eco at a glance by eC2m1Y

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									Message of the ECO Secretary General


It is a great privilege to have assumed the position
of the Secretary General of the Economic
Cooperation Organization (ECO). I would avail this
opportunity to underscore my commitment to using
the resources of this Organization to promote the
objectives of regional cooperation and to work with
Member States to address the challenges being
faced by this region. I am confident that the
collaboration and guidance of the Member States
will continue to steer this Organization towards
success and the realization of our collective goals.
This year has a special significance as it marks the
20th anniversary of the expansion of the
Organization to its current membership. Over the
past 20 years, the ECO and its ten Member States
have been collaborating to accelerate the pace of
regional development through our common
endeavors. Besides shared cultural and historic
affinities, we have been able to use the existing
infrastructural and business links to further fortify the
resolve to transfer our hopes and aspirations into a
tangible reality. ECO has successfully embarked on
several projects in key sectors of its cooperation
including trade, energy, agriculture, transportation
and drug control. During the last two decades, ECO
has developed into a thriving regional organization
and its enhancing international stature is a testimony
to this fact.
However, let us not remain content with what has
been achieved during all these years. Despite
immense endowments of natural and mineral
resources, development of trade and other
economic interactions and the presence of a
vibrant human capital, the opportunities for more
systematic regional cooperation and development
have not been substantially exploited, and the task
before us remains challenging. On the occasion of
the 20th anniversary of the enlargement of this
Organization, let us reaffirm the commitment and
resolve to prioritize and exploit the opportunities
existing within this neighborhood for a more
enhanced regional cooperation leading towards
socio-economic development, prosperity and well-
being the people of this region so critically deserve.
I would like to take this opportunity to pay tribute to
my predecessors, who effectively applied their
talents and experience for the achievement of this
Organization’s goals. I am fortunate to have arrived
at a time of important developments that should
enhance our ability to respond to the socio-
economic needs of the region.


                                  Dr. Shamil Aleskerov
                                   Secretary General




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                   TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.INTRODUCTION TO THE ECO                                         5
 1.1Goals and Objectives                                          6
2.FUCNTIONS OF THE PRNCIPAL ORGANS                                7
 2.1Council of Ministers (COM)                                    7
 2.2Regional Planning Council (RPC)                               9
 2.3Council of Permanent Representatives (CPR)                   10
 2.4The Secretariat                                              11
 2.4.1Directorate of Trade and Investment                        13
 2.4.2Directorate of Transport and Communications                14
 2.4.3Directorate of Agriculture, Industry and Tourism           16
 2.4.4Directorate of Human Resources and Sustainable Development
 (HRSD)                                                          16
 2.4.5Directorate of Energy, Minerals and Environment            20
 2.4.6Directorate of Project, Economic Research and Statistics   26
3.MAJOR AGREEMENTS/MOUS SIGNED BY THE ECO
MEMBER STATES                                                    37
4.KEY MILESTONES OF THE ECO DURING RECENT YEARS 43
 4.1Trade and Investment                                         43
 4.2Transport and Communications                                 45
 4.3Energy, Minerals and Environment                             46
 4.4Agriculture, Industry and Tourism                            48
 4.5Human Resources and Sustainable Development                  49


ECO at a Glance                                             Page 3/85
 4.6Projects Economic Research and Statistics             50
 4.7Drugs and Organized Crime Unit                        51
 4.8Reconstruction of Afghanistan                         52
 4.9International Relations                               53
5.ECO MEMBER PROFILES                                     55
 5.1Islamic Republic of Afghanistan                       55
 5.2Republic of Azerbaijan                                58
 5.3Islamic Republic of Iran                              61
 5.4Republic of Kazakhstan                                64
 5.5Kyrgyz Republic                                       67
 5.6Islamic Republic of Pakistan                          70
 5.7Republic of Tajikistan                                73
 5.8Republic of Turkey                                    76
 5.9Turkmenistan                                          80
 5.10Republic of Uzbekistan                               83




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1. INTRODUCTION TO THE ECO
Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO), is an
inter-governmental regional organization which was
originally established as Regional Cooperation for
Development (RCD) in 1964 by Iran, Pakistan and
Turkey for promoting sustainable socio-economic
development of the Member States. It was renamed
ECO in 1985 and in 1992 the organization was
expanded to include Afghanistan, Azerbaijan,
Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan
and Uzbekistan.
The ECO region is full of bright trading prospects.
Despite its young age, ECO has developed into a
thriving regional organization. Its international
stature is growing. Nevertheless, the organization
faces un-daunting challenges with respect to
realization of its objectives and goals. Most
importantly, the region is lacking in appropriate
infrastructure and institutions which the Organization
is seeking to develop, on priority basis, to make full
use of the available resources in the region.
Over the past 20 years the member states have
been collaborating to accelerate the pace of
regional development through their common
endeavors. Besides shared cultural and historic
affinities, they have been able to use the existing
infrastructural and business links to further fortify their


ECO at a Glance                                    Page 5/85
resolve to transfer their hopes and aspirations into a
tangible reality. ECO has embarked on several
projects in priority sectors of its cooperation
including energy, agriculture, trade, transportation
and drug control.


1.1       Goals and Objectives
ECO has the following principal aims:
           Sustainable economic development of its
            Member States which has to be achieved
            through the progressive removal of trade
            barriers and the promotion of intraregional
            trade. The Organization aspires to create a
            greater role of the ECO region in the growth
            of world trade and gradual integration of
            the Member States’ economies with the
            global economy;
           Development     of      transport     and
            communications infrastructure linking the
            Member States with each other and the
            outside world;
           Economic liberalization and privatization;
           Mobilization and utilization of ECO region's
            material resources;
           Effective use of the agricultural         and
            industrial potential of the region;


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          Regional cooperation for drug abuse
           control, ecological and environmental
           protection and strengthening of historical
           and cultural ties among the peoples of the
           ECO region; and
          Mutually   beneficial   cooperation       with
           regional and international organizations.



2. FUCNTIONS OF THE PRNCIPAL ORGANS

2.1       Council of Ministers (COM)
The Council of Ministers (COM) is the highest policy
and decision making body of ECO and is composed
of the Ministers for Foreign Affairs of the Member
States. It meets at least once a year usually prior to
the starting of the ECO fiscal year (The COM is held
in the Member States on rotation basis). The Council
of Ministers can also propose the convening of
meetings of other Ministers for the formulation and
recommendation of plans and projects in their
respective fields. The Council of Ministers has the
following responsibilities:
     Approving policies, strategies,        and     work
      programmes of the ECO;
     Appointing the Secretary General and his
      Deputies;

ECO at a Glance                                    Page 7/85
     Reviewing and adopting the reports of the
      Regional Planning Council, Council of
      Permanent Representatives and Specialized
      Agencies;
     Reviewing the     reports   of   the    Regional
      Institutions;
     Establishing such subsidiary       or    ad-hoc
      Committees as appropriate;
     Approving annual budget and audit reports
      of the Organization;
     Deciding on the scale of assessment of
      contributions by Member States to the budget
      of the Organization
     Preparing the draft agenda and other
      arrangements for the Summit Meetings;
     Reporting to the Summit on all matters related
      to the implementation of ECO programmes
      and projects; and
     Determining and reviewing as and when
      necessary, rules and regulations regarding all
      fiscal, administrative and organizational
      matters, provisions of financial, and staff
      regulations of the Secretariat.




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2.2     Regional Planning Council (RPC)
The Regional Planning Council (RPC) is composed of
the Heads of the Planning Organization or the
equivalent Ministry of the Member States. It meets at
least once a year prior to the annual meeting of the
Council of Ministers under the Chairpersonship of the
representative of the Member state holding
Chairpersonship of the Council of Ministers.         It
evolves basic strategies/policies and plans in
accordance with the objectives and principles of
regional cooperation laid down in the Treaty of
Izmir. It also formulates as well as policy guidelines
and directives of the Council of Ministers.         To
accomplish this task, the RPC performs the following
tools:
     Institutionalizing itself at the national levels for
      regular coordination among designated focal
      points in each area of activity;
     Biennially reviewing ECO's priorities laid down
      in the Economic Cooperation Strategy;
     Annually  reviewing    the    progress    of
      implementation    of    ECO's      approved
      programmes of action and projects;
     Critically reviewing and evaluating the
      economic work of the Secretariat and
      formulating the recommendations to the
      COM;


ECO at a Glance                                   Page 9/85
     Preparing ECO's annual calendar of events for
      submission to the Council of Ministers;
     Proposing when necessary, the establishment
      of ad-hoc technical committees, to the
      Council of Ministers;
     Preparing the annual economic report of the
      ECO region; and
     Submitting annual report to the Council of
      Ministers through the Secretary General


2.3 Council of Permanent Representatives
(CPR)
The Council of Permanent Representatives (CPR) is
composed of the Ambassadors of the Member
states, accredited as representatives to the ECO. It
meets as often as necessary under the
chairpersonship of the representative of the
Member State holding the chairpersonship of the
Council of Ministers and carries out the following
functions:
     It is responsible on behalf of and in the name
      of the Council of Ministers to implement its
      decisions and carries out its policies;
     Report to the Council of Ministers on all policy
      related issues and matters referred to it by the
      Council;


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     Analyses the budget and audit reports of the
      Organization and recommends them to the
      COM for approval;
     Advises and recommends to the Regional
      Planning Council on the economic functions
      of the Secretariat and other technical matters
      referred to it by the RPC;
     Reviews all the reports of the Secretariat;
     Prepares the draft agenda and expedites
      other arrangements for the RPC and COM
      meetings; and
     Monitors and follows up action on             the
      decisions of the RPC.


2.4     The Secretariat
In pursuance of Article-IX of the Treaty of Izmir, the
Secretariat initiates, coordinates and monitors the
implementation of the ECO activities and brings all
meetings of the Organization in line with the agreed
documents and directives of the governing organs
of ECO. Accordingly, the Secretariat undertakes
the following duties:
     To prepare plans, programmes and projects
      as envisaged by ECO's decision-making
      organs;



ECO at a Glance                                Page 11/85
     To serve as the permanent channel of
      communication and coordination among
      Governments of Members States in all areas
      related to ECO's agreed programmes and
      activities through all means available to it. In
      this context, it also provides practical
      information to the Member States on
      procedural matters and all other fields, as
      may be needed;
     To  serve   as  the   custodian    of           all
      documentation and archives of ECO;
     To assist all permanent and ad-hoc organs of
      ECO in the performance of their work;
     To service technically and administratively all
      meetings and activities of the organization
      and help the preparation of reports and
      documents;
     To act as the information agency for ECO in
      all related areas within as well as outside the
      region;
     To communicate, cooperate and interact
      with relevant regional and international
      organizations and agencies in agreed areas
      in accordance with the policy documents
      and directives of ECO's decision making
      organs;



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     To engage in activities and contacts in
      support of the member governments in order
      to facilitate financing of agreed projects and
      activities through international financial
      organizations, investors and donors;
     To monitor the activities and maintain contact
      with regional institutions and specialized
      agencies and serve as a bridge between
      them and the Council of Ministers;
     To prepare and submit an Annual Report to
      the Council of Ministers on the overall
      activities of the organization;
     To carry out such other functions and duties as
      may be assigned to it by the Council of
      Ministers and the Council of Permanent
      Representatives;
     To establish and operate a documentation
      and publication system in line with
      international standards; and
     To maintain effective communications with
      the Permanent Missions/Embassies and
      National Focal Points of the Member States
      through a modern and speedy network.

2.4.1       Directorate of Trade and Investment
One of the major objectives of ECO as a regional
grouping is promotion of regional and global trade

ECO at a Glance                              Page 13/85
based on the principle of free trade and to
effectively meet the challenges of globalization.
In pursuance of this objective, a number of projects
and programmes have been embarked upon
during the past years. These projects and
programmes can broadly be categorized as under:

            Trade liberalization activities;
            Trade facilitation projects; and
            Cooperation         with      international
             agencies.
 These programmes lay down the necessary
regulatory framework in a region-wide context
which facilitates and allows the regional business
communities to exploit the emerging opportunities.

2.4.2 Directorate                of     Transport          and
Communications
The ECO attaches great significance to transport
and communications. The Treaty of Izmir sets the
goals of transport cooperation as to ‘accelerate
development of transport and communications
infrastructures linking the Member States with each
other and with the outside world’. To this end, the
ECO pursues various activities enabling trucks to
travel across the region in accordance with
international standards; expanding and integrating
national railway networks to facilitate transit by rail;

Page 14/85                                      ECO at a Glance
expanding air connections and cooperation in civil
aviation; expanding port facilities to handle the
seaborne trade of the region; and facilitating transit
through improving border crossing between the
Member States.
The ECO Transit Transport Framework Agreement
(TTFA) is the basic document dealing with the sector
of transport and communications. The Transit
Transport Coordination Council and its technical
committees       are    set   up    to     coordinate
implementation       of   the  TTFA.    Several   rail
infrastructure projects are being coordinated by
ECO. Notable among these are the Kyrgyz
Republic-Tajikistan-Afghanistan-Iran,     Kazakhstan-
Turkmenistan-Iran and Qazvin-Rasht-Astara projects.
The container trains on Islamabad-Tehran-Istanbul
and Istanbul-Almaty routes have been established.
Regular run of the Bandar Abbas-Almaty container
train is being launched. Two road corridors
(Islamabad-Tehran-Istanbul      and     the    Kyrgyz
Republic-Tajikistan-Afghanistan-Iran) have also been
established.
The Organization pursues several mechanisms to
support interconnectivity. The Online Money Order
system (a common medium for financial postal
services), the ECO White Card Scheme (for
expanding motor vehicle third party liability
insurance), and the Unified Visa for Drivers are
examples of such practical initiatives.

ECO at a Glance                               Page 15/85
2.4.3   Directorate of Agriculture, Industry and
Tourism
Agriculture is an important sector in all of the ECO
Member States and contributes substantially to their
gross domestic products (GDPs).         The Member
States, therefore, attach priority to the sustainable
development of this sector.         In view of the
increasing need for producing more to meet the
food requirements of the people of the region, the
Member States have been mobilizing all available
resources.

2.4.4    Directorate of Human Resources and
Sustainable Development (HRSD)
Taking into account the opportunities and
challenges created by the process of globalization
which result in rapid socio-political, economic and
technological developments in the world; and the
prospects in the decades ahead which need to be
addressed adequately through a common and
collective approach, the issue of Human Resource
Development is considered as having immense
importance and is receiving ever increasing
attention of the Organization.
The 15th COM meeting adopted the ‘ECO Vision
2015’ as a basic reference document of the
organization with special focus on human resource


Page 16/85                               ECO at a Glance
development, poverty alleviation and other related
matters.
In order to fulfill the above-mentioned objectives,
the Council of Permanent Representatives (CPR)
recommended, inter alia, the establishment of a
new directorate by the name of ‘Directorate of
Human Resources and Sustainable Development’ to
be in charge of human resource development,
social development, drug control affairs, health and
poverty alleviation, etc. The recommendations were
approved by the 15th COM held in Astana in
October 01, 2005. As a result, the HRSD Directorate
was established on January 01, 2006.
Main Fields of Activities
The main issues handled by this Directorate are as
follow:
       Human Resource Development and
        Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)
       Health
       Natural Disaster Management

Drug and Organized Crime Coordination Unit
Production, trafficking and use of illicit drugs pose
serious threats to public health, security and
economy of the region. Consequently, the issue has
gained     immense      importance        within   the
Organization’s framework of activities. As the
production and use of illicit drugs continue to imperil


ECO at a Glance                               Page 17/85
the region’s socio-economic progress, the ECO
Member States have taken steps to strengthen their
respective     national     drug    control   systems.
Considering the criticality of the problem, the drugs
issue was included as a major policy concern in the
‘Istanbul Declaration’ adopted by the ECO Council
of Ministers in its Special Meeting held on July 5-7,
1993. In this context, a Plan of Action on Drug
Control was approved by the ECO Council of
Ministers on May 11, 1996. Additionally, ECO signed
several Memoranda of Understanding (MOU) with
international and regional organizations, such as
UNODC and           Colombo Plan, to         promote
cooperation in all areas of drug control. In
accordance with the ECO Plan of Action on Drug
Control, the ‘Drug Control Coordination Unit (DCCU)’
was established at the ECO Secretariat in 1999.
Based on a two-phased project, it has been funded
by the European Commission along with the
UNODC, and aims to enhance regional cooperation
and coordination among the ECO Member States
to control production, trafficking and use of illicit
drugs.

As of January 2006, the DCCU was fully integrated
into the structure of ECO under the Directorate of
Human Resource and Sustainable Development
(HRSD). As per the decisions made at the highest
level, the DCCU was mandated to work on the
issues of drugs, terrorism and trans-national

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organized crimes including human trafficking, illegal
migration, money laundering, weapons and
ammunition smuggling. Consequently, during the
18th ECO Council of Ministers Meeting, which was
held in Tehran on March 9, 2009, the mandate of
the DCCU was expanded and the unit was
renamed as ‘Drug and Organized Crime
Coordination Unit (DOCCU)’. This unit functions
directly under the supervision of Deputy Secretary
General (ADMN./EME/HRSD/DOCCU) and the
Secretary General.

The DOCCU has actively been involved in the
implementation of the ECO Plan of Action on Drug
Control Matters, the Joint Regional Strategy on
Combating Drugs, Terrorism and Trans-National
Organized Crimes and the Plan of Action on
Combating Trans-national Organized Crime, which
have been approved at the ECO Interior Ministers
Meetings held in Ashgabat (2008) and Istanbul
(2010).

The EU-funded project on fight against trafficking
to/from Afghanistan is being implemented in
collaboration with the ECO Member States and a
consortium comprising Deutsche Gesellschaft für
Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ), ECO-DOCCU,
Interpol, United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime
(UNODC) and Bundeskriminalamt (BKA), Germany.


ECO at a Glance                              Page 19/85
Under the project, the European Commission is
providing 9.5 Million Euros for the provision of
technical and operational support required by the
ECO Member States to fight drug trafficking in the
region and beyond. The DOCCU is in the process of
establishing ECO Police (ECOPOL) for assisting
policing and law enforcement requirements of the
Member States and enhancing cooperation against
transnational crime through intelligence sharing,
harmonization of policies and operations. Work is
also underway for the establishment of ECO
Regional Center for Cooperation of Anti-Corruption
Agencies and Ombudsmen (RCCACO).

Detailed information about the activities of DOCCU
can     be     obtained     from      its    website
(www.ecodoccu.org).

2.4.5   Directorate of Energy, Minerals and
Environment
The ECO region is located strategically and is
endowed with rich energy resources and mineral
deposits. The region is estimated to contain a third
of the global energy resources. The Caspian Sea
region has risen to considerable prominence in
global affairs due to the presence of untapped oil
and natural gas resources. Kazakhstan has the
Caspian Sea region's largest recoverable crude oil
reserves and significant natural gas reserves.

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Turkmenistan ranks among the top 12 countries in
terms of natural gas reserves. Azerbaijan is an
exporter of oil and natural gas. Uzbekistan is the
world's eighth largest natural gas producer, and is
also a major oil producer. Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan
possess a great hydroelectric power capacity.
Although Afghanistan, Pakistan and Turkey lack
significant domestic energy resources, their
geographic locations make the countries important
energy transit corridors.

The ten ECO member states comprise Central,
Western and Southern Asia. Together, these
countries cover a vast region that is home to both
rapidly growing energy demand centers and to a
diverse mix of energy endowments. However, while
these characteristics are complementary at
regional level, several individual countries in the
region face either potential energy shortages or
surpluses. This presents significant opportunities for
mutual high value economic gains through
international energy trade within the region as well
as externally with partners in neighboring countries
providing impetus to further regional integration.

Cooperation in energy is among the three main
priority areas of economic cooperation within the
framework of ECO activities. There exists a significant
scope for increasing energy trade within the region
and with the neighboring countries which will be

ECO at a Glance                               Page 21/85
beneficial to all the countries involved. The broad
objective of energy cooperation in ECO region is to
formulate policies and pursue activities leading to
enhanced economic cooperation in the region.

The     first  ECO     Ministerial   Meeting     on
Energy/Petroleum was held at Islamabad, Pakistan,
in 2000. The meeting adopted the Plan of Action on
Energy/Petroleum Cooperation in the ECO Region
(2001-2005). The specific objectives of this Plan of
Action for Energy Cooperation are:

     To coordinate, expedite and enhance the
      implementation of existing strategic energy
      cooperation programmes;
     To develop and promote ways and means to
      expand the sustainable development and
      efficient use of indigenous energy resources
      (fossil and non-fossil) for use in transportation
      and power generation;
     To strengthen existing regional institutions
      related     to   energy  activities    through
      coordinated sharing of existing facilities and
      to form a more effective overall ECO energy
      training, research and development network
      for the Member States;
     To establish an ECO policy framework for
      formulation of energy related polices and to
      encourage regular exchange of information

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        on the formulation and implementation of the
        same;
     To synchronize activities of the various ECO
      energy     fora  towards       predetermined
      objectives; and
     To promote sustainable and self-supporting
      cooperation within the ECO to address the
      issues of common concern.

The    second    ECO     Ministerial Meeting   on
Energy/Petroleum was held at Dushanbe, Tajikistan,
in October, 2010. The meeting adopted the new
Plan of Action on Energy/Petroleum Cooperation in
the ECO Region (2011-2015). The new Plan of
Action for Energy/Petroleum Cooperation for 2011-
2015 aims to establish an ECO Energy/Petroleum
market.
The implementation of the ECO Plan of Action for
Energy/Petroleum     Cooperation   for   2011-2015
requires a new approach to regional energy
cooperation which can help in the establishment of
a regional energy framework.
Taking     proper    international practice   into
consideration, this approach can have the potential
to develop a new strategy to build up energy
solidarity among Member States. Such a policy on
regional energy cooperation may be designed on
the following basis:

ECO at a Glance                             Page 23/85
       The protection of foreign investments
        and protection against key non-
        commercial risks;
       Non-discriminatory conditions for trade
        in energy materials, products and
        energy-related equipment based on
        international rules, and provisions to
        ensure reliable cross-border energy
        transit flows through pipelines, grids and
        other means of transportation;
       The resolution of disputes between
        participating states, and in the case of
        investments, between investors and
        host states;
       The promotion of energy efficiency and
        attempts to minimize the environmental
        impact of energy production and use.
Along with the implementation of the Plans of
Action (2001-2010 and 2011-2015) several meetings,
workshops and symposia were organized on the
issues of energy conservation and efficiency,
regional energy trade, renewable sources of
energy, development of hydropower plants and
management of petroleum refineries and products.
In particular, since 1997, the ECO countries have
increasingly been cooperating in the areas of:
     Electric Power – Seven Specialized Experts
      Task Group (SETG) Meetings on power;


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     Energy (Power) Trade – The ECO Workshop on
      Regional Power Trade Strategy (with the
      financial assistance of IDB) (2002) and two
      ECO-World Bank Workshops on Regional
      Energy Trade in the ECO region (2005 and
      2008);
     Energy Conservation and Efficiency – The
      Workshop on Energy Conservation and
      Efficiency in the ECO countries, an ad–hoc
      committee meeting of experts to prepare the
      outline and methodology for energy
      conservation in the ECO countries (2001) and
      ten International practical training courses on
      energy efficiency and conservation (annually,
      since 2002);
     New and Renewable Sources of Energy - Two
      workshops (2004, 2010) and one Expert Group
      Meeting (2011);
     ECO Oil and Gas Pipeline Routes - Four High
      Level Experts Task Group (HLETG) Meetings
      (1998-2005) and one Workshop (2005);
     Petroleum Refineries and Products – Three
      Seminars and Workshops;
     Energy Resources Development and their
      Environmental Impact Assessment - Two
      Expert Meetings (1994, 2004) and a Training
      Workshop (2001);


ECO at a Glance                              Page 25/85
     Development of Hydropower Plants - Regional
      Workshop on Development of Hydropower
      Plants ( 2009);
     Coal – Workshop on Clean Coal Technology,
      2011; and
     Joint    ECO-OPEC       Workshop      on      the
      ‘International Petroleum Market’.

2.4.6   Directorate of         Project,   Economic
Research and Statistics
Making      comprehensive      analyses   for   timely
assessment of current and future developments and
conducting       specific   research    studies    for
identification of the integrated perspectives among
the Member Countries are crucial for effective
regional economic cooperation.
The Directorate of Economic Research and Statistics
in the ECO Secretariat was established to take
necessary steps for the coordination and
improvement of the joint activities in the field of
economic research, new technologies pertaining to
the    exchange,        collection,    analysis    and
dissemination of statistical data and information.
There are two major objectives of the Directorate.
Firstly, to establish cooperative links among the
statistical and economic research institutions of the
Member States for obtaining the data pertaining to
the respective countries and to conduct the joint

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economic research studies on priority areas
identified for regional cooperation. Moreover, the
Directorate also serves as a reliable source of data
and research studies for the ECO and its Member
States for an informed and effective policy
formulation and decision making.


Coordination and International Relations
Through its outward-looking approach and already
existing cooperative linkages with major regional
and international organizations, including those
within the UN system, the ECO is fast acquiring
international prominence and stature.
Ever since ECO acquired observer status at the UN in
1993, it regularly participates in the annual General
Assembly Sessions in that capacity. Every year a
resolution on ECO and UN cooperation is passed in
the General Assembly which has important bearing
upon ECO’s relations with all UN agencies. The UN
General Assembly in its Resolution No. 57/38 invited
various      specialized       agencies      and       other
organizations and programmes of the United
Nations system and relevant international financial
institutions to join in their efforts towards realization of
the goals and objectives of the ECO. The UN
General Assembly in its Resolution also welcomed
the efforts of the ECO with regard to consolidating
its ties with the UN system and relevant international

ECO at a Glance                                    Page 27/85
and regional organizations, towards the furtherance
of its objectives and the promotion of cooperation
in addressing international economic, social, cultural
and humanitarian problems.
ECO is actively involved with several international
and regional organizations, which form an important
aspect of the Organization’s activities. The ECO has
in place Memoranda of Understanding (MOUs) with
a number of agencies including: UNDP, UNDCP,
UNESCAP, UNIDO, UNFPA, FAO, UNESCO, UNICEF,
UNECE, UNCTAD, ITC, OIC, IDB, OSJD, ICARDA, WCO
and Colombo Plan. These agencies actively
collaborate with the ECO and provide technical
and financial assistance for projects in ECO’s priority
fields identified for the region.




Page 28/85                                 ECO at a Glance
Regional Institutions
A number of regional institutions have been
established for achieving the goal of regional
economic cooperation. These include: ECO
Chamber of Commerce, ECO Trade and
Development Bank, ECO Reinsurance Company,
ECO College of Insurance, ECO Consultancy and
Engineering Company.


ECO Chamber of Commerce and Industry
The ECO Chamber of Commerce and Industry
(ECO-CCI) was established on June 10, 1993. Its
objectives include enhancement of economic
cooperation and relations in trade, industry,
agriculture, tourism, contracting, engineering and
banking sectors as well as to realize joint investments
among the Member States. National Chambers of
Azerbaijan, Iran, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Pakistan,
Tajikistan and Turkey are member of the ECO-CCI.


ECO Trade and Development Bank
The ECO Trade and Development Bank (ECO-TDB)
was established on August 3, 2005 with its
headquarters located in Istanbul. The Bank
successfully started its operations in 2008. The


ECO at a Glance                               Page 29/85
representative offices of the Bank in Tehran and
Karachi are fully functional.

The primary objective of the Bank is to provide
financial resources for projects and programmes in
member countries. The Bank offers a range of
medium-to-long term banking services such as
project finance, corporate finance, trade finance
and loans to support small and medium-sized
enterprises    directly    or    through   financial
intermediaries to private and state owned entities.

ECO Reinsurance Company
In March 1995, Iran, Pakistan and Turkey agreed to
establish the ECO Reinsurance Company. The
Company aims at supplementing the existing
reinsurance services in the region, promoting the
growth of national underwriting and retention
capacities, minimizing the outflow of foreign
exchange from the region and supporting
economic development in the region.


ECO Consultancy and Engineering Company
With the efforts of the governments of all the ECO
Member States, a central resource pool was
created in the shape of ECO Consultancy and
Engineering Company (Pvt.) Ltd. (ECO-CEC) with an
aim to assist the development projects sponsored by
ECO Member States or by its Trade and
Page 30/85                              ECO at a Glance
Development Bank. The founding states of this
institution are Iran, Pakistan and Turkey, which hold
an equal share in ECO-CEC with Turkey being
represented by two companies and Iran and
Pakistan, by one each.
The Iranian and Turkish Companies specialize mainly
in oil and gas pipelines, refineries, petrochemical
and industrial engineering. The Pakistani partner
specializes in other fields of development
engineering, including communications, power,
urban        development,       public       health,
telecommunications, water resources development
and agriculture.
The ECO-CEC provides its expertise in the broad
range of consultancy operations, starting from
conception, project planning and appraisal,
through pre-feasibility, feasibility and financial
studies, investigation and exploration, site selection
to engineering design, material and equipment
specifications, construction supervision, contract
management, quality control and preparation of
technical manuals for the operation and
maintenance of the projects.


ECO College of Insurance
The ECO College of Insurance, based in Tehran, is
functioning since 1992. It has the approval of the
ECO Council of Ministers and its establishment is

ECO at a Glance                               Page 31/85
supported by the ECO Insurance Management
Board and the Governing Body. The college is a
state-owned and non-profit institution of higher
education. The medium of education in the college
is English and will primarily accommodate students
from ECO member countries.


Specialized Agencies
ECO Cultural Institute (ECI)
The ECO Cultural Institute (ECI) is one of the core
specialized agencies of ECO established in 1995 in
accordance with the provisions of the Treaty of
Izmir. This agency is based in Tehran. The ECI is the
successor of the RCD Cultural Institute that was
established during the RCD era and remained
active for 17 years (1966-1983). The overarching
goal of the Institute is to promote cultural affinities as
well as spiritual and fraternal ties that bind the
people of the Member States. The Charter of the
Institute, the governing document, was opened for
signatures on the occasion of the third ECO Summit
held in Islamabad in March, 1995 where it was
signed by all the Member States except Kyrgyzstan
and Uzbekistan. In the subsequent years, four
Member States namely, Afghanistan, Iran, Pakistan
and Tajikistan ratified the Charter.
Since the RPC held in May, 2011, the ECI has held
several cultural activities including the 3rd ECO

Page 32/85                                   ECO at a Glance
Calligraphy Exhibition (Tehran-June, 2011), Festival of
Cultural and Artistic Works by Afghan immigrant
artists (Tehran-June, 2011), Woodwork Exhibition
(Tehran-July, 2011), 4th ECO Calligraphy Exhibition
(Istanbul-August, 2011), 1st ECO Handicrafts
Exhibition (Bojnourd-September, 2011), Exhibition of
Tajik handicraft (Tehran-September, 2011), 5th ECO
Calligraphy Exhibition (Lahore-October, 2011),
Kyrgyz Contemporary Paintings Exhibition (Tehran-
December,       2011),   Exhibition      on   Pakistan’s
Contemporary Arts (Tehran-Feb, 2012) and Joint
Photo Exhibition with Cooperation Council of Turkic
Speaking Countries (CCTS) (Tehran-March, 2012).
Additionally, in keeping with the past practice, the
ECI also attended the 24th Tehran International Book
Fair held in May, 2011. Moreover, the ECI
inaugurated a Diplomatic Art Gallery at its
Headquarters in 2011. The Art Gallery has since
hosted different exhibitions. Apart from these
activities, the Institute published a number of
magazines and other publications. The Institute has
also identified several activities for the coming years
including exhibitions both within and without the
ECO region. In the upcoming years, the Institute
plans to inaugurate its new Amphitheatre and a
Gallery.




ECO at a Glance                                Page 33/85
ECO Science Foundation (ECO-SF)
The ECO Science Foundations (ECOSF) is another
core specialized-agency of ECO established in
Islamabad, with the aim to function as a reservoir of
highly skilled scientific and technical manpower as
well as to strengthen scientific and research
institutions in the ECO region. Its Charter was signed
in Islamabad in March, 1995 on the occasion of the
3rd ECO Summit. While all the ten Member States are
signatory to the Charter, only four, namely, Iran,
Pakistan, Tajikistan and Turkmenistan have so far
ratified it.
The Foundation was rendered functional in
December, 2011. The first Board of Trustees meeting
of the Foundation was hosted by Pakistan in
December, 2011 which formally inaugurated the
Foundation. The BoT successfully finalized such key
issues as the Basic Documents (Rules of Procedure,
Staff Regulations), approved the Working Formula
for mandatory contributions by the ratifying Member
States along with the budget for upcoming year,
endorsed the Work Programme (2012) and
appointed on provisional basis the first President of
the Foundation. The Foundation has since started its
activities in accordance with the Work Programme
endorsed by the BoT. In line with the Islamabad
Communiqué issued by the BoT, the Foundation has
also commenced preparations for a regional


Page 34/85                                ECO at a Glance
Science and Technology Conference to be held in
Sep, 2012 in Pakistan.


ECO Educational Institute (ECO-EI)
The Charter of the ECO Educational Institute (ECOEI)
was finalized at the first Expert Group Meeting (April,
1997-Ankara) and later approved by the ECO COM
at its 8th Meeting (May 1998-Almaty) along with the
Basic Documents (Rules of Procedure, Staff
Regulations and Financial Regulations). The Charter
of the Institute that was signed by eight Member
States in May, 1998, has so far been ratified by four
Member States namely: Iran, the Kyrgyz Republic,
Tajikistan and Turkey.       As per the Charter, the
Educational Institute was established to give impetus
to realization of ECO’s objectives outlined in the
Treaty of Izmir as well as to promote common
welfare of the peoples of the region through
ensuring better education and training.
In light of the decisions reached by the 21st RPC,
efforts were intensified to operationalize the Institute.
Consequently, the Educational Institute was
rendered functional as a core specialized-agency
of ECO on April 3, 2012 in Ankara on the occasion of
its first Board of Trustees meeting, which was hosted
by Turkey. The Board of Trustees meeting, which was
attended           by        the      Ministers/Deputy
Ministers/Representatives of the relevant ministries of

ECO at a Glance                                 Page 35/85
the Member States wrapped-up all the pending
issues related to the Institute, including appointment
of the first President, review and endorsement of the
Basic Documents (Rules of Procedure, Staff
Regulations and Financial Regulations), approval of
the Work Programme (2012), finalization of formula
for mandatory contributions by the ratifying Member
States and the Budget (2012). The Institute will soon
begin its activities in accordance with the Work
Programme approved by the Education Ministers
earliest.




Page 36/85                                ECO at a Glance
3. MAJOR AGREEMENTS/MOUS SIGNED BY
THE ECO MEMBER STATES
Treaty of Izmir
Signed:                Izmir, 14th September 1996
Signatories:           All member states
Parties:               8 (all Signatories except
Afghanistan and Uzbekistan).
Entry into force:      September 24, 2002*
Depository:            The Government of the I. R.
of Iran

Agreement on Legal Status of the ECO National
Representatives and International Staff
Signed:                 Izmir, 14th September 1996
Signatories:            All ECO member states
Parties:                4 ECO member states
                        (Turkey,           Tajikistan,
                        Kazakhstan and Iran).
Entry into force:       not yet
Depository:             The Government of the I. R.
of IRAN
Signed:                 Izmir, 14th September 1996

Transit Trade Agreement (TTA)
Signed:                Islamabad, 15 March 1995
Signatories:           8 (All member states except
Afghanistan and Uzbekistan)
Parties:               8 (all Signatories)

ECO at a Glance                               Page 37/85
Entry into force:      TTA is no longer applicable
Depository:            The ECO Secretariat

Agreement on Simplification of Visa Procedures for
Businessmen of ECO Member States
Signed:               Islamabad, 15 March 1995
Signatories:          7 member states (all ECO
                      member       states  except
                      Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and
                      Uzbekistan)
Parties:              5 states (Afghanistan, Iran,
                      Kazakhstan, Pakistan and
                      Turkey)
Entry into force:     year 2002
Depository:           The ECO Secretariat

Articles of Agreement of the Trade and
Development Bank (TDB)
Signed:               Islamabad, 15 March 1995
Signatories:          Iran, Pakistan and Turkey
Parties:              Three signatory states
Entry into force:     August 3, 2005
Depository:           Principal Office of the Bank




Page 38/85                             ECO at a Glance
The Charter of ECO Cultural Institute
Signed:                  Islamabad, 15 March 1995
Signatories:             8 Member States except
Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan
Parties:                 4 states (Afghanistan, Iran,
Pakistan and Tajikistan)
Entry into force:        The document entered into
                         force immediately after
                         signing.
Depository:              The Government of the I. R.
of IRAN

The Charter of ECO Science Foundation
Signed:                  Islamabad, 15 March 1995
Signatories:             All ECO member states
Parties:                 5 (Azerbaijan, Iran, Pakistan,
Tajikistan and Turkmenistan).
Entry into force:        Legally has entered into
force
Depository:              the Government of the I. R.
of Pakistan

Agreement between I.R. of Iran and ECO Relating
the Rights, Privileges and Immunities of the ECO
Secretariat
Signed:                 Ashgabat, 14th May 1996
Signatories:            Iran and ECO
Entry into force:       1997


ECO at a Glance                               Page 39/85
Depository:             The Government of the I. R.
of IRAN

The Charter of ECO Educational Institute
Signed:                   Almaty, 9th May 1998
Signatories:              All ECO Member States
except Turkmenistan & Uzbekistan
Parties:                  5 states (Iran, Kazakhstan,
Kyrgyz, Tajikistan and Turkey)
Entry into force:         2012
Depository:               The Government of the R.
of Turkey

Transit Transport Framework Agreement (TTFA):
Signed:                 Almaty, 9th May 1998
Signatories:            9 (All member states except
Uzbekistan)
Parties:                8 states (all ECO member
                        states except Turkmenistan
                        and Uzbekistan)
Entry into force:       19th May 2006
Depository:             ECO Secretariat

Framework Agreement on ECO Trade Cooperation
Signed:              Tehran, 6th March 2000
Signatories:         8 states (all ECO member
                     states except Turkmenistan
                     and Uzbekistan)




Page 40/85                               ECO at a Glance
Parties (Ratified):     6 states (Azerbaijan, Iran,
                        Kazakhstan,           Kyrgyz,
                        Pakistan and Turkey).
Entry into force:       The document entered into
                        force as per Article 14 after
                        ratification by five member
                        states
Depository:             ECO Secretariat

ECO Trade Agreement (ECOTA):
Signed:               Islamabad, 17th July
Signatories:          5        Member          States
                      (Afghanistan, Iran, Pakistan,
                      Tajikistan and Turkey)
Parties (Ratified):   5 states (All signatory States)
Entry into force:     24th April, 2008
Depository:           Secretary General ECO

Agreement on Promotion and Protection of
Investment (APPI)
Signed:           Istanbul, 7 July 2005
Signatories:      Afghanistan,       Azerbaijan,
Iran and Turkey
Parties:          None
Entry into force: Not yet
Depository:       ECO Secretary General

Agreement on the Establishment and Operation of
ECO Smuggling and Customs Offences Data Bank:
Signed:              Istanbul, 7 July 2005

ECO at a Glance                              Page 41/85
Signatories:            6        member        states
(Afghanistan, Azerbaijan,
Iran, Pakistan,         Tajikistan and Turkey)
Parties:                None
Entry into force:       Not yet
Depository:             ECO Secretariat

MoU on ECO Reinsurance Company
Signed:                  Islamabad, 15th March
1995
Signatories and Parties: 3 states Iran, Pakistan and
Turkey
Entry into force:        Immediately after signing
the MoU

MoU on Cooperation against Smuggling and
Customs Frauds
Signed:                  Almaty, 9th May 1998
Signatories and Parties: All 10 ECO member states
Entry into force         immediately after signing
the MoU

MoU on the establishment of Regional Center for Risk
Management of Natural Disasters (ECO-RCRM)
Signed:                  Mashhad-     Iran,      4th
September, 2007
Signatories and Parties: All 10 ECO member states
except Turkey and Uzbekistan
Entry into force:        Immediately after signing
the MoU

Page 42/85                               ECO at a Glance
4. KEY MILESTONES OF THE ECO DURING
RECENT YEARS

4.1     Trade and Investment
ECO Legal Frameworks
     ECO Trade Agreement (ECOTA) has entered
      into force and is at the final stages of
      implementation, negotiations for ECO Free
      Trade Area will commence after the
      implementation of ECOTA
     The Agreement on Establishment and
      Operations of ECO Smuggling and Customs
      Offences Data Bank is expected to be ratified
      by the Member States and will be established
      soon
     Agreement on Promotion and Protection of
      Investment has been finalized and will be
      implemented after ratification by four
      Member States
     Agreement on Simplification Visa procedures
      for the Businessmen and Transit Drivers of ECO
      Member States has been finalized and is to be
      ratified by Member States for implementation
     Agreement     on   Mutual  Administrative
      Assistance in Customs Matters has been

ECO at a Glance                             Page 43/85
        prepared and is to be signed during the next
        ECO Council of Heads of Customs
        Administration Meeting
Institutional Mechanisms:
     ECO Trade and Development Bank has been
      established and operationalized in Istanbul
      with a capital of US$ 465 million. Its
      membership and activities are expanding
     ECO Chamber of Commerce and Industry has
      been re-activated
     ECO Reinsurance Company is to be
      established soon with a capital of US$ 30
      Million
     ECO Business Forums have been established
      and institutionalized
     Trade Promotion Organizations (TPOs) Forum
      has been established
     ECO-PIDE Study        Project on the Trading
      Patterns in the       ECO Region has been
      published
Ongoing Projects
     ECO-UNIDO Project on Trade Capacity
      Building, 1st and 2nd Phases completed during
      2007-2009. The 3rd Phase is expected to be
      launched in 2012


Page 44/85                               ECO at a Glance
     ECO Trade and Investment Network Web
      Portal has been established
     The 1st Expert Group Meeting (EGM) on
      paperless   trade    has    approved     the
      establishment of ECO Single Window (ESW)
4.2     Transport and Communications
     Transit Trade Framework Agreement has been
      operationalized
     The ECO Container Train on Islamabad-
      Tehran-Istanbul route had started its regular
      operation since August 2010
     With the coordination of the Secretariat, the
      construction of the railway line on Kazakhstan-
      Turkmenistan-Iran route has been expedited.
     The ‘Feasibility Study for Railway Route from
      China along Tajikistan and Afghanistan to
      Zahedan/Chabahar in Iran through Herat-
      Delaram-Zaranj and through Iran and Turkey
      to Europe’ has been initiated under the
      umbrella of the ECO
     The ECO/IRU Silk Road Caravan, comprising of
      trucks from eight member states, successfully
      completed an 11,500 km journey across
      Pakistan, Iran, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan,
      Tajikistan,  Azerbaijan   and    Turkey    in
      September-October 2010


ECO at a Glance                              Page 45/85
     The ECO unified Visa Sticker for Drivers and the
      Crew has been prepared. Procedures for
      issuance of the unified visa are being finalized
     The ECO Railway Transit routes map has been
      published. The ECO Road Transit routes map
      has been finalized
     MoUs between ECO and CIT, and OTIF,
      focusing on mutual cooperation and
      technical assistance to implement railway
      related provisions of the TTFA, have been
      signed
     An online system is being finalized for money
      transfer through the financial postal services
      of the member states


4.3     Energy, Minerals and Environment
     The New Plan of Action on Energy/Petroleum
      Cooperation in the ECO Region (2011-2015)
      which will serve as the basic guideline for
      cooperation among the ECO Member States
      in the fields of Energy/Petroleum for the next
      five years was adopted in the 2nd ECO
      Ministerial Meeting on Energy/Petroleum
      (Dushanbe, 2010)
     Capacity Building Workshops and Decision
      Making Meetings were held on the following
      topics:

Page 46/85                                ECO at a Glance
            o International Petroleum Market
            o Petroleum Refining
            o Renewable Sources of Energy
            o Clean Coal Technologies
            o High Level Experts Group on Energy
            o Development of Hydropower Plants
            o Environment and Biodiversity
     Feasibility study on Establishing Databanks of
      ECO Geosciences Database has been
      completed
     Project on Mineral Distribution Map of the ECO
      Region has been completed
     The Plan of Action on Environmental
      Cooperation and Global Warming (2011-
      2015) as well as a Project Profile for
      implementation of the mentioned Plan of
      Action were adopted in the 4th ECO Ministerial
      Meeting on Environment (Tehran, Iran, 2011)
     The ECO Institute of Environmental Sciences
      and Technology (ECO-IEST) was established in
      February, 2011 on project basis in Karaj,
      Tehran, Iran
     Feasibility study on Development and
      Harmonization of Environmental Standards in
      ECO Region is under implementation

ECO at a Glance                                Page 47/85
4.4     Agriculture, Industry and Tourism
     The ECO Regional Programme for Food
      Security (ECO-RPFS) was prepared and is
      under implementation in collaboration with
      FAO, ICARDA. A Regional Coordination
      Center (RCC) for the RPFS will be established
      soon
     The 1st Phase of ECO-FAO Technical
      Cooperation     Programme      (TCP)     on
      Strengthening Seed Supply was successfully
      implemented and ECO Seed Association
      (ECOSA) was established in Ankara, Turkey in
      early 2009
     ECO - FAO-SEC on Seed Sector Development
      in the ECO Region was approved and will be
      implemented
     ECO Regional Center for Risk Management of
      Natural Disasters (ECO-RCRM) was established
      on September 3-5, 2007 in Mashad, Iran
     ECO-NANO website was launched in May
      2009 as a new area of cooperation
     Studies for establishment of ECO Veterinary
      Commission (ECO-VECO) and ECO Center for
      efficient Utilization of Water in the Field of
      Agriculture      and    ECO     Meteorological


Page 48/85                              ECO at a Glance
        Calibration Center (ECO MCC) has come to a
        final stage
     Capacity programmes were organized in the
      fields of privatization and SMEs. ECO
      Privatization Website was launched in 2010
     The Statute of the ECO Regional Institute for
      Standardization,    Conformity  Assessment,
      Accreditation and Metrology (RISCAM) was
      finalized and signed by some Member States
     ECO Tourist Guidebook was published and
      ECO Tourism Promotion Fund was established
     ECO initiated cooperation in youth issues to
      enhance interaction among the region’s
      youth


4.5 Human Resources            and    Sustainable
Development
     Capacity building has been provided in the
      following fields:
          o Blood Transfusion
          o Blood Safety Network
          o Voluntary Blood Donor Recruitment
          o Quality Assurance in Blood Transfusion
          o Pharmacovigilance
          o Drug Quality Control
          o Prevention, Diagnosis and Treatment of
             Osteoporosis

ECO at a Glance                            Page 49/85
     Establishment of ECO Blood Safety Network
      and ECO Drug (Pharmaceutical) Regulatory
      Network was kicked -start in 2010
     Analytical regional report on Health Related
      Millennium Development Goals i.e. Goal 4:
      Reduce Child Mortality, Goal 5: Improve
      Maternal Health and Goal 6: Combating
      HIV/AIDS, Malaria and other diseases was
      completed
     An academic course on Master of Public
      Health (MPH) for empowering health
      authorities of ECO Member States is under
      consideration to be organized in Iran


4.6 Projects       Economic      Research       and
Statistics
     A number of training courses on project
      management were conducted
     ECO Statistical Network (ECOSTAT) was
      approved and the structure of the database
      was established
     First Training Workshop for ECO Member States
      on Utilizing the ECOSTAT was held in Tehran in
      2010
     ECO Annual Economic           Reports     were
      prepared regularly


Page 50/85                              ECO at a Glance
     ECO Economic Journals have been published
     Roster    of      ECO      Leading       Expert
      Economists/Statisticians was prepared
     ECO Roster of Consulting and Engineering
      Companies/Training Institutions was prepared
     ECO-Prospects and Achievements over the
      period 1996-2007 have been completed


Ongoing Projects
     ECO-FAO technical cooperation project on
      Statistical Capacity Building in ECO member
      states with Afghanistan to be a Pilot Country
     ECO-UNFPA research project on linkages
      between population dynamics and energy
      consumption patterns in the ECO region
     ESCAP Regional Programme on Economics
      Statistics in preparation of which ECO
      participated as a sub-region
4.7     Drugs and Organized Crime Unit
     Several capacity building activities and high
      level decision making meetings were held on
      the issues of combating drugs, terrorism,
      organized crimes, illegal migration and
      human trafficking



ECO at a Glance                               Page 51/85
     A comprehensive project ‘Fight Against
      Trafficking to/from Afghanistan with the ECO
      Member States’ has been initiated recently
      with E.U. funding of 9.5. Million Euros. One
      component under this project is the
      establishment of secured network among
      relevant departments of member countries


4.8     Reconstruction of Afghanistan
     ECO Special Fund for Reconstruction of
      Afghanistan was established to which a total
      amount of more than US$ 11 million was
      pledged
     80% of total construction works of two projects
      namely Construction of Deh Mazang Public
      Park and Rehabilitation of Kabul Zoo (US $ 1.3
      million) and Block A of the Ministry of Rural
      Rehabilitation Training and Research Centre
      (MRRD) in Kabul (US$ 600,000) were
      completed
     A Protocol was signed between ECO and
      Turkish  International    Cooperation    and
      Development Agency (TIKA) in 2010. This aims
      at facilitating implementation of more
      projects within the scope of the remaining
      pledge/contribution of the Republic of Turkey
      (US$ 4.6 million) to the ECO Special Fund for
      Reconstruction of Afghanistan

Page 52/85                               ECO at a Glance
4.9     International Relations
     The Organization has consistently pursued
      closer cooperation with the United Nations
      system, regional peers, other international
      organizations and relevant non-ECO States.
      ECO’s standing and image at the regional
      and international fora have grown steadily
     ECO enjoys observer status with the United
      Nations, World Trade Organization, the
      Organization of Islamic Conference, and the
      Islamic Development Bank
     ECO has signed more than 30 Memoranda of
      Understanding with a host of regional and
      international organizations including the UN
      Specialized Agencies, Funds and Programmes
     Among others UNESCAP, UNICEF, FAO, UNIDO,
      UNCTAD, UNEP, ICARDA, UNISDR, UNDP, UN-
      OHRLLS, UNECE, European Commission,
      ASEAN, CICA, Colombo Plan, SCO, OSJD,
      WCO, UPU, IOM, IRU are ECO’s partners in
      various activities and projects in the region
     A comprehensive Plan of Action has been
      developed to further expand ECO’s external
      relations.    It       outlines    certain
      measures/recommendations to deepen and



ECO at a Glance                            Page 53/85
        promote constructive   cooperation      with
        relevant partners
     Contacts Groups of ambassadors of ECO
      member states to be established soon at
      important regional and international fora to
      enhance the image and standing of the
      Organization and mobilize technical and
      financial support for ECO’s programmes




Page 54/85                             ECO at a Glance
5. ECO MEMBER PROFILES

5.1     Islamic Republic of Afghanistan




     National Day: 19th August (Independence
      Day 1919)
     Capital: Kabul
     Area: 652,090 sq. km
     Bordering countries: China (76 km), Iran (936
      km), Pakistan (2,430 km), Tajikistan (1,206
      km), Turkmenistan (744) km, Uzbekistan (137
      km).
     Coastline: Landlocked
     Climate: Arid to semiarid; cold winters and
      hot summers.
     Natural resources: Natural gas, petroleum,
      coal, talc, barites, sulfur, lead, zinc, iron ore,
      salt, precious and semi-precious stones.
     Land use:

ECO at a Glance                                     Page 55/85
             o Arable land:
                    12.13%
             o Meadows and pastures:         46%
             o Forest and woodland:          3%
             o Other:                        39%
   Agricultural products: Wheat, corn, rice,
    barley, cotton, tobacco, fruits, nuts, karakul
    pelts; wool, mutton




Page 56/85                                 ECO at a Glance
         Selected Key Statistical Indicators of the Islamic
                    Republic of Afghanistan
                        Indicator                          2009     2010     2011
1    Population (000)                                     25,494   25,986   26,488
2    Population Density (Population per Km2)               39.1     39.8     40.6
                                               Male
                                                           48.0     48.0        …
3                                              (Year)
     Life Expectancy at Birth
                                               Female
                                                           48.0     48.0        …
 4                                             (Year)
 5   Total Fertility Rate                                    …        …        …
 6   Share of Urban Population (%)                          21.6     21.9     22.2
 7   Literacy Rate (%)                                       …        …        …
 8   Total Labor Force (000)                               8,720    9,060      …
 9   GDP at Current Price (Mln US$)                       12,871   16,343      …
10   GDP per Capita (US$)                                   505      629       …
11   GDP Annual Growth Rate (%)                             17.2      3.2      …
12                                       Agriculture        31.1     27.8      …
13   GDP by Sectors (%)                  Industry           21.2     20.6      …
14                                       Services           44.3     48.0      …
15   Gross Fixed Capital Formation/GDP (%)                  17.4     17.5      …
16   Foreign Direct Investment (Mln US$)                     …        …        …
17   Exchange Rate (National Currency/US$)                 49.16    45.70      …
18                                       Imports           3,336    5,154    6,390
19                                       Exports            403      388      376
     Total Foreign Trade (Mln US$)
20                                       Total             3,739    5,542    6,766
21                                       Balance          -2,933   -4,766   -6,014
22                                       Imports            56.2     50.7     51.9
23   ECO Trade/Total Foreign Trade (%) Exports              64.8     66.7     59.0
24                                       Total              57.1     51.8     52.3
25   Production of Crude Oil (Mln Ton)                       …        …        …
26   Production of Natural Gas Mln M3)                      142      142      161
27   Production of Electricity (Mln Kwh)                    937      936      547

        Source: Central Statistics Organization (CSO) of the Islamic
                                Republic of Afghanistan




     ECO at a Glance                                               Page 57/85
5.2      Republic of Azerbaijan




     National day: 28 May
     Capital: Baku
     Area: 86,600 sq. km,
     Land area: 82,658 sq. km
     Land boundaries: 2,657 km
     Bordering countries: Armenia (1007 km),
      Georgia (480 km), Iran (765 km), (Russia 390
      km), (Turkey 15 km)
     Coastline: Azerbaijan borders the Caspian
      Sea (800 km)
     Climate: Dry, Semi-arid steppe
     Natural resources: Petroleum, natural gas,
      iron ore, nonferrous metals, alumina
     Land use:
             o Arable land:
                    21.8%
             o Permanent crops:              2.6%


Page 58/85                                 ECO at a Glance
            o Meadows and pastures:
                  30.7%
            o Forest and woodland:
                    12.0%
            o Other:
                   32.9%
            o Irrigated land:
                     14244 sq km
   Industries: Petroleum and natural gas,
    petroleum    products,     chemicals   and
    petrochemicals, oilfield equipment, mineral
    substances, metallurgy, pulp and paper,
    wood and its products, steel, food stuffs
    and tobacco, cement, textiles
   Transportation:
            o Railways: 2,079 km in common
              carrier service; does not include
              industrial lines
            o Highways:18,986 km
            o Ports: Baku (Baki)
   Agriculture Products: Cotton, grain, sugar
    beet, rice, grapes, fruits, vegetables, tea,
    tobacco; cattle, sheep, poultry, goats




ECO at a Glance                              Page 59/85
      Selected Key Statistical Indicators of the Republic of
                           Azerbaijan
                        Indicator                       2009     2010       2011
1    Population (000)                                   8,947    9,054      9,173
2    Population Density (Population per Km2)            103.3    104.6      105.9
                                               Male
                                                         70.9     70.9      71.2
3                                              (Year)
     Life Expectancy at Birth
                                               Female
                                                         76.1     76.2      76.5
 4                                             (Year)
 5   Total Fertility Rate                                 2.30     2.30     2.40
 6   Share of Urban Population (%)                        53.1     53.0     53.0
 7   Literacy Rate (%)                                    99.8     99.8     99.8
 8   Total Labor Force (000)                             4,532    4,587    4,626
 9   GDP at Current Price (Mln US$)                     44,297   52,909   63,403
10   GDP per Capita (US$)                                5,018    5,922    7,003
11   GDP Annual Growth Rate (%)                           42.7    -14.6     15.5
12                                       Agriculture       6.1      5.5      5.5
13   GDP by Sectors (%)                  Industry         49.1     51.7     53.9
14                                       Services         44.8     42.8     40.6
15   Gross Fixed Capital Formation/GDP (%)                18.9     18.1     19.9
16   Foreign Direct Investment (Mln US$)                 3,037    3,615    4,294
17   Exchange Rate (National Currency/US$)                0.80     0.80     0.79
18                                       Imports         6,123    6,601    9,756
19                                       Exports        14,701   21,360   26,571
     Total Foreign Trade (Mln US$)
20                                       Total          20,825   27,961   36,327
21                                       Balance         8,578   14,759   16,815
22                                       Imports          17.9     18.4     17.9
23   ECO Trade/Total Foreign Trade (%) Exports             3.1      3.2      3.2
24                                       Total             7.4      6.8      7.2
25   Production of Crude Oil (Mln Ton)                  50,416   50,838   45,626
26   Production of Natural Gas Mln M3)                  23,598   26,312   25,728
27   Production of Electricity (Mln Kwh)                18,869   18,710   20,294



           Source: State Statistical Committee of the Republic of
                                     Azerbaijan


     Page 60/85                                           ECO at a Glance
5.3     Islamic Republic of Iran




     National Day: 11th of February (Islamic
      Revolution of Iran -1979)
     Capital: Tehran
     Area: 1,648,196 sq km
     Land boundaries: 4,137 km
     Sea boundaries: 2,700 km (Including the
      Caspian Sea)
     River boundaries: 1,918 km
     Bordering       countries:     Afghanistan,
      Azerbaijan (Nakhichevan), Armenia, Iraq,
      Pakistan, Turkey, Turkmenistan
     Climate: Mostly arid or semi-arid, temperate
      along Caspian coast and mountainous
      temperate along west and north-west.
     Natural resources: Petroleum, natural gas,
      coal, chromium, copper, iron ore, lead,
      manganese, zinc, sulfur
     Land use (1998):

ECO at a Glance                                Page 61/85
             o Arable land:
                    300,000 sq. Km    18.2%
             o Meadows       and        pastures:
                   900,000 sq. Km     54.6%
             o Forest and woodland:
                     120,000 sq. Km   7.3%
             o Other:
                    258,000 sq. Km    15.7%
             o Irrigated land:
                      70,000 sq. Km   4.2%
   Agricultural products: Wheat, rice, barley,
    potato, grains, sugar-beet, cotton, fresh &
    dried fruits, dates, pistachio, fruits, nuts,
    poultry, meat, dairy products, wool; caviar,
    flowers and medicinal plants
   Industries: Oil and gas, steel, aluminum,
    copper, electric and electronic equipment,
    cement and other building materials,
    metallurgy, home appliances, iron, textile,
    rugs and carpets, tapestry, miniature,
    ceramic, food processing (particularly
    sugar     refining and     vegetable    oil
    production), petrochemicals, and car
    manufacturing and assemblies
   Transportation:
         o Railways: 6,700 km (2000)
         o Highways: 80,000 km


Page 62/85                                   ECO at a Glance
           Selected Key Statistical Indicators of the Islamic
                          Republic of Iran

                        Indicator                          2009     2010         2011
1    Population (000)                                     73,201   74,339       75,150
2    Population Density (Population per Km2)               44.9     45.6         46.1
                                               Male
                                                           72.2     72.6         72.1
3                                              (Year)
     Life Expectancy at Birth
                                               Female
                                                           74.2     74.6         74.6
 4                                             (Year)
 5   Total Fertility Rate                                   …         …            …
 6   Share of Urban Population (%)                         68.8      68.9         71.4
 7   Literacy Rate (%)                                     83.2      83.7         84.2
 8   Total Labor Force (000)                              23,841    23,875       23,388
 9   GDP at Current Price (Mln US$)                      394,809   453,454         …
10   GDP per Capita (US$)                                 5,393     6,100          …
11   GDP Annual Growth Rate (%)                             4.3       6.5          …
12                                       Agriculture        8.9       8.6          …
13   GDP by Sectors (%)                  Industry          37.2      38.1          …
14                                       Services          53.1      52.1          …
15   Gross Fixed Capital Formation/GDP (%)                  5.5       4.5          …
16   Foreign Direct Investment (Mln US$)                    …         …            …
17   Exchange Rate (National Currency/US$)                9,979     10,601       13,111
18                                       Imports          55,287    64,450       61,808
19                                       Exports          88,032   112,728      144,835
     Total Foreign Trade (Mln US$)
20                                       Total           143,319   177,178      206,643
21                                       Balance          32,745    48,278       83,027
22                                       Imports            6.2       7.6          6.6
23   ECO Trade/Total Foreign Trade (%) Exports              3.6       3.7          4.0
24                                       Total              4.6       5.1          4.7
25   Production of Crude Oil (Mln Ton)                   331,216   335,959         …
26   Production of Natural Gas Mln M3)                   142,230   148,338         …
27   Production of Electricity (Mln Kwh)                 214,531   232,955         …

                       Source: Statistical Centre of Iran (SCI)


       ECO at a Glance                                             Page 63/85
5.4     Republic of Kazakhstan




     National Day: 25th of October (Republic
      Day - 1990)
     Capital: Astana (since June 1998)
     Area: 2,724,900 sq. km
     Land boundaries: 12,012 km
     Bordering countries: China (1,533 km),
      Kyrgyzstan (1,051 km), Russia (6,846 km),
      Turkmenistan (379 km), Uzbekistan (2,203
      km)
     Coast line: Kazakhstan borders the Aral Sea
      (1,015 km) and the Caspian Sea (1,894 km)
     Climate: Continental, very cold winters and
      hot summers, arid and semi-arid
     Natural resources: Major deposits of
      petroleum, coal, iron ore, manganese,
      chrome ore, nickel, cobalt, copper,
      molybdenum, lead, zinc, bauxite, gold,
      uranium
     Land use:

Page 64/85                                ECO at a Glance
            o Arable land:                15%
            o Meadows and pastures:       57%
            o Forest and woodland:        4%
            o Other:                      24%
            o Irrigated land:
                     23,080 sq Km
   Agricultural products: Grain, mostly spring
    wheat, cotton; wool, meat




ECO at a Glance                             Page 65/85
            Selected Key Statistical Indicators of the
                    Republic of Kazakhstan

                        Indicator                        2009      2010      2011
1    Population (000)                                   16,094    16,323      …
2    Population Density (Population per Km2)              5.9       6.0       …
                                               Male
                                                         63.6      63.5       …
3                                              (Year)
     Life Expectancy at Birth
                                               Female
                                                         73.6      73.3       …
 4                                             (Year)
 5   Total Fertility Rate                                 2.65      2.59      …
 6   Share of Urban Population (%)                        54.2      54.4      …
 7   Literacy Rate (%)                                     …         …        …
 8   Total Labor Force (000)                             8,458     8,611      …
 9   GDP at Current Price (Mln US$)                     115,306   146,913     …
10   GDP per Capita (US$)                                7,241     9,004      …
11   GDP Annual Growth Rate (%)                            1.2       7.0      …
12                                       Agriculture       6.2       4.4      …
13   GDP by Sectors (%)                  Industry         30.5      32.8      …
14                                       Services         63.3      62.8      …
15   Gross Fixed Capital Formation/GDP (%)                27.8       …        …
16   Foreign Direct Investment (Mln US$)                 18,429      …        …
17   Exchange Rate (National Currency/US$)               147.50    147.35     …
18                                       Imports         28,409      …        …
19                                       Exports         43,196      …        …
     Total Foreign Trade (Mln US$)
20                                       Total           71,604      …        …
21                                       Balance         14,787               …
22                                       Imports           …        …         …
23   ECO Trade/Total Foreign Trade (%) Exports             …        …         …
24                                       Total             …        …         …
25   Production of Crude Oil (Mln Ton)                   64,354     …         …
26   Production of Natural Gas Mln M3)                   35,942     …         …
27   Production of Electricity (Mln Kwh)                 78,729     …         …



        Source: Agency of the Republic of Kazakhstan on Statistics

      Page 66/85                                           ECO at a Glance
5.5     Kyrgyz Republic




     National Day: 31st of August
     Capital: Bishkek
     Area: 198,500 sq. km
     Land boundaries: 3,878 km
     Bordering countries: China (858 km),
      Kazakhstan (1,051 km), Tajikistan (870 km),
      Uzbekistan (1,099 km)
     Coast line: None
     Climate: Dry continental to polar in high
      Tien Shan; subtropical in southwest
      (Fergana Valley); temperate in northern
      foothill zone
     Natural resources: Abundant hydro-electric
      potential; significant deposits of gold and
      rare earth metals; locally exploitable coal,
      oil and natural gas; other deposits of
      nepheline, mercury, bismuth, lead, and
      zinc.

ECO at a Glance                                Page 67/85
   Land use:
             o Arable land:
                    7.137%
             o Meadows and pastures:          45%
             o Other:                         48%
             o Irrigated land:
                      10,666 sq Km
   Agricultural products: Wool, tobacco,
    cotton, potatoes, vegetables, grapes, fruits
    and berries, sheep, goats, cattle, grain,
    gold
   Industries: Small machinery, textiles, food
    processing, cement, shoes, sawn logs,
    refrigerators, furniture, electric motors, gold,
    rare earth metals.
   Transportation:
             o Railways:   417.2 Km
             o Highways: 28,400 Km
             o Ports:      Balykchy and Karakol
               (situated on the Issykkul Lake)




Page 68/85                                  ECO at a Glance
         Selected Key Statistical Indicators of the Kyrgyz
                            Republic
                        Indicator                       2009      2010        2011
1    Population (000)                                   5,383     5,448       5,515
2    Population Density (Population per Km2)             26.9      27.3        27.6
                                               Male
                                                         65.2     65.3        65.7
3                                              (Year)
     Life Expectancy at Birth
                                               Female
                                                         73.2     73.5        73.7
 4                                             (Year)
 5   Total Fertility Rate                                 2.88     3.06     3.09
 6   Share of Urban Population (%)                        34.1     34.0     34.0
 7   Literacy Rate (%)                                    99.2     99.2     99.2
 8   Total Labor Force (000)                             2,420    2,456      …
 9   GDP at Current Price (Mln US$)                      4,666    4,778    5,944
10   GDP per Capita (US$)                                 910      920     1,131
11   GDP Annual Growth Rate (%)                            2.9     -1.4      …
12                                       Agriculture      18.8     17.5     18.0
13   GDP by Sectors (%)                  Industry         23.6     26.2     25.6
14                                       Services         46.6     46.1     44.9
15   Gross Fixed Capital Formation/GDP (%)                28.2     27.7      …
16   Foreign Direct Investment (Mln US$)                  661      446       …
17   Exchange Rate (National Currency/US$)               42.89    45.96    46.14
18                                       Imports         3,040    3,223    4,261
19                                       Exports         1,673    1,756    2,246
     Total Foreign Trade (Mln US$)
20                                       Total           4,713    4,979    6,508
21                                       Balance        -1,367   -1,467   -2,015
22                                       Imports          17.8     18.2     15.0
23   ECO Trade/Total Foreign Trade (%) Exports            23.5     17.2     24.3
24                                       Total            19.8     17.8     18.2
25   Production of Crude Oil (Mln Ton)                     77       83       90
26   Production of Natural Gas Mln M3)                     15       23       27
27   Production of Electricity (Mln Kwh)                11,083   12,063   15,223

          Source: National Statistical Committe of Kyrgyz Republic




     ECO at a Glance                                             Page 69/85
5.6     Islamic Republic of Pakistan




     National Day: 23rd March
     Independence: Day14 August 1947
     Capital: Islamabad
     Area: 796,095 sq km
     Land boundaries: 7,266 km
     Bordering countries: Afghanistan (2,430 km),
      China (580 km), India (2,240 km), Iran (909
      km)
     Coast line:1,046 km
     Landscape: The landscape of Pakistan
      includes lofty mountain ranges in the north
      (the Karakoram and the Himalayas),
      dissected plateaus and rich alluvial plains
      of the Punjab. Then follows the desolate
      barrenness of Balochistan and the hot dry
      deserts of Sindh blending into miles of
      golden beaches of the Makran coast. The
      variety of the topography is matched by


Page 70/85                                 ECO at a Glance
    the variance in climatic condition and
    fauna and flora
   Climate: Mostly hot, dry desert; temperate
    in northwest; arctic in north
   Natural resources: Large area of cultivable
    Land, extensive natural gas reserves, coal,
    iron ore, copper, salt and limestone
   Land use:
         o Arable land:
                  30.18 thousand hectares
         o Meadows and pastures:         6%
         o Forest and woodland:          4%
         o Other:                        67%
         o Irrigated land:
                  198,700 sq km
   Agricultural products: Cotton, wheat, rice,
    sugarcane, fruits, vegetables; condiments,
    milk, beef, mutton, eggs, grains, oil seeds,
    pulses, maize, barley, tobacco, poultry,
    goats, beef, sheep, cattle, mutton
   Industries: Textiles, food      processing,
    cement, fertilizer, steel, sugar, clothing,
    paper products, shrimp, leather garments,
    beverages, construction materials, electric
    goods, ship building
   Railways: 7,791 km; Highways: 236,041km;
   Ports: Karachi, Muhammad bin Qasim,
    Gwadar deep sea Port
ECO at a Glance                                Page 71/85
           Selected Key Statistical Indicators of the Islamic
                        Republic of Pakistan
                        Indicator                        2009       2010        2011
1    Population (000)                                   168,180    173,500     177,100
2    Population Density (Population per Km2)             207.5      218.0       222.0
                                               Male
                                                           …        64.0         …
3                                              (Year)
     Life Expectancy at Birth
                                               Female
                                                           …        68.0         …
 4                                             (Year)
 5   Total Fertility Rate                                 2.80       3.60        3.50
 6   Share of Urban Population (%)                        43.9       44.7         …
 7   Literacy Rate (%)                                    57.4       57.7        58.0
 8   Total Labor Force (000)                             54,180     56,900      57,800
 9   GDP at Current Price (Mln US$)                     153,910    176,655     210,911
10   GDP per Capita (US$)                                 940        975        1,140
11   GDP Annual Growth Rate (%)                            1.2        3.1         3.0
12                                       Agriculture      21.9       21.3        21.2
13   GDP by Sectors (%)                  Industry         25.0       26.0        25.5
14                                       Services         53.1       52.6        53.4
15   Gross Fixed Capital Formation/GDP (%)                18.3       14.0        11.5
16   Foreign Direct Investment (Mln US$)                 3,720      2,201       1,635
17   Exchange Rate (National Currency/US$)               78.50      83.80         86
18                                       Imports         34,822     34,710      40,412
19                                       Exports         17,688     19,290      24,805
     Total Foreign Trade (Mln US$)
20                                       Total           52,510     54,000      65,217
21                                       Balance        -17,134    -15,420     -15,607
22                                       Imports           3.4        3.8         2.5
23   ECO Trade/Total Foreign Trade (%) Exports            12.5       11.9        13.8
24                                       Total             6.4        6.7         6.8
25   Production of Crude Oil (Mln Ton)                   3,224      3,180       3,225
26   Production of Natural Gas Mln M3)                   41,153     41,778      41,460
27   Production of Electricity (Mln Kwh)                 91,843     95,608      94,653



                     Source: Pakistan Bureau of Statistics (PBS)


       Page 72/85                                            ECO at a Glance
5.7     Republic of Tajikistan




     National Day: 9th of September
     Capital: Dushanbe
     Area: 143,100 sq. km
     Coastline: None
     Climate: Mid-altitude continental, hot
      summers, mild winters, semi-arid to polar in
      Pamir Mountains
     Natural resources: Significant hydro-power
      potential,  some petroleum,        uranium,
      mercury, brown coal, lead, zinc, antimony,
      tungsten.
     Land use:
           o Arable land:
                    861.3 thousand hectares
           o Meadows and pastures:         23%
           o Mountains:                    71%
           o Irrigated land:
                    6,940 sq Km
     Agricultural products: Cotton, grain, fruits,
      grapes, vegetables; cattle, sheep, goats


ECO at a Glance                                 Page 73/85
   Industries :    Aluminum,         zinc,   lead,
    chemicals      and      fertilizers,    cement,
    vegetable oil, metal-cutting, machine tools,
    refrigerators and freezers




Page 74/85                                 ECO at a Glance
      Selected Key Statistical Indicators of the Republic of
                            Tajikistan
                        Indicator                       2009      2010        2011
1    Population (000)                                   7,452     7,573        …
2    Population Density (Population per Km2)             52.1      53.0        …
                                               Male
                                                         70.5      …           …
3                                              (Year)
     Life Expectancy at Birth
                                               Female
                                                         75.3      …           …
 4                                             (Year)
 5   Total Fertility Rate                                 3.60     3.60         …
 6   Share of Urban Population (%)                        26.4     26.4         …
 7   Literacy Rate (%)                                     …       99.9         …
 8   Total Labor Force (000)                             2,097    2,280         …
 9   GDP at Current Price (Mln US$)                      4,978    5,642       6,523
10   GDP per Capita (US$)                                 668      745          …
11   GDP Annual Growth Rate (%)                           10.7     12.9         9.4
12                                       Agriculture      18.6     18.7        23.8
13   GDP by Sectors (%)                  Industry         14.3     12.6        12.3
14                                       Services         57.2     58.1        52.1
15   Gross Fixed Capital Formation/GDP (%)                24.8     23.8         …
16   Foreign Direct Investment (Mln US$)                   89      231          …
17   Exchange Rate (National Currency/US$)                4.14     4.38        4.61
18                                       Imports         3,975    1,438         …
19                                       Exports         1,664    1,085         …
     Total Foreign Trade (Mln US$)
20                                       Total           5,638    2,523         …
21                                       Balance        -2,311    -353
22                                       Imports          17.7     50.0     …
23   ECO Trade/Total Foreign Trade (%) Exports            19.6     50.0     …
24                                       Total            18.2     50.0     …
25   Production of Crude Oil (Mln Ton)                     26       27      28
26   Production of Natural Gas Mln M3)                     16       14      15
27   Production of Electricity (Mln Kwh)                16,117   16,435   16,238

     Source: Agency on Statistics under the President of the
     Republic of Tajikistan



     ECO at a Glance                                             Page 75/85
5.8     Republic of Turkey




     National Day: 29th of October
     Capital: Ankara
     Area: 774,815 sq. km
     Land boundaries: 2,875 km
     Bordering countries: Georgia (276 km),
      Armenia (325 km), Azerbaijan        (18 km),
      Bulgaria (269 km), Greece (203 km), Iran
      (529 km), Iraq (378 km), Syria (877 km)
     Coast line: 8,333 km (including islands)
     Climate: Turkey is in the temperate zone
      and its topography is characterized by
      mountain ranges that run parallel to its sea
      coast. Thus the climate differs from region
      to region. Coastal areas enjoy a milder
      climate; the inland Anatolian plateau
      experiences extremes of hot summers and
      cold winters with limited rainfall.



Page 76/85                                   ECO at a Glance
   Natural resources: Hard coal, lignite, crude
    petroleum, iron, chrome, copper, boron
    minerals, magnesite, lead-zinc
   Land use:
         o Arable land:                  39%
         o Permanent crops:              4%
         o Meadows and pastures:         20%
            *
         o Forest and woodland:          33%
         o Other:                        4% *
         o Irrigated land:
                     3,674,000 hectares
         (*Data are the results of General
         Agriculture Census of 1991. The other
         data refer to current agricultural
         statistics)
   Agricultural products: Grain (wheat and
    barley), dry beans, sugar beet, potatoes,
    cotton, tobacco, vegetables, fruits (nuts,
    citrus, grapes, apples, olives) and tea
   Industries: Food manufacturing, grain mill
    products, beverage industries, tobacco,
    textile, paper, chemical industries, fertilizers,
    petroleum products, rubber products, tyres
    and tube industries, glass products, cement,
    iron     and     steel,   metal     products,
    manufacture of machinery (transport
    equipment,         shipbuilding,      railroad


ECO at a Glance                                  Page 77/85
    equipment,    motor     vehicles,   aircraft
    manufacture).
   Transportation:
         o Railways:
                   8,607 km
         o Highways:
                   380,289 km
         o Important Ports:
                   Gemlik, Hopa, Iskenderun,
            Istanbul,    Izmir,  Izmit, Mersin,
            Samsun, Trabzon
         o Merchant          marine     (1997):
                   5,866 ships




Page 78/85                              ECO at a Glance
      Selected Key Statistical Indicators of the Republic of
                             Turkey
                     Indicator                         2009      2010        2011
 1   Population (000)                                 72,050    73,003      73,950
 2   Population Density (Population per Km2)           93.6       94.9       96.1
 3                                   Male (Year)       71.7       71.8       72.0
     Life Expectancy at Birth
 4                                   Female (Year)     76.5       76.8       77.1
 5   Total Fertility Rate                              2.12       2.11       2.09
 6   Share of Urban Population (%)                     75.2       76.0       76.8
 7   Literacy Rate (%)                                 92.5       94.0       95.1
 8   Total Labor Force (000)                          24,748    25,641      26,725
 9   GDP at Current Price (Mln US$)                  616,703   731,608     772,298
10   GDP per Capita (US$)                             8,559     10,022      10,444
11   GDP Annual Growth Rate (%)                        -4.8        9.2        8.5
12                                Agriculture          10.1        9.4        9.2
13   GDP by Sectors (%)           Industry             26.1       27.0       27.2
14                                Services             63.4       63.0       63.3
15   Gross Fixed Capital Formation/GDP (%)             16.9       18.9       24.4
16   Foreign Direct Investment (Mln US$)              6,858      7,574      13,412
17   Exchange Rate (National Currency/US$)             1.55       1.50       1.67
18                                Imports            140,928   185,544     240,838
19   Total Foreign Trade (Mln Exports                102,143   113,883     134,969
20   US$)                         Total              243,071   299,428     375,807
21                                Balance            -38,786   -71,661     -105,869
22                                Imports               4.3        6.3        7.2
     ECO Trade/Total Foreign
23                                Exports               5.8        6.7        6.9
     Trade (%)
24                                Total                 4.9        6.4        7.1
25   Production of Crude Oil (Mln Ton)                2,237      2,544        …
26   Production of Natural Gas Mln M3)                  685       682         …
27   Production of Electricity (Mln Kwh)             194,813   211,208        …

                 Source: Turkish Statistical Institute (TURKSTAT)




     ECO at a Glance                                                Page 79/85
5.9     Turkmenistan




     National Day: 27th f October
     Capital: Ashkhabad
     Area: 491,200 sq. km
     Borders: 3,736 km
     Bordering countries: Afghanistan (744 km),
      Iran (992 km), Kazakhstan (379 km),
      Uzbekistan (1,621 km)
     Coast line: Turkmenistan borders with the
      Caspian Sea 1768 km
     Climate: Sub-tropical desert
     Natural resources: Oil, natural gas, coal,
      sulphur, salt
     Land use:
           o Arable land:
                  3.47%
           o Hay-mowing land:
                  0.02%
           o Meadows       and         pastures:
                  78.6%

Page 80/85                               ECO at a Glance
            o Other:
                     18.1%
            o Irrigated land:
                     1,788 thousand       hectares
              (1998)
   Agricultural   products:    Cotton,    cereals,
    cattle
   Industries: Gas, oil products, textile, food
   Transportation (1997):
         o Railways:           2,312 km general
            purpose
         o Highways:           13,597 km
         o Waterways:          Amudarya River
            is a major inland water transport
            line
         o Ports:              Turkmenbashi
            (Krasnowodsk)




ECO at a Glance                                    Page 81/85
      Selected Key Statistical Indicators of Turkmenistan
                       Indicator                       2009     2010    2011
 1   Population (000)                                  4,980   5,042     …
 2   Population Density (Population per Km2)            10.1    10.3     …
 3                                    Male (Year)       60.7    60.8     …
     Life Expectancy at Birth
 4                                    Female (Year)     69.0    69.1     …
 5   Total Fertility Rate                               2.44    2.40     …
 6   Share of Urban Population (%)                      49.1    49.5     …
 7   Literacy Rate (%)                                  99.6     …       …
 8   Total Labor Force (000)                           2,117   2,162     …
 9   GDP at Current Price (Mln US$)                   18,651   20,001    …
10   GDP per Capita (US$)                              3,745   3,967     …
11   GDP Annual Growth Rate (%)                          6.0     9.0     …
12                                   Agriculture        12.0    12.0     …
13   GDP by Sectors (%)              Industry           54.0    54.0     …
14                                   Services           34.0    34.0     …
15   Gross Fixed Capital Formation/GDP (%)              51.0    59.0     …
16   Foreign Direct Investment (Mln US$)               3,867   2,083     …
17   Exchange Rate (National Currency/US$)               …       …       …
18                                   Imports             …       …       …
19   Total Foreign Trade (Mln        Exports             …       …       …
20   US$)                            Total               …       …       …
21                                   Balance             …       …       …
22                                   Imports             …       …       …
     ECO Trade/Total Foreign
23                                   Exports             …       …       …
     Trade (%)
24                                   Total               …       …       …
25   Production of Crude Oil (Mln Ton)                   …       …       …
26   Production of Natural Gas Mln M3)                35,720   41,610    …
27   Production of Electricity (Mln Kwh)              15,980     …       …

                            Source: the World Bank




     Page 82/85                                          ECO at a Glance
5.10 Republic of Uzbekistan




   National Day: 1st of September
   Capital: Tashkent
   Area: 448,900 sq. km
   Land boundaries: 6,221 km
   Bordering countries: Kazakhstan (2203 km_,
    Kyrgyzstan   (1099 km) , Tajikistan (1161
    km), Turkmenistan (1821 km), Afghanistan
    (137 km)
   Uzbekistan has 420 km. sea shore of the
    Aral Sea
   Climate: Extreme continental with long hot
    summers and warm winters
   Natural resources: Natural gas, oil, coal,
    gold, uranium, silver, copper, lead, zinc,
      molybdenum,          marble,      granite,
    phosphorites, potash and rock salts
   Land use:
            o Arable land:      10.8%

ECO at a Glance                              Page 83/85
             o Pastures:         40%
             o woods:            3%
             o Other:            48%
             o Irrigated land:   40,000 sq Km
   Agricultural products: Grain, mostly spring
    wheat, cotton; wool, meat




Page 84/85                                ECO at a Glance
     Selected Key Statistical Indicators of the Republic of
                          Uzbekistan

                      Indicator                       2009     2010     2011
 1   Population (000)                                27,767   28,234   29,559
 2   Population Density (Population per Km2)          51.4      52.3     …
 3                                   Male (Year)      64.7      64.9     …
     Life Expectancy at Birth
 4                                   Female (Year)    71.0      71.2     …
 5   Total Fertility Rate                             2.50      2.50     …
 6   Share of Urban Population (%)                    36.9      36.9     …
 7   Literacy Rate (%)                                 …         …       …
 8   Total Labor Force (000)                         11,763   12,123     …
 9   GDP at Current Price (Mln US$)                  31,852   38,923   45,482
10   GDP per Capita (US$)                            1,147     1,379   1,539
11   GDP Annual Growth Rate (%)                        8.1       8.5     8.3
12                                  Agriculture        …         …       …
13   GDP by Sectors (%)             Industry           …         …       …
14                                  Services           …         …       …
15   Gross Fixed Capital Formation/GDP (%)            26.1      24.9    23.5
16   Foreign Direct Investment (Mln US$)             2,689     2,794   2,686
17   Exchange Rate (National Currency/US$)           1,510     1,589   1,709
18                                  Imports          9,438     8,798   10,510
19   Total Foreign Trade (Mln       Exports          11,771   13,045   15,027
20   US$)                           Total            21,210   21,842   25,537
21                                  Balance          2,333     4,247   4,517
22                                  Imports           13.1      17.8    17.5
     ECO Trade/Total Foreign
23                                  Exports           14.6      25.1    27.8
     Trade (%)
24                                  Total             13.9      22.2    23.6
25   Production of Crude Oil (Mln Ton)                 …         4       4
26   Production of Natural Gas Mln M3)                 …      60,112     …
27   Production of Electricity (Mln Kwh)             49,900   51,700   52,400

       Source: State Committee of the Republic of Uzbekistan on
                       Statistics (www.stat.uz)




     ECO at a Glance                                            Page 85/85

								
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