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					Protective Measures at
NATO Headquarters


Ian Davis
Head, Information Systems Service
NATO Headquarters
Brussels, Belgium
The Prime Directive - I
         NATO information…
        …shall be managed as
         a corporate resource
    to support NATO [business]…
     … throughout its life-cycle...


   Extract from NATO Information Management Policy
The Prime Directive - II
        NATO information…
       …shall be protected…
    …to ensure its confidentiality,
      integrity and availability
     throughout its life-cycle...


   Extract from NATO Information Management Policy
What is NATO?

   An alliance of 19 nations...
   ...and EAPC, PJC & NUC
   The forum for consultation and
    decisions on security matters
   A facility for co-operation in other
    matters
NATO HQ Activities

   POLITICAL     COORDINATION OF
 CONSULTATION      ACTIVITIES

         CONSULTATION
 PROGRAMME       HEADQUARTERS
 MANAGEMENT      ADMINISTRATION
The Consultation Process
         CONSULTATION
               AGENDAS
              requires
              DOCUMENTS
                 NOTES
          INFORMATION
            DECISION SHEETS
NATO HQ                      MEETING
              requires      ATTENDEES:
 STAFF:
   INFORMATION MANAGEMENT
CREATE,                       CREATE,
COLLATE,      requires        REVIEW,
MANAGE                       APPROVE
     INFORMATION SECURITY
              DOCUMENTS
              COMMENTS
Transformation of NATO
since 1989
   Political
       NATO > EAPC > OTHERS


   Information Technology
       Mainframe > LAN > WAN [> Internet]


   Security
       Confidentiality > Integrity & Availability
NATO HQ Organisation
  NATIONAL/         MILITARY
   PARTNER       REPRESENTATIONS
 DELEGATIONS




         NAC     MILITARY
         EAPC   COMMITTEE




INTERNATIONAL     INTERNATIONAL
    STAFF         MILITARY STAFF
Security Domains
                      NATO DOMAIN
 MEMBER                     MILITARY                           NATO
 NATIONS                   COMMANDS                          AGENCIES




            DELEGATIONS    NATO HQ           MILREPS


                     INTERNATIONAL STAFFS



            PARTNER MISSIONS




                                            INTERNATIONAL ORGANISATIONS
  PARTNER
  NATIONS                               INDUSTRY       ACADEME     MEDIA


                                        OTHER NATIONS     GENERAL PUBLIC


   EAPC DOMAIN                               EXTERNAL DOMAIN
NATO HQ Approach to
Security
   Separate regime for each domain
   Same process:
       Adherence to NATO Policy
       Structure
       Objectives
       Principles
       Countermeasures
Structure
   Formality:
       separation of functions
       documentation
   Security as system functionality:
       design
       development
       testing
   Managed throughout life-cycle
       configuration management
Separation of Roles

       Security Accreditation Authority
                    accreditation
                     inspections



Operating Authority           Security Authority
  system development                risk analysis
  system installation               security SOPs
  system operation                  equipment approval
  system maintenance                audits
Documentation
   Security requirements statement

   Security operating procedures

   Interconnection agreements
Objectives

   Protecting NATO information against
    loss of:

       Confidentiality
       Integrity
       Availability


   By either accidental or deliberate act
Definitions
   Confidentiality
       disclosure of information to
        unauthorised parties
   Integrity
       modification of information
   Availability
       destruction of data
       denial of service (access to data)
Principles - I
   Risk management
   Minimality
   Least privilege
   Self-protecting nodes
   Defence-in-depth
   Implementation verification
Risk Management
   Use of approved methodology
   Analysis of:
       Threats
       Vulnerabilities
   Risk Assessment
   Countermeasures
   Residual Risk
Risk Management
               Threats & Vulnerabilities


Requirements        Risk Analysis            Cost


                  Risk assessment


  Countermeasures                   Residual Risk
Residual Risk

                   RISK
                 COVERED
             RISK IDENTIFIED
                    BY
           BY RISK ASSESSMENT
                 COUNTER
                 MEASURES


Residual Risk: Risk accepted due to
 cost/difficulty of countermeasures
Principles - I
   Risk management
   Minimality
   Least privilege
   Self-protecting nodes
   Defence-in-depth
   Implementation verification
Principles - II
   Minimality
       only enable those services required
   Least privilege
       users only given functions &
        authorizations they need


   COTS software must be managed
Principles - III
   Self-protecting nodes
       each network node protects itself
       regards other nodes as untrusted
   Defence-in-depth
       no reliance on one single measure
   Implementation verification
       regular review of security posture
       change/configuration management
Countermeasures
  PHYSICAL

     PERSONNEL

       PROCEDURAL

             TECHNICAL
Countermeasures - I
   Physical
       separation of domains
       restrict access to information stores
       data redundancy
   Personnel
       careful selection of staff
       education
       beware the “insider” threat
Countermeasures - II
   Procedural
       standard operating procedures
       need-to-know separation
       inspections & reviews
       configuration management
   Technical
       certified products
       access controls & audit tools
       firewalls & filters
       anti-virus software
Conclusions
   Information systems are critical to
    operations
   Security:
       is an integral part of the overall
        system
       must be managed throughout entire
        life-cycle
       requires structure & method
       requires a balanced mix of a wide
        variety of techniques
     Outgoing                Maximum
   Traffic (Web)           Line Capacity




                             Incoming
Denial of Service Attack
                           Traffic (email)
    (flooding line)

				
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posted:11/7/2012
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