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					    APQP TOOLBOX


Production Part Approval
                                Advanced Product Quality Planning (APQP)
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  1. Task Name and purpose:
The Production Part Approval purpose is to obtain the Part Submission Warrant from the supplier:
“I affirm that the samples represented by this warrant are representative of our parts and have been made to
the applicable customer drawings and specifications and are made from specified materials on regular
production tooling with no operations other than the regular production process. I also certify that documented
evidence of such compliance is on file and available for review”
(Extract from PSW template)

  2. Task Owner:
         Supplier  Responsible
         Volvo  Approve

  3. Timing:
PPA is conducted during product and process validation.

     Significant Production
                  Trial Run

                                                   PPA                    Run@Rate                       SOP
                 Process
                Capability
                   Study
                                                             PPAP                          Capacity &
                                                            Package                         Quality:
                                                                                            Sign off



                                                               PSW:
                                                              Sign off




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 4. Description:
   4.1. Process definition

                                          Roll Supplier
                                           action plan



                                                                            Were All
                                                                                            No
                                            Collect PPAP                  Requirements
                    Achieve APQP                                                                               No
        Supplier                        intended Input at due                met?
                      Activities
                                                dates
                                                                              Yes                          PPAP          Yes     Define & Submit
                                                                                                         deviation?                action plan
                                       Perform PPAP Review               PSW Sign Off and
                                       according submission                submission to
                                           requirements                       SQA




                                                                             Review
                                                                                                                                Action plan         No
                                                                          documentation          Supplier feedback
                                        Assign PPAP level to                                                                   commitment?
           SQA
                                       supplier (default level 4)
                                                                                                                                              Yes
                                                                              Was the
                                                                                                                 END: Put
                                                                             document
                                                                                                              documentation in
                                                                            approved ?
                                                                                                                 database.
                                                                                    Yes                       Feedback & KPIs



                   START: Complete
          Buyer     sourcing process
                   and PPAP ordering




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   4.2. Methodology
          4.2.1.       PPAP element constitution


                       SIGNIFICANT PRODUCTION RUN                         TESTING        RUN@RATE

                                 CAPACITY MONITORING SHEET
                                                    Parts issued from     Conform parts issued
          PROCESS ADJUSTMENT                                                 from manufacturing
                                                    manufacturing
                                                    process should be        process must be
  INPUTS                 Parts are produced from
                                                    conform and the          functional
                         final manufacturing
                         process :                  process capable.
                                                                          PPAP elements:
                         - Stabilized process
                                                    PPAP elements:        10. Performance Test
                         - At intended production
                                                    9. Dimensional            Results
                         rate
   PPAP elements:                                   Results
   1. Design Record      PPAP elements:             10. Material Test
                         2. Engineering Change      Results
      2. Engineering                                11. Initial Process
                         Documents
      Change                                        Study
                         3. Customer Engineering
      Documents                                     18. PSW
                         Approval
      3. Customer        5. Process Flow            13. Appearance                     New process capacity
      Engineering        Diagrams                   Approval Report                      must be assesses
      Approval           6. PFMEA                   14. Sample Product                 • Capacity
                         8. MSA Studies             17. Customer                         Monitoring Sheet
    4. DFMEA                                                                           • Run@Rate
                         12. Qualified Laboratory   Specific
                                                    Requirements             PSW         Validated
                         Documentation
                                                                            Sign off
                         7. Control Plan                                                 Capacity Sign Off
                         19. Bulk Material
                         Requirements Checklist
                         15. Master Sample
                         16. Checking Aids




See “Mandatory, Submission requirements” section for acceptance criteria.

   4.3. Deliverables / Customers at Volvo
          4.3.1.       PPAP Deliverables:
          PPAP package, PSW sign off
          GPS Screen updated




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                                     PPAP approval is considered complete:
          when GPS screen 24.2 is updated with a “Y” in each of the appropriate part and tool fields
                                                       AND
          when the PSW document is signed by VOLVO representative and sent back to the supplier.

          4.3.2.     Customers
          Volvo Supplier Quality Engineer
          Volvo Purchasing Department
          Volvo Product Development
          Volvo project team


Necessary Inputs to build PPAP package:                         Source of input


1 - Design Records of Saleable Product                          Supplier
2 - Engineering Change Document                                 Volvo Product Development / Supplier
3 - Customer Engineering Approval, if required                  Volvo Product Development / Supplier
4 - Design FMEA                                                 Volvo Product Development / Supplier
5 - Process Flow Diagrams                                       Supplier
6 - Process FMEA                                                Supplier
7 – Control Plan                                                Supplier
8 - Measurement Systems Analysis                                Supplier
9 - Dimensional Results                                         Supplier
10 - Material, Performance Test Results                         Volvo Product Development / Supplier
11 - Initial Process Study                                      Supplier
12 - Qualified Laboratory Documentation                         Supplier
13 - Appearance Approval Report (AAR), if applicable            Supplier
14 - Sample Product                                             Supplier
15 - Master Sample        Supplier                              Supplier
16 - Checking Aids                                              Supplier
17 - Customer Specific Requirements                             Supplier
18 - Part Submission Warrant                                    Supplier
19 – Bulk material requirement check list, if applicable        Supplier




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     4.4. Responsibilities
          4.4.1.    PD
          PD is responsible to provide the supplier with PPAP package elements under his responsibility (see
           above: source of input)

          4.4.2.    Buyer
          Buyers are responsible to issue Production Part Approval Sample orders with committed lead
           times as agreed between the supplier and the buyer.

          4.4.3.    SQE
          The appointed SQE handler or PPAP Coordinator is responsible to drive the Production Part
           Approval Process completion, including planning, updating GPS screen 24.2 and verification of
           PPAP submissions.
          To confirm PPAP lead-time:
               after the RTS is signed by the supplier for all parts at VPT
               after the RTS is signed by the supplier for Key Component parts at least at 3P
               in line with the APQP planning, timeline of the supplier, with committed lead times agreed upon
                between the supplier, SQD and the buyer. .
          To confirm the Production Part Approval sample order lead-time with the supplier
          To define with the supplier the activities to perform and documents to submit
          To update “Planned PPAP -Y wk” area of the 24.2 screen in GPS.

          4.4.4.    Supplier
          To lead all the APQP activity as defined in AIAG Reference manual
          To carry out the Production Part Approval Process
          The supplier carries out the Production Part Approval Process verification according to Key
           Elements Procedures. Suppliers approved for PPAP Level 1 status in accordance to GPI-056 need
           only submit a PSW as agreed upon with the SQE or PPAP Coordinator.

 5. References:
AIAG Production Part Approval Process (PPAP) Reference Manual, 4th edition.
Volvo’s GPI-055

 6. Volvo Specifics
NA




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  7. Mandatory, Submission requirements
    7.1. Design Records of Salable Product
         Are Volvo print(s) included to correct revision level?
         Are prints of components and detailed drawing included? (for system suppliers)
         Are BOM, assembly notes and records of drawing supplied? (for system suppliers)
         Are Special Characteristics properly documented?
         Are all print requirements (including specifications, materials, & notes) numbered for layout (specially
          measurement report …)?
         Are all dimensions specified by Volvo appears on the print?
         If there is no print, have supplier supplied models, CAD/CAM math data?

    7.2. Engineering Change Documents, if any
         Are Supplier AND customer changes list?
         Are last revisions mentioned in the engineering changes document consistent with the design records
          package?
         Is part number, revision, date, mentioned on the documents?
         Are reasons of change described in the notice
         Are Volvo’s DCN (Document Change Notice) transmitted with that last revision of drawings (for
          supplier and customer changes)?
         Have last revisions of DCN been taken in account?

    7.3. Customer Engineering Approval, if required
Engineering Approval, if any, is required in Volvo TR (Technical Regulation).
         Have the supplier submitted the evidence of Engineering Approval if required?
         Have Engineering Approval been released by Volvo relevant authorities?

    7.4. DFMEA
A copy of the Design Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (DFMEA), reviewed and signed-off by supplier. If
customer is design responsible, usually customer may not share this document with the supplier. However, the
list of all critical or high impact product characteristics and root causes should be shared with the supplier, so
they can be addressed on the PFMEA and Control Plan.
During PPAP Review and before Approval, SQA should have correct answers to the following questions:
         Was the SFMEA and/or DFMEA prepared using the Chrysler, Ford and General Motors Potential
          Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) reference manual?
         Have historical campaign and warranty data been reviewed?
         Have similar part DFMEAs been considered (Addresses typical / historical failure modes)?
         Does the SFMEA and/or DFMEA identify Special Characteristics?


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         Do all Special Characteristics have been addressed
         Have design characteristics that affect high risk priority failure modes been identified?
         Have appropriate corrective actions been assigned to high risk priority numbers?
         Have appropriate corrective actions been assigned to high severity numbers?
         Have risk priorities been revised when corrective actions have been completed and verified?
         Reviewed, traceability inputs/DFMEA, well filled

    7.5. Process Flow Diagrams
         Does the flow chart illustrate the sequence of production and inspection stations?
         Were all the appropriate FMEAs (SFMEA, DFMEA) available and used as aids to develop the
          process flow chart?
         Are Operation identifications consistent with PFMEA, Control plans and Process instructions ?
         Does the flow chart describe how the product will move, i.e., roller conveyor, slide containers, etc.?
         Is the flow chart keyed to product and process checks in the control plan?
         Has the pull system/optimization been considered for this process?
         Have potential quality problems due to handling and outside processing been identified and
          corrected?
         Have provisions been made to identify and inspect reworked products before being used (if reworking
          is a part of normal process)?
         Are special processes identified?

    7.6. PFMEA
A copy of the Process Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (PFMEA) reviewed and signed-off by supplier. The
supplier is responsible of this input. It could happen that supplier may not share this document with the
customer. However, the list of all critical or high impact product/process characteristics and root causes should
be shared with the customer, so SQA can check the address on Control Plan, Manufacturing instructions and
Quality Evaluation.
During PPAP Review and before Approval, SQA should have correct answers to the following questions:
         Was the process FMEA prepared using the Chrysler, Ford, and General Motors guidelines?
         Have all operations affecting fit, function, durability, governmental regulations and safety been
          identified and listed sequentially?
         Were similar part FMEAs (Product & Process) considered?
         Have historical campaign and warranty data been reviewed?
         Have appropriate corrective actions been planned or taken for high risk priority numbers?
         Have appropriate corrective actions been planned or taken for high severity numbers?
         Were risk priorities numbers revised when corrective action was completed?
         Were high severity numbers revised when a design change was completed?
         Do the effects consider the customer in terms of the subsequent operation, assembly and product?


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          Was warranty information used as an aid in developing the Process FMEA?
          Were customer plant problems used as an aid in developing the Process FMEA?
          Have the causes been described in terms of something that can be fixed or controlled?
          Where detection is the major factor, have provisions been made to control the cause prior to the next
           operation?
          Reviewed, traceability inputs/DFMEA, well filled
          All Special Characteristics addressed

    7.7. Control Plan
          Is the control plan methodology used in preparing the control plan is base on AIAG AQPQ Reference
           Manual - Section 6 template?
          Were SFMEA, DFMEA, and PFMEA used to prepare the control plan?
          Have all known customer concerns been identified to facilitate the selection of special
           product/process characteristics?
          Is there a procedure for controlling incoming and manufactured products (from incoming through
           processing/Assembly, including packaging and delivery) that identifies:
               Characteristics to be inspected?
               Product/Process requirement with tolerance
               Frequency of inspection?
               Sample size?
               Designated location for approved product?
               Disposition of nonconforming products?
          Are all special product/process characteristics included in the control plan?
          Have special processes qualifications been considered?
          Does control plan identify additional controls necessary to perform short and/or long term capability
           studies?
          Are Material/Engineering specifications requirements identified?
          If required, has the customer approved the control plan?
          Are checking aids, special gages, fixtures and visual standards identified on the control plan
          Are machine/equipment name included?
Level 5 verification.
          Is control plan considered as a living document?
          Are gage methods compatible between supplier and customer?
          Are gages and test equipment available as required by the control plan?
          Are disposition made in case of non-conformances (i.e. identification, quarantine, decision charts)?




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            7.8. Measurement System Analysis Studies
                Are report complies to AIAG format or equivalent?
                Are gage name and characteristics properly identified?
                Are studies performed per acceptable AIAG method?
                Are studies performed on all gages used on special characteristics features, at a minimum (including
                 on-line gages and testers)?
                Are Measurement Systems Analysis performed on all checking aids?
                Are the studies been done within six months?
                Are all the results meet AIAG guidelines (GR&R<10% acceptable, 10-30% may be acceptable based
                 on application, >30% need improvement plan)”?
                Are all metrology laboratories used accredited?

                                                     Gage R&R Study




                  Gage R&R<10%                  10%<Gage R&R<30%                        Gage R&R>30%


                                   Measurement




                                                                                                                    REJECTION
 APPROVAL




                                                         Yes
                                      system                                               Corrective actions
                                   possibilities ?

                                           No



                           No        Special            Yes             Laboratory       Yes
                                                                                                Gage R&R>20% ?
                                  Characteristic ?                  equipment (CMM) ?


                                                                          No




                                                              Yes       Process            No
                                                                       Studies OK




            7.9. Dimensional Results
                Are all metrology laboratories used accredited?
                If laboratories were used to measure components, were methodologies (i.e. CMM programs and
                 fixtures) correlated with organization ones?


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          Are Special Characteristics properly documented?
          Are specification and tolerance included to compare to result?
          Are actual results recorded for intended sample?
          Are results recorded for all dimensions, specifications, and notes?
          Do all results fall within specification limits?
          Is traceability between the document and design documents established (part#, revision …)?
          Do results indicate compliance with specified requirements?
          Is there the evidence that dimensional measurements been performed in Controlled Atmosphere?
          Are the following information mentioned:
               date of the record
               change level
               name of the appraiser
               any authorized engineering change document not yet incorporated in the design record to
                which the part was made
               master sample identification and/or sample identification as appropriate
               Any auxiliary materials that can help the SQA to understand the results (e.g. drawings, CMM
                inspection point results, supplementary layout results sheets, reference and datum)
NOTE: Dimensional results typically do not apply to bulk materials.



    7.10. Material, Performance Test Results
          Are special material characteristics identified?
          Do actual results meet requirements?
          Are results included for all tests required by specifications on the design record(s) & control plan?
          Are validation performed under defined operating conditions?
          Have all engineering changes been incorporated in the production validation testing plan?
          Are results included for all tests required by specifications on the design record(s) & control plan?
          Do reports show who performed tests, date of test, number parts tested, change level of parts tested,
           and specification & change level parts were tested to?

          7.10.1.    Material Test specifics
          Have the certificate of analysis, Certificate of conformity, 3.1and/or 3.2 Inspection Certificate been
           provided for bulk materials?
          Do they meet requirements?
          Have purchased materials PSW been transmitted in Supplier PPAP package and validated by
           authorized supplier authorities?



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NOTE:
- For all suppliers: If the supplier is also the tool builder, the team should receive the tool manufactured in house
with the same method used to receive purchased tools. A PPAP could be a method, received tool checklist,
Process validation plan or Operational Qualification …
- For System supplier only (a system is a set of components which have the same goal …). In theory, if the
supplier is manufacturing components in house and use those components to build the system, the supplier
have to perform complete PPAP package for each system master sample. The supplier have to transmit every
Master sample PSW in the system PPAP package.

          7.10.2.    Performance test specifics
Production Validation testing
Validation is normally performed on the final product, produced during PTR.
          Are multiple validations been performed for each intended used of the product?
          Are validation performed under defined operating conditions?
          Do actual results meet requirements?
          Are Engineering tests performed with
               Production tools?
               Production processes?
               Production operators?



    7.11. Initial Process Study
          Are all Special Characteristics considered in the study?
          If laboratories were used to compute capabilities, were methodologies (i.e. CMM programs and
           fixtures) correlated with organization ones?
          Are control charts submitted which show a stable, in-control, process (i.e. normal distribution …)?
          Are acceptance criteria documented for one-sided or non-normal distributions (see Volvo SQA for
           further details)?
          Do results meet Volvo’s requirement (see following see following chart)?
          Are actions documented for
               Cpk<1,33, Ppk<1,66 or Cmk<2 ?
               1,66<Cpk<1,33, …?

          7.11.1. Acceptance criteria for Normal distribution and Two sided
              tolerances.
For initial process capability, the supplier shall use the following as acceptance criteria (with the relevant case)
for evaluating initial process study results for processes that appear stable:

                                 The Short Term             Preliminary Process        Where the Customer



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                            (>30 consecutive parts   (>100 non consecutive   has a Long Term (on
                            Capability Study)        parts from a 300        going process,
                                                     sample run Capability   influence of normal
                            Minimum Acceptance
                                                     study)                  variations)
                            Criteria is:
                                                     Minimum Acceptance      Minimum Capability
                                                     Criteria is:            Requirement of:
                                       Cmk
                                                             Ppk                     Cpk

Criticality level 1                   ≥2,33                   ≥2                    ≥1,66

Criticality Level 2 & 3                 ≥2                  ≥1,66                   ≥1,33




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          7.11.2. Acceptance criteria for Non-Normal distribution and unilateral
              tolerances.
The capability index will be Cpm. Further information about Cpm are available in Process Capability Toolbox.

                                       Criticality level 1                    Criticality level 2

Cpm is computed with sample of                     Cpm ≥ 1.33                             Cpm ≥ 1.11
50 consecutive dataset as a
minimum


          7.11.3.    Acceptance criteria if process is not under control.
          Criticality level 1: Process capability studies can’t be performed. The machines must have 100%
           automatic check, control + traceability
          Criticality level 2: Process capability studies can’t be performed. The machines must have 100%
           automatic check control

    7.12. Qualified Laboratory Documentation
(required if laboratory testing is not performed by supplier or Volvo)
          Is a certification and scope provided for tests conducted (i.e. ISO 17025)?
          Has an evaluation of the third party laboratory been performed (i.e. Audit)?
          Is third party laboratory accredited for tests conducted (i.e. COFRAC for measurements)?
          Are test results on third party laboratory report format?
          Is name of third party laboratory, date of tests, equipment, appraiser, standard and revision level
           used identified
          Have Gage R&R been performed?

    7.13. Appearance Approval Report, (AAR) if applicable
          Is Appearance Approval Report submitted, completed and approved?

    7.14. Sample Product
      Sample Product is the sample of products produced during PTR and representative of Capability and
      dimensional measurement studies. Sample product can also be the products used to perform
      Dimensional measurement and Capability studies.
      In that case, Sample product can be a subsample of the product quantity defined in Volvo’s order if Volvo
      requires, as appropriate.
          Are sample(s) provided in accordance with submission level and Volvo’s order (i.e. Part #, revision,
           quantity, packaging …)?




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         Have provided sample product been used to perform Dimensional Measurements and/or Capability
          Studies?
         If so, have Products been identified, can the link be made with provided documentation?

    7.15. Master Sample
      Master samples are the unassembled materials used to build the purchased product. Master Samples
      are often retained by supplier.
         Have Master Samples been identified?
         Are sample(s) provided in accordance with submission level and Volvo’s order (i.e. Part #, revision,
          quantity, packaging …)?

    7.16. Checking Aids
Checking aids submission is left to Volvo’s SQA discretion.
         Are go-Nogo gauges drawings been transmitted?
         Are Mistake proofing equipments listed?
         Are Mistake proofing equipment validations submitted?
         Are visual aids or visual standards
                Approved?
                Dated and current?
                Available?

    7.17. Records of Compliance with Customer Specific Requirements
         Review of Technical Specification (GPI-13)
For Example:
         Tools pictures, ownership plate
         Special process instructions and/or operator qualification
         Capacity monitoring sheet
         Special Traceability, FIFO, shelf life requirements
         Volvo’s Black & Grey list
         Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)
         …

    7.18. Part Submission Warrant (PSW)
         Is Part Submission Warrant level meeting Volvo’s SQA expectations (default level 4)?
         Are all required sections filled in by supplier?
         Are submission results written?
         Is warrant signed by appropriate supplier representative?


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   7.19. Bulk Material Requirements Checklist (for bulk material PPAP
      only)
     See AIAG PPAP Reference manual appendix F.

 8. Templates

Part Submission Warrant




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