenter.
The intensity of an earthquake is more germane to
its public health consequences than its magnitude.
Public Health Consequences
Please see the following addresses for
30 years continuous evolution in the
practice of Crisis or Disaster Management
Disaster response and relief a disastrous
Humanitarian assistance event to more
Emergency management preventive and
Civil protection proactive
Disaster mitigation and approaches!!
What is Disaster risk reduction
(disaster reduction or DRR)?
• The conceptual framework of elements
considered with the possibilities to minimize
vulnerabilities and disaster risks throughout a
society, to avoid (prevention) or to limit
(mitigation and preparedness) the adverse
impacts of hazards, within the broad context of
sustainable development !
What is the Hazard?
• A potentially damaging physical event,
phenomenon or human activity that may
cause the loss of life or injury, property
damage, social and economic disruption or
Natural Geological Earthquake
Hydro meteorological Flood, Hurricane
Hyman Induced Environmental degradation Deforestation
Technological Nuclear release
What is the Vulnerability?
• The conditions determined by physical, social,
economic, and environmental factors or
processes, which increase the susceptibility of a
community to the impact of hazards.
• Vulnerable Chile:
o Unprepared people
o Non-resistant house & school building
o High-density population
What is Risk?
• The probability of harmful consequences, or
expected losses (deaths, injuries, property,
livelihoods, economic activity disrupted or
environment damaged) resulting from
interactions between natural or human-induced
hazards & vulnerable conditions.
• Risk = Hazards x Vulnerability
What is a Disaster ?
• A serious disruption of the functioning of a
community or a society causing widespread
human, material, economic or environmental
losses which exceed the ability of the affected
community or society to cope using its own
What is a Disaster?
• A disaster is a function of the risk process.
• It results from the combination of hazards,
conditions of vulnerability and insufficient
capacity or measures to reduce the potential
negative consequences of risk.
Let’s teach the communities right now !
Risk awareness & Knowledge development
including education, training, research and
information are of the important fields of
action for Disaster Risk Reduction!
People need information as much as
water, food, medicine or shelter.
Information can save lives, livelihoods &
Lack of informatio7n can make
people victims of disaster.
World Disaster Report 2005 – IFRC/RCS
What we should do/do not before,
during & after the earthquake?
Please read carefully at:
List of Supercourse lectures on
• Tectonic explanation of the May 12, 2008, Sichuan
Earthquake in Chinese China Earthquake: 12 May
2008. Short version in Chinese in Spanish
• China Earthquake: 12 May 2008. Long version
• Pakistani Earthquake. 8 October 2005 (Spanish
• Earthquakes 2000 to 2005 From Indonesia to Pakistan
• A Case Study for the Setting of Water Supply &
Sanitation Priorities in the PAK Emergency
• Earthquake & Tsunami South Asia, 26 Dec 2004
• Earthquake Mitigation (in Spanish)
List of other useful Lectures on
Disasters at Supercourse
• Dead Bodies and Disasters: Principles of Mortuary
Services (in Spanish)
• Public Health Disaster Consequences of Disasters (In
Spanish) (In Russian) (In Arabic) (In Portuguese) (in
• Safety matters: How to Safely Evacuate from your Home
• Data for Decision making in disasters: advances and
Earthquake in Chile
• While Chilean state authorities are getting to work in providing
relief to those areas of Chile affected by the earthquake, the focus
of global concern now is on the following tsunami effect. Chile has
been evacuating people from the coastal areas of Easter Island.
The towns of Talcahuano, Coquimbo, Antofagasta and Caldera
have reportedly been struck by tsunami waves. The Pacific
Tsunami Warning Center has issued a tsunami warning along the
Pacific Coast for the following: Chile, Peru, Ecuador, Colombia,
Antarctica, Panama, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Pitcairn, Honduras, El
Salvador, Guatemala, French Polynesia, Mexico, Cook Islands,
Kiribati, Kermadec Island, Niue, New Zealand, Tonga, American
Samoa, Samoa, Jarvis Island, Wallis-Futuna, Tokelau, Fiji,
Australia, Hawaii, Palmyra Island, Tuvalu, Vanuatu, Howland-Baker,
New Caledonia, Johnston Island, Solomon Island, Nauru, Marshall
Island, Midway Island, Kosrae, Papua New Guinea, Pohnpei, Wake
Island, Chuuk, Russia, Marcus Island, Indonesia, North Marianas,
Guam, Yap, Belau, Japan, Philippines and Chinese Taipei.
Brief: Tsunami Waves Expected To Hit Hawaii
• According to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric
Administration’s (NOAA) Pacific Tsunami Warning Center,
tsunami tidal waves of up to nine feet are expected to hit
Hilo Bay in Hawaii within 4 hours, 11:05 a.m. local time. The
waves are not considered dangerous, although the tidal
forces could be, and so residents should stay out of the
waters. Jenifer Rhoades, Tsunami Program Manager for
NOAA’s National Weather Service, predicted small but
significant impact, the equivalent of flash foods. Hilo Bay is
the first location that will be hit by the waves, followed by
Kahului. The Hilo International Airport has already been
closed, and emergency preparations are underway in the
island state. STRATFOR is continuing to monitor the effects
of the overnight earthquake near Concepción, Chile.
What is a Tsunami?
Tsunami or Harbor Wave
A Japanese word represented by
two characters: tsu & nami
tsu means harbor
nami means wave
History of Tsunami
Ancient city of Knossos,
the capital of the Minoan civilization
Risks Posed by Tsunamis
Contamination of drinking water
Fires from ruptured tanks or gas lines
Loss of vital community infrastructure
Understanding of the phenomenon
Data collection on earthquake & sea level
Impossible prediction of earthquakes
Definition & Causes
Seismic sea waves
How is a tsunami
different from a
When an earthquake occurs in a source:
Outward traveling of energy in all directions
Outward radiation of waves in all directions
& propagation across ocean basins
Chilean Earthquake (1960)
Sweeping tsunami across the Pacific to Japan
A tsunami can compete with a jet
airplane, traveling across the
ocean in less than a day.
When the ocean is 20000 feet
(6100 m) deep, a tsunami travels
at 550 miles/hr (890 km/hr).
Determinant factors of the size
of a tsunami at initial phase
& along the coast
Run-up: Vertical height a wave reaches
above a reference sea level as it washes
Wave height: Vertical measurement of the
wave before it reaches shore.
Inundation distance: Horizontal distance a
tsunami reaches landward from shoreline.
Appearance of a tsunami
when reaches the shore
A rapidly rising or falling tide
A series of waves
Tsunamis of distant origin: > 50 ft (15 m)
Tsunami generated near the earthquake
epicenter: > 100 ft (30 m)
First wave may not be the largest in
the series of waves.
Do tsunamis stop once on land?
Energy reflection back
Complicated behavior of tsunami
waves near the coast !
The first run-up of a tsunami is
often not the largest.
Do not return to a beach several
hours after a tsunami hits.
Tsunami can not be felt aboard
ships nor can they be seen from
the air in the open ocean.
Why are tsunami so destructive?
Learn about :
Information Centre (ITIC)
International Tsunami Warning
Research and Data Collection
Visiting Scientists Program
Education, Preparedness &
What is the International Tsunami
Warning System (ITWS)?
International Tsunami Warning System
ITWS includes 31 seismic stations &
> 60 tide stations
The stations have ability to transmit
their data immediately & in real time
to the headquarters at PTWC in
How does the International
Tsunami Warning System
Dissemination of Watches & Warnings by ITIC
When Earthquake is Strong Enough to Cause a
• Monitoring the tide gauges near the epicenter
• Watch bulletins for all earthquake ≥ 7 in the
Aleutian Islands & ≥ 7.5 elsewhere in the Pacific
• Watching cancellation: Negligible tsunami
or no tsunami
Watching Warning if a tsunami threat
Capabilities & Limitations of
the International Tsunami
Warning System (ITWS)
Be Prepared for Tsunamis
& Protect Yourself
Similar Strategies for Survival
Tsunami is coming!
What you must do!
Tsunami is coming!
What you must do,
If you are on a boat!