Exam 1 Review(1)

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					                GEOLOGY 102 – Exam 3 Review

 Below are listed several of the topics that we discussed in class,
 please note that the test is not limited to these topics
 Pictures played an important role in most of these lectures, you
 will be expected to recognize different principles or relevant
 graphs of each topic.



Volcanic Hazards                       seismic hazard map
ash fall                               seismic risk map
know 4 ash falls that have             short term predictions
affected the western US                foreshocks
lava flows                             ground distortion
lahars – how and when form
gasses – how affect humans,            earthquake engineering
climate, and atmosphere                earthquake zoning
tsunamis
volcanic monitoring – what we          Mass Wasting
measure/monitor to make
                                       Hydrologic cycle
predictions about imminent
eruptions                              Reservoirs
Know answers to questions from         Residence time
the video, “Perilous Beauty:           Pathways
The Hidden Dangers of Mt.              Processes of moving water
Rainier”                                within the hydrologic cycle
                                       Mass wasting
Earthquake Hazards
                                       Role of gravity, water, and
ground shaking, landslide,              other factors
sediment liquefaction, fires,
tsunamis – know how each of            Angle of repose
these forms, the deformation           Different forces acting on
it can cause to buildings,              body
people, etc., and how to               Slope stability
mitigate against each of these         Glide Horizon
hazards
                                       Factors causing slope failure
Know how and when the Sumatra
                                       Gros Ventre Slide
tsunami occurred and why it
was so devastating                     Slide vs. flow
long term predictions                  Rock falls
seismic zones                          Slides: translational,
                                        rotational (slump)
recurrence intervals
Paleoseismology
Flows: Rock avalanche, debris    J. Harlan Bretz, his theory,
 and mud flows, earthflow,        and its evidence
 creep, solifluction             The evidence indicating
Lahars                            eastern Washington’s climate
Preventive mechanisms for mass    has changed in the last 16-18
 wasting                          Ma
                                 Know the characteristic
Groundwater                       features of a single basalt
                                  flow that may have formed
Porosity: primary and             within the Columbia River
 secondary                        Plateau Basalt
Permeability
Infiltration                     Streams
Zone of Aeration                 Stream
Zone of Saturation               Headward erosion
Water table                      Drainage network
Recharge vs. discharge           Types of streamflow
Aquifer                          Gradient
Aquitard                         Discharge (know equation)
Aquiclude                        Base level
Types of aquifers: unconfined,   Types of sediment transport
 confined, karst
                                 Meandering streams vs. Braided
Hydraulic gradient                streams
Darcy’s law                      Thalweg, Point bars, Cutbank
Groundwater chemistry            Oxbow lake
Potentiometric surface           Floodplain
Artesian well                    Natural levees
Groundwater locations in WA      Deltas
Pullman aquifer setting and      Floods – when do they occur?
 characteristics
                                 Flood prevention and
Ways to lower water table        prediction
Groundwater                      Flood recurrence interval –
problems/contamination           know the difference between a
Groundwater                      2 and 100 year flood
problem/contamination
solutions
Hot springs, pools, mud pots,
geysers
Caves and karst
                                 Oceans
Eastern Washington Geology
                                 Ocean composition, temperature
Know the 5 main rock types in
                                 Continental shelf, continental
 this area and how each formed
                                 slope, continental rise,
abyssal plain, mid-ocean            Climate and Climate Change
ridge, trench                       Weather
Currents, surface and deep          Climate
ocean                               The role of atmospheric
                                    circulation in climate
Thermohaline circulation
                                    Albedo, insolation, thermal
                                    capacity
Waves                               The role of orbital parameters
Wavelength, wave height             (eccentricity, obliquity,
Wave base                           precession) in changing
                                    earth’s climate
Wave refraction
                                    Ancient climate indicators
Longshore current                   Periods of global climate
Longshore drift                     (greenhouse, icehouse and
Summer vs. winter beach             transitional)
Barrier island                      The record of icehouse periods
                                    in Earth’s history
Purpose of groins, jetties,         The evidence for Pleistocene
and sea walls and why they          glaciation
don’t commonly work as              Why scientists are worried
expected                            about rising CO2
Shoreline erosion processes         concentrations in the
Sea arch, sea stack                 atmosphere
Tides                               What models predict will occur
                                    to global temperature and sea
Formation of tides
                                    levels in the next ~100 years
Flood vs. eb
Spring vs. neap                     Energy
                                    Understand the source of our
Meteorite Impacts                   current energy system
Why do we study them?               The concept of Peak oil
Types of craters                    What is necessary to offset
Stages of cratering                 peak oil decline?
Local and global effects            Other current and future
Sierra Madera, TX                   energy sources that are
How does one differentiate          available
meteorite craters from other        Problems with each new energy
circular surface features?          source
Explain why some meteorite
craters are not preserved

                                                                     h
Suggestions for studying for this exam:                              y
  1. Create summary notes or “maps” of the important                 d
     concepts to understand how everything relates to                r
     each other. It may be helpful to draw a large                   o
                                                                     l
   ogic cycle chart and show how the different ideas
   about water relate to each other.
2. Go over the powerpoint presentations on the
   computers in the lab.
3. Recopy your notes in your own words. Writing
   things down in your own words will help you
   remember things and will also help you to find
   topics that you may not understand fully.
4. Create flashcards for definitions, formulas, or
   lists that you need to have memorized. Flashcards
   will enable you to test your ability to not only
   recognize important information, but also your
   ability to retrieve information from scratch
5. Student self tests – refer to this website
   (http://www.wwnorton.com/college/geo/earth2) and
   the CD you received for example test questions set
   up by chapters.
6. Set up a study group to test your knowledge.
   People commonly take different notes, if you and
   your friends cannot explain the common ideas to
   each other you will probably need to go over that
   topic again.

				
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posted:11/7/2012
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Lingjuan Ma Lingjuan Ma
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