Astronomy 1: Midterm 1 Practice Exam True/False (+2 pts each) Indicate whether the sentence or statement is true or false. Mark A on your scantron for true and B for false. ____ 1. The umbra represents the darkest part of the shadow. ____ 2. The altitude of a star will change with time and also depends on the observer’s location. ____ 3. A solar system is a collection of billions of stars, gas, dust, and dark matter that are gravitationally bound together. ____ 4. Because the speed of light has no limit, we are able to see objects as they appeared back in the past. Multiple Choice (+2 pts each) Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. ____ 5. All the signs of the zodiac are located along which special part of the sky? a. the celestial equator b. the plane of the Milky Way c. the meridian d. the ecliptic plane ____ 6. During a total lunar eclipse, the Moon is in the __________ of the _________ shadow. a. penumbra, Sun’s b. penumbra, Earth’s c. umbra, Earth’s d. umbra, Sun’s ____ 7. An Astronomical Unit is defined as the: a. the age of our Universe. b. the distance to Proxima Centauri. c. the average distance from the Earth to the Sun. d. size of our solar-system. ____ 8. During which time of the year is the Sun highest in the sky at noon? a. Spring equinox b. Fall equinox c. Winter solstice d. Summer solstice ____ 9. South is located at approximately ________ azimuth. a. 180 degrees b. 270 degrees c. 0 degrees d. 90 degrees ____ 10. How far away from us is Alpha Centauri, the nearest star besides our Sun? a. 8.3 light minutes away b. 5 billion light years away c. 1.3 light seconds away d. 4.2 light years away e. 2.4 million light years away ____ 11. During the equinox, how many hours of daylight would we have? a. 15 hours. b. 12 hours. c. 9 hours. d. 24 hours. ____ 12. Who possessed the best observations of the orbits of the planets and had a gold nose? a. Brahe b. Aristotle c. Copernicus d. Kepler e. Ptolemy ____ 13. Circumpolar star are stars that a. rise in the East and set in the West. b. move perpendicular to the horizon. c. do not appear to move. d. never rise or set. ____ 14. The fixed coordinates of an object on a celestial sphere (lines of longitude and latitude) are called a. right ascension and azimuth. b. althitude and meridian. c. altitude and azimuth. d. right ascension and declination. e. altitude and declination. ____ 15. If we did NOT live on the Earth and were on a spacecraft hovering above the Moon, Earth, and Sun system, we would see a. that the Moon goes through a complete cycle of phases. b. that the entire Moon would be illuminated by the Sun. c. that the Moon receives no illumination by the Sun. d. that only half of the Moon receives illumination from the Sun. ____ 16. Which of the following men proposed that the Earth is at the center of the Universe surrounded by 55 concentric crystal spheres? a. Ptolemy b. Copernicus c. Kepler d. Aristotle ____ 17. The imaginary line that runs through North, South, and the zenith is called a. the ecliptic b. right ascension c. the celestial equator d. declination e. the meridian ____ 18. A light-year is defined as a. the speed that light travels. b. distance that light travels in one year. c. the time it takes for light to travel from the Earth to the Sun. d. the time it takes for light to travel 3 X 105 km. ____ 19. What is the approximate altitude of the North star when viewed at the North Pole? a. 0 degrees b. 180 degrees c. 90 degrees d. 360 degrees ____ 20. Which of the following is correctly ordered from smallest in size to largest in size? a. planet, star, galaxy, solar system, universe b. planet, star, solar system, galaxy, universe c. star, planet, solar system, galaxy, universe d. star, planet, solar system, universe, galaxy ____ 21. The plane of the Earth’s orbit projected onto the celestial sphere or the apparent path of the Sun in the sky is called the: a. horizon b. ecliptic c. azimuth d. equator ____ 22. The age of the Earth is approximately a. 5 billion years old. b. 100 billion years old. c. 14 billion years old. d. 65 million years old. Short Answer Record the answers to these questions directly on the exam and NOT on the scantron. 23. a) What is precession? b) How long does the cycle of precession last? c) What causes it to occur? (+3pts) 24. Ptolemy’s theory and Copernicus’ theory both explained the retrograde motion of planets. Explain a) what is retrograde motion b) the differences between the two theories and how they explained why retrograde motion occurred in each of these theories (+5pts) Phases of the Moon (+8pts total) The following is a diagram of the Earth and Moon as it orbits the Earth in 8 different positions (A-H). Assume that the Sun’s rays hit the Moon from the right. For each position, label the name of the correct phase (+4pts). In the circles provided, draw what the side of the moon facing the Earth would look like as seen from Earth (+4pts). In your drawing, shade (darken) the part of the moon that is dark and leave white the part that is lit. 25.
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