Sexual Exploitation

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Sexual Exploitation Powered By Docstoc
					City of York Safeguarding Children Board
                                                         Child Sexual Exploitation Procedure




Contents

GUIDANCE ............................................................................................................... 2
  Principles ............................................................................................................... 2
  Definition ............................................................................................................... 2
  Commercial non-sexual exploitation of children ..................................................... 3
  Roles and Responsibilities ..................................................................................... 3
PROCEDURE ........................................................................................................... 4
  Principles ............................................................................................................... 4
  Information sharing ................................................................................................ 4
  Child Sexual Exploitation – Risk Assessment Framework...................................... 4
  Response: Category One – ‘At Risk’ ...................................................................... 5
  Response Category Two – ‘Medium Risk’ ............................................................. 6
     Referral .............................................................................................................. 6
     Strategy discussion ............................................................................................ 7
     Child Protection Processes ................................................................................ 7
     The Role of the Police ........................................................................................ 7
     Child Protection Conference............................................................................... 8
     Immediate Protection ......................................................................................... 8
     Intervention and Support .................................................................................... 8
     Identifying and prosecuting perpetrators ............................................................ 9
  Response Category Three – ‘High Risk’ ................................................................ 9
     Relationships between the Police, Children's Social Care and the Crown
     Prosecution Service ......................................................................................... 10
     Setting up and investigation: Strategy Meeting ................................................. 10
     The Strategic Management Group (SMG) ........................................................ 10
     First Meeting of the SMG ................................................................................. 11
     Establish Terms of Reference .......................................................................... 11
     Tasks and Functions of the Strategic Management Group ............................... 12
     Joint Investigation Team Membership .............................................................. 13
     Investigation Management Group (IMG)........................................................... 14
     Joint Investigation Team (JIT) .......................................................................... 15
     Crossing Geographical and Operational Boundaries ........................................ 15
     Support for victims and witnesses .................................................................... 16
     Support for victims and witnesses at court ....................................................... 16
     Media handling ................................................................................................. 16
     Monitoring and Learning Lessons..................................................................... 16
Appendix: NY Police Child Sexual Exploitation Information Sharing Report ............ 17



Related links
         Child Sexual Exploitation practice guidance
         Sexually Active Young People procedure
         Children Who Harm procedure
         Children Missing from Home protocol and guidance


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GUIDANCE
Principles
      A child centred approach. Action should be focussed on the child/young
       person’s needs and the fact that children/young people do not always
       acknowledge that they may be an exploitative or abusive situation
      A proactive approach. This should be focussed on prevention, early
       identification and intervention as well as disrupting activity and prosecuting
       perpetrators
      Parenting, family life and services. Taking account of family circumstances in
       deciding how best to safeguard and promote the welfare of children and
       young people
      The rights of children and young people. Children and young people are
       entitled to be safeguarded from sexual exploitation just as agencies have
       duties in respect of safeguarding and promoting welfare
      Responsibility for criminal acts. The responsibility for the sexual exploitation
       lies with the abuser and the focus of the police investigations should be on
       those who coerce, exploit and abuse children and young people. The children
       and young people involved are victims of child sexual abuse.
      An integrated approach. Working Together sets out a tiered approach to
       safeguarding; universal, targeted and responsive. Within this, sexual
       exploitation requires a three-pronged approach tackling prevention,
       protection and prosecution.
      A shared responsibility. The need for effective joint working between
       different agencies and professionals underpinned by a strong commitment
       from managers, a shared understanding of the problem of sexual exploitation
       and effective coordination by the LSCB.

Definition
The sexual exploitation of children and young people is a form of child sexual abuse:

‘Sexual abuse involves forcing or enticing a child or young person to take part in
sexual activities, including prostitution, whether or not the child is aware of what is
happening. The activities may involve physical contact, including penetrative (e.g.
rape, buggery or oral sex) or non-penetrative acts. They may include non-contact
activities, such as involving children in looking at, or in the production of, sexual
online images, watching sexual activities or encouraging children to behave in
sexually inappropriate ways.’
(Working Together to Safeguard Children, 2010)

Government guidance uses the following description of child sexual exploitation:

 ‘Sexual exploitation of children and young people under 18 involves exploitative
situations, contexts and relationships where young people (or a third person or
persons) receive ‘something’ (e.g., food, accommodation, drugs, alcohol, cigarettes,


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affection, gifts, money) as a result of their performing, and/or another or others
performing on them, sexual activities. It can occur through the use of technology
without the child’s immediate recognition; e.g., being persuaded to post sexual
images on the internet/mobile phones without immediate payment or gain. In all
cases, those exploiting the child have power over them by virtue of their age,
gender, intellect, physical strength and/or economic or other resources. Violence,
coercion and intimidation are common, involvement in exploitative relationships
being characterised in the main by the child’s limited availability of choice resulting
from their social/economic and /or emotional vulnerability.’
(Safeguarding Children and Young People from Sexual Exploitation, 2009 ).

Whilst the CYSCB is primarily concerned with safeguarding and promoting the
welfare of children and young people aged under 18, there is recognition that the
issue of sexual exploitation can be present for vulnerable young people in the
transition to adult services; and, that some key services within the City of York work
with young people beyond the age of 18.

Commercial non-sexual exploitation of children
It is recognised that children are exploited commercially for purposes other than
sexual. UK legislation dictates that children under the age of 13 years are not
allowed to be employed in any capacity by any person/s and this also includes
parents/guardians. Employment includes assistance in any trade or occasion which is
carried on for profit, whether or not payment is received for assistance.

If you are concerned about possible commercial non-sexual exploitation of children,
you should consult your own agency safeguarding procedures. If in doubt, see advice
from City of York Council Advice, Assessment and Early Intervention team.

NB. Children are trafficked and exploited for many purposes. Any exploitation of a
child or young person is a safeguarding issue, and may indicate that a child or young
person is suffering or at risk of suffering significant harm.


Roles and Responsibilities
‘Working Together 2010’, Chapter 2, sets out the roles and responsibilities of
organisations in relation to safeguarding and promoting the welfare of children and
young people. This is supplemented by the government's ‘Safeguarding Children and
Young People from Sexual Exploitation: supplementary guidance to Working
Together to Safeguard Children’, Chapter 4, issued in 2009; and, the ‘Tackling Child
Sexual Exploitation action plan’, published by the government in November 2011.




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PROCEDURE

Principles
Three key principles should guide work with children and young people who have
been, or are at risk of sexual exploitation:
    All services concerned with the care and protection of children and young
       people work together;
    All appropriate agencies and individuals are notified if children and young
       people are sexually exploited;
    A clear, child centred plan of effective inter-agency action is taken when
       exploitation is suspected or identified.

Information sharing
Working with children/young people in areas of sexual behaviour requires great
sensitivity to the wishes and needs of young people. However agencies should make
their staff aware that a young person’s request that information is not shared must
be respected unless:
     Disclosure is in the public interest, including for the purpose of prevention or
        detection of crime, apprehension or prosecution of offenders;
     Disclosure would protect the vital interest of that or any other young person
        – i.e., where there are child welfare concerns – either a child in need or a
        child in need of protection

In cases where information or intelligence is known relating to concerns about
children/young people, e.g. where there is suspicious behaviour that may indicate
that someone is sexually exploiting a child/young person, that a property is being
used to ‘harbour’ young people, where trafficking may be occurring (outside and
inside the UK, including within the City, and across County boundaries), practitioners
should use the CSE Information Sharing template and guidance to submit known
information to the police..

NB. This form SHOULD NOT be used to report a crime, or to report a child protection
concern.

Child Sexual Exploitation – Risk Assessment Framework
Professionals in all agencies should be alert to the possibility that a child/young
person for whom they have concerns may be sexually exploited. They should discuss
their concerns with their agency’s nominated safeguarding children adviser and they
should use the risk assessment framework (taken from Pan London LSCB Procedures)
to make a judgement about the risk of harm to the child/young person.

The framework groups indicators of risk of harm into categories:
    Category 1 (at risk): a vulnerable child/young person who is at risk of being
       targeted and groomed for sexual exploitation;



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      Category 2 (medium risk): a child/young person who is targeted for
       opportunistic abuse through the exchange of sex for attention,
       accommodation, food, gifts and drugs. The likelihood of coercion and control
       is significant;
      Category 3 (high risk): a child/young person whose sexual exploitation is
       habitual, often self defined and where coercion/control is implicit.

These categories also include situations where:
    A child/young person is at immediate risk of significant harm and has other
       additional vulnerabilities;
    The sexual exploitation may be being facilitated by a child/young person’s
       parent;
    The sexual exploitation may be being facilitated by a child/young person’s
       parent failing to protect;
    A related or unrelated adult in a position of trust or responsibility to a
       child/young person may be organising or encouraging the sexual exploitation.
    Another young person may be organising or encouraging the sexual
       exploitation

NB. Where there are concerns relating to sexual exploitation, and the child/young
person is under 13 years of age, the response MUST be at Category 2 or above,
and cannot be dealt with at Category 1.

Response: Category One – ‘At Risk’
In case where there are indications that a child/young person is at risk of being
groomed for abuse through sexual exploitation, professionals should consult their
agencies nominated safeguarding lead. Professionals should make use of the CYC
Advice and Early Intervention Guidance and Prevention Routemap to guide their
thinking. Advice can be sought from the City of York Advice, Assessment and Early
Intervention team (Front Door) on 01904 551900.

Possible Tools:
    Team Around the Child/young person
    Common Assessment Framework
    Lead Practitioner
    Safety Plans
    CYSCB Sexual Exploitation Information Sharing template

Where appropriate the child/young person and their family should be made aware
of the concerns, engaged in developing the safety plan and in all subsequent
meetings. Agencies may consider referral to the Family Group Conference (FGC)
service as a way to formulate the safety plan in partnership with the child and their
family. FGC is a decision making and planning process whereby the wider family
group makes plans and decisions for children and young people who have been
identified either by the family or by service providers as being in need of a plan that
will safeguard and promote their welfare.
(email: familygroupconference@york.gov.uk; tel: 01904 555366)

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Response Category Two – ‘Medium Risk’


Where a child/young person appears to be targeted for opportunistic abuse through
the exchange of sex for attention, accommodation, food, gifts and drugs but the
‘exploitation’ does not appear to warrant a response at Category Three (see below),
the following procedure will apply. Note that even at this level the likelihood of
coercion and control of the child/young person is significant.

Where a child/young person is considered to be at high or medium risk of sexual
exploitation, a referral should be made to City of York Advice, Assessment and Early
Intervention Service (AAEIS).

Referral

All cases relating to a child or young person who has suffered, or is at risk of
suffering, significant harm from sexual exploitation must be referred to Children’s
Social Care’s Advice, Assessment and Early Intervention Service – AAIES (Front Door).
Once received by the AAEIS, the referral must be considered, within 1 working day,
by the Referral and Assessment Team’s (R&A) Practice Manager as to whether it can
be dealt within the AAEIS or referred to the CYSCB Unit.

In cases where AAEIS confirms after referral that the child/young person is at risk of
significant harm, a strategy discussion should be convened by the AAEIS Practice
Manager under the CYSCB procedures ‘Responding to a child in need of protection’ .

Cases referred to the CYSCB Unit will have elements of complexity e.g. potential
issues with interagency and cross boundary cooperation, the number of children
involved and the potential for publicity.

When deciding whether to refer the case to the CYSCB Unit the R&A Practice
Manager will consider whether the following issues can be managed without
referring to the CYSCB Unit:
     The investigation
     The protection and welfare needs of the victim
     Ensuring interagency cooperation and appropriate managerial representation
     The potential risk posed by the alleged perpetrator towards the victim and
        wider community
     The potential of media interest

Where there is doubt, the R&A Practice Manager must seek advice from the CYSCB
Unit.

NB. The CYSCB procedures state that a strategy discussion should be convened
within 24 hours. If the situation is sufficiently urgent, this time limit should stand.
However, reflecting the need to have the most appropriate people there, the time
limit may be increased to up to 5 days after receipt of referral.

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Strategy discussion
Chairing of the strategy meeting is the responsibility of Children’s Social Care unless
there is involvement by the CYSCB Unit, in which case the meeting will be chaired by
a CYSCB Unit officer.

The strategy discussion will consider the areas outlined under the CYSCB procedures
‘Responding to a child in need of protection’, and will take into account a number of
further considerations relevant to sexual exploitation, including:

      assess the information known to date;
      decide what further information is required at this stage;
      consider any immediate protective action required;
      undertake an initial mapping exercise to determine the scale of the
       investigation and possible individuals implicated;
      establish whether, and to what extent, child sexual exploitation and complex
       abuse has been uncovered;
      if agreed, then decide whether intervention should be targeted at the level of
       Category Two or Three;
      consider a plan for the investigation including resource implications.

Additional membership of the strategy discussion may include:

      Schools or Further Education providers
      Other teams within Children's Social Care (e.g. LAC services)
      Youth Offending Team
      Health personnel
      CYC Press Office
      CYC legal advisor
      Voluntary, Community or Independent sector organisation as appropriate
      Any other person who may have relevant information or expertise

Strategy discussions should always be recorded and the minutes attached to the
child/young person’s records on the Children’s Social Care database.

Child Protection Processes
The child protection process will proceed as outlined under the CYSCB procedures
‘Responding to a child in need of protection’, with the following additions relevant to
cases of sexual exploitation.


The Role of the Police
The Police have the lead role in the investigation, detection and disruption of crime
in relation to the abuse of children through sexual exploitation. The joint risk
assessment should seek to identify any perpetrator(s), victims or potential victims of
these crimes and in doing so, appropriate risk assessments then need to be
implemented to manage the potential harm the victims are exposed to and the harm
the perpetrators present.

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Police involved with child sexual exploitation include:
 The Protection of Vulnerable Persons Unit (PVPU), who assist with interviewing
    child victims and investigating allegations of familial, organised and serious
    sexual abuse
 The Criminal Investigations Department (CID), who investigate allegations of
    grooming, including internet offences and sexual exploitation
 The Missing Persons Coordinator, who assists with locating the missing young
    person and adopts a partnership problem solving approach to prevent young
    people from going missing again

Child Protection Conference
A Child Protection Conference should be held if the child or young person is at
continuing risk of significant harm. Factors for consideration in the meeting include:
 Whether a parent or carer is involved in, or is condoning, the exploitation, or is
    knowingly failing to prevent it;
 Whether the child or young person continues to live within an abusive
    environment e.g. a coercer’s residence, brothel or other environment in which
    the child or young person has regular contact with child abusers or coercers;
 Whether the child or young person’s level of co-operation and engagement with
    services is nil or low;
 Whether the child or young person has been moved into the region for the
    purpose of sexual exploitation, including the trafficking of children and young
    people into the country.

Any Child Protection Plan made should specifically address the exploitation. If the
decision is that a Protection Plan is not necessary, but concerns remain, then the
AAEIS (Front Door) ‘Step Down’ process may be considered.

Immediate Protection
Where immediate action to safeguard a child/young person is required, it may
involve removing the child/young person from the home of a person who is
exploiting them to a safe place. However, those working with children/young people
in these circumstances must never underestimate the power of perpetrators to find
where the child/young person is. Such children/young people will need placements
with carers who have experience of building trusting relationships and skills at
containing young people.

A small number of young people may be at such extreme risk of harm that secure
accommodation is considered. These decisions are beyond the scope of this
procedure but require careful interagency planning and coordination to ensure the
best outcomes for the young person are met.

Intervention and Support
Agencies should recognise that there may be a strong relationship between the
child/young person and the coercer/abuser and it may be difficult for the
child/young person to break this relationship. A strategy should therefore be

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developed, with the child/young person and family wherever possible, to address
the child/young person’s needs and help him or her to move on from the
exploitative situation. It could consider specialist therapeutic support, mentoring to
assist a return to education or employment, outreach work, help to secure
appropriate health services, and assistance to develop a positive network of friends
and relatives.

Parents should be engaged in this process unless they are implicated in the sexual
exploitation.

Identifying and prosecuting perpetrators
Identifying, disrupting and prosecuting perpetrators is key to safeguarding and
promoting the welfare of children and young people from sexual exploitation.

While the police and criminal justice agencies lead on this, the support of all partners
in gathering and recording information/evidence is vital. See CSE Information
Sharing template. All those involved in caring for a child who is suspected to be at
risk of sexual exploitation should continually gather record and share information, as
appropriate, to this end. Parents and carers should be encouraged and supported to
do so, ensuring that information is recorded in such a way that it can be used by the
Crown Prosecution Service and accepted in Court.

Where a young person wants, and is able, to be part of a prosecution, it is essential
that they are supported both through this process, and after the prosecution has
taken place. Many of the issues facing young victims and witnesses are addressed in
the ‘CPS Policy on prosecuting cases involving children and young people as victims
and witnesses’ (2006).

There is a range of criminal offences that perpetrators may have committed, e.g.
under the Sexual Offences Act 2003. Immigration offences may also be relevant, as
well as drugs offences, tax evasion or benefit fraud.

Police National Computer (PNC) is a police-led information management system. It
enables an investigator in one police force to identify which other police force holds
relevant information on a given individual and is available to assist in the protection
of children and young people from sexual exploitation.

Response Category Three – ‘High Risk’

This response is directed at children and young people whose sexual exploitation is
habitual, often self defined and where coercion and/or control is implicit.
Investigation of child sexual exploitation at this level is complex but recent, highly
publicised cases have identified good practice, for example, Operation Retriever in
Derby.




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Relationships between the Police, Children's Social Care and the Crown Prosecution
Service
The CSE investigations of high risk situations should be undertaken as a joint
operation involving the Police and Children's Social Care with the Crown Prosecution
Service (CPS) being consulted at an early stage.

The CPS is independent of the Police and should not be involved in operational
decisions about the conduct of an investigation. However, the CPS can provide
guidance about the evidential or legal implications of issues arising during an
investigation, and early consultation in this regard can aid decisions made by the
investigation team.

Investigation teams should have visible support from the top ranks in the Police and
Children's Social Care and other agencies throughout the inquiry. It is for each
agency to determine their representative. These individuals must be empowered
with full decision making authority (e.g. in the allocation of resources).



Setting up and investigation: Strategy Meeting

The Strategy Meeting must:

      Assess the information known to date;
      Decide what further information is required at this stage;
      Consider any immediate protective action required;

Additionally

      Undertake an initial mapping exercise to determine the scale of the
       investigation and possible individuals implicated;
      Establish whether and to what extent child sexual exploitation and complex
       abuse has been uncovered;
      If agreed, then decide whether intervention should be targeted at the level of
       Category Two or Three.
      Consider a plan for the investigation to be presented to the management and
       resources strategy group, including resource implications;

The Strategic Management Group (SMG)

To ensure a co-ordinated response, a SMG meeting chaired by the Assistant Director
Children's Social Care/ Head of Safeguarding, must be convened within five working
days of the receipt of the referral.

The SMG must act as a steering group and formulate policy and procedure. It must
also be a primary responsibility of this group to ensure that the welfare of children is
paramount at all times.


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The membership of the group must comprise senior staff who are able to commit
resources, and should have the following core membership which should remain
constant throughout the investigation (although there may be a need to add other
personnel as the investigation progresses):

   Assistant Director Children's Social Care/ Head of Safeguarding;
   Head of Police Major and Specialist Crime

The group may also include the following members as necessary:

   LSCB legal adviser;
   Senior health representative
   Press officer/s;
   Other individuals and agencies as appropriate
   Specialist voluntary agency

First Meeting of the SMG
The initial meeting of the SMG must involve senior managers who have the authority
to take decisions on the allocation of resources. A protocol for information sharing
and a clear media strategy should be agreed. It is most important to involve other
agencies at this early stage so that senior managers can identify the need for, and
arrange the provision of and allocate appropriate resources to, any support services
identified. These may include community and specialist health services (e.g.
psychiatric services, counselling services and sexual health services), although the
specific services required will be dependent on the nature of the investigation.

Establish Terms of Reference
At the first meeting of the SMG, the terms of reference must be agreed. All minutes
must be classified restricted and all copies should be individually numbered. Copying
of the minutes should only be allowed on the express authority of the Chairperson.

The SMG meeting must take ownership of the strategic leadership of the
investigation and agree a plan that includes:

   A decision on the scale of the investigation and the staff required for the joint
    investigation group;
   The consideration of any cross boundary issues and planning of appropriate
    liaison and sharing of resources for inter-agency working;
   The identification of staff in both Children's Social Care and the Police of
    sufficient seniority and experience to manage the investigative process;
   The agreement of the staffing of the investigation, allocation of tasks and the
    membership of the investigation management group (including the line
    management responsibilities);
   Arrangements for medical assessments;
   The arrangement and resourcing of access to expert legal advice (e.g. in-house
    Police Legal Compliance & Services, local authority legal service, early CPS
    consultation);

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   Sufficient support, supervision and de-briefing of staff involved to address the
    impact of stress on frontline workers from any agency involved;
   The availability of expert advice where necessary;
   Timescales for the stages of the investigation;
   The management of public relations and media interest in the case;
   Child witness support, if relevant.

Tasks and Functions of the Strategic Management Group
The tasks and functions of the SMG should normally include the following actions.

The agreement of protocols:

       To govern the future handling of the investigation (e.g. on media
        communication and victim / witness support);
       For the sharing of information, to ensure that the investigative team secures
        full access to records from all agencies affected by the investigation and
        individuals holding important information, and to commit all parties to
        providing the necessary help with obtaining records from any outside
        organisations;
       To ensure staff safety in carrying out the investigation.
       The SMG should monitor carefully the approaches used in contacting further
        potential witnesses and the conduct of any subsequent interviews, and
        ensure that any doubts about the validity of evidence are fully addressed.
        The overall process for gathering corroborative and additional evidence must
        be subject to rigorous scrutiny by the SMG.
       Establishing a policy on how agencies deal with questions of potential
        financial compensation for victims (although any compensation by victims in
        criminal matters should be directed to the Criminal Injuries Compensation
        Board).
       Ensuring that appropriate recording takes place of material that is obtained
        during the course of the investigation, and also the safe and secure storage of
        records.
       Agreeing a strategy to ensure that contact with the media is properly
        managed and co-ordinated throughout the investigation and any subsequent
        criminal proceedings, using a nominated press officer.
       Ensuring that careful consideration is given throughout the investigation to
        the health and social care needs of victims and particularly those who will be
        acting as witnesses. Guidance on pre-trial therapy is taken into account.
       Securing the provision of appropriate accommodation facilities and trained
        interviewers for all witnesses, noting that they are children most likely
        subject to intimidation. If perpetrators are subsequently prosecuted,
        consideration has to be given as to what ‘special measures’ should be applied
        for after consulting the CPS so as to support the child witness and enhance
        their opportunity of providing ‘best evidence’. Checking with Children's
        Social Care representative on the SMG that, where children have been
        removed from their families, an appropriate placement is found for them and
        that their needs are being fully assessed.

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      Considering the need for a Serious Case Review.
      Ensuring that suitable arrangements are made for the victims and their
       families during the course of criminal proceedings, with particular regard to
       post-testimony trauma experienced by many witnesses.
      Considering the appropriateness in individual cases of meeting parents of
       children involved to keep them fully and consistently informed as to the steps
       being taken by the relevant agencies and the support available to them.

An individual must be designated to act as co-ordinator between the SMG and the
joint investigative group identified in the plan. The responsibility of the co-ordinator
is to manage the joint investigative group and prepare a report at the conclusion of
the case.

The SMG must agree a schedule of dates for future meetings in order to:

      Monitor the progress, quality and integrity of the investigation;
      Review risk indicators for the children involved;
      Consider resource requirements;
      Consider the appropriate timing of the termination of the investigation;
      Plan a de-brief meeting with the joint investigation group to identify lessons
       learnt.

The SMG must remain in existence at least until the court or the CPS has made a
decision about the alleged perpetrators.

The SMG must report in writing to the LSCB, which must consider at the first
available opportunity whether a Serious Case Review should be initiated.

Joint Investigation Team Membership
The SMG should identify those people from within and outside their organisations
who have the required expertise for dealing with a complex abuse investigation. This
group, led by the Police should consist of experienced personnel from the Police
Protecting Vulnerable Persons Unit and Children's Social Care.

Membership may also be drawn as necessary from the appropriate health
professionals (in particular the forensic medical examiner (FME), the designated and
named doctors and nurses for safeguarding children and psychiatrists, education
(head teachers and class teachers), CPS, legal services, probation and specialist
voluntary agencies.

In selecting staff to be involved in the investigation, it is essential to identify
individuals in whom it is possible to place absolute trust and who display sensitivity,
honesty, empathy and personal maturity. Police officers chosen for the investigative
teams must have a good investigative background. A significant proportion of chosen
officers should have experience in child protection investigative work. All Police
should have the personal qualities to cope with the inherent stresses and high
emotional content of child protection investigation work. Similarly, social workers


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chosen for investigative teams will need a depth and breadth of experience in child
protection investigations with the Police and both family justice and criminal court
work. Where victims or witnesses are identified as having special needs such as
learning impairments or communication difficulties, more specialist staff will be
required.

In selecting staff, consideration should also be given to requirements arising from
the individual needs for the relevant child/ren e.g. gender, culture, race language,
and where relevant, disability.

The size of the group will depend on the scale of the investigation, but in the
majority of cases both the Police and Children's Social Care should provide a line
manager and two staff / officers experienced in interviewing children and trained in
Achieving Best Evidence in Criminal Proceedings.

 Investigation Management Group (IMG)
An investigation management group should be set up under the SMG. Meetings of
this group should also be fully minuted. The Senior Investigating Officer should chair
the investigation management group and membership should include
representatives from Children's Social Care, education, health, and legal services.
Other agencies should be invited to be members of the group as appropriate.

The tasks and functions of the group may vary from case to case but should normally
include the following matters:

   To provide a forum where professionals can meet, exchange information and
    devise tactics for the implementation of agreed strategy on a day to day basis to
    progress the investigation;
   To ensure a consistent strategy for interviewing victims;
   To keep the strategic management group informed of any resource shortages
    experienced by professionals;
   To ensure a consistent and appropriate inter-agency approach to practical and
    emotional support for victims and their families throughout the investigation,
    including facilitating such services where victims fall outside of the jurisdiction of
    the investigating agencies;
   To co-ordinate inter-agency response to families and provide consistent
    information;
   To ensure all staff working on the investigation are given support and ensure
    welfare concerns are addressed;
   To ensure that issues which need to be shared by other agencies not represented
    on the strategic management group or investigation management group are
    communicated to those agencies and addressed;
   To ensure that relevant intelligence has passed between agencies and to the
    Police.




                                                                                       14
 Joint Investigation Team (JIT)
The joint investigation team under the supervision and direction of the chair of the
IMG, the Senior Investigating Officer, is responsible for:

   Planning the overall investigation, involving record checking, evidence gathering,
    planning and undertaking a series of interrelated interviews and surveillance if
    required;
   Holding planning meetings for individual pieces of work (e.g. video interview of a
    child and / or to protect a child);
   Gathering other evidence including forensic evidence, interviews with alleged
    abusers, witnesses and other corroborative evidence;
   Communication and liaison with other agencies on a need to know basis;
   Convening interagency meetings and / or child protection conferences as
    appropriate;
   Co-ordination and timing of therapeutic services;
   Regularly updating the SMG on the progress made and recommending when to
    close the investigation;
   Consideration of arrangements for court hearings and support to children and
    families;
   Recommendations as to the placement of children and any contact involving
    children and their siblings, relatives or other adults.

Crossing Geographical and Operational Boundaries
At the outset, the responsibility for managing the criminal investigation lies with the
Police in the area where the exploitation is reported to have occurred, although
there is the potential that both victims and perpetrator(s) may operate across many
geographical and operational boundaries. If this is identified then contact with the
appropriate Police Service and Children’s Social Care for that area affected will be
made through the SMG.

Consultation between appropriate managerial leads for the respective agencies
involved, (but will include the appointed Senior Investigation Officer from the
original joint Investigation Team) then needs to take place so as an investigation
strategy and terms of reference can be prioritised. One Police Service will be
identified to assume overall responsibility for the investigation strategy but may be
supported by the others where necessary. A senior manager from each area should
join the initiating SMG to discuss this and agree any resource implications involved.

 The original joint investigation team may not be best suited to take the lead for the
investigation if resources dictate or for example work already undertaken in another
area has already commenced and the evidence gathered is progressing towards
prosecution.

Other Children's Social Care services must consider the funding of the service
covering children in its area.




                                                                                       15
It is essential that there is a joint SMG to provide overall planning. If it is necessary to
have more than one joint investigative team working across county boundaries,
there must be only one Senior Investigating Officer and close working between co-
ordinators and processes for full information sharing.

Support for victims and witnesses
An unequivocal victim support strategy and protocol should be established at the
outset. Support will be required in pre-trial, trial and post-trial periods. It is clear
from the experience of Derby and Rotherham that victims and families feel strongly
that it is important that they remain in contact with the same staff throughout the
investigative process and that staff are accessible and committed to them.


Support for victims and witnesses at court
Many of the issues facing young victims and witnesses are addressed in the ‘CPS
Policy on prosecuting cases involving children and young people as victims and
witnesses’ (2006).


Media handling
No agency should underestimate the level of media interest in sexual exploitation
abuse investigations. The main task of handling the media should be assigned to a
senior manager in each agency who is in close contact with the detail of the
investigation. The Senior Investigating Officer should have an operational media
strategy in place from the commencement of the investigation. It is vital that all
statements to the media are cleared, via the Senior Investigating Officer, in
association with strategic partners and that consistency is maintained throughout.

It is essential that victims and their families are protected from the potential trauma
that may be associated with media interest in their cases. All press releases should
avoid identifying victims so that they may be shielded from media attention unless
and until they need to attend court.

The Senior Investigating Officer must be made aware of all pre-sentence
communications to ensure that the integrity of the prosecution is maintained.

Monitoring and Learning Lessons
Cases of Child Sexual Exploitation should all be monitored using a data collection tool
developed locally. Consideration will be given to use of the data collection tool
developed by the University of Bedfordshire in order to allow national data
collection at some point in the future.




                                                                                         16
                                                                        APPENDIX 1
Appendix: NY Police Child Sexual Exploitation Information Sharing Report

Date/Time of report                          Your Ref Code;

Details of Professional submitting:

Name
Post/Job Title
Agency
Contact Details       Tel:
                      Email:
Witnessed                      Member of Public                Professional
Incident

If the information was supplied by someone other than yourself, on a scale of 1-5
how reliable do you think they are?
(5 = Always Reliable and 1 = Unreliable)…………………………………………………...

How accurate is the information on a scale of 1-4?
(4 = Known to be true beyond doubt to 1 = suspected to be false)……………………...

(If you are not able to say re above two questions please state rather than guess)

If the information is from a 3rd party would they be willing to engage with the

Police? ………………………………………………………………………………………….

Have you made any other referrals or reports to any other agency regarding this or
associated matters? (e.g NY Police; CYC Advice and Assessment team; YOT)
YES/NO – If YES, please state which
agency..........................................................................

Please provide information: Include as much detail as possible re names/dates of
birth/descriptions/nicknames/vehicle details/addresses - which should include
residence if known, location of incident, school/college/work place attended etc:




If relevant, does the practitioner know that it is illegal to have sex under 16 years?
(it is statutory rape for under 13 years) YES/NO


                                                                                     17
     If relevant, has this been discussed with the young person? YES/NO

     If yes, does the young person understand the issues and implications? YES/NO

     Fax number:
     Email address: PVPSOUTH@northyorkshire.pnn.police.uk

               NY Police Child Sexual Exploitation Information Sharing Guidance

This form is intended for the sharing of information relating to possible Child Sexual
Exploitation.

Government guidance uses the following description of child sexual exploitation:
 ‘Sexual exploitation of children and young people under 18 involves exploitative
situations, contexts and relationships where young people (or a third person or persons)
receive ‘something’ (e.g., food, accommodation, drugs, alcohol, cigarettes, affection, gifts,
money) as a result of their performing, and/or another or others performing on them,
sexual activities. It can occur through the use of technology without the child’s immediate
recognition; e.g., being persuaded to post sexual images on the internet/mobile phones
without immediate payment or gain. In all cases, those exploiting the child have power
over them by virtue of their age, gender, intellect, physical strength and/or economic or
other resources. Violence, coercion and intimidation are common, involvement in
exploitative relationships being characterised in the main by the child’s limited availability
of choice resulting from their social/economic and /or emotional vulnerability.’
(Safeguarding Children and Young People from Sexual Exploitation, 2009 ).

This form, once completed, should be submitted, electronically, to North Yorkshire Police
Protecting Vulnerable Persons Unit (South) at PVPSOUTH@northyorkshire.pnn.police.uk
where the information will be analysed and held by the intelligence section within strict
data protection guidelines.

This form is for sharing information that may assist in the prevention, disruption or
prosecution of child sexual exploitation, but that does not alone relate to a child
protection issue or a criminal offence. Submission of this form does not replace the duty
to refer child protection concerns, or to report a crime.

The information sharing levers relevant to use of this form are contained in: The Crime
and Disorder Act 1989 (prevention and detection of crime); and, The Data Protection Act
1988 (prevention and detection of crime and/or apprehension of offenders; and,
protection of personal data). Under the provisions in the above acts, it is not necessary to
obtain consent to share relevant information.

Child sexual exploitation is a crime, as set out in the Sexual offences Act 2003; and is a
child protection issue as set out in the Children Act 1989. For the purposes of both acts, an
individual is a child up to their 18thbirthday.




                                                                                            18
If you have a concern relating to safeguarding children, you should follow your agency
safeguarding procedures.

If you want to report a crime, you should contact the police on either 999 (emergency) or
101 (Police national non-emergency number)

If you have information to share:
Discuss the information with your line manager or designated lead for safeguarding or
child sexual exploitation (if you have neither of these, discuss with the person identified in
your own agency safeguarding procedure).

Agree the nature of the information (i.e. is it a safeguarding concern, related to a criminal
offence – if either of these, see above) and, if it is information related to possible child
sexual exploitation, agree who will complete and submit the form. If there may be a
safeguarding concern and/or an issue related to a possible criminal offence, you should
seek further advice from the relevant agencies (i.e. CYC Advice,
Assessment and Early Intervention service or North Yorkshire Police) and, if agreed make a
referral or report as appropriate.




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