Embodied GWP Graphs and Tables by GY53Q45

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									Embodied CO2e Emissions of Commercial and
          Residential Buildings
            John Ochsendorf, Dorothy Brown, Libby Hsu,

                Omar Swei, and Maggie Wildnauer

                           June 7, 2011
Contents
Tables ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 3
Methodology ........................................................................................................................................................................... 4
   Building Types ..................................................................................................................................................................... 4
   Overall LCA Approach ......................................................................................................................................................... 5
Assumptions ............................................................................................................................................................................ 6
   System Boundary ................................................................................................................................................................ 6
   Concrete Mixes ................................................................................................................................................................... 6
Design - Single-Family Residential .......................................................................................................................................... 7
   ICF Single-Family ................................................................................................................................................................. 7
   Wood Single-Family ............................................................................................................................................................ 9
Results - Single-Family Residential........................................................................................................................................ 11
   Weight of Materials .......................................................................................................................................................... 11
   Global Warming Potential by Material ............................................................................................................................. 11
Design - Multi-Family Residential ......................................................................................................................................... 12
   ICF Multi-Family ................................................................................................................................................................ 12
   Wood Multi-Family ........................................................................................................................................................... 14
Results - Multi-Family Residential......................................................................................................................................... 16
   Weight of Materials .......................................................................................................................................................... 16
   Global Warming Potential by Material ............................................................................................................................. 16
Design - Commercial ............................................................................................................................................................. 17
Results - Commercial ............................................................................................................................................................ 19
   Weight of Materials .......................................................................................................................................................... 19
   Global Warming Potential by Material ............................................................................................................................. 19
Global Warming Potential Summary - lb CO2e/ft2 ................................................................................................................ 20
Comparison to Other Studies................................................................................................................................................ 21
   Single-Family Global Warming Potential per Square Foot................................................................................................ 21
   Multi-Family Global Warming Potential per Square Foot ................................................................................................ 21
   Commercial Global Warming Potential per Square Foot.................................................................................................. 22
Appendix ............................................................................................................................................................................... 23
   Fuel Mixes ......................................................................................................................................................................... 23
Tables
Table 1. System boundaries used for each life cycle phase in the LCA .................................................................................. 6
Table 2. Concrete mixes used in the Commercial and Residential building designs .............................................................. 6
Table 6. Description of Single-Family insulated concrete form building designs for Chicago and Phoenix ........................... 8
Table 7. Description of Single-Family wood building designs for Chicago and Phoenix ....................................................... 10
Table 4. Description of Multi-Family insulated concrete form building designs for Chicago and Phoenix .......................... 13
Table 5. Description of Multi-Family wood building designs for Chicago and Phoenix ........................................................ 15
Table 3. Description of Steel and Concrete Commercial building designs ........................................................................... 18
Table 8. Summary of global warming potential for each building type and suggestions for what it could be with the
inclusion of Fly Ash in the concrete mix used ....................................................................................................................... 20
Table 9. Break down of the fuel mixes used in Chicago and Phoenix................................................................................... 23
Methodology

Building Types
Residential Single-Family and Multi-Family




Comparison between timber and insulated concrete form frames

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Commercial Office




Comparison between steel and reinforced concrete frames

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Overall LCA Approach




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Assumptions

System Boundary
The region-specific life cycle assessment encompasses the structure, façade, and foundation in each building.

Table 1. System boundaries used for each life cycle phase in the LCA


Pre-Use Phase                                    Use Phase                         End-of-Life Phase


Material Extraction                              Electricity Use Based on NERC     Transportation to Landfills and
                                                 Subregion Mixes                   Recycling Facilities


Manufacturing                                    Natural Gas Use Based on NERC     Construction Material Landfilling
                                                 Subregion Mixes


Transportation to Factories and Sites            Maintenance and Replacement       Steel Recycling


Transportation Fuel                                                                Aluminum Recycling


Manufacturing Electricity                                                          Concrete Recycling


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Concrete Mixes
Table 2. Concrete mixes used in the Commercial and Residential building designs


                                                 Commercial (lb/yd3)               Residential (lb/yd3)


Cement                                           564                               376


Coarse Aggregate                                 2000                              1900


Fine Aggregate                                   1200                              1400


Water                                            237                               237


28-Day Strength (psi)                            5000 psi                          3000 psi


Source: Marceau, Nisbet, and VanGeem, PCA 2007.

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Design - Single-Family Residential

ICF Single-Family




                         Chicago     Phoenix

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Table 3. Description of Single-Family insulated concrete form building designs for Chicago and Phoenix


                                       ICF - Chicago                                   ICF - Phoenix

Floors


Flooring System                        9-1/2" I joists @ 16" O.C.                      9-1/2" I joists @ 16" O.C.

Sheathing                              5/8" Plywood                                    5/8" Plywood

Roofing

Method                                 Stick Framed Roof                               Stick Framed Roof

Sheathing                              1/2" Plywood                                    1/2" Plywood

Insulation                             R-30 Batt                                       R-30 Batt

Shingles                               Asphalt                                         Asphalt

Load Bearing Partition Walls

Studs                                  2 x 4 @ 16" O.C.                                2 x 4 @ 16" O.C.

Exterior Walls

ICF Wall                               8” concrete                                     8” concrete

Insulation                             2.5” EPS Insulation                             2.5” EPS Insulation

Foundation Wall

Thickness                              8"                                              0"

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Wood Single-Family




                   Chicago   Phoenix

Last modified June 7, 2011
Table 4. Description of Single-Family wood building designs for Chicago and Phoenix


                                                    Wood - Chicago                        Wood - Phoenix

                                                                   Floors


         Flooring System                      9-1/2" I joists @ 16" O.C.              9-1/2" I joists @ 16" O.C.

            Sheathing                                5/8" Plywood                          5/8" Plywood

                                                                  Roofing

              Method                               Stick Framed Roof                     Stick Framed Roof

            Sheathing                                1/2" Plywood                          1/2" Plywood

            Insulation                                  R-30 Batt                             R-30 Batt

              Shingles                                   Asphalt                               Asphalt

                                                    Load Bearing Partition Walls

               Studs                                2 x 4 @ 16" O.C.                      2 x 4 @ 16" O.C.

                                                              Exterior Walls

               Studs                                2 x 6 @ 24" O.C.                      2 x 4 @ 16" O.C.

            Insulation                                  R-19 Batt                             R-13 Batt

            Sheathing                                1/2" Plywood                          3/8" Plywood

                                                            Foundation Wall

             Thickness                                       8"                                  0"

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Results - Single-Family Residential

Weight of Materials




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Global Warming Potential by Material




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Design - Multi-Family Residential

ICF Multi-Family




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Table 5. Description of Multi-Family insulated concrete form building designs for Chicago and Phoenix


                                             ICF – Chicago                               ICF - Phoenix

Floors

Joists                                       2 x 8 @ 16” O.C.                            2 x 8 @ 16” O.C.

Girder                                       Glulam Beam                                 Glulam Beam

Sheathing                                    5/8" Plywood                                5/8" Plywood

Roofing

Method                                       Flat Truss Roof                             Flat Truss Roof

Sheathing                                    1/2" Plywood                                1/2" Plywood

Insulation                                   R-30 Batt                                   R-30 Batt

Shingles                                     Asphalt                                     Asphalt

Load Bearing Partition Walls

Studs                                        2 x 4 @ 16" O.C.                            2 x 4 @ 16" O.C.

Exterior Walls

ICF Wall                                     8” concrete                                 8” concrete

Insulation                                   5” EPS                                      5” EPSS

Foundation Wall

SOG Thickness                                4”                                          4”

Depth of Footing                             4’                                          1.5’

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Wood Multi-Family




Last modified June 7, 2011
Table 6. Description of Multi-Family wood building designs for Chicago and Phoenix


                                                        Wood - Chicago               Wood - Phoenix

                                                                     Floors

                 Joists                                 2 x 8 @ 16” O.C.             2 x 8 @ 16” O.C.

                Girder                                    Glulam Beam                 Glulam Beam

              Sheathing                                  5/8" Plywood                 5/8" Plywood

                                                                  Roofing

               Method                                    Flat Truss Roof             Flat Truss Roof

              Sheathing                                  1/2" Plywood                 1/2" Plywood

                                                            R-30 Batt

              Insulation                             R-7.5 Continuous XPS               R-30 Batt

               Shingles                                      Asphalt                     Asphalt

                                                      Load Bearing Partition Walls

                 Studs                                  2 x 4 @ 16" O.C.             2 x 4 @ 16" O.C.

                                                              Exterior Walls

                 Studs                                  2 x 6 @ 24" O.C.             2 x 4 @ 16" O.C.

              Insulation                                    R-19 Batt                   R-13 Batt

              Sheathing                                  1/2" Plywood                 3/8" Plywood

                                                             Foundation Wall

           SOG Thickness                                        4”                         4”

          Depth of Footing                                      4’                         1.5’

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Results - Multi-Family Residential

Weight of Materials




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Global Warming Potential by Material




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Design - Commercial




                             Steel   ICF

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Table 7. Description of Steel and Concrete Commercial building designs


                                       Steel                             Concrete

Layout

Footprint                              162’ x 273’                       162‘x 273’

Bays                                   27’ x 27’                         27’ x 27’

Floors

Girders                                W18                               22” x 10”

System                                 5” slab on deck                   12” Slab

Supporting Columns                     W14                               12” and 16” square columns

Core

Method                                 Concrete Core for Openings        Concrete Core for Openings

Walls

Studs Material                         Aluminum                          Aluminum

Insulation                             XPS                               XPS

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Results - Commercial

Weight of Materials




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                             Global Warming Potential by Material




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Global Warming Potential Summary - lb CO2e/ft2
Table 8. Summary of global warming potential for each building type and suggestions for what it could be with the inclusion of Fly Ash in the
concrete mix used


                      Commercial            25% Fly Ash            Multi-             25% Fly Ash            Single-         25% Fly Ash
                                            Inclusion              Family             Inclusion              Family          Inclusion



Reinforced            60-70                 50-60
Concrete



Insulated                                                          41-43              39-41                  25-30           19-24
Concrete
Forms



Wood                                                               32-35              31-34                  20-25           19-21



Structural Steel      100-110               100-105




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Comparison to Other Studies

Single-Family Global Warming Potential per Square Foot




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Multi-Family Global Warming Potential per Square Foot




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Commercial Global Warming Potential per Square Foot




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Appendix

Fuel Mixes
Table 9. Break down of the fuel mixes used in Chicago and Phoenix


                                                Chicago (%)         Phoenix (%)


Hard Coal                                       64.35               30.13


Natural Gas                                     6.54                31.38


Heavy Fuel Oil                                  0.54                0.42


Nuclear                                         26.45               9.61


Solid Biomass                                   0.7                 1.18


Hydro                                           0.54                23.08


Other Renewable                                 0.14                3.77


Other Fossil                                    0.74                0.43


Grid Loss                                       6.47                4.84


Last modified June 7, 2011

								
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