the dark ages by 63QLrX

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									The Dark Ages

410 AD Rome falls –
      Visigoth invaded the city of Rome




Rome – the greatest city of ancient Europe
Goths ravaged the city for three days and left, for Rome had little food.
They razed the city.
The servants took over their employers

Alaric led the invasion
Alaric had tried to join the Roman army, but they rebuffed him, so he started his own army and
destroyed Rome.
His troops couldn’t ascend the walls of Rome
Alaric’s troops surrounded Rome and cut off their food supplies (blocked shipments of grain)
The city slowly starved.
Crowds asking for the meat of dead gladiators
Finally, Roman aristocrats asked that the gates be opened.

3 A.D. – Rome – Inept emperors interested in personal gain
Continually killed by rivals and subjects
Heavy casualties from smallpox and measles since Rome imported goods from everywhere and
they sent their diseases as well as their products.

Since Rome was frequently threatened with invasion, they depended on foreigners for defense.
Like the Goths – who the Roman forced into service

The Romans exchanged dog meat for the children of the Goths – this brought rebellious feelings.

4 A.D. – Many civilizations invaded Rome. Goths, Britons, Saxons etc.

After the fall of Rome, much violence, illiteracy, and rage took over Western Europe

The cities no longer had aqueducts to clean the sewage from the city, nor t provide fresh water;
they went back to wells
They moved into wood homes.
They destroyed the monuments for the stones to build homes.
All technology, open trade, employment, education and medical help stopped.

Petrarch – stated that earlier the world seemed brilliant but now it wallowed in gloom.

The world became chaotic and full of upheavals.

The only unity was found with the monastery.
Rell i quare ree


Norse nine worlds:

      Midgard, world of average human experience
      Álfheimr, world of the Álfar (elves). a race of divine or semi-divine beings (wights,
       vættir) endowed with magical powers, which they use both for the benefit and the injury
       of mankind.
      Svartálfaheim, world of the Svartálfar (black elves) greedy and troublesome for humans
       growing from the maggots of Ymir's flesh, turning to stone when exposed to daylight,
       and being human-like, but ugly and misshapen.
      Vanaheimr, world of the Vanir are a group of gods associated with fertility, wisdom, and
       the ability to see the future
      Muspellheim, world of fire
      Jötunheimr, world of the jötnar is a giant in Norse mythology, a member of a race of
       nature spirits with superhuman strength, described as sometimes standing in opposition to
       the races of the tribes of the Æsir and Vanir, although they frequently mingle with or
       intermarry with these.
      Niflheim, world of those who die from age or sickness.
      Asgard, world of the Æsir is the term denoting a member of the principal groups of gods
       of the pantheon of Norse paganism.
      Hel, world of the Niðavellir, netherworld It was the abode of Hel, a female figure who
       ruled the Underworld in Norse Mythology (Dark fields)

Germanic deities like Greek Gods

      Janus
      Jupiter
      Saturn
      Genius
      Mercury
      Apollo
      Mars
      Vulcan
      Neptune
      Sol
      Orcus
      Father Liber
      Tellus
      Ceres
      Juno
      Luna
      Diana
      Minerva
      Venus
      Vesta


The new emperor was Jesus the Christ

496 AD – The Franks leader (French) Clovis became a Christian.

Western Europe had splintered and came under control of the various lords.

Non combatant people during this time did not have any security. They were consumed with
warfare, civil war and feuding.

Everything had escalated into a military problem.

Clovis decided that the way to unite the people would be through their souls.
The conversion of the Franks brought them new allies

Clovis killed many he not only plundered, but he became involved in holy wars.

Since he was 15, he had taken over the Rhine delta in France.
When he took over a village, he elevated the inhabitants to the status of his own men. They
became his soldiers.

At age 30, he converted to Christianity

Clovis killed all members of his family, so no one could assume his throne.

He used The Ordeal – a cauldron of boiling water with a retrievable rock
                     Others had to survive the water test as well

If they floated, the water rejected them. If they sank, the water accepted them, and they were
found innocent.

Western Europe became deeply divided
Many despots ( oppressive ruler) took over

Alleged barbarian kings

In the East, Egypt resurged – Greece, Turkey, Egypt

They reaped the benefits of all of the Roman technology and trade.

The East found the West barbaric – too quick to go to war – wanted more diplomacy
The East had flowing fountains – trade routes – chariot races
Greek East – Latin West

West could not really prop themselves up




Next Eastern emperor Justinian came from humble roots – wanted to reunite eastern and western
Rome
They had called the Mediterranean Sea – the Roman Lake




Justinian needed money to unite Rome


He used trickery to obtain money
He refused to pay his soldiers
When Justinian signed a peace treaty, he took money from the soldiers for signing the peace treaty.
When the soldier’s died, he took all of their property as an inheritance.


His greedy tactics made him unpopular.


The Nika Revolt tried to usurp Justinian, but at the last minute his wife, Theodora refused to leave.
They tricked the rioters and slaughtered 30L of the rioters.


Justinian ordered the execution of all of his prominent enemies.


Justinian conquered North Africa, Sicily and Southern Italy


Justinian completely depopulated cities
The collapse destroyed Italy’s productive capacity for centuries afterward.


North Europe built wood houses
Justinian built a marble church called Hagia Sophia (Haya Sofeea or Haya So feye a)


542 - Justinian’s empire grew to include Egypt, Turkey, Greece and Palestine


Bubonic plague – hit Constantinople – killed 50% of the population


Plague was a virulent (extremely infectious) pandemic (widespread disease) – began with fever, chills, vomiting
and sensitivity to light
Extreme pain in groin, armpits and behind the ears
Finally growth of black tumors and violent spasms
Constantinople stopped all trade in and out of the city to limit the infection.


Justinian contracted the plague but survived. He was never the same.
Plague inhibited him physically and mentally


Without shipments in and out of the city, the people starved
Some blamed Theodora and her previous hedonistic lifestyle


The plague spread to Britain and Ireland and at least, one-third of the population died.
Economically their productivity tumbled
Their ability to defend themselves suffered.


The extreme outbreak of the plague stopped but continued to reappear over the centuries
Many towns became completely abandoned and were occupied by animals.


548 – Theodora died
565 – Justinian died


The Byzantine Empire could not sustain what had been the Roman Empire


600 Trade and industry shrank to nothing in the West
Most focused on farming and agriculture


The non combatants farmers couldn’t tell what was going on m- they didn’t know
The source of their threats
They didn’t have enough people to generate any particular action or thought.


During this period witches, warlocks and wizards took hold. Many people began to follow the witchcraft users.


(EUROPEAN WITCHES)


The Western European inhabitants word according to the season – they would do little but drink in the winter and
plant and harvest in the spring through the harvest


One-half of their children died
One-fourth of all newborns died
One or both parents died during the life of the child


The monasteries gave hope to the common man
They became the institutions and centers of commerce and authority


730 AD


Bede Benedictine – monk writes the history from Julius Caesar 44 BCE – 673 AD.


He had over 200 books. Most books were hand written manuscripts, normally written by the monks.
The Bible was an exception to the books.


The violence of the time did not allow for education – only the clergy were literate


Bede moved to the country
People sought him, and finally he became the abbot (head) of a monastery (community of monks)
Bede was a harsh abbot, so the monks tried to poison him with drink
But the cup shattered
Then they poisoned his bread, but a bird flew in and took it


St Bede began another monastery; they believed that if a person eliminated the will, one would eliminate the drive
to sin.
Speaking exhorts the will, so many monks take a vow of silence.


Nuns tried to climb over the walls of the monastery, and the monks stated that these nuns were possessed by
demons.


In the East – North Africa and Arabia – Islam began to spread
THE BEGINNING OF A NEW RELIGION
As Islam began to spread – ongoing war between the Franks and the Muslims (Moors) {Arab and Egyptian})
The Moors came through Spain and entered France




The Moors thought that the Franks would be easy prey, for the western Europeans were too busy fighting one
another.


730 AD Abdul Rahman brought 50,000 troops into France.


Abdul Rahman destroyed Aquitane and Gascony and the River Garonne


The Moors killed many


The commander of the Frankish army waited for the Moors to travel to the north of France


CHARLES, THE HAMMER, MARTEL


He persuaded the Franks to change their plowshares for swords
The farmers could only out of the spring planting through the fall harvest.
Martel went to the church to beg for funds.
The church funded the army, and they began to prepare for battle.


The Moors downfall was their underestimation of the Franks.


Behind the warring line, the Franks stole much of the loot from the Moor’s previous plundering.
The Moors left the battle to protect their stolen goods.


Abdul Rahman was killed in battle and the remaining Moors moved south.


Europe thought of Charles Martel as the defender of Christendom.


Charles Martel was the grandfather of Charlemagne


Charlemagne became the emperor of Rome
He never lost a battle
He controlled France, Germany, Holland, Sweden, Austria, Poland and Switzerland


Charlemagne tried build education
After the fall of the Roman Empire, Europe was completely destroyed


The Frank’s inheritance divided all property among all male heirs
Charlemagne and his brother, Carloman, did not get along and one day, Carloman turned up dead.


At age 24, Charlemagne was the sole owner of the largest property in Europe


Charlemage commanded 50 military campaigns
He told those whom he captured to embrace the Christian God or meet that God right now.


He beheaded 4,500 for worshipping other religions This was called the Bloody verdict of Verden


Anyone would lose their head for cremating the dead, worshipping others than Christianity, disobeying the king,
not being baptized


Charlemagne divided the land and oversaw those who oversaw his lands.



Charlemagne studied extensively (reading and writing), built many schools and had all children get an education


Charlemagne had five wives and five mistresses and 20 children


The church had not enforced monogamy.


800 Charlemagne Emperor of the West


793 Vikings invade England


They came by water and pillaged the churches
They came from Scandinavia
The overpopulation of Scandinavia caused them to move south
They were looking for other resources
The English church did not have any protective walls or armies to protect their property


The Vikings sailed up the rivers to unexpecting cities


Some of the Europeans paid some Vikings for protection and the cities became bereft


The Vikings toured the Mideast, Iceland and North America


Their expertise at sailing helped them to attacked the British Isles


806 Northumbria The Vikings sent several thousand warriors to invade the territory


Ivar the Boneless – carried on a shield
Wanted the city of York


King Aella – believed to have killed Ivar’s father by throwing him into a snake pit


Ivar and his brothers invaded Northumbria and took it over in 866 AD


Four months after the fall of York King Aella was captured in an attempted coup
He was given the Bloody Eagle – open torso and pull lungs past the ribs to make wings


873 Ivar died – but the armies continued to ransack


Alfred the Great – built walled castles of earth and wood
These castles hid the people and their property


The Vikings fought the walls until tire and then attacked.
Alfred the Great then overtook them.


899 Alfred died


50 years later (949 AD) The Vikings left England and went to North America and the Mideast


After the years of Viking invasion, Europe suffered severe economic depression, religious persecution and disease.


The medieval knight was a thug and a thief – hired by lords to steal from the peasants and make them submit to
the will of the lord.


The Viking attacks created a mass of soldiers – who had nothing to do after the attacks, so the counts and lords
hired the soldiers.


The Catholic church began to dictate when, where and against whom the soldiers could strike. They told the
soldiers that if they did not follow their orders, the ancients would punish them.


They told them God’s position on war – God wanted peace and a truce
Peasants, widows, priests, and the undefensive should not be attacked
The soldiers should not fight on Sundays or holidays


The Crusades – The soldiers needed someone to fight, so the church sent them to the Mideast to fight the Muslims
over the Holy Land
The Crusaders did not return triumphant but the did acquire knowledge, medical, books, language (Aristotle)
Western Europe had a rebirth of trade and architecture. Stone replaced wood. There was resurgence in tourism.


Europe had just recovered from the mini-Ice Age, so they had a growth in population.
12 and 13th centuries – Opened up more land, legal courts, cathedrals and universities.

								
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