mental illness lecture by bm69jY9

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									                        Psychological Disorders
                        Psychological Disorder
  The presence of a constellation of symptoms that create significant
  distress or impair work, school, family, relationships, or daily living
• Three factors
   – Distress
   – Disability
   – Danger
              Deviant Behavior and Abnormality
• Importance of context
   – Social norms
   – Cultural beliefs
   – Religious practices
• Psychosis
• Hallucinations
• Delusions
           Is mental illness a social construction
• Labeling theory – sociology
   – Extreme form says that mental illness does not exist aside from labels
        • Thomas
        • R.D. Laing
   – Less extreme forms
        • Labeling leads to reactions from others
        • Self-definition
        • Acting in role
                    The problems with diagnosis
• Often unreliable
• Conditions do not have definitive symptoms
                         Labels and Abnormality
• Labels are somewhat arbitrary
• Rosenhan “On being sane in insane places”
   –   8 pseudopatients claimed to hear voices
   –   Admitted to psychiatric hospitals
   –   Stopped reporting symptoms
   –   Normal behaviors were interpreted as pathological
   –   Doctors rarely responded to questions
  – Many real patients were not fooled
 Why mental illness is not a social construction
• Symptoms appear cross culturally
  – In about the same degrees and percentages
  – Although often labeled differently
  – And seen as different causes
• Heredity implications
• Brain patterns
                         Explaining Abnormality
• The brain
  – Diathesis-stress model
• The person
  – Classical and operant conditioning
• The group
  – Labels
                         Categorizing Disorders
• Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition
  (DSM-IV)
  –   Axis I: clinical disorders
  –   Axis II: personality disorders and mental retardation
  –   Axis III: general medical conditions
  –   Axis IV: psychosocial and environmental problems
  –   Axis V: global assessment of functioning
                                Mood Disorders
• Major depressive disorder
  – Lifetime prevalence
       • Women 20%
       • Men 12%
• Dysthymia
  – Lifetime prevalence 6%
• Suicide
  – Attempted by 30% of depressed people
                                Mood Disorders
• Bipolar disorder
  – Mania
       • Hypomania
       • Manic episode
       • Prodromal phase
  – Often cycles with depression
  – Formerly called manic depression
  – Lifetime prevalence 1%
                      Explaining Mood Disorders
• The brain
  – Hereditary factors
  – Frontal lobe
  – Amygdala
• The person
  – Attributional style
• The group
  – Social support network
                                Anxiety Disorders
• Panic disorder
  –   Panic attacks
  –   Agoraphobia
  –   Anxiety sensitivity
  –   Lifetime prevalence 3%
                                Anxiety Disorders
• Phobias
  – Social phobia
       • Lifetime prevalence 13%
  – Specific phobia
       •   Animal fears
       •   Blood-injection-injury fears
       •   Natural environment fears
       •   Situation fears
       •   Miscellaneous fears
       •   Lifetime prevalence 10%
                                Anxiety Disorders
• Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)
  – Obsession
  – Compulsion
       • Checking
       • Washing
       • Ordering
  – Lifetime prevalence 3%
                              Anxiety Disorders
• Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
   – Traumatic event
   – Fear and helplessness
   – Symptoms
        • Re-experience event
        • Avoidance and emotional numbing
        • Heightened arousal
   – Lifetime prevalence 8% (among Americans)
        • Prevalence strongly affected by environment
                                 Schizophrenia
• Positive Symptoms
   –   Delusions
   –   Hallucinations
   –   Disordered behavior
   –   Disorganized speech
• Negative Symptoms
   – Flat affect
   – Alogia
   – Avolition
                     What are the key symptoms?
• Loose associations
• Attention – too much thinking
• Affect
                                 Schizophrenia
• Four subtypes
   –   Paranoid
   –   Disorganized
   –   Catatonic
   –   Undifferentiated
                      Explaining Schizophrenia
• The brain
   – Hereditary
   – Ventricle size
• The person
   – Emotional dampening
• The group
   – High expressed emotion
    – Social selection and social causation
                              Dissociative Disorders
• Symptoms
    –   Identity confusion
    –   Identity alteration
    –   Derealization
    –   Depersonalization
    –   Amnesia
• Dissociative amnesia
• Dissociative fugue
• Dissociative identity disorder
                                Eating Disorders
• Anorexia nervosa
• Bulimia nervosa
• Factors
    – Genetic predisposition
    – Gender
    – Cultural factors
• Lifetime prevalence 0.5%-4%
                              Personality Disorders
•   Antisocial personality disorder
•   Avoidant personality disorder
•   Borderline personality disorder
•   Dependent personality disorder
•   Histrionic personality disorder
                              Personality Disorders
•   Narcissistic personality disorder
•   Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder
•   Paranoid personality disorder
•   Schizoid personality disorder
•   Schizotypal personality disorder
                         Are the mentally ill violent
• Common stereotype
• Good data on schizophrenics – most feared
    – Are slightly more violent
  – But only
     • If violence before hospitalization
     • Substance abuse
     • Auditory hallucinations
            What about the insanity defense?
• The legal issues
  – Diminished capacity
  – Mental hospital vs. prison?
• M’Naughton right wrong test?
• Control over actions?

								
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