EMISSION REDUCTIONS

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					 HYDROGENATED DIESEL / NG


• Hydrogen Boost Diesel

• Hydrogen Enriched Natural Gas
 Technology
Hydrogen Enriched Natural Gas
Technology
Hydrogen / Natural Gas Blends

• Blends with < 20% Hydrogen are called
 HYTHANE ( This is a trademark of a
 US Company)

• HCNG is a blend of hydrogen and natural
 gas with 21-50% hydrogen( volume).
Applications

• Transit Buses
• Garbage Trucks
• Shuttle Buses
• City Work Vehicles
Development of H/CNG
•   1992-First Patent was introduced
•   1995-Demonstration of H/CNG buses in Montreal
•   2001-3 Buses in California
•   2003-2 Buses in Malbö, Sweden
•   2004-5M$ Hythane Project was started in
    France.
•   2008-10 000 Buses in Beijing and 8 Buses in
    India
How is H/CNG dispensed?

CNG Sub-System
How is H/CNG dispensed?


Hydrogen Sub-System
H/CNG




HCNG is blended, compressed and stored in the
same container on-board the vehicle.
DISPENSING OF FUEL
ENERGY CONTENTS of FUELS
      CNG                  13.44 kWh/kg
      HYDROGEN             33.90
      15%H2 / 85%          13.85
      CNG
      30%H2 / 70%          14.31
      CNG
      50%H2 / 50%          15.56
      CNG
•Althoug Hydrogen proportion increases,total amount of
energy does not increases noticeably.Main reason of
this, Hydrogen‘s low density.
STORAGE CAPACITY

• So that ,with increasing Hydrogen
 percentage, storage capacity decreases in
 the vehicles.

• In other word, much more tank volume
 for same energy. And more money.
So,why is Hydrogen added to
NG?
• Main Point of this technology is to extend
  the lean limit of natural gas combustion.
(Lean mixture=Excess amount of air in air-
  fuel mixture in the combustion chamber)
• In Urban driving, Vehicles operate at
  Lean Conditions(Low Load). And That
  causes decrease in Efficiency.
 Urban Driving Skills

 • In Urban driving, Vehicles operate at Lean Conditions.
    And That causes decrease in Efficiency.




•Efficiency decreases gradually with increasing air-fuel ratio.( going to
lean mixture)
How does Hydrogen increases
Efficiency in H/CNG vehicles?
        FUEL                Flame Velocity
                                (cm/sec)
      Methane                     40
   Hydrogen                      210
      Propane                     44
      Ethane                      43
•With increasing flame velocity of fuel, combustion enhances
rapidly. And that decreases the loss power during
combustion stroke.
 Comparison of CNG and H/CNG

                                                   Volvo TG100




                                                 (at Full Load,n=2000rpm)


•Brake Efficiency in % with 8% Hydrogen mixture into CNG
•Although mixture closes to more lean conditions, efficiency decrease is not
 much as in pure CNG fuel, and efficiency is approximately 4% is higher at
 all same fuel-air ratios.
EMMISION TEST RESULTS (FORD T150)

        1
      0.9
      0.8
      0.7
      0.6                                     30% HCNG
gr/km 0.5
                                              15% HCNG
      0.4
                                              Gasoline
      0.3
      0.2
      0.1
        0
            NMHC   CO       Nox



•Hydrogen addition results in decrease in all greenhouse
gasses, especially in CO emission.
  Fuel Consumption
  Comparison (Ford T150)
Fuel                  Range (km)
%100 CNG              200
%15 H/CNG             180
%30 H/CNG             165
•There is a contradiction between
mileage range and emission. According
to test data of Ford T150, if this vehicle
is fueled with %100 NG, range
decreases with increasing proportion of
Hydrogen addition. (for same tank
volume)
Acceleration
 Fuel        Time to
             100km
 %100 CNG    10.10

 %15 H/CNG   10.97
 %30 H/CNG   12.68
INFRASTRUCTURE COSTS
Fuel                      Cost (per kg)        Average
                                               prices for
H2 (to end user)          3.52 $               2007 in
                                               US
Diesel                    0.7
Gasoline                  0.55
•Electrolyzer=179 000 $
•Dispenser=59 000 $
•3.53$ /kg H2(to end user)
•App. 3000$ (conversion of a city bus) Some
engine modifications is needed to get better
performance. (Especially after 20% blend)
Hydrogen Boost Diesel




- Hydrogen / Diesel Duel Fuel First Pick up Track
      (2004,Saskatchewan,CANADA)
- 6.6 L Duramax Engine of GM
How does Hydrogen influence in a
good way?

• Mixtures of Hydrogen are homogenous
 because of its low density (High diffusion
 coefficient)


• Therefore, it is a good mixture with high
 burning velocity.
How does Hydrogen influence in a
bad way?
• The very low density of hydrogen gas can
  cause a problem on lubricating oil.
• Hydrogen gas can blow through the piston
  rings during the compression stroke and
  enter the crankcase.
• So, lubricating oil become to lose its
  properties and its viscosity increased
  rapidly.
Comparison of Diesel engine with /without
Hydrogen
               70

               60                                                              Saturn SL1
               50
                                                                               Sedan
  Power (kW)




               40

               30
                                                      Diesel
                                                                               Test Results
               20                                     Hydrogen+Diesel

               10

               0
                    0   500   1000     1500      2000          2500     3000
                                 Engine Speed (rpm)



  • As it is seen in the figure, the power output
  increases by the addition of Hydrogen.
Comparison of Diesel engine with/without
Hydrogen
                                    450
 Specific Fuel Consumption(g/kWh)




                                    400                                                              Saturn SL1
                                    350

                                    300

                                    250                                                              Sedan
                                    200                                     Diesel
                                                                            Diesel+Hydrogen
                                    150

                                    100
                                                                                                     Test Results
                                     50

                                      0
                                          0   500   1000      1500      2000          2500    3000
                                                       Engine Speed (rpm)




              •According to test results, fuel consumption
              decreases by the addition of Hydrogen.
Emission Test Results




• The reduction percent of CO is 85 and NOx is 18 when 42%
Hydrogen added to pure Diesel.
                              REFERENCES
•   Hythane – Bringing Hydrogen to Zero Emissions Reality, June 28th,
    2006

•   Bengt Ridell Carl Bro Energikonsult AB, Sweden, 2005-04-15

•   Hydrogen and Hydrogen/Natural Gas Station and Vehicle Operations ,
    2006

•   Driving Forward to a Hydrogen Economy, Craig Murray,May, 2006

•   İçten Yanmalı Motorlarda Alternatif Yakıt Olarak Hidrojen Kullanılması,
    Nafiz KAHRAMAN, Selahattin Orhan AKANSU,Bilge ALBAYRAK

•   Hydrogen/CNG Blended Fuels Performance Testing in a Ford F-150,
    Don Karner ,James Francfort,November 2003

•   Advanced Technology Vehicle Testing,Jim Francfort,Idaho National
    Engineering and Environmental Laboratory,November 2003
• Project in the HyCom spirit for the early deployment of H2 as a
  vehicle fuel, Jacques Saint-Just, 08/06/2004

• An evolutionary pathway to hydrogen,Owe Jönsson, SGC

• Hydrogen, CNG, and HCNG Dispenser System – Prototype
  Report, Don Karner, Scott McCamman James Francfort,
  February 2005

• Hydrogen and Hythane in Fort Collins, October 19, 2005

•   Development and Demonstration of Hydrogen and Compressed Natural
    Gas (H/CNG) Blend Transit Buses ,October 15, 2002 — September 30,
    2004

				
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