ENHANCING FOOD SECURITY IN GREATER CAIRO THROUGH SUSTAINABLE DESERT DEVELOPMENT By Adli Bishay FOOD CRISIS IN EGYPT Global Factors 1) Bio‐Diesel from Crops. 2) Climate Change. 3) Rising Transportation Costs. 4) Change in Domestic Food Consumption. 5) Export Restrictions. FOOD CRISIS IN EGYPT Domestic Factors I.Population increase Year Population Area of agricultural Individuals share (millions) land(m. acres) (acres) 1897 9.7 4.9 0.5 1966 33.2 6.0 0.18 1970 38.2 6.12 0.16 1990 55.0 7.20 0.13 2004 71.0 7.80 0.11 2008 78.6 8.432 0.107 2009 80.0 8.5 0.10 FOOD CRISIS IN EGYPT Domestic Factors (cont.) II ‐ Urban encroachment on agricultural land ~ 45,000 acres are lost in Egypt annually to urban encroachment III‐ Changing domestic dietary habits A growing middle class associated with upgrading economic status changes dietary preferences. FOOD CRISIS IN EGYPT Domestic Factors (cont.) IV‐Dramatic increases in global prices resulted in growing attractiveness for Egyptian producers to sell their agricultural commodities to foreign markets. High Pre‐ and Post‐ Harvest Losses of Food Agriculture in Egypt Conventional agricultural marketing systems are dominated by traders and middlemen, resulting in high rates of pre‐ and post‐ harvest losses and spoilage. High Pre‐ and Post‐ Harvest Losses of Food Agriculture in Egypt (cont.) This is due to 1. Inflexibility of the applied traditional marketing systems. 2. Scarcity of contract farming. 3. Limited attention to pre‐and post‐ harvest practices. Pre‐ and Post‐ Harvest in Egypt Losses: > 30% in vegetables and fruit > 20% in legumes and cereals Quality Deterioration: leads to reduced prices ( increases farmers' losses) Efforts needed to reduce losses Technical: 1)developing plant varieties capable of enduring marketing, transportation and storage. 2)developing and dissemination of improved pre‐and post‐harvest practices. Efforts needed to reduce losses (cont.) Investment : Developing marketing systems and facilities. Institutional & legal: Promote expansion and success of contract farming Water Resources in Egypt (billion meters cube / year) Source 2002 /2003 2005/2006 2008/2009 Share from Nile water 55.5 55.5 55.5 Ground Water 5 5.9 6.6 Treated agricultural waste 4.4 5.3 7.8 Treated municipal waste 0.7 1.1 1.8 Rain & Floods 1 1.1 1.3 Sea Water desalination 0 0.06 0.06 Total 66.6 68.96 73.06 Water Consumption (billion meters cube / year) Sector 2002/2003 2005/2006 2008/2009 Agriculture 57.8 59 60.5 Evaporation losses 2.1 2.1 2.1 Drinking & Domestic 5.4 6.5 9 Uses Industry 1.1 1.15 1.25 River Navigation 0.2 0.2 0.2 Total 66.6 68.95 73.05 Average Individual’s share of water (past, present & future) Year Average Individual’s Change in Individual’s share of water (m³/year) share(%)compared to 1947 1947 2604 (plentiful water) -- 1960 1893 ‐27.3 1970 1713 (water sufficiency) ‐34.2 1986 1138 ‐56.3 1996 936 (water scarcity) ‐64.1 2003 860 ‐67 2025 (expected) 582 (water poverty) ‐77.6 The Integrated approach THE AUC/ DDC INTEGRATED APPROACH In addition to the Integrated Approach : A. Advocating that a desert should be treated as a desert (no outside manure or silt added to the soil) B. Desert development should be based on a balance of appropriate indigenous methods with modern technologies. THE AUC/ DDC INTEGRATED APPROACH (cont.) C. Any trials for improving productivity should be environmentally compatible with desert conditions and economically replicable. D. The use of renewable energy techniques. E. Applying sprinkler and drip irrigation techniques instead of flood irrigation. Now, more than thirty years later, I am still a believer of this AUC/ DDC approach!! SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT ∗ In order to achieve Sustainable development i.e. environmentally sound development for our future generations, a balance should be reached between economic development, human development, resource management and environmental protection. Parameters for Sustainable Development SUSTAINABLE DESERT DEVELOPMENT we have to work with the boundaries of : ∗Water scarcity ∗Energy limitation ∗Population increase ∗Food security SUSTAINABLE DESERT DEVELOPMENT (cont.) ∗In addition , we have to consider : 1.The possible effect of global warming . 2.Problems facing graduates (allocated 5‐6 acres each) . 3.Lack of integrated water management within a certain basin. What do we propose ? ∗ Create viable multipurpose communities in the desert ∗ Create Holding Companies to run these multipurpose communities Mission of Holding Company ∗To help solve the problems of the delta migrants, unemployed or allocated 5‐6 acres graduates and small investors ∗To work towards achieving sustainable development and enhancing food security.
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