Low vs High Individualism by s0zwPQFl


									Cultural Frameworks

  Bob Eng and Ash Rao
K&S Value System
Relation to nature

Orientation to time

Basic human nature

Being / Doing / Contain and control

Hierarchy / informal

Hall’s Framework

•Context: High or Low
•Speed of messages between
  individuals / organizations
Hofstede’s Dimensions

  • Power distance

  • Individualism/collective

  • Masculine/feminine
  (career orientation/family orientation)

  • Uncertainty avoidance

  • Short-term/long-term view
  Low vs. High Power Distance
• High value on            • Weaker work ethic
  independence             • Prefer directive
• Dislike close              superiors
                           • High value on
• Consultative,
  participative style is     obedience
  preferred in leader.     • Formal employee
• Positive associations      participation possible
  with power and wealth      without consultation
     Low vs High Individualism
• Large co. attractive     • Work with company if
• Aspire to conformity       it meets individual
  and orderliness            goals
• Security is important    • Aspire to leadership
• Group decisions are        and variety
  better than individual   • Enjoyment of life is
• Support “tradition”        appealing
• People are thought of    • Need to make specific
  as “in” or “out”           friendships
      Low vs High Masculinity
• Group decisions           • Strong achievement
• Less interest in            orientation
  recognition               • Work central to lives
• Reject company            • Corporation has a
                              greater social role
  interference in private
  life                      • Theory X gets some
• Managers have a           • Prefer more salary to
  service ideal               shorter work hours
  Low vs High Uncertainty Avoidance

• Less hesitation to     • More emotional
  change employers         resistance to change
• Lower average age in   • Fear of failure, less
  high level jobs          risk-taking
• Manager need not be    • Prefer clear
  expert in field to       instructions
  manage it.             • Suspicious about
• Accept foreigners as     motives behind
  managers                 company activities
      Types of Conflict

Substantive terms

Process related

                Fit with Media


Asynchronous                              ?

               Low                            High
                     Conflict Intensity
Communication Technology –
    Fit with Culture
   Dimension                             Low                             High

   Power distance                                               Chairman can grant
                                                                permission to people who
                                                                request it

   Individualism               Enable creative inputs           Allow sidechatting – helps
                               without personality conflict     achieve convergence in
                               - anonymous for examnple.        discussions

   Masculinity                                                  Control speaking time per
                                                                group member

   Uncertainty                                                  Formal process with defined

 Source: “Wired International Teams”, Hofstede, et al, Tilburg University, Netherlands

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