Race to Space! by HC12110721401

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									       Wernher von Braun: Father of
           Space Exploration
• Along with other German
  scientists, developed the first
  rockets during and after
  World War II
• Came to the U.S. after WWII,
  lived and worked in
  Huntsville, AL from 1950 –
  1970
• Work provided the basis for
  all early NASA missions
• First director of NASA
        Start of the “Space Race”

• October 4th, 1957, Russia
  launched the first artificial
  satellite, Sputnik, into orbit
• Caused a wide-spread panic
  in the U.S.
• People feared the Soviet
  Union would dominate the
  world in space exploration
              Formation of NASA



• Founded 1958 after Congress passed the National
  Aeronautics and Space Act
• Formed in direct response to the launch of Sputnik
• Purpose to provide organization and direction of U.S.
  space program
• First missions focused on getting humans into space,
  studying effects of space on humans, and returning
  astronauts safely to Earth
               Competitors in the Space Race


                                                       Soviet
                                                       Union
      United
      States




• After the launch of Sputnik, the U.S. and U.S.S.R. were in
  direct competition to have most advanced space program
• Viewed as contest between communism and capitalism
• National pride and fears for national defense played large roles
  in motivating space race
First Living Creatures in Space

The distinction of being the first
animal into space goes to the
fruit fly (1947).

The first monkey in space was
Albert (1948). Between 1948
and 1985, the U.S. sent 32
monkeys into space (all named
Albert).

Sputnik II (1957)carried the first
animal into orbit – a dog named
Laika. She died during the
flight.
         First Human in Space
On April 12, 1961, the Soviets succeeded in launching
the first human into space, Yuri Gagarin, and returning
him safely to Earth




                     Yuri and his
                     spacecraft,
                      Vostok 1
            The Mercury Project
• NASA’s first mission
• Mission goals:
  – getting an astronaut
    into space                       The Mercury - Atlas I
                                          spacecraft
  – completing an orbit
  – returning astronaut to
    Earth safely
• Several preliminary
  Mercury launches
  were unmanned
                             Enos the chimpanzee, crew of the
                               Mercury – Atlas V spacecraft
   First American in Space
  Alan Shepard becomes the first American
astronaut to enter space, aboard the Freedom 7
           spacecraft, on May 5, 1961




                   Alan and his
                    spacecraft,
                    Freedom 7
                Mercury Friendship 7
On February 20, 1962, John Glenn
became the first American to
orbit the earth. In five hours, he orbited
the earth three times.

In 1998, Glenn returned to space in the
Space Shuttle Discovery. Then 77, he
was (and still is) the oldest person to fly
 in space.
                            The Gemini Project
                                      • Involved sending two
                                        astronauts into orbit for
                                        longer periods of time
Astronaut Ed White, II
                                      • Paved the way and tested
                                        equipment for the Apollo
                         The
                                        missions to the moon
                         rendezvous
                         of the
                                      • Astronaut Ed White, II
                         Gemini VI      performs the first
                         and Gemini
                         VII            spacewalk by an
                         spacecraft
                                        American during the
                                        Gemini IV mission
  President Kennedy’s Challenge
• May 21, 1961:
  President Kennedy
  challenged the United
  States to land
  astronauts on the
  moon and to return
  them safely to Earth
• Challenge provided a
  “finish line” for the
  space race
                          President John F. Kennedy
                         The Apollo Missions
                                          • Apollo 11-17 involved landing
                                            men on the moon; Apollo 13
                                            was aborted due to a
                                            malfunction
                                          • July 20, 1969, Buzz Aldrin
The Apollo 11 launch
                                            and Neil Armstrong of Apollo
                         Neil Armstrong     11 were first men on the
                                            moon
                                          • Each mission consisted of
                                            three astronauts: one stayed
                                            on Command Module in lunar
                                            orbit, two descended in Lunar
                                            Module to moon’s surface
Buzz Aldrin, in Apollo
                                          • Total of 12 men have walked
11 and on the moon                          on the moon
(above and right)
     When did the space race end?
• Some historians believe the Space Race ended
  when Apollo 11 returned safely from the Moon
• Others believe that the Race ended when the
  United States’ Apollo 18 spacecraft docked with a
  Russian Soyuz spacecraft in 1975

      A drawing of
      the Apollo –
             Soyuz
       rendezvous
   (Apollo 18 is on
           the left)
     Skylab: The First Space Station
•   Launched by the U.S. in 1973
•   Built from a modified Apollo command module
•   Occupied by 3 different teams of astronauts for a total of 171 days
•   Purposely burned up in the Earth’s atmosphere in 1979
•   Over 2,000 hours of scientific and medical experiments performed
    onboard




                          Two photographs of
                           Skylab, taken by
                          astronauts on their
                         approach to the space
                                station
Space Shuttles
    • Originally spacecraft were used only
      once
    • In the 1980s, NASA developed reusable
      spacecraft, the space shuttles
    • Launched like rockets but land like
      modern-day airplanes
    • Considered the most complex machines
      ever built
    • Used to take satellites and instruments
      into space
    • Originally five shuttles, two of which
      have been destroyed (Challenger,
      Columbia), three remaining in service
      (Atlantis, Endeavor, Discovery)
    • Fleet of shuttles scheduled to be retired
      in 2010
   The International Space Station
                (ISS)
• 15 nations participating
• Assembly began in 1998;
  should be completed by
  2010
• Teams of astronauts
  have lived aboard the ISS
  since 2001                  Images
                               of the
• Provides a permanent            ISS

  laboratory for conducting
  experiments in space
   Unmanned Missions: Space
      Probes and Landers
• Besides manned missions like Mercury, Gemini,
  and Apollo, NASA launched a series of
  unmanned missions
• Probes sent to study the outer planets and to
  land on planets of the inner solar system like
  Mercury, Venus, and Mars
• Probes also sent to gather information about the
  moon before astronauts ventured there
       Why send robotic probes
         instead of human?
• Benefits:
   – Cheaper: there’s no need to send along food, air, and living
     space for astronauts or fuel for a round-trip
   – Safer: there’s no danger to human life
• Drawbacks:
   – Robotic probes can only do what they’re programmed to do; they
     cannot grow or adapt to face unforeseen changes
   – Robotic probes often must be controlled remotely from Earth
   – Some feel that robotic missions lack the romance of discovery
     and experience of manned missions
                         Voyager
• Launched in 1977, first
  spacecraft to visit the outer
  planets of our solar system
  and send back pictures of        Images of
                                   Saturn (left)
  Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus,         and Jupiter
                                   (below) from
  and Neptune                      the Voyager
                                   spacecraft
• Continue to function to this
  day
• Now the farthest man-
  made objects in the solar
  system
             The Hubble Telescope




From left: Images from the Hubble telescope of the Sombrero Galaxy, Orion Nebula,
                              Messier 101 Galaxy

• In 1990, the Hubble Space Telescope was placed in
  orbit by the shuttle Discovery
• Example of scientific instrument in space
• Used to measure the age and size of the universe
• Able to take extremely clear images that are
  undistorted by Earth’s atmosphere
      The Cassini-Huygens Mission

                                                    An image of
                                                    Saturn relayed
                                                    to Earth by the
                                                    Cassini –
                                                    Huygens
                                                    spacecraft




• First spacecraft to explore Saturn and its rings and moons from orbit
• Has been in orbit around Saturn since January 30, 2004
• The Huygens probe was released from the Cassini spacecraft in
  January 2005 to study Titan, Saturn’s largest moon
   Mars Rovers

                                   Top and bottom:
• Probes launched to Mars with     images of Mars
  robotic rovers to explore        from the rovers.
  surface                          Left: an artist’s
                                   vision of Spirit on
• Spirit landed on Mars January    Mars
  4, 2004; Opportunity landed
  December 12, 2004
• Primary mission scheduled to
  last ~ 3 months, but mission
  has been active over two Earth
  years
• Rovers remotely controlled by
  scientists on Earth
             In Memory




Apollo 1: Gus Grissom, Ed White, and Roger Chafee
                 January 27, 1967
                  In Memory
STS-51-L
crew: (front
row) Michael
J. Smith,
Dick
Scobee,
Ronald
McNair;
(back row)
Ellison
Onizuka,
Christa
McAuliffe,
Gregory
Jarvis, Judith
Resnik.
                 Space Shuttle Challenger
                    January 28, 1986
                 Ronald Reagan Tribute
In Memory




Space Shuttle Columbia
    Feb. 1, 2003

								
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