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									Musculoskeletal system (Bones,
   soft tissues and joints).

         4th Lecture

  Dr .Manal Radwan Salim
  Lecturer of Physical Therapy
       Pharos University
What is the Musculoskeletal System?
     The human Musculoskeletal system is
an inherently conclusive, functional unit
suited to its purpose! consist of many
interconnected parts such as bones, joints,
ligaments, muscles and tendons. In it over
the 200 or more bones, are all just links in
one long chain. are all just links in one
long   chain.  It   provides   locomotion,
support and protection to the human body.
        1- Bones
Are Calcified connective tissue consisting of an
  inorganic material (45%), an organic matrix (30
  %) and water (25%).
Types of Bones:
1-Long Bones- metacarples, metatarsals, phelangies,
   humerus, ulna, radius, tibia, fibula.

2-Short Bones- carpals, tarsals.
3-Flat Bones- rib, scapula, skull, sternum.
4-Irregular Bones- vertebrae, some facial bones.
5-Sesamoid- patella.
    Functions of bones

1-Support- framework that supports body
  and guard its soft organs
2-Protection- for delicate organs, heart,
  lungs, brain
3-Movement- bones act as levers for muscles
4-Mineral storage- calcium & phosphate
5-Blood cell formation- hematopoiesis
      tendons are formed almost entirely of
collagen tissues which provide strength.

Functions of tendons are:
1- Attach muscles to bones and fascia
2- Transmit tensile loads from the muscles to the
bones or from the muscles to the fascia and so
producing joint motion.
Ligaments are formed almost entirely of collagen
Functions of ligaments are:

1- Are strong fibrous bands that holds bone

3-Support internal organs and other structures

4- Support Synovial Joints.

5-Allows for great flexibility, stretching and
Is a type of connective tissue organized into a system of fibers.
Types of Cartilage:
a) Hyaline (Articualr) Cartilage :
*Hard, transparent material rich in collagen and proteoglycan.

 Found in:
   *The nose, larynx, between ribs
 and the sternum.

 *It covers the end of the bone to form the
 smooth Articualr surface of the joints
  *Bones grow via a hyaline cartilage.
Functions of the Articualr cartilage:

1- Self lubricating tissue.

2- Allow relative movements of the opposing joint
   surfaces within minimal friction and wear.

3- It spreads the load applied to the joint over a
   large area.
C) Fibro cartilage:

*It is a white, very tough material that
provides high tensile strength and
support. It contains more collagen and
less proteoglycan.
 *Found in:
               - Intervertebral disc
               -Symphysis pubis.

  b) Elastic cartilage:

  *It is a stiff cartilage yet elastic.

  *Found in: The pinna of the ears.
It is the junction between two or more bones.

*Movements of body as a whole occurs primarily
through rotation of bones about individual joints.

*Weakest parts of the skeleton.

Functions of joints:
            – Give the skeleton mobility
            – Hold the skeleton together
Functional classification is based on the
amount of movement allowed by the joint
• The three functional classes of joints are:
  – Synarthroses – immovable.

  – Amphiarthroses – slightly movable.

  – Diarthroses – freely movable.
Junction between bones that is held together by
  dense irregular connective tissue“
Are very strong. May fuse over time

Ex. Sutures of skull


                                 pubis symphisis
These joints allow relatively restrained movements.

"It is a junction
between bones that
is formed primarily
by      Fibrocartilage
and / or hyaline
Stronger than freely
movable joint

Ex. Inter- body joint
of the spine , Pubic
  3- Diarthrosis ( synovial joint):

*Freely movable Joint.

*An articulation that
contains a fluid- filled
joint cavity between
bony partners.

*Ex. Hip, knee joints
  Classification of Synovial Joints by Shape
1-Gliding/Plane: Flattened or slightly curved
   faces. Non axial, linear motion.
Ex: between carpal or tarsal bones.

2- Hinge: Cylindrical projections of one bone
   fits into a trough-shaped surface on anther. •
   Angular motion (mon axial)
Ex: • Elbow, knee.

3- Pivot: Rounded end of one bone protrudes
   into a “sleeve,” or ring, composed of bone
   (and possibly ligaments) of another •
   Rotation only (mon axial)
Ex: • Shaking your head.
   Classification of Synovial Joints by Shape Cont.
  4-Ellipsoidal: Oval articular face
  within a depression
  *Motion in 2 planes (biaxial)
  Ex: radiocarpal
5- Saddle Joints : 2 concave
   faces, straddled (biaxial)
   ex: Thumb (carpometacarpal)

6- Ball-and-Socket Joints:
A spherical or hemispherical articular face
head of one bone articulates with a cuplike
socket of another (triaxial)
    Ex.Shoulder, hip
              Synovial Joint Movement




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