MEDIUM-SIZED PROJECT BRIEF by i04gLW

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									                                MEDIUM-SIZED PROJECT BRIEF


PROJECT SUMMARY

PROJECT IDENTIFIERS
1. Project name: Establishmentof Private 2. GEF Implementing Agency: UNDP
Natural Heritage Reserves (RPPNs) in the
Brazilian Cerrado.

3. Country or countries in which the 4. Country eligibility:                CBD     Ratification:   28
project is being implemented: Brazil February 1994

5. GEF focal area (s): Biodiversity             6. Operational program/Short-term measure:
                                                OP#3 - Forest Ecosystems

7. Project linkage to national priorities, action plans, and programs: The project is consistent
with the National Biodiversity Program (PRONABIO), established by the Brazilian Government
(GoB) in 1994, which takes as one of its explicit priorities the conservation and sustainable use of
the Cerrado biome. In addition, the Brazilian Government is stimulating private sector participation
in biodiversity conservation efforts, in part through Decree N 1922 (1996), providing for the
creation of Private Natural Heritage Reserves – RPPNs.

8. GEF national operational focal point and date of country endorsement:
Submitted: 16th January 1998.
Acknowledged: 16th March, 1998
Endorsed: 29th march, 1999

PROJECT OBJECTIVES AND ACTIVITIES
9. Project rationale and objectives: 1. To              Indicators: 1. To increase the protected
conserve biodiversity in areas near and adjacent to     area for biodiversity conservation in about
two National Parks in the Cerrado to function as        40,000 hectares; 2. Degree and quality of
ecological corridors (Cerrado is considered a           participation of private landowners in
globally significant biodiversity hotspot by CI, WWF,   biodiversity conservation efforts; 3.
TNC and others); 2. To stimulate private sector         Existence and quality of sustainability
participation in biodiversity conservation of the       strategies and plans. 4. Concrete interest
Cerrado biome through the implementation of             of other landowners in establishment of
Private Natural Heritage Reserves, a new GoB            private reserves.
initiative involving private owners and NGOs; 3. To
establish mechanisms for sustainability of the
Private Reserves; 4. To disseminate the lessons and
experience of this project to other landowners with
the aim of replicating the experience.

10. Project outcomes:                                   Indicators: 1. State recognition of
a) Four fully functional Private Natural Heritage       established RPPNs; 2. Economic returns
    Reserves, with management plans under               demonstrate self-sustainability; 3.
    operation;                                          Landowners’ request information on how to
b) Awareness raising programme in operation             create RPPNs; 4. Local communities
    aimed at dissemination to other landowners and      participate actively in project-related
    associations of best practices and lessons          activities; 5. Technical staff produce
    learned regarding RPPNs;                            planning and management strategies for
c) Awareness raising programme in operation             biodiversity conservation and ecotourism
    aimed at motivating cooperation and support of      development; 6. Current and prospective


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   local communities and their participation in the RPPN developers receive support from
   RPPN project;                                     network.
d) Technical staff of the RPPNs trained in protected
   area planning and management, and ecotourism
   development;
e) An RPPN support network consisting of RPPN
   managers, NGOs, relevant government staff
   members and local communities;

11. Project activities to achieve outcomes Indicators: 1. Agreements with landowners;
(including cost in US$ or local currency of each 2. Accumulation of information on new
activity):                                            areas decreasing the scarcity regarding
a) Start up activities.                               Cerrado biodiversity; 3. Number and quality
b) Selection and demarcation of areas to be of management plans elaborated; 4. Plans
    transformed into RPPNs and establishment of under implementation including staff and
    formal partnerships with owners. Cost: US$86,000 management actions, infrastructure and
c) Rapid Ecological Assessment / Elaboration of equipment; 5. Number of trained staff; 6.
    Management Plans. Cost: US$ 139,500               Awareness of importance of biodiversity
d) Implementation of Management Plans, minor conservation has increased; 7. RPPN
    infrastructure development where needed, trails, network possesses strategic plan for
    provision of basic equipment and other materials replication and maintenance of RPPN
    for ecotourism, protection, awareness raising system.
    and dissemination. Cost: US$ 362,500
e) Selection and training of RPPN staff for
    protected area planning and management, and
    ecotourism development; US$ 22,000
f) Development and implementation of awareness
    raising programmes, including staff, materials
    and media programmes; US$ 73,500
g) Establishment of an RPPN support network
    consisting of RPPN managers, NGOs, relevant
    government       staff  members      and    local
    communities. US$ 51,500
h) Evaluation Missions. US$15,000
12. Estimated budget (US$): PDF: n/a
GEF:                            US$ 750,000.00
Co-financing: Funatura:          US$ 100,000.00
TOTAL:                           US$ 850,000.00
INFORMATION ON INSTITUTION SUBMITTING PROJECT BRIEF
13. Information on project proposer: Funatura (Fundação Pró-Natureza), created in 1986, is a
non-governmental, non-profit organization. Its goals are to contribute to nature conservation
throughout the country, mainly in the Cerrado biome. Funatura has carried out several projects in
collaboration with other NGOs, governmental agencies and private enterprises. The main
institutions that have had partnerships or still support Funatura’s works are: TNC, WWF, CI,
MacArthur Foundation, Ford Foundation, WRI, CEE, ITTO, Interamerican Development Bank-IDB,
World Bank, GoB Environment Ministry, Fundação Boticário and privates enterprises. Since its
creation, Funatura has managed approximately US$ 10,000,000.00. Its main projects relate to
conservation of the Cerrado biome among others, are: (a) implementation of the Grande Sertão
Veredas National Park, in co-management with IBAMA (Brazilian Institute of the Environment). The
park has an area of 84,000 hectares located in the State of Minas Gerais and the project aims at
biodiversity protection through works carried out with local communities; (b) implementation of
Private Natural Heritage Reserves. Presently 13 reserves have been implemented, amounting
112,000 hectares. This work is mentioned in the 1st National Report for the Convention on
Biological Diversity – Brazil; (c) a seminar and workshop denominated “Alternatives for Cerrado


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Development”, held in 1988 with the participation of approximately 100 Brazilian experts; d) a
project entitled “Priority Actions for Pantanal and Cerrado Biodiversity Conservation”, in partnership
with Conservation International, Fundação Biodiversitas, University of Brasilia and Ministry of
Environment - MMA, was concluded in 1999 and included the participation of approximately 260
Brazilian experts, with expertise in Cerrado and Pantanal. Among Funatura publications of
relevance are: (a) Funatura et alli,1999. “Ações Prioritárias para a Conservação da Biodiversidade
do Cerrado e Pantanal”, Brasília 32 p. This publication among others was used to apply the
definition of world’s hotspot for the Cerrado, according to “Hotspots Earth’s Biologically Richest and
Most Endangered Terrestrial Ecoregions, Conservation International, 1999, page 155”; (b)
Funatura, 1992. Alternativas de Desenvolvimento dos Cerrados: Manejo e Conservação dos
Recursos Naturais Renováveis. B.F.S. Dias (Coord.). Brasília. 97 p; (c) Funatura, SCT/PR, PNUD,
1992. Custo de Implantação de Unidades de Conservação na Amazônia Legal. Brasília; (d)
Funatura, 1990. Alternativas ao Desmatamento da Amazônia: Conservação dos Recursos Naturais
Renováveis. Brasília. 36 p; (e) Funatura, 1998. Ribeiro Silva, S. Plantas do Cerrado Utilizadas
pelas Comunidades da Região do Grande sertão Veredas. Brasília, 109 p. Funatura, 1996; (f)
Parcerias e co-gestão em Unidades de Conservação. Brasília.70p; (g) INPE, Funatura, ITTO,
IBAMA, 1993. Inventário Florestal na Floresta Nacional do Tapajós. São José dos Campos. 126 p;
and (h) Funatura, IBAMA, ITTO, 1997. Diagnóstico e Avaliação do Setor Florestal Brasileiro.
Brasília, 231 p. Funatura, ITTO, 1995. Mogno. Brasilia. 187 p. Several of these publications were
used as reference to the elaboration of the 1st National Report on the Convention of Biological
Diversity.

14. Information on proposed executing agency (if different from above): same
15. Date of initial submission of project concept: January 16, 1998
INFORMATION TO BE COMPLEMENTED BY IMPLEMENTING AGENCY:
16. Project identification number:
17. Implementing Agency contact person: Nick Remple, Regional GEF Coordinator, UNDP/HQ
                                             Carlos Castro, GEF Focal Point, UNDP/CO
18. Project linkage to Implementing Agency program (s): The Country Collaboration Framework
2000-01 establish that UNDP/Brazil will continue to play a central role in cooperating with the
governmental and non-governmental organizations in its endeavour to protect the environment
while pursuing its economic sustainability with particular emphasis on management and
conservation of most threatened ecosystems such as the Cerrado area. A good example of this
cooperation is the GEF/Small Grants Program, which deals with the conservation and the
sustainable use of Cerrado biodiversity. The Funatura project complements the actions of the SGP
in Brazil.




PROJECT DESCRIPTION


Project Rationale and Objectives

The Cerrado (Savannah type vegetation) biome covers almost 25% (200 million hectares) of
Brazil. According Hotspots Earth’s Biologically Richest and Most Endangered Terrestrial
Ecoregions (Conservation International & CEMEX, 1999), the Cerrado is considered one of the
world’s biodiversity hotspots, that is, one of the richest and most threatened biomes of the planet.
Over the last two decades, the Cerrado has undergone an intense, swiftly paced conversion
process of its original habitat to other uses. This process has given little consideration to the
economic potential for sustainable use of the area’s resources for pharmaceuticals, food, oils,
resins, or ecotourism, or to the environmental services provided in terms of refuges for local and



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migratory species, soil erosion control, water supply and quality, genetic resources, biological
control, etc.


According to A Conservation Assessment of the Terrestrial Ecoregions of Latin America and the
Caribbean (IBRD 1995), “the Cerrado constitutes one of the largest savanna-forest complexes in
the world and contains a diverse mosaic of habitat types and natural communities.” The
Conservation Assessment considers the Cerrado to be a vulnerable, globally outstanding
ecoregion and classifies it as “highest priority at a regional scale.” Although possessing a globally
significant biodiversity, only 1.5% of the Cerrado is protected in officially established conservation
units.

The Brazilian Government is stimulating participation of the private sector in conservation efforts,
with the goal of enhancing overall coverage of the national protected area system. The herein
proposed project will increase the area under protection status, through the establishment of
Private Natural Heritage Reserves (RPPNs), in areas near or adjacent to two of the Cerrado’s five
National Parks. The area of these two parks represents 42% of the total area of the five Cerrado’s
parks. Equal importance will be the demonstration that landowners may receive economic benefits
from the protected areas, something that is anticipated to stimulate replication of this model – the
Private Natural Heritage Reserve - by other landowners in the Cerrado.

The project is consistent with GEF Operational Program #3 (forest ecosystems), and is in
agreement with Articles 8 and 10 of the Convention on Biological Diversity in relation to in situ
conservation, sustainable use of biological resources and engagement of the private sector. The
project is also in agreement with chapter 15 of "Agenda 21 - Conservation of Biological Diversity”,
sub-items (i) and (j) of item 15.5. The project is consistent with the National Biodiversity Program
(PRONABIO), created by the Brazilian Government in 1994, which has as one of its priorities the
conservation and sustainable use of the Cerrado biome.

In 1996, the Brazilian Government promulgated Decree N 1922, creating Private Natural Heritage
Reserves - RPPNs - and providing incentives for landowners to participate, such as exemption
from the Property Tax (Imposto Territorial Rural – ITR). The RPPNs are defined as "areas of
private domain, to be specially protected under the owner’s initiative, with formal recognition by
government, because of the notable importance of the area’s biodiversity, or landscape
characteristics, or other environmental features requiring restoration efforts". The decree also
stipulates that to be recognized as a RPPN, the Reserve must be registered in perpetuity by a
Notary Public, meaning that neither descendants nor new owners may change the area’s use. The
Decree also stipulates that the landowner submits to the approval of the governmental agency
responsible for the formal recognition of the RPPN, a management plan that should be in
agreement with the planned activities for this type of reserve. Recently (July 2000), the federal law
no 9985/2000 was promulgated formalizing the legal status of the National System of Nature
Conservation (SNUC). SNUC includes the formation of Private Natural Heritage Reserves – RPPN
– whose goal would be biodiversity conservation, nature study, ecotourism and education. It also
addresses registration in perpetuity of RPPNs and the preparation of management plans.

According to Hotspots Earth’s Biologically Richest and Most Endangered Terrestrial
Ecoregions (Conservation International & CEMEX, 1999), “A recent, very important addition to
the protected areas of Brazil is the Private Natural Heritage Reserve system (RPPNs) a new
mechanism for protected privately-owned land. As of May 1996, there were 85 such areas totaling
708 811 ha, and there are now probably more than 100 in all of Brazil. One of Brazil’s leading
environment organizations, FUNATURA, has been particularly active in establishing these
private protected areas, which they call Wildlife Sanctuaries (Santuários da Vida Silvestre), in the
Cerrado, particularly on private properties in the state of Goiás. To date, over 20 private reserves
have been created in the Cerrado using the RPPN system, which includes both tax incentives for
the area in question and legal protection provided by the state”.


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The purpose of this project is the creation and implementation of RPPNs in specific selected areas
around two National Parks. Criteria for selection of these areas will include:

a) Importance of the area for biodiversity and/or services provided to Park ecosystems, as
   ecological corridors and/or wildlife refuges;
b) Proximity to and connectivity with the Park;
c) Effective interest and commitment of the owner to protect the area;
d) Interest of the owner to develop ecotourism activities;
e) Potential of the proposed RPPN to be economically self-sustaining.
f) Demonstration value

The selected areas for implementation of the project are the regions around the Chapada dos
Veadeiros National Park and Grande Sertão Veredas National Park. These Parks are very
important for the conservation of the Cerrado’s biodiversity, since they protect significant territory
(144,000 ha), contain all the principal features of the biome (diversity of species, genetic
resources, and vegetation formations, among others), are under increasing threat and present
regional cultural and ecotouristic potentials.

The areas where the National Parks are located are considered of extremely high importance,
according to the publications “Priority Actions for the Conservation of the Cerrado and Pantanal
Biodiversity” (Ministry of Environment, Funatura, Conservation International, Fundação
Biodiversitas and Universidade de Brasilia, 1999) and “Biodiversity in Minas Gerais – an Atlas for
its Conservancy ”(Fundação Biodiversitas, Minas Gerais Government, Institute of Forestry and
International Conservation, 1998).

Current Situation

The Cerrado biome is threatened by the expansion of the Brazilian agricultural frontier for grain
production, mainly soybeans, and by extensive cattle breeding. The Cerrado has suffered from
unsustainable exploitation of its woody biomass for charcoal production. It is also subject to forest
fires used for land clearing purposes in preparation for plantation and pasture renewal.
Approximately 70% of the territory of the Cerrado has suffered from anthropogenic pressures of
some kind (Mantovani and Pereira, INPE, 1998 in: Ministério do Meio Ambiente, Funatura,
Conservation International, Fundação Biodiversitas e Universidade de Brasilia, 1999. “Ações
Prioritárias para a Conservação da Biodiversidade do Cerrado e Pantanal”, Brasília 32 p).

In spite of this destructive trend, the Cerrado still contains a significant degree of globally important
biodiversity and plays a strategic role in the conservation of water resources in Brazil. The Cerrado
is an important source for major tributaries of the Amazon, as well as for the Prata and São
Francisco Rivers.

Large gaps still exist in current knowledge of the species and habitats of the Cerrado.
Nevertheless, according to Dias (1992), an estimated amount of 160,000 species of animals and
plants can be found in the Cerrado, distributed in 35 phyla and 89 classes. According to Alho
(1990), 110 species of mammals have been found in the Cerrado, falling into 70 genera, most of
them rodents. Costa et al. (1981) found endemism rates of 16% for terrestrial vertebrates, 21% for
birds and 23% for both reptiles and mammals. The Cerrado contains more than 2,000 species of
woody plants and over 6,000 of non-woody plants. Filgueiras (1998) calculates about 500 species
of native grasses in the Cerrado, most of them endemic. Large numbers of species of economic
value are found in the Cerrado, and are used for the production of medicines and food, but on a
scale below their potential.




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Despite this biotic wealth, less than 1.5% of the Cerrado is legally protected. Considering the scale
of habitat conversion that has occurred, strong measures are urgently needed to ensure the in situ
conservation of a greater proportion of this biome. These measures should include the creation of
more public and private protected areas, as well as the application of additional financial resources
to their management. The modest governmental resources for in situ conservation only cover
activities related directly to public protected areas. To support the implementation of Private
Natural Heritage Reserves, complementary resources are needed.

Chapada dos Veadeiros National Park, created in 1961, in the State of Goiás, covers 60,000 ha. At
the time of its creation, important adjacent areas were excluded, and real estate speculation and
unregulated tourism have continued (the Park region receives about 12,000 visitors per year, and
the area presents important ecotourism attractions). Many important areas of the region around the
Park would still benefit from protection and their inclusion would result in a more characteristic
representation of Cerrado ecosystems and habitats. Government resources are insufficient for
expansion of the Park and instead are oriented toward implementation of activities within the Park
itself. Presently there are no public resources projected to assure expansion of the protected area.

From 1997 to June 2000 Funatura developed, with the financial support of IDB – Interamerican
Development Bank, in the region of the Chapada dos Veadeiros National Park, a program aiming
to create and implement two RPPNs in areas next to the Park. This program has supported the
creation and implementation of other two RPPNs: one in Pirenópolis and the other in Serranópolis
in the total amount of US$480,000.00. The idea is to continue with this work, however in a
perspective of implementation of ecological corridors which may be able to link the protected
areas, comprising the proposed Biosfere of Cerrado Reserve – Phase II. Currently the Brazilian
committee of the program “Man and Biosfere-MAB/UNESCO” approved the proposal to create this
Biosfere Reserve, which includes Chapada dos Veadeiros National Park and also the Terra Ronca
State Park and the Itiquira Municipal Park.

Grande Sertão Veredas National Park was created in 1989, with 84,000 ha, in the State of Minas
Gerais. The most important threats to the Park and neighboring ecosystems are soybean
plantations in adjacent areas and extensive cattle breeding with the use of fire for pasture renewal.
Areas adjoining the Park are critical to the survival of wild species and should be protected to
assure genetic flow. An important feature of this region is the existence of local communities who
have maintained traditional resource management practices. According Hotspots Earth’s
Biologically Richest and Most Endangered Terrestrial Ecoregions (Conservation International &
CEMEX, 1999), page 155, “Another victory in Cerrado conservation was the establishment of the
Grande Sertão Veredas National Park, an 84 000ha park created in 1989 thanks mainly to efforts
by FUNATURA. It is named after one of the masterpieces of Brazilian litetature, the novel Grande
Sertão e Veredas, by the famous writer João Guimarães Rosa. The area in which the park was
established is one of the poorest in Brazil, with a local culture that dates back a couple of hundred
years and is composed of European, Indian, and black roots, preserved until recently by its
remoteness. The Gerais region of the Cerrado that inspired Guimarães Rosa in his famous
romance covers some 13 million hectares along the São Francisco River, and was one of the last
to be occupied. However, it too began to be destroyed in the 1980 is with the establishment of
large-scale eucalyptus and soybeans plantations, together with a great increase in charcoal
production. The national park protects a significant sample of the Gerais ecosystems, especially
native grasslands, veredas (Mauritia palm-dominated bogs), and scrub forests, in addition to
populations of a number of key Cerrado vertebrates, among them the maned wolf, jaguar, and
several macaw species. In 1991, Brazil’s national environmental agency, IBAMA, signed an
agreement with FUNATURA to better manager this protected area, and implementation of
this agreement will be funded by the first and only debt-for-nature swap ever approved for
Brazil. These effort by FUNATURA and the Nature Conservancy were signed in 1989, and
provided US$ 2.2 millions in government bonds, the interest on which would fund
conservation activities in Grande Sertão Veredas over the next twenty years”.



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Funatura has worked over 13 years in the development of Private Reserves and has been
instrumental in the creation and/or implementation of 13 Private Reserves in different regions of
Brazil. Total protected area under private management is now 112,000 hectares. Some reserve
owners have developed ecotourism activities with good economic returns. Examples include the
Reserves of Vagafogo-Pirenópolis and Pousada das Araras-Serranópolis, in Goiás.

Government incentives for creation of RPPNs are in and of themselves insufficient to satisfactorily
motivate the private sector to participate in biodiversity conservation efforts. When combined with
alternative sources of revenue generation, for example, ecotourism activities, landowners are more
likely to consider establishment of RPPNs favorably.

With the aim of motivating the private sector to create RPPNs and thereby to strengthen an
incipient process of RPPN establishment in the Cerrado, Funatura will work with landowners to
identify and demarcate important areas for biodiversity conservation – either as biological corridors
between protected areas or as areas adjacent to existing protected areas thereby expanding their
overall conservation value. Funatura will also work with participating landowners to develop RPPN
management and ecotourism plans, and will disseminate best practices and lessons learned to
other landowners and landowner associations in the Cerrado.

Expected Project Outcomes

The long-term goal of the project is the effective expansion of the area under protected status in
the region around the pre-selected National Parks, as a tool for enhanced biodiversity conservation
in the Cerrado.

The intention is to protect large ecological corridors in areas next to National Parks in about 40,000
hectares. In the specific case of the Grande Sertão Veredas National Park, the objective is to
establish two large corridors: one in the Northwest direction, in route to the Bahia state, where, at
the border, there is an already existing large private area. This area is about 50 km to the Park
(area 1 in the map in annex). The other corridor (area 2 in the map in annex) would be in the East
direction, route to the city of Januaria and would link to the Serra das Araras State Park, the
Peruaçu State Park, the Environmental Protected Area of Peruaçu and the Peruaçu National Park,
recently created. In the specific case of Chapada dos Veadeiros, the plan is to protect corridors
comprising the Biosfere of Cerrado Reserve- Phase 2, which includes the Chapada dos Veadeiros
National Park and also the Terra Ronca State Park and the Itiquira Municipal Park (areas 3 and 4
in the map in annex)

Specific project outputs include:

a) Four fully operating Private Natural Heritage Reserves, with management plans under
   operation;
b) Awareness raising programme regarding RPPNs under operation aimed at dissemination of
   best practices and lessons learned to other landowners and associations;
c) Awareness raising programme under operation aimed at motivating cooperation and support of
   local communities and their participation in the RPPN projects;
d) Technical staff of the RPPNs trained in protected area planning and management, and
   ecotourism development;
e) An RPPN support network consisting of RPPN managers, NGOs, relevant government staff
   members and local communities;




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Activities and Financial Inputs Needed to Enable Changes

To achieve project outputs, the following activities will be implemented:

a) Start-up of activities.
b) Selection and demarcation of areas to be transformed into RPPNs and establishment of formal
   partnerships with owners. Cost: US$ 86,000
c) Rapid Ecological Assessments / Elaboration of Management Plans. Cost: US$ 139,500
d) Implementation of Management Plans, including staff and management expenses, minor
   infrastructure development where needed, creation of trails, provision of basic equipment and
   other materials for ecotourism, wildlife protection, awareness raising and dissemination. Cost:
   US$ 362,500
e) Selection and training of RPPN staff for protected area planning and management, and
   ecotourism development. Cost: US$ 22,000
f) Development and implementation of awareness raising programmes, including staff, materials
   and media programmes. Cost: US$ 73,500
g) Establishment of an RPPN support network consisting of RPPN managers, NGOs, relevant
   government staff members and local communities. Cost: US$ 51,500
h) Evaluation Missions. Cost: US$15,000

Planned Activities:

1. Start-up of activities. Cost: US$ 19,500 Co-financing

Upon approval of GEF funding, Funatura will meet with potential collaborators and other
stakeholders to reconfirm the objectives and activities of the proposed RPPN programme in the
Cerrado around Chapada dos Veadeiros and Grande Sertão Veredas National Parks. Stakeholder
participation mechanisms and communication and information dissemination channels will be
formalized. A multistakeholder advisory board will be created for the RPPN programme, and the
project headquarter will be established. A project-monitoring schedule will be formulated, and the
work plan for the first year will be discussed and endorsed.

2. Selection and demarcation of areas to be transformed into RPPNs and establishment of
   formal partnerships with owners. Cost: US$ 86,000 GEF; US$ 9,500 C-financing

Preliminary areas identified near the two National Parks will be formally recognized using the
criteria mentioned on page four, above. After determination of the four potential RPPN areas, a
five-year partnership agreement between Funatura and the landowners will be formulated and
signed. As part of the agreement, Funatura will assist the landowners to register the prospective
RPPNs in perpetuity at Notary Public Offices. No resources will be invested in an area until the
owner provides its official registration as an RPPN in perpetuity, signs the agreement with
Funatura and delivers to IBAMA the appropriate request for acknowledgement.

3. Rapid Ecological Assessments / Elaboration of Management Plans Cost:
US$ 139,500 GEF; US$14,500 Co-financing

According to the Decree creating RPPNs, the landowners should prepare a management plan in
agreement with the objectives for this type of reserve. It should contain actions to be taken towards
the area’s protection, research, environmental education and ecotourism. When preparing
management plans for each RPPN, Rapid Ecological Assessments - REA - will be carried out.
Potential RPPNs have been selected partially based on their potential for ecotourism development
and for ecotourism income to offset recurrent costs of management. Strategic actions will be
formulated for each area to optimize potential ecotourism income. Actual and potential demand for
ecotourism in each area will be determined. Ecotourism attractions will be identified. Care will be


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taken to ensure that no negative impact on an area’s biodiversity will occur from ecotourism.
Preliminary business plans will be formulated and potential investments above and beyond basic
infrastructure will be identified and costs calculated. Existing data and information will be gathered
on the biological, ecological, economic and social factors actually or potentially affecting the
ecological integrity and biodiversity of the prospective areas and the corresponding National Parks.
Information will be entered into a Geographic Information System.

4. Implementation of Management Plans, including staff and management expenses, minor
   infrastructure development where needed, trails created, provision of basic equipment
   and other materials for ecotourism, wildlife protection, awareness raising and
   dissemination. Cost: US$ 362,500 GEF; US$37,500 Co-financing

To implement the four RPPN management plans, the following activities will be undertaken: overall
co-ordination and follow-up of activities by the project team; acquisition and maintenance of
vehicles, computing equipment, besides the construction and implementation of infrastructure
necessary for the 4 RPPNs, comprising: 4 visiting centers; 2 gates; 40 km of fence to be placed at
strategic sites; opening and maintenance of trails; making and placing signs/information signposts;
opening and maintenance of firebreaks; acquisition of equipment for the visiting centers and for fire
fighters.

5. Selection and training of RPPN staff for protected area planning and management, and
   ecotourism development; US$ 22,500 GEF; US$2,500 Co-financing

RPPNs landowners and staff will receive training in protected area planning and management, in
such areas as ecosystem management, endangered species management, fire prevention and
control, control of invasive species, community relations and participation, etc. Staff, landowners
and potential providers of ecotourism goods and services will also receive training in hospitality
services, quality control, bookkeeping and business planning. Considering the implementation of 4
RPPNs, at least 12 people will be trained (three for each RPNN) in planning and management of
RPPNs. In regards to the control of forest fires, fire brigades will be established consisting of 10
people each, which will sum to 40 people to be trained. Schoolteachers located near the RPPNs'
areas will also be trained, in a total of 8. Apart from this, people involved in works with ecotourism
will also be trained, in a total of 12. On the whole 70 people in different activities connected with
implementation of RPPNs will be trained.

6. Development and implementation of awareness raising programmes, including
   materials and media programmes; US$ 73,500 GEF; US$7,000 Co-financing

A program on environmental education will be implemented around the RPPNs viewing to raising
awareness regarding the importance of biodiversity conservation and sustainable use of natural
resources, with the aim of building support for further creation of RPPNs in other areas. In addition,
activities will be undertaken to involve local communities in ecotourism activities so they can obtain
extra income as guides, or from sale of handcrafts and homemade fare using regional products,
among others. Activities with local communities and schools, and visits to RPPNs and National
Parks are planned. Material for dissemination will be produced and the media involvement is also
planned.

7. Establishment of an RPPN support network consisting of RPPN managers, NGOs,
   relevant government staff members and local communities;
   US$ 51,500 GEF; US$ 7,000 Co-financing

Funatura will establish a network comprising RPPN owners, communities, government agencies,
NGOs and others. The network will receive and circulate information relevant to the RPPN
experience, assist in directing ecotourists to specific sites, organizing public opinion for advocacy
regarding RPPNs, etc. Given its local focus, the RPPN network will communicate internally


                                                  9
through phone, fax, email and oral, and will direct external communications, as needed, to relevant
media and other networks and authorities. The networks will also provide a ready constituency for
training and awareness raising.

8. Evaluation Missions; US$ 15,000 GEF

Based on analysis of the Project’s work plan, a monitoring and evaluation plan will be developed
consisting of site visits and surveys to determine progress toward completion of specific goals as
measured by agreed-upon indicators among project participants. UNDP will monitor this process
periodically and ensure compliance with project goals and objectives.

Sustainability Analysis and Risk Assessment

Sustainability of the RPPNs is premised on the adequate motivation of landowners to establish and
maintain them over the long term. The Federal Government’s Decree 1922 provides for exemption
from property taxes in exchange for a designation of protection in perpetuity. Nevertheless, it is
seen to be critical that participating landowners perceive some economic benefits from
establishment of RPPNs so as to strengthen their commitment to conservation of species and
ecosystems of the Cerrado.

As mentioned above, criteria for selection of potential RPPN sites include the potential for income
generation from ecotourism activities. The Private Reserves of Vagafogo and Pousada das Araras
have generated considerable income from entrance fees as well as through sales of products to
visitors (T-shirts, regional souvenirs, sweets and other homemade foods using products from the
region). To counter the risk of possibly insufficient ecotourism demand, potential site selection will
be finalized after a feasibility study regarding potential self-sustainability.

Local communities will be involved in providing services to visitors and in the manufacture of local
products. This is expected to strengthen local support for the RPPNs and provide important
lessons and experience for subsequent replication. Funatura will continue to provide technical
assistance to the RPPNs as it expands its normal biodiversity conservation activities in the region.

Sustainability of the RPPNs is also enhanced given their formal legal registration as protected
areas in perpetuity.

Stakeholder Involvement and Social Assessment

Primary project stakeholders are the landowners of prospective RPPNs, local communities around
the prospective sites, federal environmental authorities – IBAMA – and relevant NGOs.

During development of this proposal, Funatura has consulted at length with prospective RPPN
landowners and local communities.

Since 1991, Funatura has implemented several activities at Chapada dos Veadeiros National Park
region. In that year Funatura held the first ecotourism guides course with the participation of 40
members of the local community and created the Association of Ecotourism Guides of Chapada
dos Veadeiros. Since 1997 Funatura has also participated in a committee for private protected
areas, formed by private owners including WWF. This committee aims at defining and
implementing integrated activities for conservation, ecotourism and other sustainable activities in
the region, especially in relation to the RPPNs already created as well as new ones. At Grande
Sertão Veredas National Park, Funatura has implemented, since 1990, activities related to park
protection and local community involvement, such as meetings, home visits, and systematic
contacts with local authorities, among others. Courses are periodically held for local people on
environmental education and health. Activities with owners in the areas around the Park are


                                                 10
carried out to raise awareness regarding potential damage to the Park from productive activities.
Discussions with some of these owners have started to encourage them to create RPPNs on their
own lands.

Incremental Cost Assessment

(Please refer to Annex II for Incremental Cost Assessment and Matrix)

Budget

     Components                              GEF                            Funatura                       Total
                                                              (1)
Personnel                                    365,000.00                          45,000.00                  410,000.00
                                                              (2)
Subcontracts                                 215,000.00                          30,000.00                  245,000.00
                                                              (3)
Equipment                                     60,000.00                          25,000.00                   85,000.00
                                                              (4)
Travel                                        40,000.00                                  0                   40,000.00
Miscellaneous                                 15,000.00                                  0                   15,000.00
Project Administration                        55,000.00                                  0                   55,000.00
Total                                        750,000.00                         100,000.00                  850,000.00
1. Project team and domestic consultants for management plans and training. 2. Construction of rustic visitors centers,
gates, fences; printing of boards, folders, maps, other informative materials, vehicle maintenance, office rental, media,
and others. 3. Small vehicle; equipment for visitor’s centers; equipment for fire control; computer. 4. Includes evaluation
missions costs – US$15,000.

Implementation Plan

                                           Duration of Project (in months): 36
                   Activities                                                  Project-Months
                                                      0             6     12         15         24         30         36
 1. Start-up of activities – Workshops /
 consultations with stakeholders
 2. Selection, demarcation of areas for
 RPPNs, establishing partnerships
 3. Rapid Ecological Assessment and
 Elaboration of Management Plans
 4. Implementation of Management Plans
 5. Selection and training of RPPN staff
 6. Development and implementation of
 awareness raising programmes
 7. Establishment of an RPPN support network
 8. Evaluations


Public Involvement Plan

Stakeholder Identification

The principal stakeholders of the proposed project are – in approximate order of importance -
landowners in the relevant areas around the National Parks, local communities, local NGOs,
IBAMA, students and biological researchers.

Preference for participation in the project will be given to owners lacking the means to develop
RPPNs with their own resources. Local communities will be identified as those whose members
use the resources of the National Parks, their buffer zones and/or the proposed RPPNs, or who


                                                            11
are otherwise essential to the overall success of these biodiversity conservation efforts, including
ecotourism activities. Local NGOs will benefit from the project by their participation in
environmental education activities, as well as activities related to ecotourism.

IBAMA is the institution responsible for the administration of the National Parks, and is the
government agency responsible for official recognition of RPPNs. Students from the local school
network will benefit from the implementation of the RPPNs, due to enhanced opportunities for
environmental education, especially as it relates to biodiversity conservation.

Research institutions will also be potential beneficiaries, given the increased opportunities for
research in protected areas regarding biodiversity issues and protected area management.

Information Dissemination and Consultation

Upon approval of GEF funding, Funatura will inform relevant landowners in the regions around the
two National Parks, as well as local communities and NGOs. For this purpose Funatura will
organize a series of meetings and workshops with these groups, to reconfirm the goals and
objectives of the RPPN project and the criteria for final selection of the areas to be transformed into
RPPNs. Consultations will be carried out with local NGOs, producers associations, and
government institutions, among others to fine-tune project objectives and activities and to
consolidate stakeholder consultation and participation mechanisms. These mechanisms will be
implemented during project execution and will include a multistakeholder advisory board to the
project, as well as an RPPN network governing board, involving all interested players.

Social and Participation Issues

Members of local communities may receive benefits from project execution through provision of
services generated by ecotourism (e.g., guides) and also through the provision of regional products
to be sold to tourists. They will also benefit from environmental education and other activities.

Monitoring and Evaluation Plan

A multistakeholder advisory board consisting of representatives of Funatura, IBAMA, participant
landowners, local government agencies, local communities and NGOs will provide project
oversight. This board will meet twice a year or more frequently, as needed.

The development of activities specifically related to the RPPNs will be monitored and supported by
IBAMA.

UNDP will monitor the project as part of its standard project support procedures. Funatura will send
progress reports to UNDP twice a year or on a schedule to be determined. Representatives from
UNDP will visit project sites periodically for in situ follow-up.

Project progress assessment will be made by Funatura with UNDP and will be based on visits,
reports, contacts with RPPN owners, with members of local communities and representatives of
government institutions that have some involvement in the project.

Technical Review

Technical review by an expert from the GEF Scientific and Technical Advisory Panel is not
required because the project falls below the US$ 750,000 limit.




                                                  12
Bibliography


Alho, C. J. 1990. Distribuição da Fauna num Gradiente de Recursos em Mosaico, pp. 205-254 In: M. Novaes Pinto
(coordenadora), Cerrado: Caracterização, Ocupação e Perspectivas. Brasília, Editora da UnB e SEMATEC.

Conservation International & CEMEX, 1999. Hotspots Earth’s Biologically Richest and Most Endangered
Terrestrial Ecoregions. Mexico City.

Costa, C.C.C., J.P.Lima, L.D.Cardoso, e V.Q.Henriques, 1981. Fauna do Cerrado: lista preliminar de
aves, mamíferos e répteis. Rio de Janeiro, IBGE.

Dias B.F.S., 1992. Cerrados: Uma Caracterização, pp. 11-25 In: B.F.S. Dias (Coord.) Alternativas de
Desenvolvimento dos Cerrados: Manejo e Conservação dos Recursos Naturais Renováveis. Brasília, Funatura.

Dinerstein, E., D. M. Olson, D. J. Graham, A. L. Webster, S. A. Primm. M. P. Bookbinder and G. Ledec,
1995. A Conservation Assessment of the Terrestrial Ecoregions of Latin America and the Caribbean. The
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development.

Funatura, Conservation International, Fundação Biodiversitas, Universidade de Brasília e Ministério
do Meio Ambiente, 1999. “Ações Prioritárias para a Conservação da Biodiversidade do Cerrado e
Pantanal”, Brasília.

Fundação Biodiversitas, Governo de Minas Gerais, Instituto Estadual de Florestas e Conservation
International, 1998. “Biodiversidade em Minas Gerais – Um Atlas para a sua conservação”

Mantovani J. E. e Pereira A. (Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais – INPE), 1998. Influências
Antrópicas no Cerrado e Pantanal. Palestra proferida no Workshop “Ações Prioritárias para Conservação do
Cerrado e Pantanal”. Brasília, Funatura / CI / Biodiversitas / UnB.




                                                       13
ANNEX I – PROJECT LOGICAL FRAMEWORK
Development Goal
Conservation of the biodiversity of the Cerrado biome, a globally significant biodiversity hotspot
Purpose
Private landowners around the Cerrado’s two National Parks establish and maintain Private Natural Heritage Reserves, effectively expanding
the Parks’ biodiversity conservation capacity

Project Strategy                         Objectively Verifiable Indicators Means of Verification                Assumptions / Risks
Project Objectives
1. To conserve biodiversity in areas     *   Increase in land area under     *   Site visits and consultation   *   Regional ecological conditions
   near and adjacent to two National         protection for biodiversity         with IBAMA re officially           are maintained such that
   Parks in the Cerrado;                     conservation;                       recognized RPPNs or                biodiversity conservation is
                                                                                 those in process of                viable
2. To stimulate private sector                                                   recognition.
   participation in biodiversity
   conservation of the Cerrado biome *       Degree and quality of           *   Interviews with owners,        *   Community groups and
   through the implementation of             participation of private            governmental entities and          landowners remain willing to
   Private Reserves, a new initiative        landowners in biodiversity          NGOs and numbers                   participate in conservation
   involving private owners and              conservation efforts;               involved in RPPN program           efforts
   NGOs;

3. To establish mechanisms for           *   Existence and quality of        *   Interviews with owners and *       Demand for ecotourism
   sustainability of the Private             sustainability strategies and       expert evaluation of written       continues to grow
   Reserves                                  plans.                              strategies and plans.

4. To disseminate the lessons and        *   Concrete interest of other     *    Interviews with owners,        *   A positive attitude is sustained
   experience of this project to other       landowners in establishment of      governmental entities and          by local residents toward
   landowners with the aim of                private reserves.                   NGOs.                              natural resource conservation
   replicating the experience.




                                                                                                                                                   14
Output 1 - Four fully functional
Private Natural Heritage Reserves,                                                                              *   Effective participation of
with management plans                                                                                               private landowners in
                                                                                                                    conservation efforts and
Activity 1. Meetings with potential        *   Number of meetings              *   Surveys and interviews           adherence of new areas to the
collaborators and other stakeholders       *   Participation procedures            with local community.            National System of Nature
to discuss and refine project                  established                     *   Surveys and interviews           Conservation
objectives and activities.                 *   Information/communication           with owners.
Activity 2. Establishment of                   channels operational            *   Surveys and interviews
stakeholder participation mechanisms.      *   Office established                  with IBAMA
Activity 3. Creation of multistakeholder   *   Results of the work program     *   Surveys in Notary Public.
advisory board for the RPPN                    monitoring                      *   Monitoring Program data
programme.
                                           *   Agreements with landowners      *   Rapid Ecological
Activity 4. Establishment of project
                                           *   State recognition of                Assessment Results
office.
                                               established RPPNs                   Analyses and interviews
Activity 5. Formulation of project
                                           *   Accumulation of new                 with researchers involved.
monitoring and work plans.
                                               knowledge regarding             *   Activities reports
Activity 6. Final selection and
                                               biodiversity of the Cerrado     *   Visits to the reserves
demarcation of areas to be
transformed into RPPNs and                 *   Management plans elaborated;
establishment of formal partnerships       *   Plans under implementation
with owners.                                   including staff and
Activity 7. Rapid Ecological                   management actions,
                                               infrastructure and equipment;
Assessment/Elaboration of
Management Plans.
Activity 8. Implementation of
Management Plans, including
management, minor infrastructure
development where needed, trail
creation, provision of basic equipment
and other materials for ecotourism,
protection, awareness raising and
dissemination.


Output 2

                                                                                                                                               15
Awareness raising programme
under operation aimed at                                                                                       *   A positive attitude is sustained
dissemination to other landowners                                                                                  by local residents toward
and associations of best practices                                                                                 natural resource conservation
and lessons learned regarding
RPPNs

Activity 1. Development and                *   Awareness of importance of      *   Interviews with Owners
implementation of environmental                biodiversity conservation has
education activities including staffing,       increased;                      *   Interviews with Community
material and media program                                                         people
containing information re nature           *   Land owners request
conservation and sustainable use of            information on how to create    *   Interviews with IBAMA
natural resources.                             RPPNs;
                                                                               *   Activity Report

Output 3
Awareness raising programme
under operation aimed at                                                                                       *   Local communities maintain
motivating cooperation and                                                                                         interest in alternative income-
support of local communities and                                                                                   generating activities as viable
their participation in the RPPN                                                                                    options
project                                                                        *   Visits to RPPNs

Activity 1. Local community           *        Local communities participate   *   Visits to schools
involvement in ecotourism activities           actively in project-related
derived from guide work, production            activities                      *   Interviews with owners
and sale of crafts and homemade fare
from regional products, among others. *        Number of assisted schools      *   Interviews with community
                                           *   Number of assisted students         members
Activity 2. Activities with community                                          *   Interviews with IBAMA
schools and visits to RPPNs and            *   Number of visits to RPPNs
National Parks.
                                                                               *   Interviews with teachers
                                           *   Number of visits to the
                                               National Park                   *   Activities report

Output 4

                                                                                                                                                 16
Technical staff of the RPPNs
trained in protected area planning
and management, and ecotourism
development                             *   Number of trained staff;       *   Interview with training   *   Private landowners and RPPN
                                        *   Planning and management            people                        staff remain willing to
Activity 1. Selection and training of       strategies for biodiversity                                      participate in training and to
RPPN staff for protected area               conservation and ecotourism    *   Activities report             receive technical assistance
planning and management, and                development;
ecotourism development                                                     *   Review of documents


Output 5
An RPPN support network
consisting of RPPN managers,
NGOs, relevant government staff
members and local communities
                                        *   RPPN network possesses         *   Interview with RPPN       *   Stakeholders remain willing to
Activity 1. Establishment of an RPPN        strategic plan for replication     Network members               act collectively
support network consisting of RPPN          and maintenance of RPPN
managers, NGOs, relevant                    system.                        *   Activities Report
government staff members and local   *      Current and prospective RPPN
communities.                                developers receive support
Activity 2. Network meetings,               from network.
newsletter production and
dissemination.




                                                                                                                                          17
                   ANNEX II – INCREMENTAL COSTS ANALYSIS

Regarding in situ conservation of biodiversity, the Brazilian Government has restricted
itself to financing activities related to legally constituted protected areas (National Parks,
Biologic Reserves, Ecological Stations, Extractive Reserves, National Forests, among
others), formally under the responsibility of IBAMA. Government spending in these areas
is generally considered to be below that which is needed for maximum protection.

The two National Parks involved in the project (Chapada dos Veadeiros and Grande
Sertão Veredas) possess resources provided by IBAMA, which only meet the costs of
activities within the Parks. Totaling approximately US$ 300,000.00 per year, these are
considered baseline costs. There are no resources available under state or federal
budgets for the establishment of Private Natural Heritage Reserves, though the intention of
this modality is the expansion of net protective capacity in the region around these Parks.
With GEF financing of the one-time project costs associated with establishing the
Reserves and overcoming barriers to their sustainability, there will be a net increase in
protected area, ensuring greater representation of Cerrado biodiversity.

Specifically in regard to Grande Sertão Veredas National Park, Funatura is executing a
project of site protection and environmental awareness in collaboration with local
communities, funded by the interest of a debt-for-nature swap that provided US$ 2.2
millions in government bonds. With an annual budget of US$132,000.00, these project
activities will last till 2013. There are currently no resources for the implementation of
Private Natural Heritage Reserves aimed at the expansion of area under protection in the
region.

In regard to Chapada dos Veadeiros National Park, Funatura recently finalized a similar
project in 1999, but currently has no ongoing initiatives underway in the area.

Matrix of Project Incremental Costs

                  Baseline                   Alternative                         Increment
                  Protected area for         Expansion of protected area for     Global benefit resulting from
Global            biodiversity conservation biodiversity conservation in         net increase in area for
Environmental     publicly funded.           threatened ecosystems and           conservation of biodiversity in
Benefits                                     increase in conservation            the Cerrado sustained over
                                             effectiveness as a result of the    time with economic incentives
                                             creation of RPPNs adjacent to       to conserve biodiverse
                                             National Parks.                     habitat.
                  Increase in National       Expansion of protected area for     Protection of larger area,
Domestic          Patrimony of protected     biodiversity conservation;          avoiding biodiversity global
Benefits          areas; avoidance of        increase in the number of players   loss. Protection of important
                  destruction of areas with involved with conservation;          genetic stocks for future use.
                  high biodiversity;         increments in ecotourism, leisure   Demonstration of new types
                  contribution to regulation and public awareness of             of partnership in
                  of local microclimate;     conservation benefits; generation   management of protected
                  increase community         of alternative revenues for local   areas, involving private
                  awareness of               communities; increase in            sector.
                  conservation benefits.     scientific knowledge re Cerrado;
                                             training of environmental
                                             managers.
Costs (US$)                1,296,000.00(*)                      2,146,000.00                       850,000.00


                                                                                                 19
(*) IBAMA (US$300,000.00/year x 3 years) + Funatura (US$132,000.00/year x 3 years) = US$ 1,296,000.00




                                                                                                        20
 ANNEX III - MAPS AND INFORMATION ON AREAS TO BENEFIT FROM THE
                            PROJECT

The Cerrado biome, as described above, is located in the Central region of Brazil,
occupying approximately 25% of its territory. The following maps demonstrate the
Cerrado, including the areas where the project will be developed. In Grande Sertão
Veredas National Park, the objective is to establish two large corridors: one in the
Northwest direction (area 1 in the map in annex) and another corridor (area 2 in the map in
annex) in the East direction. In Chapada dos Veadeiros, the plan is to protect corridors
(areas 3 and 4 in the map in annex)



Grande Sertão Veredas National Park

Between 1987 and 1988, with the support of the Special Secretariat of the Environment -
SEMA and the World Wildlife Fund - WWF, the Pro-Natureza Foundation - FUNATURA
undertook a series of studies in the region of Minas Gerais (sub-unit of the Cerrado, which
consists of approximately 13 million hectares to the left adjacent side of the São Francisco,
including the northeast of Minas Gerais and the west of Bahia until the south of Piauí),
aiming at creating conservation units in that region. Out of nine studied areas, two were
considered priority to the conservation, one of them located in Bahia and the other in
Minas Gerais. In the Bahia area, the installation of an ecological station was indicated,
which did not come to occur. For the Minas Gerais area, the establishment of a National
Park was indicated and this was undertaken, at which time the Grande Sertão Veredas
National Park was established.

In 1989, upon conclusion of the studies developed by FUNATURA, the National park was
created with an approximate area of 84.000 hectares, through Decree Nr. 97.658, dated
12/04/89. The Park's name is in honor to the famous novel written by Guimarães Rosa.
The region of the park is inserted in the natural environment described in the book Grande
Sertão: Veredas. Several parts of the book, which describe locations and cultural
characteristics, are still found today in that region.

Still in 1989 an agreement between IBAMA and FUNATURA was signed with the purpose
of co-management of the park and execution of activities connected to its installation.
Upon creation of the Park, IBAMA started development of the first activities and
FUNATURA, upon signature of this agreement, started to collect the recourses viewing to
the implementation of the Park.

The Park is inserted in the northeast of Minas Gerais, within the municipalities of Formoso
(70%), Arinos (20%) and Januário (10%). The municipality of Chapada Gaúcha, in spite of
not possessing an area within the Park, is the nearest one with mayor’s offices. The city of
Chapada Gaúcha is located only 3 km from the southeastern limit of the Park. The
remaining mayors' offices are over 60 km from the limits of the Park. The northern part of
the park is delimited by the River Carinhanha, which divides the states of Minas Gerais
with Bahia. In the Bahia part, the municipality bordering the Park is the Cocos. According
to estimates of the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, 1996, Formoso
possesses a population of 6.263 inhabitants (2.754 in the urban area and 3.509 in the rural
area); Arinos, 17.149 inhabitants (10.038 in the urban area and 7.111 in the rural area):
Januária, 77.739 inhabitants (36.830 in the urban area and 40.909 in the rural area) and,


                                                                                          21
Chapada Gaúcha (data of 1999), 10.548 inhabitants (3.031 in the urban area and 7.517 in
the rural area). Very poor families reside in the Park and in adjacent areas.

The Grande Sertão Veredas National Park is located in a predominantly sandstone area.
The rivers cutting the Park, tributaries of the Carinhanha River (the São Francisco basin)
form a socket hydrological system, the margins of which are downhill areas easily exposed
to the acceleration of erosion processes. The hydrological system of the Park is fed by the
big aquipherus formed by the Urucuia sandstone, with a large water storage capacity and
mainly located south and east of the Unit. This area goes through large environmental
changes deriving from the installation of mechanically led grains agriculture, which started
in the late 70s. The intensive use of fertilizers and agrochemicals associated with this
activity can affect, at medium and long term, the quality of the waters of the River Preto
basin. Inside the Park quartzose sands (sandstone) and red-yellow latosol predominate. In
spite of these relatively simple soils, different vegetation formations have established over
them in a complex phytophisionomic mosaic. The sandstone is easily subject to erosion
and roads opened prior to the Park's creation, without the required caution, have caused
great gullies, leading to sediments being carried, in part, by the water bodies. Along the
river gutters, the materials that come from up-river erosion deposit and form hydromorphic
soils, over which the veredas accommodate.

In regards to the flora of the park, botanic surveys resulted in the registration of 623
species in 366 classes and 109 families, distributed in 5 main phytophysionomies (Cerrado
sensu stricto, Campo Sujo, Matas de Galeria and Ciliares, Veredas and Carrasco). These
species found in the National Park represent approximately 10% of all known species of
the Cerrado biome and approximately 70% of plants present in the phisiographic unit
named Chapada do Espigão Mestre of the São Francisco (which includes the state of
Goiás, south of the states of Piauí and Tocantins, west of the state of Bahia and north of
the state of Minas Gerais). The veredas and lagoons were the environments with the
greatest number of rare or endemic plants. In the Park, expressive populations of different
gramineous and palm-tree species exist. Some invasive species, mainly grasses (due to
pasture activity), which have been introduced in the Park during decades of use. In the
region, a large number of Cerrado plants are being used by the communities for medical,
food, at home, and arts-and-crafts purposes, among others.

As to mammals, 56 species were registered, which represent approximately 1/3 of the
species of this group in the Cerrado. Nine of theses species are in the list of nationally
threatened ones, particularly the armadillo-canastra Priodontes maximus, gato-palheiro
Oncifelis colocolo, suçuarana Puma concolor and the pantanal-deer or suçuarana
Blastocerus dichotomus. The presence of several top of the chain predators indicate a
well-structured environment.

In regards to the avifauna, 244 species were listed. Apart from the presence of the
caatinga species, there is a strong influence of the Mata Atlântica birds in the riparian
vegetation of the Park. Seven species that are considered threatened of extinction, in the
state of Minas Gerais, are listed, particularly the canindé-macaw Ara ararauna, greatly
dependent of the veredas to survive. In the park, there is a large population of this macaw,
possibly the greatest in protected areas in terms of geographical distribution. Normal
genetically modified macaws in psytacideous (lutinic) are also found, locally known as
white-macaws. Two species in IBAMA's list of threatened species may be found in the
Park, according to oral registrations. Migratory species were also registered deriving from
the Northern Hemisphere, north of South America and utmost south of the continent. Apart


                                                                                          22
from these long-range immigrants, during the months of January to July, birds connected
to seasonal lakes on the bed of the River Carinhanha and the lower River Preto appear, as
well as migratory species, the movement directions of which is not yet known.

In the aquatic environment 62 species of fishes have been registered, none of which
introduced. There is a first registration of a fish of the genus Laemolyta in the basin of the
river São Francisco, also a new kind of specie to science. Present indicative species
reveal good levels of integrity to the aquatic systems of the park, although the presence of
an environmental disturbance indicator (Planaltina meyersi) has been detected in one of
the sample locations and two rivulets areas require recuperation after analysis of its
physical parameters.

In regards to the amphibious, 22 species have been found, with the possibility of a Bufo
genus toad that has not yet been described. In this group, caatinga species appear. There
are still 7 species of economic importance.

Among the 31 listed species for the Park, once again it suffers the influence of the
caatinga species and the presence of the crown-alligator Paleosuchus palpebrosus,
considered threatened of extinction.

Chapada dos Veadeiros National Park

Decree Nr. 49.875 created the Chapada dos Veadeiros National Park in 1961, with an
area of 625.000 hectares. Since its creation to date its area has already been reduced
several times. Presently, the area corresponds to only 65.515 hectares. The Park is
located in the northeast of the state of Goiás. It includes parts of the municipalities of Alto
Paraiso, Cavalcanti and Colinas. Alto Paraíso possesses a population of 4.122 inhabitants
(2.274 in the urban area and 1.848 in the rural area); Cavalcanti, 8.156 inhabitants (1.992
in the urban area and 6.194 in the rural area) and; Colinas, 3.467 inhabitants (1.181 in the
urban area and 2.286 in the rural area).

One of the greatest attractions of the Park is, undoubtedly, its landscape that provides
scenes of rare beauty. The Chapada dos Veadeiros posses a mountainous landscape with
remains of the ancient leveled surface. It is the highest peneplain of Central Brazil. The
altitudes vary from 400 to 1.650m; with the Serra do Pouso Alto being the highest
culminating point, at 1.767m, located east of the Park, adjacent to it. The area is carved in
rock recognizably extremely ancient, dating from the pre-Cambrian age. Existing soils in
the Park are shallow and almost always stony, represented by lithological, alical and
dystrophycal soils, associated to quartzes outcrops thereby distinguishing fields that are
engraved on rocks. In lower regions, generally in the lower part of the valleys, some latosol
spots appear. The hydromorphic soils occur in small open upland areas associated with
drainage headwaters.

The Park possesses a relatively dense hydrographic network. The main river cutting the
Park is the Preto, tributary of the Tocantins, one of the main rivers of the Amazon basin.
Several rivers, creeks and brooking are tributaries of the river Preto, which has many
waterfalls in all of its extension.

The Cerrados in the Chapada dos Veadeiros National Park contain several
physiognomies, including the relatively complex riparian vegetation, at the margins of the
watercourses. Rocky outcrops are found in the Park where substrate rupestrian


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specialized species have established, mainly from the families of Compositae,
Bromeliaceae, Velloziaceae and Gramineae. In the open alluvial plains on hydromorphic
soils, vereda formations occur, where the buriti Mauritia vinifera is distinguished.

According to information obtained from local dwellers and from researchers that have
already undertaken studies in the Park’s areas and adjacent to it, more than one specimen
of jaguar, or in other words, Felis concolor, Felis pardalis and Felis yagonarundi can be
found. These animals provide for an ecological niche in a variety and a great number of
habitats. Therefore, its habitats coincide with those of different species of animals, mainly
other mammals that serve as their preys, such as the tapir Tapirus terrestris, preferred
inhabitant of forest and swamp areas and also, but fewer, of open areas. Similar
characteristics can, in general, be attributed to the capybara Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris
and to the white-lipped peccary Tayassu sp. Another important prey is the deer
Ozotocerus bezoarticus. In general, this specie lives in field areas and ecotone of these
areas containing forest vegetation. The existence of the paca Agouti paca, of rodent
Dasyprocta azarae and other rodents such as the opossum Cavia sp. can also be found
among the small and medium sized animals.

Among the birds found with higher rates of recurrences the american ostrich Rhea and the
siriema Cariama cristata can be found. These species occur in small flocks exclusively in
open vegetation formations of the Cerrado. In the arborous formations the curassow Crax
fasciolata, guan Penelope sp and others can be found. Such species are found in the
forest/cerrado ecotones.

The existence of the poisonous snakes species can also occur in the region, represented
by the rattlesnake Crotalus terrificus and by the jararaca Bothnops sp. Such specimen live
exclusively in open formations, being that the rattlesnake has a preference to rocky soils
coated with underbushes.




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ENDORSEMENT FROM THE GOVERNMENT OF
              BRAZIL




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