LEADERSHIP PRINCIPLES Presented by: 1. Peter Kereri 2. Nancy Visavilwa 3. Meldah Angir OUTLINE: 1. Effective leadership 2. Human relations 3. the team concept QUOTE: • THE BOSS DRIVES; the leader coaches. • The boss wants power; the leader, good will. • The boss creates fear; the leader builds pride. • The boss says “I”; the leader says “We”. • The boss places blame; the leader solves problem. • The boss knows how; the leader shows how. • The boss uses people; the leader serves others. • The boss preaches; the leader teaches. • The boss takes credit; the leader gives credit. • The boss commands; the leader asks. • The boss says “Go”; the leader says “Let’s go”. -William J. Steward; Author and educator LEARNING POINTS How do rate on the principles and practices of effective leadership? Why are human relations important, and what are the elements of an enlightened workplace? What are the characteristics of a high performance group, and what can the leader do to develop communication, teamwork, and a one-team attitude? EFFECTIVE LEADERSHIP How do you go about being an effective leader? (Principles) Be yourself. Figure out what you are good at. Hire only good people who care. Treat people the way you want to be treated. Focus on one or two critical objectives. Ask your co-workers how to get there. Listen well. Call the play. Get out of their way. Cheer them on. Count the gains. Start right now. Certain principles of leadership have optimum positive influence on followers. Followers are unable to read the minds of their leaders and can go only by what they see them do; therefore, it is important to consider how well you are practicing the principles of effective leadership. WORK MORALE The importance of morale has been recognized by all great leaders. Napoleon once wrote: ‘An army’s success depends on its size, experience, equipment, and morale…. And morale is worth more than the other elements combined.” A person’s morale can be diagnosed according to the percentage of time spent on the job in each of three states-work, play, and hell. The single best way to achieve high morale is to get the right person in the right job in the first place. RAISING EMPLOYEE MORALE Some policies and techniques for maximizing morale seem to work with the majority of employees in most cases. A review of 550 studies published in 1959 shows 9 areas in which management can take actions that will have positive affects on employee satisfaction and job performance. Following are the 9 areas and possible actions: 1. Pay and reward systems. Introduce a group bonus. 2. Job autonomy and discretion. Allow workers to determine their own work methods. 3. Support services. Provide service on demand from technical support groups. 4. Training. Provide training and development for all employees. 5. Organizational structure. Reduce the number of hierarchical levels. 6. Technical and physical aspects. Break long production and assembly lines into smaller work units. 7. Task assignments. Assign whole task, including preparatory and finishing work. 8. Information and feedback. Solicit and utilize direct feedback from users- customers, other departments. 9. Interpersonal and group processes. Increase the amount and types of group interaction. THE ROLE OF THE LEADER Does morale make difference, and does leadership count? Yes and yes, answered Robert Levering and Milton Moskowitz in The 100 Best Companies to work for in America, identifying Southwest Airlines as number 1 and quoting an enthusiastic employee: “Working here is an unbelievable experience. They treat you with respect, pay you well, and ask you to use your ideas to solve problems. They encourage you to be yourself. I love going to work. The success of the company comes from a leader who is honest and caring, committed to his people and who cares about their morale. It is common sense that happy employees make happy customers. PRACTICAL LEADERSHIP TIPS The task of leadership is to manage morale, which means making sure people: feel they are given the opportunity to do what they do best every day; believe their opinions count; sense their fellow employees are committed to doing high-quality work; have made a direct connection between their work and the company’s mission. TIPS FOR BEING AN EFFECTIVE LEADER Be predictable: be consistent Be understanding: try to see things from the other person’s view Be enthusiastic: the atmosphere you create determines whether people will give their best effort when you are not present. Set the example: it is difficult to ask others to do something if you, yourself aren’t willing to do it. Show support: people want a leader they can trust in times of need and a person they can depend on to represent their interests (mutual loyalty). Get out of the office: visit frontline people with your eyes and ears open. Keep promises: when you make promises, keep them faithfully. Credibility is the formation of trust, and trust is an essential quality employees want in a leader. Praise generously: never let an opportunity pass to give a well-deserved compliment. Hold your fire: say less than you think (how you say something is often more important than what you say). Always be fair: show respect, consideration, and support for all employees equally, but differentiate rewards based on performance. PSYCHOLOGICAL HEALTH AND THE CONCEPT OF FLOW A satisfying work experience is important for emotional well-being. The Russian writer Fyodor Dostoyevsky wrote “If it were considered desirable to destroy a human being, the only thing necessary would be to give his work a climate of uselessness”. Thomas Jefferson believed it was neither wealth nor splendor, that tranquility and occupation, which give happiness. CONCEPT OF FLOW Flow is the confluence of challenge and skill. In all fields of work, when we are challenged by something we are truly good at, we become so absorbed in the flow of the activity that we lose consciousness of self and time. We avoid states of anxiety, boredom, and apathy, and we experience flow. THE EXPERIENCE OF FLOW COMBINES HIGH CHALLENGE AND HIGH SKILL High challenge anxiety flow Low skill high skill apathy boredom Low challenge NOTE THAT: Low skill + low challenge= apathy and diminished work life; Low skill + high challenge = anxiety and low self-esteem; High skill + low challenge = boredom and low creativity; High skill + high challenge = the experience of flow and work fulfillment. WHAT IS IT LIKE TO BE IN A STATE OF FLOW? People describe the same dimensions of flow: A clear and present purpose distinctly known. Immediate feedback on how well one is doing. Supreme concentration on the task at hand as other concerns are temporarily suspended. A sense of growth and being pert of some greater endeavor as ego boundaries are transcended. An altered sense of time that usually seems to go faster. JOB DESIGN AND WORK SATISFACTION What constitutes a good job? One of the best models of job design and work satisfaction shows intrinsic and extrinsic factors that are necessary for a rich job. Intrinsic factors are: o Variety and change; o Opportunity for decision making; o Feedback and learning; o Mutual support and respect; o Wholeness and meaning; o Room to grow. Extrinsic factors are: o Fair and adequate pay; o Job security; o Benefits; o Safety o Health o Due process.
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