Dyadic Role Making by 9DvZVQ

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									Dyadic Role Making
Attributions, & Followership




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Dyadic relationships are not
 identical for all of leaders’
    direct subordinates



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 LMX THEORY

 ATTRIBUTION THEORY

 FOLLOWER BASED APPROACH



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LMX THEORY
 Vertical dyad linkage theory  LMX Th.
 Describe role making processes between
  leader and each individual subordinate and
  the exchange relationship that develop
  overtime.
 Basic premise:
   Leaders develop a separate exchange relationship
    with each subordinate as the two parties mutually
    define the subordinate’s role.
   Based on: personal compatibility and subordinate’s
    competence and dependability

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LMX THEORY

 Based on these dyads, there are two groups of
             subordinates emerge:
     The In-Group & the Out-Group

Subordinates are initiated into one of these
two groups based on:
  how well they work with the leader
  how well the leader works with them
  their personalities
  role responsibilities they assume
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    Subordinates in the In-Group
    receive more…
                 Information             Independence
   Influence                                   Challenging Work
          Confidence                           Trust

    Concern                                       Egalitarianism
Opportunities for leadership                           Respect

  Subordinates become part of the in-group by performing
  activities that go beyond their formal job descriptions. Their
  willingness to do more illustrates professional pride and
  organizational commitment, and their leaders consequently
  are willing to do more for them.                                 6
     Subordinates in the Out-Group
        Contractual                                 Rule bound

      Less dependable                               Hierarchical

    Less communicative                            Self-Interested

 Lower quality relationship                        Less Involved

Individualistic, not group oriented             Built on Compliance
   Subordinates in the Out-Group may be new to an organization
   and feel more confident working from prescribed roles, or
   could be those individuals who are not highly committed to the
   organization. Leaders must offer subordinates opportunities
   for leadership, role expansion, and familiarity, while
   subordinates must exhibit initiative, innovation, and dedication
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   to both leader and organization.
  The Organizational Benefits of Quality
  Leader-Member Exchanges

     Less Employee Turnover
     More Positive Performance Evaluations
     Higher Frequency of Promotions
     Greater Organizational Commitment
     More Desirable Work Assignments
                       •   Better Job Attitudes
                       •   More Attention/Support From Leaders
                       •   Greater Participation
                       •   Faster Career Progress (Over 25 Years)

“When leaders and followers have good exchanges, they feel better,
accomplish more, and the organization prospers” (Northouse, 2004, p. 151).
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Leadership Making
 Graen & Uhl Bien (1995) believe that “a
  leader should develop high-quality
  exchanges with all of her or his
  subordinates, rather than just a few…[so
  that] every subordinate feels as if he or she
  is part of the in-group” (In Northouse, 2004, p. 151).

 Leadership Making develops progressively
  over time in three phases:
      1. The Stranger Phase
      2. The Acquaintance Phase
      3. The Mature Partnership Phase
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   Phases in Leadership Making
   (Table 8.1 from Northouse, 2004, p. 152)
                     Phase 1:           Phase 2:              Phase 3:
                     Stranger         Acquaintance            Partner
     Roles          Scripted              Tested           Negotiated

  Influences        One Way               Mixed            Reciprocal

 Exchanges            Low          Medium Quality             High
                     Quality                                 Quality
   Interests           Self            Self/Other              Group

Phase 3 illustrates an extremely effective working relationship that is
transformational, producing “positive outcomes for both themselves      10
(leaders & subordinates) and the organization” (Northouse, 2004, p. 153).
Strengths of LMX Theory
 It accurately describes the leadership
  process and the presence of in-
  groups and out-groups
  “Some contribute more and receive more;
    others contribute less and get less”
    (Northouse, 2004, p. 154).
 LMX is the only leadership approach
  to consider the dyadic relationship of
  leader and follower and the
  exchanges that determine
  organizational effectiveness.
                                            11
 Strengths of LMX Theory
 cont…
 LMX theory highlights communication as the
  “vehicle through which leaders and subordinates
  create, nurture, and sustain useful exchanges”
  and achieve a working environment characterized
  by “mutual trust, respect, and commitment”
  (Northouse, 2004, p. 155).
 Expansive research supports LMX’s claims to
  positive organizational outcomes such as
  innovation, empowerment, positive job climate,
  and organizational citizenship behavior.

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Criticisms
 LMX theory contradicts our sense of equity
  “Because LMX theory divides the work unit
  into two groups and one group receives
  special attention, it gives the appearance of
  discrimination against the out-group” (p. 155).
            No mention is given to subordinates’
       perceptions of fairness, nor are strategies
   developed to help subordinates gain in-group
                                      recognition.
 LMX theory is not fully developed as it fails
  to explain how high-quality leader-member
  exchanges are created. How are trust and respect
  gained?
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Criticisms cont…

  There is no truly definitive
   measurement instrument for
   leader-member exchanges.
   Traditionally these scales
   lack content validity and
   therefore may not actually
   be measuring what they set
   out to measure!


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                   Application
• serves to make both leaders and subordinates
  cognizant of the many ways in which they shape their
  working environments, for better or worse. Beyond
  simply achieving harmony or efficiency, values such as
  respect, organizational commitment, and personal
  excellence should be the goals of any truly effective
  organization.
• Reinforces the value and uniqueness of each employee
  while encouraging leaders to tap the talents of their
  subordinates and help them grow professionally.
• Powerful reminder of the divisions that can arise in an
  institution and the necessity of building strong
  interpersonal relationships with all employees.         15
LEADER ATTRIBUTIONS
About SUBORDINATE
Describes the cognitive processes use by leaders
      to determine the reasons for effective or
    ineffective performance and the appropriate
                      reaction.

   Two Stage Attribution Model
    1. Tries to determine the cause of poor performance
          Internal or external caused
    2. Tries to select an appropriate response to correct
       the problem

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LEADER ATTRIBUTIONS
About SUBORDINATE
 Types of Attribution
   Internal: lack of effort or ability
   External: external causes




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LMX n ATT

  In high-exchange relationship:
    Leaders appear to be less critical in
     evaluating the performance of subordinate.
    Effective performance more likely to
     attributed to internal factors, vice versa for
     ineffective performance.
  Opposite is true for low exchange
   relationships
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FOLLOWER
ATTRIBUTIONS
 Determinants of Follower Attributions
     Timely indicators of performance
     Direct vs indirect actions
     Response in a crisis
     External conditions
     Constraints on leader’s decision an actions
     Leader’s intentions and competency
     Leader’s personal qualities
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   How leaders are evaluated is affected by implicit
leadership theories, which are beliefs and assumption
           about the characteristic of effective leaders.
 Involve stereotypes and prototypes about:
   traits; skills or behavior that is relevant for
   particular type of position; context; or
   individual.

 Source of biased ratings on leadership
  behavior questionnaire.

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