Cycles of Matter
FLIP BOOK PROJECT
*Energy is needed for an ecosystem, but living things need more
*In most organisms, 95% of the body is made up of just 4
Oxygen (O), Carbon (C), Hydrogen (H), Nitrogen (N)
*Unlike the one-way flow of energy MATTER IS RECYCLED
*Matter is passed from one organism to another and from one part
of the biosphere to another through BIOGEOCHEMICAL cycles.
*Matter can cycle through the biosphere because biological
systems do not use up matter, they transform it.
Water Cycle (Hydrologic Cycle)
*All living things require water to survive
*Water cycles or moves between the ocean,
atmosphere, and land.
*The main processes involved in the water cycle are:
*Phosphorus (P) is essential to living organisms because it
forms part of important life-sustaining molecules such as
DNA and RNA
*Phosphorus is not very common in the biosphere and
does not enter the atmosphere.
*When plants absorb phosphate from the soil or water, the
plants bind the phosphate into organic compounds.
*Organic phosphate moves through the food web, from
producers to consumers, and to the rest of the ecosystem.
*All organisms need nitrogen (N) to make amino acids,
which are used to build proteins.
*Nitrogen gas (N2) makes up 78% of Earth’s atmosphere.
*Nitrogen-containing substances are found in the wastes
produced by many organisms and in dead/decaying
*Human activities adds nitrogen to the biosphere in the
form of nitrate-a major component of plant fertilizers.
*Nitrogen fixation and denitrification are important
processes of this cycle.
* Carbon (C) plays many roles and is a key ingredient of living tissue.
*Carbon dioxide is taken in by plants during photosynthesis and is given
off by both plants and animals during respiration.
*Four main processes move carbon through its cycle:
Biological processes (photosynthesis, respiration,
decomposition) take up and release carbon and oxygen.
Geochemical processes (erosion, volcanic activity) release
carbon dioxide to atmosphere and oceans.
Mixed biogeochemical processes (burial and decomposition of
dead organisms and their conversion into coal and petroleum)
store carbon underground.
Human activities (mining, cutting and burning forests, burning
fossil fuels) release carbon dioxide into the atmosphere.
Glossary of Terms
Please define the following terms in this section of your booklet.
(Any terms defined after these will gain up to 5 points extra
1. Biogeochemical cycles
9. Nitrogen Fixation