UDL Strategies for 3 UDL principles

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					                     Strategies that Support the Three UDL Principles (this information is also available online at the CAST website)

            Recognition of Networks:                                        Strategic Networks:                                           Affective Networks:
       The What of Learning (Representation)                               The How of Learning                                           The Why of Learning
                                                                               (Expression)                                                  (Engagement)

-   Perception; Language, expressions, and symbols;      -   Physical action; Expression and communication;              -   Recruiting interest; Sustaining effort and
    Comprehension                                            Executive function                                              persistence; Self-regulation
-   Present information and content in different ways.   -   Differentiate the ways that students can express what       -   Stimulate interest and motivation for learning.
-   More ways to provide multiple means of                   they know.                                                  -   More ways to provide multiple means of
    representation.                                      -   More ways to provide multiple means of expression.              engagement.
-   Low Tech: List objectives/agenda on the board.       -   Low Tech: Dry erase boards; laminated organizer;            -   Low Tech: Verbal responses; paper and pencil
-   High Teach: List objectives/agenda through               student notebooks.                                              organizer; dry erase boards; student notebooks.
    electronic document read and projector.              -   High Tech: Word processing program on computer;             -   High Tech: Computer general organizer; Smart
-   Perception:                                              Smart Board and projector.                                      Board; student created PowerPoint
-   1.1: Offer ways of customizing the display of        -   Physical action                                             -   Recruiting Interest
    information                                          -   4.1: Vary the methods for response and                      -   7.1: Optimize individual choice and autonomy
         o The size of text, images, graphs, tables,         navigation                                                           o The level of perceived challenge
              or other visual content                             o Provide alternatives in the requirements for                  o The type of rewards or recognition
         o The contrast between background and                          rate, timing, speed, and range of motor                        available
              text or image                                             action required to interact with instructional            o The context or content used for practicing
         o The color used for information or                            materials, physical manipulatives, and                         and assessing skills
              emphasis                                                  technologies                                              o The tools used for information gathering or
         o The volume or rate of speech or sound                  o Provide alternatives for physically                                production
         o The speed or timing of video, animation,                     responding or indicating selections (e.g.,                o The color, design, or graphics of layouts,
              sound, simulations, etc.                                  alternatives to marking with pen and pencil,                   etc.
         o The layout of visual or other elements                       alternatives to mouse control)                            o The sequence or timing for completion of
         o The font used for print materials                      o Provide alternatives for physically                                subcomponents of tasks
-   1.2: Offer alternatives for auditory information                    interacting with materials by hand, voice,       -   7.2: Optimize relevance, value, and authenticity
         o Use text equivalents in the form of                          single switch, joystick, keyboard, or adapted             o Vary activities and sources of information
                      Strategies that Support the Three UDL Principles (this information is also available online at the CAST website)

               captions or automated speech-to-text                     keyboard                                                     so that they can be:
               (voice recognition) for spoken language     -   4.2: Optimize access to tools and assistive                                  Personalized and contextualized
         o Provide visual diagrams, charts,                    technologies                                                                     to learners’ lives
               notations of music or sound                          o Provide alternate keyboard commands for                               Culturally relevant and
         o Provide written transcripts for videos or                    mouse action                                                            responsive
               auditory clips                                       o Build switch and scanning options for                                 Socially relevant
         o Provide American Sign Language (ASL)                         increased independent access and                                    Age and ability appropriate
               for spoken English                                       keyboard alternatives                                               Appropriate for different racial,
         o Use visual analogues to represent                        o Provide access to alternative keyboards                                   cultural, ethnic, and gender
               emphasis and prosody (e.g., emoticons,               o Customize overlays for touch screens and                                  groups
               symbols, or images)                                      keyboards                                                o Design activities so that learning outcomes
         o Provide visual or tactile (e.g., vibrations)             o Select software that works seamlessly with                     are authentic, communicate to real
               equivalents for sound effects or alerts                  keyboard alternatives and alt keys                           audiences, and reflect a purpose that is
         o Provide visual and/or emotional                 -   Expression and Communication                                          clear to the participants
               description for musical interpretation      -   5.1: Use multiple media for communication                         o Provide tasks that allow for active
-   1.3: Offer alternatives for visual information                  o Compose in multiple media such as text,                        participation, exploration and
         o Provide descriptions (text or spoken) for                    speech, drawing, illustration, design, film,                 experimentation
               all images, graphics, video, or                          music, dance/movement, visual art,                       o Invite personal response, evaluation and
               animations                                               sculpture or video                                           self-reflection to content and activities
         o Use touch equivalents (tactile graphics                  o Use physical manipulatives (e.g., blocks,                  o Include activities that foster the use of
               or objects of reference) for key visuals                 3D models, base-ten blocks)                                  imagination to solve novel and relevant
               that represent concepts                              o Use social media and interactive web tools                     problems, or make sense of complex ideas
         o Provide physical objects and spatial                         (e.g., discussion forums, chats, web design,                 in creative ways
               models to convey perspective or                          annotation tools, storyboards, comic strips,    -   7.3: Minimize threats and distractions
               interaction                                              animation presentations)                                 o Create an accepting and supportive
         o Provide auditory cues for key concepts                   o Compose in multiple media such as text,                        classroom climate
               and transitions in visual information                    speech, drawing, illustration, comics,                   o Vary the level of novelty or risk
-   Language, expressions, and symbols                                  storyboards, design, film, music, visual art,                       Charts, calendars, schedules,
-   2.1: Clarify vocabulary and symbols                                 sculpture, or video                                                     visible timers, cues, etc. that can
         o Pre-teach vocabulary and symbols,                        o Solve problems using a variety of strategies                              increase the predictability of
               especially in ways that promote             -   5.2: Use multiple tools for construction and                                     daily activities and transitions
               connection to the learners’ experience          composition                                                                  Creation of class routines
               and prior knowledge                                  o Provide spellcheckers, grammar checkers,                              Alerts and previews that can
         o Provide graphic symbols with alternative                     word prediction software                                                help learners anticipate and
               text descriptions                                    o Provide Text-To-Speech software (voice                                    prepare for changes in activities,
         o Highlight how complex terms,                                 recognition), human dictation, recording                                schedules, and novel events
               expressions, or equations are                        o Provide calculators, graphing calculators,                            Options that can, in contrast to
               composed of simpler words or symbols                     geometric sketchpads, or pre-formatted                                  the above, maximize the
         o Embed support for vocabulary and                             graph paper                                                             unexpected, surprising, or novel
               symbols within the text (e.g., hyperlinks            o Provide sentence starters or sentence strips                              in highly routinized activities
                      Strategies that Support the Three UDL Principles (this information is also available online at the CAST website)

               or footnotes to definitions, explanations,            o     Use story webs, outlining tools, or concept            o    Vary the level of sensory stimulation
               illustrations, previous coverage,                           mapping tools                                                      Variation in the presence of
               translations)                                          o Provide Computer-Aided-Design (CAD),                                      background noise or visual
         o Embed support for unfamiliar references                         music notation (writing) software, or                                  stimulation, noise buffers,
               within the text (e.g., domain specific                      mathematical notation software                                         number of features or items
               notation, lesser known properties and                  o Provide virtual or concrete mathematics                                   presented at a time
               theorems, idioms, academic language,                        manipulatives (e.g., base-10 blocks,                               Variation in pace of work, length
               figurative language, mathematical                           algebra blocks)                                                        of work sessions, availability of
               language, jargon, archaic language,                    o Use web applications (e.g., wikis,                                        breaks or time-outs, or timing or
               colloquialism, and dialect)                                 animation, presentation)                                               sequence of activities
-   2.2: Clarify syntax and structure                        -   5.3: Build fluencies with graduated levels of                    o Vary the social demands required for
         o Clarify unfamiliar syntax (in language or             support for practice and performance                                  learning or performance, the perceived
               in math formulas) or underlying structure              o Provide differentiated models to emulate                       level of support and protection and the
               (in diagrams, graphs, illustrations,                        (i.e. models that demonstrate the same                      requirements for public display and
               extended expositions or narratives)                         outcomes but use differing approaches,                      evaluation
         o Highlight structural relations or make                          strategies, skills, etc.)                              o Involve all participants in whole class
               them more explicit                                     o Provide differentiated mentors (i.e.,                          discussions
         o Make connections to previously learned                          teachers/tutors who use different             -   Sustaining effort and persistence
               structures                                                  approaches to motivate, guide, feedback or    -   8.1: Heighten salience of goals and objectives
         o Make relationships between elements                             inform)                                                o Prompt or require learners to explicitly
               explicit (e.g., highlighting the transition            o Provide scaffolds that can be gradually                        formulate or restate goal
               words in an essay, links between ideas                      released with increasing independence and              o Display the goal in multiple ways
               in a concept map, etc.)                                     skills (e.g., embedded into digital reading            o Encourage division of long-term goals into
-   2.3: Support decoding text, mathematical                               and writing software)                                       short-term objectives
    notification, and symbols                                         o Provide differentiated feedback (e.g.,                    o Demonstrate the use of hand-held or
         o Allow the use of Text-to-Speech                                 feedback that is accessible because it can                  computer-based scheduling tools
         o Use automatic voicing with digital                              be customized to individual learners)                  o Use prompts or scaffolds for visualizing
               mathematical notation                                  o Provide multiple examples of novel                             desired outcome
         o Use digital text with an accompanying                           solutions to authentic problems                        o Engage learners in assessment
               human voice recording                         -   Executive Function                                                    discussions of what constitutes excellence
         o Allow for flexibility and easy access to          -   6.1: Guide appropriate goal-setting                                   and generate relevant examples that
               multiple representations of notation                   o Provide prompts and scaffolds to estimate                      connect to their cultural background and
               where appropriate (e.g., formulas, word                     effort, resources, and difficulty                           interests
               problems, graphs)                                      o Provide models or examples of the process        -   8.2: Vary demands and resources to optimize
         o Offer clarification of notation through                         and product of goal-setting                       challenges
               lists of key terms                                     o Provide guides and checklists for                         o Differentiate the degree of difficulty or
-   2.4: Promote understanding across languages                            scaffolding goal-setting                                    complexity within which core activities can
         o Make all key information in the dominant                   o Post goals, objectives, and schedules in an                    be completed
               language (e.g., English) also available in                  obvious place                                          o Provide alternatives in the permissible
               first languages (e.g., Spanish) for           -   6.2: Support planning and strategy development                        tools and scaffolds
                      Strategies that Support the Three UDL Principles (this information is also available online at the CAST website)

               learners with limited-English proficiency              o    Embed prompts to “stop and think” before                 o    Vary the degrees of freedom for
               and in ASL for learners who are deaf                        acting as well as adequate space                              acceptable performance
          o Link key vocabulary words to definitions                  o Embed prompts to “show and explain your                      o Emphasize process, effort, improvement in
               and pronunciations in both dominant                         work” (e.g., portfolio review, art critiques)                 meeting standards as alternatives to
               and heritage languages                                 o Provide checklists and project planning                          external evaluation and competition
          o Define domain-specific vocabulary (e.g.,                       templates for understanding the problem,        -   8.3: Foster collaboration and communication
               “map key” in social studies) using both                     setting up prioritization, sequences, and                 o Create cooperative learning groups with
               domain-specific and common terms                            schedules of steps                                            clear goals, roles, and responsibilities
          o Provide electronic translation tools or                   o Embed coaches or mentors that model                          o Create school-wide programs of positive
               links to multilingual glossaries on the                     think-alouds of the process                                   behavior support with differentiated
               web                                                    o Provide guides for breaking long-term goals                      objectives and supports
          o Embed visual, non-linguistic supports for                      into reachable short-term objectives                      o Provide prompts that guide learners in
               vocabulary clarification (pictures, videos,   -   6.3: Facilitate managing information and                                when and how to ask peers and/or
               etc.)                                             resources                                                               teachers for help
-   2.5: Illustrate through multiple media                            o Provide graphic organizers and templates                     o Encourage and support opportunities for
          o Present key concepts in one form of                            for data collection and organizing                            peer interactions and supports (e.g., peer-
               symbolic representation (e.g., an                           information                                                   tutors)
               expository text or a math equation) with               o Embed prompts for categorizing and                           o Construct communities of learners
               an alternative form (e.g., an illustration,                 systematizing                                                 engaged in common interests or activities
               dance/movement, diagram, table,                        o Provide checklists and guides for note-                      o Create expectations for group work (e.g.,
               model, video, comic strip, storyboard,                      taking                                                        rubrics, norms, etc.)
               photograph, animation, physical or            -   6.4: Enhance capacity for monitoring progress             -   8.4: Increase mastery-oriented feedback
               virtual manipulative)                                  o Ask questions to guide self-monitoring and                   o Provide feedback that encourages
          o Make explicit links between information                        reflection                                                    perseverance, focuses on development of
               provided in texts and any accompanying                 o Show representations of progress (e.g.,                          efficacy and self-awareness, and
               representation of that information in                       before and after photos, graphs and charts                    encourages the use of specific supports
               illustrations, equations, charts, or                        showing progress over time, process                           and strategies in the face of challenge
               diagrams                                                    portfolios)                                               o Provide feedback that emphasizes effort,
-   Comprehension                                                     o Prompt learners to identify the type of                          improvement, and achieving a standard
-   3.1: Activate or supply background knowledge                           feedback or advice that they are seeking                      rather than on relative performance
          o Anchor instruction by linking to and                      o Use templates that guide self-reflection on                  o Provide feedback that is frequent, timely,
               activating relevant prior knowledge (e.g.,                  quality and completeness                                      and specific
               using visual imagery, concept                          o Provide differentiated models of self-                       o Provide feedback that is substantive and
               anchoring, or concept mastery routines)                     assessment strategies (e.g., role-playing,                    informative rather than comparative or
          o Use advanced organizers (e.g., KWL                             video reviews, peer feedback)                                 competitive
               methods, concept maps)                                 o Use of assessment checklists, scoring                        o Provide feedback that models how to
          o Pre-teach critical prerequisite concepts                       rubrics, and multiple examples of annotated                   incorporate evaluation, including
               through demonstration or models                             student work/performance examples                             identifying patterns of errors and wrong
          o Bridge concepts with relevant analogies                                                                                      answers, into positive strategies for future
               and metaphors                                                                                                             success
                      Strategies that Support the Three UDL Principles (this information is also available online at the CAST website)

         o    Make explicit cross-curricular                                                            -   Self-regulation
              connections (e.g., teaching literacy                                                      -   9.1: Promote expectations and beliefs that
              strategies in the social studies                                                              optimize motivation
              classroom)                                                                                         o Provide prompts, reminders, guides,
-   3.2: Highlight patterns, critical features, big                                                                   rubrics, checklists that focus on:
    ideas, and relationships                                                                                                 Self-regulatory goals like
         o Highlight or emphasize key elements in                                                                                reducing the frequency of
              text, graphics, diagrams, formulas                                                                                 aggressive outbursts in
         o Use outlines, graphic organizers, unit                                                                                response to frustration
              organizer routines, concept organizer                                                                          Increasing the length of on-task
              routines, and concept mastery routines                                                                             orientation in the face of
              to emphasize key ideas and                                                                                         distractions
              relationships                                                                                                  Elevating the frequency of self-
         o Use multiple examples and non-                                                                                        reflection and self-
              examples to emphasize critical features                                                                            reinforcements
         o Use cues and prompts to draw attention                                                                o Provide coaches, mentors, or agents that
              to critical features                                                                                    model the process of setting personally
         o Highlight previously learned skills that                                                                   appropriate goals that take into account
              can be used to solve unfamiliar                                                                         both strengths and weaknesses
              problems                                                                                           o Support activities that encourage self-
-   3.3: Guide information processing,                                                                                reflection and identification of personal
    visualization, and manipulation                                                                                   goals
         o Give explicit prompts for each step in a                                                     -   9.2: Facilitate personal coping skills and
              sequential process                                                                            strategies
         o Provide options for organizational                                                                    o Provide differentiated models, scaffolds
              methods and approaches (tables and                                                                      and feedback for:
              algorithms for processing mathematical                                                                         Managing frustration
              operations)                                                                                                    Seeking external emotional
         o Provide interactive models that guide                                                                                 support
              exploration and new understandings                                                                             Developing internal controls and
         o Introduce graduated scaffolds that                                                                                    coping skills
              support information processing                                                                                 Appropriately handling subject
              strategies                                                                                                         specific phobias and judgments
         o Provide multiple entry points to a lesson                                                                             of “natural” aptitude (e.g., “how
              and optional pathways through content                                                                              can I improve on the areas I am
              (e.g., exploring big ideas through                                                                                 struggling in?” rather than “I am
              dramatic works, arts and literature, film                                                                          not good at math”)
              and media)                                                                                         o Use real life situations or simulations to
         o “Chunk” information into smaller                                                                           demonstrate coping skills
              elements                                                                                  -   9.3: Develop self-assessment and reflection
                     Strategies that Support the Three UDL Principles (this information is also available online at the CAST website)

        o    Progressively release information (e.g.,                                                          o   Offer devices, aids, or charts to assist
             sequential highlighting)                                                                              individuals in learning to collect, chart and
         o Remove unnecessary distractions                                                                         display data from their own behavior for
             unless they are essential to the                                                                      the purpose of monitoring changes in
             instructional goal                                                                                    those behaviors
-   3.4: Maximize Transfer and Generalization                                                                  o   Use activities that include a means by
         o Provide checklists, organizers, sticky                                                                  which learners get feedback and have
             notes, electronic reminders                                                                           access to alternative scaffolds (e.g.,
         o Prompt the use of mnemonic strategies                                                                   charts, templates, feedback displays) that
             and devices (e.g., visual imagery,                                                                    support understanding progress in a
             paraphrasing strategies, method of loci,                                                              manner that is understandable and timely
         o Incorporate explicit opportunities for
             review and practice
         o Provide templates, graphic organizers,
             concept maps to support note-taking
         o Provide scaffolds that connect new
             information to prior knowledge (e.g.,
             word webs, half-full concept maps)
         o Embed new ideas in familiar ideas and
             contexts (e.g., use of analogy,
             metaphor, drama, music, film, etc.)
         o Provide explicit, supported opportunities
             to generalize learning to new situations
             (e.g., different types of problems that
             can be solved with linear equations,
             using physics principles to build a
         o Offer opportunities over time to revisit
             key ideas and linkages between ideas

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