Chile Earthquake and Tsunami

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					             Just-in-Time Lecture

Chile Earthquake and Tsunami

     February 27, 2010
February 27, 2010 | 1605 GMT
          What is the Earthquake?

The shaking of earth caused by waves
moving on and below the earth's surface and
causing: surface faulting, tremors vibration,
liquefaction, landslides, aftershocks and/or
              How Earthquake Happens?
 It caused by a sudden slip on a FAULT.

 Stresses in the earth's
 outer layer push sides of
 fault together.

 Stress builds up & rocks
  slips suddenly, releasing
  energy in waves that travel
  through the earth's CRUST
  & cause the shaking that we
  Feel during an earthquake.
                Earthquake Strength Measures

                 I) Magnitude & II) Intensity

I) Magnitude:
 Definition: A measure of actual physical energy
  release at its source as estimated from
  instrumental observations.

 Scale: Richter Scale
            By Charles Richter, 1936
            Open-ended scale
            The oldest & most widely used
                                                Noji 1997
                 Earthquake Strength Measures

                  I) Magnitude & II) Intensity

II) Intensity:
 Definition: a measure of the felt or perceived effects
  of an earthquake rather than the strength of the
  earthquake itself.

 Scale: Modified Mercalli (MM) scale

              12-point scale, ranges from barely
               perceptible earthquakes at MM I to
               near total destruction at MM XII
           Magnitude versus Intensity

 Magnitude refers to the force of the earthquake as
  a whole, while intensity refers to the effects of an
  earthquake at a particular site.

 An earthquake can have just one magnitude, while
  intensity is usually strongest close to the epicenter
  & is weaker the farther a site is from the epicenter.

 The intensity of an earthquake is more germane to
  its public health consequences than its magnitude.
             Public Health Consequences
                      of Earthquakes

Please see the following addresses for
                    above title:

Part I.

Part II.
          30 years continuous evolution in the
       practice of Crisis or Disaster Management

 Civil defense
                                    Strategic shift
 Emergency assistance
                                   from managing
 Disaster response and relief      a disastrous
 Humanitarian assistance           event to more
 Emergency management             preventive and
 Civil protection                    proactive
 Disaster mitigation and           approaches!!

 Disaster Risk
             What is Disaster risk reduction
              (disaster reduction or DRR)?

• The conceptual framework of elements
  considered with the possibilities to minimize
  vulnerabilities and disaster risks throughout a
  society, to avoid (prevention) or to limit
  (mitigation and preparedness) the adverse
  impacts of hazards, within the broad context of
  sustainable development !
                       What is the Hazard?

  • A potentially damaging physical event,
     phenomenon or human activity that may
     cause the loss of life or injury, property
     damage, social and economic disruption or
     environmental degradation.
Natural       Geological                    Earthquake
                Hydro meteorological        Flood, Hurricane
                Biological                  Pandemic

Hyman Induced   Environmental degradation   Deforestation

                Technological               Nuclear release
                What is the Vulnerability?

• The conditions determined by physical, social,
  economic, and environmental factors or
  processes, which increase the susceptibility of a
  community to the impact of hazards.

• Vulnerable Chile:
  o Unprepared people
  o Non-resistant house & school building
  o High-density population
  o etc.
               What is Risk?

• The probability of harmful consequences, or
  expected losses (deaths, injuries, property,
  livelihoods, economic activity disrupted or
  environment damaged) resulting from
  interactions between natural or human-induced
  hazards & vulnerable conditions.

• Risk = Hazards x Vulnerability
           What is a Disaster ?

• A serious disruption of the functioning of a

  community or a society causing widespread

  human, material, economic or environmental

  losses which exceed the ability of the affected

  community or society to cope using its own

           What is a Disaster?

• A disaster is a function of the risk process.

• It results from the combination of hazards,
  conditions of vulnerability and insufficient
  capacity or measures to reduce the potential
  negative consequences of risk.
            Just-in-Time Education

      Let’s teach the communities right now !

Risk awareness & Knowledge development
including education, training, research and
 information are of the important fields of
   action for Disaster Risk Reduction!
              Information ….
 People need information as much as
  water, food, medicine or shelter.

 Information can save lives, livelihoods &

 Lack of informatio7n can make
  people victims of disaster.

        World Disaster Report 2005 – IFRC/RCS
      What we should do/do not before,

        during & after the earthquake?

     Please read carefully at:
 List of Supercourse lectures on
• Tectonic explanation of the May 12, 2008, Sichuan
  Earthquake in Chinese China Earthquake: 12 May
  2008. Short version in Chinese in Spanish
• China Earthquake: 12 May 2008. Long version
• Pakistani Earthquake. 8 October 2005 (Spanish
• Earthquakes 2000 to 2005 From Indonesia to Pakistan
• A Case Study for the Setting of Water Supply &
  Sanitation Priorities in the PAK Emergency
• Earthquake & Tsunami South Asia, 26 Dec 2004
• Earthquake Mitigation (in Spanish)
 List of other useful Lectures on
    Disasters at Supercourse
• Dead Bodies and Disasters: Principles of Mortuary
  Services (in Spanish)
• Public Health Disaster Consequences of Disasters (In
  Spanish) (In Russian) (In Arabic) (In Portuguese) (in
• Safety matters: How to Safely Evacuate from your Home
• Data for Decision making in disasters: advances and
                                    Just-in-Time Lecture
              Earthquake in Chile
• While Chilean state authorities are getting to work in providing
  relief to those areas of Chile affected by the earthquake, the focus
  of global concern now is on the following tsunami effect. Chile has
  been evacuating people from the coastal areas of Easter Island.
  The towns of Talcahuano, Coquimbo, Antofagasta and Caldera
  have reportedly been struck by tsunami waves. The Pacific
  Tsunami Warning Center has issued a tsunami warning along the
  Pacific Coast for the following: Chile, Peru, Ecuador, Colombia,
  Antarctica, Panama, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Pitcairn, Honduras, El
  Salvador, Guatemala, French Polynesia, Mexico, Cook Islands,
  Kiribati, Kermadec Island, Niue, New Zealand, Tonga, American
  Samoa, Samoa, Jarvis Island, Wallis-Futuna, Tokelau, Fiji,
  Australia, Hawaii, Palmyra Island, Tuvalu, Vanuatu, Howland-Baker,
  New Caledonia, Johnston Island, Solomon Island, Nauru, Marshall
  Island, Midway Island, Kosrae, Papua New Guinea, Pohnpei, Wake
  Island, Chuuk, Russia, Marcus Island, Indonesia, North Marianas,
  Guam, Yap, Belau, Japan, Philippines and Chinese Taipei.
                               Just-in-Time Lecture
Brief: Tsunami Waves Expected To Hit Hawaii
   • According to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric
  Administration’s (NOAA) Pacific Tsunami Warning Center,
   tsunami tidal waves of up to nine feet are expected to hit
 Hilo Bay in Hawaii within 4 hours, 11:05 a.m. local time. The
    waves are not considered dangerous, although the tidal
    forces could be, and so residents should stay out of the
   waters. Jenifer Rhoades, Tsunami Program Manager for
     NOAA’s National Weather Service, predicted small but
  significant impact, the equivalent of flash foods. Hilo Bay is
   the first location that will be hit by the waves, followed by
    Kahului. The Hilo International Airport has already been
   closed, and emergency preparations are underway in the
 island state. STRATFOR is continuing to monitor the effects
      of the overnight earthquake near Concepción, Chile.
What is a Tsunami?
 Tsunami or Harbor Wave

A Japanese word represented by
  two characters: tsu & nami

      tsu means harbor
       nami means wave
   History of Tsunami

      Ancient city of Knossos,
the capital of the Minoan civilization
      Risks Posed by Tsunamis

 Flooding

 Contamination of drinking water

 Fires from ruptured tanks or gas lines

 Loss of vital community infrastructure
Tsunami Prediction:
 Understanding of the phenomenon

 Data collection on earthquake & sea level

 Data interpretation

   Impossible prediction of earthquakes
           generating tsunamis
Definition & Causes
Scientific term?

 Tsunami

 Seismic sea waves

 Tidal waves
  How is a tsunami
  different from a
wind-generated wave?
 When an earthquake occurs in a source:

 Outward traveling of energy in all directions

 Outward radiation of waves in all directions
 & propagation across ocean basins

           Chilean Earthquake (1960)

  Sweeping tsunami across the Pacific to Japan
 A tsunami can compete with a jet
 airplane, traveling across the
 ocean in less than a day.

 When the ocean is 20000 feet
 (6100 m) deep, a tsunami travels
 at 550 miles/hr (890 km/hr).
Determinant factors of the size

 of a tsunami at initial phase

      & along the coast
Tsunamis generation:

I. Initiation

II. Split
III. Amplification
IV. Run-up
Tsunamis generation:

I. Initiation
Tsunamis generation:

II. Split
Tsunamis generation:

III. Amplification
Tsunamis generation:

IV. Run-up
Scientific terms:
 Run-up: Vertical height a wave reaches
 above a reference sea level as it washes

 Wave height: Vertical measurement of the
 wave before it reaches shore.

 Inundation distance: Horizontal distance a
 tsunami reaches landward from shoreline.
    Appearance of a tsunami
    when reaches the shore

 A rapidly rising or falling tide

 A series of waves

 A bore
              Run-up height:

 Tsunamis of distant origin: > 50 ft (15 m)

 Tsunami generated near the earthquake

   epicenter: > 100 ft (30 m)

 First wave may not be the largest in
   the series of waves.
Do tsunamis stop once on land?

 Energy reflection back

 Edge waves
Complicated behavior of tsunami
      waves near the coast !

 The first run-up of a tsunami is
  often not the largest.

 Do not return to a beach several
  hours after a tsunami hits.
Tsunami can not be felt aboard
ships nor can they be seen from
   the air in the open ocean.
Why are tsunami so destructive?
Learn about :

 International Tsunami

  Information Centre (ITIC)

 International Tsunami Warning
  System (ITWS)

 Mandate
 Functions
 Research and Data Collection
 Visiting Scientists Program

 Education, Preparedness &
  Disaster Reduction
What is the International Tsunami
    Warning System (ITWS)?

   Seismic station
International Tsunami Warning System

 ITWS includes 31 seismic stations &
  > 60 tide stations

 The stations have ability to transmit
  their data immediately & in real time
  to the headquarters at PTWC in
How does the International

 Tsunami Warning System



 Tsunami WATCH
 Dissemination of Watches & Warnings by ITIC
 When Earthquake is Strong Enough to Cause a
                 Tsunami !!

• Monitoring the tide gauges near the epicenter

• Watch bulletins for all earthquake ≥ 7 in the
 Aleutian Islands & ≥ 7.5 elsewhere in the Pacific

• Watching cancellation: Negligible tsunami
 or no tsunami

Watching         Warning if a tsunami threat
Capabilities & Limitations of

 the International Tsunami

  Warning System (ITWS)
Be Prepared for Tsunamis
   & Protect Yourself
      Similar Tsunamis,

Similar Strategies for Survival
Tsunami is coming!

What you must do!
Tsunami is coming!

What you must do,
If you are on a boat!

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