Chapt 4 review

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					Chapter 4 Review

Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

____    1. The product of the frequency and the wavelength of a wave equals the
           a. number of waves passing a point in a second.
           b. speed of the wave.
           c. distance between wave crests.
           d. time for one full wave to pass.
____    2. Visible light, X rays, infrared radiation, and radio waves all have the same
           a. energy.                                         c. speed.
           b. wavelength.                                     d. frequency.
____    3. For electromagnetic radiation, c (the speed of light) equals
           a. frequency minus wavelength.                   c. frequency divided by wavelength.
           b. frequency plus wavelength.                    d. frequency times wavelength.
____    4. The speed of an electromagnetic wave is equal to the product of its wavelength and its
           a. mass.                                       c. velocity.
           b. color.                                      d. frequency.
____    5. Because c, the speed of electromagnetic radiation, is a constant, the wavelength of the radiation is
           a. proportional to its frequency.               c. inversely proportional to its frequency.
           b. equal to its frequency.                      d. double its frequency.
____    6. The frequency of electromagnetic radiation is measured in waves/second, or
           a. nanometers.                                 c. hertz.
           b. quanta.                                     d. joules.
____    7. According to the particle model of light, certain kinds of light cannot eject electrons from metals because
           a. the mass of the light is too low.              c. the energy of the light is too low.
           b. the frequency of the light is too high.        d. the wavelength of the light is too short.
____    8. As it travels through space, electromagnetic radiation
           a. exhibits wavelike behavior.                   c. varies in speed.
           b. loses energy.                                 d. releases photons.
____    9. If electromagnetic radiation A has a lower frequency than electromagnetic radiation B, then compared to B,
           the wavelength of A is
           a. longer.                                      c. equal.
           b. shorter.                                     d. exactly half the length of B's wavelength.
____ 10. The distance between two successive peaks on adjacent waves is its
         a. frequency.                                 c. quantum number.
         b. wavelength.                                d. velocity.
____ 11. A quantum of electromagnetic energy is called a(n)
         a. photon.                                     c. excited atom.
         b. electron.                                   d. orbital.
____ 12. The wave model of light does not explain
           a. the frequency of light.                     c. interference.
           b. the continuous spectrum.                    d. the photoelectric effect.
____ 13. Max Planck proposed that a hot object radiated energy in small, specific amounts called
         a. quanta.                                     c. hertz.
         b. waves.                                      d. electrons.
____ 14. The energy of a photon is related to its
         a. mass.                                         c. frequency.
         b. speed.                                        d. size.
____ 15. The emission of electrons from metals that have absorbed photons is called the
         a. interference effect.                        c. quantum effect.
         b. photoelectric effect.                       d. dual effect.
____ 16. The specific wavelengths of light seen through a prism that are made when high-voltage current is passed
         through a tube of hydrogen gas at low pressure is a
         a. line-emission spectrum.                      c. photoelectric effect.
         b. electron configuration.                      d. continuous electromagnetic spectrum.
____ 17. A line spectrum is produced when an electron moves from one energy level
         a. to a higher energy level.                  c. into the nucleus.
         b. to a lower energy level.                   d. to another position in the same sublevel.
____ 18. Which is not part of hydrogen's line-emission spectrum?
         a. Balmer series.                               c. Lyman series.
         b. Aufbau series.                               d. Paschen series.
____ 19. When the pink-colored light of glowing hydrogen gas passes through a prism, it is possible to see
         a. all the colors of the rainbow.             c. four lines of different colors.
         b. only lavender-colored lines.               d. black light.
____ 20. Because excited hydrogen atoms always produce the same line-emission spectrum, scientists concluded that
         hydrogen
         a. had no electrons.                        c. released photons of only certain energies.
         b. did not release photons.                 d. could only exist in the ground state.
____ 21. The Bohr model of the atom was an attempt to explain hydrogen's
         a. density.                                   c. mass.
         b. flammability.                              d. line-emission spectrum.
____ 22. For an electron in an atom to change from the ground state to an excited state,
         a. energy must be released.
         b. energy must be absorbed.
         c. radiation must be emitted.
         d. the electron must make a transition from a higher to a lower energy level.
____ 23. If electrons in an atom have the lowest possible energies, the atom is in the
         a. ground state.                                 c. excited state.
         b. inert state.                                  d. radiation-emitting state.
____ 24. Bohr's theory helped explain why
         a. electrons have negative charge.
         b. most of the mass of the atom is in the nucleus.
            c. excited hydrogen gas gives off certain colors of light.
            d. atoms combine to form molecules.
____ 25. According to the Bohr model of the atom, the single electron of a hydrogen atom circles the nucleus
         a. in specific, allowed orbits.
         b. in one fixed orbit at all times.
         c. at any of an infinite number of distances, depending on its energy.
         d. counterclockwise.
____ 26. Which energy-level change shown in the diagram below emits the highest energy?




            a.   an electron moving from E6 to E5
            b.   an electron moving from E2 to E4
            c.   an electron moving from E2 to E3
            d.   an electron moving from E2 to E1
____ 27. The electron in a hydrogen atom has its lowest total energy when the electron is in its
         a. neutral state.                               c. ground state.
         b. excited state.                               d. quantum state.
____ 28. The change of an atom from an excited state to the ground state always requires
         a. absorption of energy.
         b. emission of electromagnetic radiation.
         c. release of visible light.
         d. an increase in electron energy.
____ 29. According to Bohr, electrons cannot reside at ____ in the figure below.




            a. point A                                      c. point C
            b. point B                                      d. point D
____ 30. The French scientist Louis de Broglie theorized that
         a. electrons could have a dual wave-particle nature.
         b. light waves did not have a dual wave-particle nature.
         c. the natures of light and quantized electron orbits were not similar.
         d. Bohr's model of the hydrogen atom was completely correct.
____ 31. Louis de Broglie's research suggested that
         a. frequencies of electron waves do not correspond to specific energies.
         b. electrons usually behave like particles and rarely like waves.
         c. electrons should be considered as waves confined to the space around an atomic nucleus.
         d. electron waves exist at random frequencies.

____ 32. The equation E = h helped Louis de Broglie determine
         a. how protons and neutrons behave in the nucleus.
         b. how electron wave frequencies correspond to specific energies.
         c. whether electrons behave as particles.
         d. whether electrons exist in a limited number of orbits with different energies.
____ 33. Which model of the atom explains why excited hydrogen gas gives off certain colors of light?
         a. the Bohr model                            c. Rutherford's model
         b. the de Broglie model                      d. Planck's theory
____ 34. Which model of the atom explains the orbitals of electrons as waves?
         a. the Bohr model                              c. Rutherford's model
         b. the quantum model                           d. Planck's theory
____ 35. The region outside the nucleus where an electron can most probably be found is the
         a. electron configuration.                     c. s sublevel.
         b. quantum.                                    d. electron cloud.
____ 36. The size and shape of an electron cloud are most closely related to the electron's
         a. charge.                                     c. spin.
         b. mass.                                       d. energy.
____ 37. All of the following describe the Heisenberg uncertainly principle except
         a. it states that it is impossible to determine simultaneously both the position and velocity of
             an electron or any other particle.
         b. it is one of the fundamental principles of our present understanding of light and matter.
         c. it helped lay the foundation for the modern quantum theory.
         d. it helps to locate an electron in an atom.
____ 38. All of the following describe the Schrödinger wave equation except
         a. it is an equation that treats electrons in atoms as waves.
         b. only waves of specific energies and frequencies provide solutions to the equation.
         c. it helped lay the foundation for the modern quantum theory.
         d. it is similar to Bohr's theory.
____ 39. Both the Heisenberg uncertainty principle and the Schrödinger wave equation
         a. are based on Bohr's theory.
         b. treat electrons as particles.
         c. led to locating an electron in an atom.
         d. led to the concept of atomic orbitals.
____ 40. A three-dimensional region around a nucleus where an electron may be found is called a(n)
         a. spectral line.                            c. orbital.
         b. electron path.                            d. orbit.
____ 41. According to the quantum theory of an atom, in an orbital
         a. an electron's position cannot be known precisely.
         b. an electron has no energy.
         c. electrons cannot be found.
         d. electrons travel around the nucleus on paths of specific radii.
____ 42. The quantum number that indicates the position of an orbital about the three axes in space is the
         a. principal quantum number.
         b. angular momentum quantum number.
         c. magnetic quantum number.
         d. spin quantum number.
____ 43. How many quantum numbers are needed to describe the energy state of an electron in an atom?
         a. 1                                      c. 3
         b. 2                                      d. 4
____ 44. The main energy levels of an atom are indicated by the
         a. orbital quantum numbers.
         b. magnetic quantum numbers.
         c. spin quantum numbers.
         d. principal quantum numbers.
____ 45. The angular momentum quantum number indicates the
         a. orientation of an orbital around the nucleus.
         b. shape of an orbital.
         c. direction of the spin of the electron in its orbital.
         d. main energy level of an orbital.
____ 46. The number of sublevels within each energy level of an atom is equal to the value of the
         a. principal quantum number.
         b. angular momentum quantum number.
         c. magnetic quantum number.
         d. spin quantum number.
____ 47. What values can the angular momentum quantum number have when n = 2?
         a.                                         c. 0, 1, 2

            b.                                             d. 0, 1

____ 48. The spin quantum number indicates that the number of possible spin states for an electron in an orbital is
         a. 1.                                         c. 3.
         b. 2.                                         d. 5.
____ 49. Each atomic orbital is described by its principal quantum number followed by the
         a. value of the electron's spin state.            c. number of electrons in the sublevel.
         b. magnetic quantum number.                       d. letter of the sublevel.
____ 50. The spin quantum number of an electron can be thought of as describing
         a. the direction of electron spin.
            b. whether the electron's charge is positive or negative.
            c. the electron's exact location in orbit.
            d. the number of revolutions the electron makes about the nucleus per second.
____ 51. An electron for which n = 4 has more ____ than an electron for which n = 2.
         a. spin                                       c. energy
         b. particle nature                            d. wave nature
____ 52. The set of orbitals that are dumbbell shaped and directed along the x, y, and z axes are called
         a. d orbitals.                                  c. f orbitals.
         b. p orbitals.                                  d. s orbitals.
____ 53. A spherical electron cloud surrounding an atomic nucleus would best represent
         a. an s orbital.
         b. a px orbital.
         c. a combination of px and py orbitals.
         d. a combination of an s and a px orbital.
____ 54. The major difference between a 1s orbital and a 2s orbital is that
         a. the 2s orbital can hold more electrons.
         b. the 2s orbital has a slightly different shape.
         c. the 2s orbital is at a higher energy level.
         d. the 1s orbital can have only one electron.
____ 55. The p orbitals are shaped like
         a. electrons.                                     c. dumbbells.
         b. circles.                                       d. spheres.
____ 56. An orbital that can never exist according to the quantum description of the atom is
         a. 3d.                                           c. 6d.
         b. 8s.                                           d. 3f.
____ 57. The letter designations for the first four sublevels with the maximum number of electrons that can be
         accommodated in each sublevel are
         a. s:2, p:4, d:6, and f:8.
         b. s:1, p:3, d:5, and f:7.
         c. s:2, p:6, d:10, and f:14.
         d. s:1, p:2, d:3, and f:4.
____ 58. The number of possible different orbital shapes for the third energy level is
         a. 1.                                           c. 3.
         b. 2.                                           d. 4.
____ 59. The number of orbitals for the d sublevel is
         a. 1.                                             c. 5.
         b. 3.                                             d. 7.
____ 60. For the f sublevel, the number of orbitals is
         a. 5.                                             c. 9.
         b. 7.                                             d. 18.
____ 61. The total number of orbitals that can exist at the second main energy level is
         a. 2.                                             c. 4.
         b. 3.                                             d. 8.
____ 62. How many orientations can an s orbital have about the nucleus?
         a. 1                                          c. 3
         b. 2                                          d. 5
____ 63. How many orbitals can exist at the third main energy level?
         a. 3                                            c. 9
         b. 6                                            d. 18
____ 64. How many electrons can occupy the s orbitals at each energy level?
         a. two, if they have opposite spins
         b. two, if they have the same spin
         c. one
         d. no more than eight
____ 65. If n is the principal quantum number of a main energy level, the number of electrons in that energy level is
         a. n.                                           c. n2.
         b. 2n.                                          d. 2n2.
____ 66. How many electrons are needed to completely fill the fourth energy level?
         a. 8                                         c. 32
         b. 18                                        d. 40
____ 67. How many more electrons are needed to completely fill the third main energy level if it already contains 8
         electrons?
         a. 0                                        c. 10
         b. 8                                        d. 22
____ 68. One main energy level can hold 18 electrons. What is n?
         a.                                            c. 6

            b. 3                                           d. 18
____ 69. At n = 1, the total number of electrons that could be found is
         a. 1.                                            c. 6.
         b. 2.                                            d. 18.
____ 70. If 8 electrons completely fill a main energy level, what is n?
         a. 2                                             c. 8
         b. 4                                             d. 32
____ 71. If the third main energy level contains 15 electrons, how many more could it possibly hold?
         a. 0                                             c. 3
         b. 1                                             d. 17
____ 72. The main energy level that can hold only two electrons is the
         a. first.                                      c. third.
         b. second.                                     d. fourth.
____ 73. A single orbital in the 3d level can hold ____ electrons.
         a. 10                                            c. 3
         b. 2                                             d. 6
____ 74. The statement that an electron occupies the lowest available energy orbital is
         a. Hund's rule.                                c. Bohr's law.
            b. the Aufbau principle.                        d. the Pauli exclusion principle.
____ 75. "Orbitals of equal energy are each occupied by one electron before any is occupied by a second electron, and
         all electrons in singly occupied orbitals must have the same spin" is a statement of
         a. the Pauli exclusion principle.                c. the quantum effect.
         b. the Aufbau principle.                         d. Hund's rule.
____ 76. The statement that no two electrons in the same atom can have the same four quantum numbers is
         a. the Pauli exclusion principle.               c. Bohr's law.
         b. Hund's rule.                                 d. the Aufbau principle.
____ 77. Which of the following rules requires that each of the p orbitals at a particular energy level receive one
         electron before any of them can have two electrons?
         a. Hund's rule                                  c. the Aufbau principle
         b. the Pauli exclusion principle                d. the quantum rule
____ 78. Two electrons in the 1s orbital must have different spin quantum numbers to satisfy
         a. quantum rule.                                 c. the Pauli exclusion principle.
         b. the magnetic rule.                            d. the Aufbau principle.
____ 79. The sequence in which energy sublevels are filled is specified by
         a. the Pauli exclusion principle.              c. Lyman's series.
         b. the orbital rule.                           d. the Aufbau principle.
____ 80. The Aufbau principle states that an electron
         a. can have only one spin number.
         b. occupies the lowest available energy level.
         c. must be paired with another electron.
         d. must enter an s orbital.
____ 81. The Pauli exclusion principle states that no two electrons in the same atom can
         a. occupy the same orbital.
         b. have the same spin quantum numbers.
         c. have the same set of quantum numbers.
         d. be at the same main energy level.
____ 82. The atomic sublevel with the next highest energy after 4p is
         a. 4d.                                         c. 5p.
         b. 4f.                                         d. 5s.
____ 83. In the electron configuration for scandium (atomic number 21), what is the notation for the three
         highest-energy electrons?
         a. 3d1 4s2                                      c. 3d3
                3
         b. 4s                                           d. 4s2 4p1
____ 84. Which of the following lists atomic orbitals in the correct order they are filled according to the Aufbau
         principle?
         a. 1s 2s 2p 3s 4s 3p 3d 4p 5s
         b. 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d 4p 5s
         c. 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 4p 3d 4d
         d. 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 3d 4s 4p 5s
____ 85. Both copper (atomic number 29) and chromium (atomic number 24) appear to break the pattern in the order
         of filling the 3d and 4s orbitals. This change in pattern is expressed by
            a.   an increase in the number of electrons in both the 3d and 4s orbitals.
            b.   a reduction in the number of electrons in both the 3d and 4s orbitals.
            c.   a reduction in the number of electrons in the 3d orbital and an increase in the 4s orbital.
            d.   a reduction in the number of electrons in the 4s orbital and an increase in the 3d orbital.
____ 86. In the ground state, the 3d and 4s sublevels of the chromium atom (atomic number 24) are represented as
         a. 3d6 4s1.                                       c. 3d5 4s1.
                4  2
         b. 3d 4s .                                        d. 4s2 3d4.
____ 87. The element with electron configuration 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p2 is
         a. Mg (Z = 12).                                 c. S (Z = 16).
         b. C (Z = 6).                                   d. Si (Z = 14).
____ 88. The electron configuration for the carbon atom (C) is 1s2 2s2 2p2. The atomic number of carbon is
         a. 3.                                           c. 11.
         b. 6.                                           d. 12.
____ 89. What is the electron configuration for nitrogen, atomic number 7?
         a. 1s2 2s2 2p3
         b. 1s2 2s3 2p2
         c. 1s2 2s3 2p1
         d. 1s2 2s2 2p2 3s1
____ 90. The electron notation for aluminum (atomic number 13) is
         a. 1s2 2s2 2p3 3s2 3p3 3d1.
         b. 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 2d1.
         c. 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p1.
         d. 1s2 2s2 2p9.
____ 91. If the s and p orbitals of the highest main energy level of an atom are filled with electrons, the atom has a(n)
         a. electron pair.                                 c. empty d orbital.
         b. octet.                                         d. electron in an excited state.
____ 92. The number of electrons in the highest energy level of the argon atom (atomic number 18) is
         a. 10.                                          c. 6.
         b. 2.                                           d. 8.
____ 93. If the s and p sublevels of the highest main energy level of an atom are filled, how many electrons are in this
         main energy level?
         a. 2                                             c. 16
         b. 8                                             d. 32
____ 94. If an element has an octet of electrons in its highest main energy level, there are ____ electrons in this level.
         a. 2                                               c. 10
         b. 8                                               d. 32
____ 95. An element with 8 electrons in its highest main energy level is a(n)
         a. octet element.                               c. Aufbau element.
         b. third period element.                        d. noble gas.


Short Answer

       96. Explain Louis de Broglie's contribution to the quantum model of the atom.
     97. What do quantum numbers describe?

     98. How does the figure below illustrate Hund's rule?




     99. How does the figure above illustrate the Pauli exclusion principle?

    100. The electron configuration for nitrogen is 1s2 2s2 2p3. What does the 3 in 2p3 mean?


Problem

    101. Write the electron configuration for nitrogen, atomic number 7.

          Use the periodic table below to answer the following questions.




    102. Which element has the following electron configuration: [Ar] 4s2 3d10 4p5?
    103. Write the noble-gas electron configuration for silicon.

    104. Draw the orbital diagram for phosphorus.

    105. Draw the orbital diagram for argon.

    106. Write the noble-gas electron configuration represented in the orbital diagram below.




    107. What element's orbital diagram is shown in the figure below?




Essay

    108. Elements of the fourth period fill the 4s sublevel with electrons before filling the 3d sublevels. Also, some
         elements move an electron from a filled 4s sublevel to an unoccupied 3d sublevel. Explain these behaviors.
Chapter 4 Review
Answer Section

MULTIPLE CHOICE

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70. ANS:   A   PTS: 1   DIF: III   REF: 3
    OBJ:   1
71. ANS:   C   PTS: 1   DIF: III   REF: 3
    OBJ:   1
72. ANS:   A   PTS: 1   DIF: I     REF: 3
    OBJ:   1
73. ANS:   B   PTS: 1   DIF: II    REF: 3
    OBJ:   1
74. ANS:   B   PTS: 1   DIF: I     REF: 3
    OBJ:   2
75. ANS:   D   PTS: 1   DIF: I     REF: 3
    OBJ:   2
76. ANS:   A   PTS: 1   DIF: I     REF: 3
    OBJ:   2
77. ANS:   A   PTS: 1   DIF: I     REF: 3
    OBJ:   2
78. ANS:   C   PTS: 1   DIF: II    REF: 3
    OBJ:   2
79. ANS:   D   PTS: 1   DIF: I     REF: 3
    OBJ:   2
80. ANS:   B   PTS: 1   DIF: I     REF: 3
    OBJ:   2
81. ANS:   C   PTS: 1   DIF: I     REF: 3
    OBJ:   2
82. ANS:   D   PTS: 1   DIF: II    REF: 3
    OBJ:   2
83. ANS:   A   PTS: 1   DIF: III   REF: 3
    OBJ:   3
84. ANS:   B   PTS: 1   DIF: II    REF: 3
    OBJ:   3
85. ANS:   D   PTS: 1   DIF: II    REF: 3
    OBJ:   3
86. ANS:   C   PTS: 1   DIF: II    REF: 3
    OBJ:   3
87. ANS:   D   PTS: 1   DIF: II    REF: 3
    OBJ:   3
88. ANS:   B   PTS: 1   DIF: II    REF: 3
    OBJ:   3
89. ANS:   A   PTS: 1   DIF: II    REF: 3
    OBJ:   3
90. ANS:   C   PTS: 1   DIF: II    REF: 3
    OBJ:   3
91. ANS:   B   PTS: 1   DIF: II    REF: 3
    OBJ:   3
92. ANS:   D   PTS: 1   DIF: II    REF: 3
    OBJ:   3
93. ANS:   B   PTS: 1   DIF: I     REF: 3
    OBJ:   3
94. ANS:   B   PTS: 1   DIF: I     REF: 3
    OBJ:   3
    95. ANS: D                  PTS: 1                 DIF: I                 REF: 3
        OBJ: 3


SHORT ANSWER

    96. ANS:
        If light has a particle nature, de Broglie reasoned, could particles have a wave nature? He compared the
        behavior of Bohr's quantized electron orbits to the known behavior of waves. Finally, he hypothesized that
        electrons are confined to the space around an atomic nucleus and that electron waves exist only at specific
        energies.

        PTS: 1               DIF: II               REF: 2                OBJ: 1
    97. ANS:
        Three of the quantum numbers describe the location of an electron, and the fourth gives its spin.

        PTS: 1                DIF: II              REF: 2                OBJ: 4
    98. ANS:
        According to Hund's rule, the arrangement of electrons with the maximum number of unpaired electrons is
        the most stable arrangement.

        PTS: 1                DIF: III               REF: 3                OBJ: 2
    99. ANS:
        According to the Pauli exclusion principle, no two electrons can have the same set of four quantum numbers.
        Therefore, no more than two electrons can occupy an orbital, and these two must have opposite spins.

        PTS: 1                 DIF: III                REF: 3                   OBJ: 2
   100. ANS:
        The 3 in 2p3 indicates that three electrons are in the p orbitals of the second energy level.

         PTS: 1                 DIF: II                REF: 3                 OBJ: 3


PROBLEM

   101. ANS:
        1s2 2s2 2p3

        PTS: 1                  DIF: III               REF: 3                 OBJ: 3
   102. ANS:
        bromine

        PTS: 1                  DIF: III               REF: 3                 OBJ: 3
   103. ANS:
        [Ne] 3s2 3p2

        PTS: 1                  DIF: III               REF: 3                 OBJ: 3
   104. ANS:
        PTS: 1                 DIF: III               REF: 3                OBJ: 3
   105. ANS:




        PTS: 1                 DIF: III               OBJ: 4-3.3
   106. ANS:
        [Ne] 3s2 3p4

        PTS: 1                 DIF: III               REF: 3                OBJ: 3
   107. ANS:
        fluorine

         PTS: 1                DIF: III               REF: 3                OBJ: 3


ESSAY

   108. ANS:
        Elements fill the 4s sublevel with electrons before filling the 3d sublevels because the 4s sublevel is lower in
        energy than the 3d sublevels. According to the Aufbau principle, an electron occupies the lowest energy level
        that can receive it. Some elements move an electron from a filled 4s sublevel to an unoccupied 3d sublevel so
        they can have more unpaired electrons in their configuration. This minimizes electron repulsions and is
        therefore a more stable arrangement.

         PTS: 1                DIF: III               REF: 3                OBJ: 2

				
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