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DENOMINATION OF ORIGIN Worlds of Flavor Spain Powered By Docstoc
					                  DENOMINATION OF ORIGIN
D.O. Rueda
    The Denomination of Origin Rueda was approved by the Ministry of Agriculture on January
    12, 1980; it was the first Denomination of Origin to be approved in the Region of Castilla
    y León, after years of hard work in order to earn acknowledgement and protection for its
    autochthonous grape variety: the Verdejo.

    The Denomination of Origin Rueda possesses exceptional natural resources for the production
    of top-quality wines, specialised in making internationally renowned white wines. In addition,
    red and rosés are being protected by the D.O. Rueda since the 5th of August, 2008, a time
    when the current D.O. Rueda Regulations were published in the Official Gazette of Castilla y

    The production area included in the Denomination of Origin Rueda is located in the Region
    of Castilla y León and consists of 72 towns and villages, 53 of which are located south of the
    province of Valladolid, 17 to the west of Segovia, and 2 north of Ávila.


                                                12    MAP OF THE D.O. RUEDA

                                              14      THE VINEYARD
    8       RED VARIETIES

                                               16     BACK LABELS AND TYPES OF WINES

                                              21      THE REGULATORY COUNCIL
                                                                                                    The Verdejo grape has been grown in
                                                                                                   the Denomination of Origin Rueda for
                                                                                                  over centuries. It has a unique flavour,
                                                                                                with a hint of scrub herbs, a fruity touch
                                                                                                      and an excellent level of acidity. The
                                                                                 “THE RUEDA          extract, a key factor when assessing
                                                                                                                                               The D.O. Rueda is located in the central area of the depression
                                                                                                                                               formed by the river Duero, on a smooth plateau blown by Atlantic
                                                                               CHARACTER: A          the personality of great white wines,

      Continental weather
                                                                                                                                               winds. The area has alluvial and flood terraces on the banks
                                                                                                      is perceived through its volume and      of the river Duero and its tributaries, the rivers Trabancos,

                                                                             COMBINATION OF          its characteristic bitter touch, which
                                                                                                leaves a glint of originality in the mouth,
                                                                                                                                               Zapardiel and Adaja.
                                                                                                                                               Dark grey-brown soils, rich in calcium and magnesium, stony but
      The D.O. Rueda stands 700 to       The difference between day and
      800 metres above sea-level,        night temperatures is key to the   VERDEJO GRAPES,     accompanied by a rich fruity expression.
                                                                                                 These wines are harmonious, and their
                                                                                                                                               easy to farm, with good ventilation and draining, and limestone
                                                                                                                                               outcrops on the hilltops. Permeable and healthy, their texture
      and consists of flat highlands,    balance the grape must have

      with very long, cold winters,      between the sugar provided                                    aftertaste invites to go on drinking.   varies from sandy-loamy to loamy.
      short springs with late frosts,    by the sun and the acidity it                                                                         The pH level of the soil is between 7 and 8. On the surface,
      and dry, hot summers, only
      altered by untimely storms.
                                         does not lose during the cooler
                                         nights. Sun exposure reaches
                                                                               WEATHER AND                                                     this geological substratum has gradually evolved into dark
                                                                                                                                               grey-brown soils on autochthonous stony deposits, which, in
      This factor forces the vines       2,600 hours a year, which would     GRAVELLY SOILS”

                                                                                                                                               turn, have led to the typical “gravelly” soils present in the best
      to search for their water          be too much were it not for the                                                                       vineyards in the D.O. Rueda.
      resources deep underground,        late maturation of the grape.
      much more so than in other
                                         In terms of latitude, the
      European regions.
                                         Rueda region is located within

      Plants flower late, with pruning   the Mediterranean area. Its
      taking place as late as March,     altitude, however, corresponds
      sometimes even April. Rain is      to that of a continental region.
      scarce, with minimum levels of
      300 litres and maximum levels
      of 500 litres per year.

4                                                                                                                                                                                                                   5
                                                                                                                                       With its Rioja reputation, it began to be grown in the 1950’s, when white
                                                                                                                                        wines were classically kept in wooden barrels. Since the virtues of the
                                                                                                                                         Verdejo had not yet been discovered, this variety gave an aristocratic

                                                                                                                                         touch to the Castilian table wines, and was grown for both full-bodied

                                                                                                                                          and popular table wines.

                                            It is believed that it dates back to                                                          This vine, known as Macabeo in Catalonia, has a medium-large pentagonal leaf,
                                            Alfonso VI times (16th century),                                                              with a scratchy, hairy back. The clusters are medium or large and the berries are

                              varieties     but we have no evidence of that.
                                            Cantabrians, Vascons and Mozarabs
                                                                                                                                          very round, with a sweet-sour juice. They also ripen more slowly. This grape variety
                                                                                                                                         is used in the “Rueda” type wines, together with the Verdejo variety, contributing
    THE DENOMINATION OF ORIGIN RUEDA IS     repopulated the Duero basin at that                                                          extra lightness and a touch of acidity.
    ONE OF THE FEW EUROPEAN WINEGROWING     time. Most probably were Mozarabs
    REGIONS SPECIALISED IN MAKING WHITE     who brought Verdejo variety to Spain.
                                            The vine has a small-medium size                                                                                                     sauvignon blanc
                                            pentagonal leaf, with a medium-sized
    AUTOCHTHONOUS GRAPE VARIETY.                                                                                                               This variety, which originated from France’s Loire region, was brought to Spain in the
                                            petiolar sinus which hardly opens
                                                                                                                                                1970’s. It adds a floral element to the wine, with scents of grapefruit and passion
    RUEDA WINES ARE MARKED BY THE STRONG    out, a hairless back, and nerves
                                                                                                                                                 fruit, as opposed to the flinty touch of the Loire’ Sauvignon, a difference due mainly
                                            and petiole with little or no hair.
    PERSONALITY OF THE VERDEJO GRAPE, THE                                                                                                        to a greater exposure to the sun compared with the Loire region and Bordeaux.
                                            The clusters (racemes) are medium-
    INCORPORATION OF OTHER VARIETIES, AND                                                                                                               However, they share the same short growth period, which in the French region
                                            sized, with a very short stem. The
    THE VINEYARDS THEMSELVES, WHICH HAVE                                                                                                                  is due to the northern latitude and, in Castile, to the region’s altitude.
                                            berries are also medium-sized,
    LEARNED TO SURVIVE IN A TOUGH, ALMOST   short, usually spherical or elliptical,
                                                                                                                                                          It has a small, pentagonal leaf, small, compact clusters and a broad elliptical
    HOSTILE, ENVIRONMENT IN ORDER TO GIVE   and the seeds tend to be somewhat
                                                                                                                                                         berry which ripens faster than the others. The D.O. Rueda pioneered the
    THEIR BEST TO THE WINE.                 large, and can easily be seen when
                                                                                                                                                         adoption of this French variety, bringing a modern and international character
                                            the grape is held up to the light.
                                                                                                                                                to the region.

                                             List of registered area per variety                        palomino fino
                                                                                                        In the 30s, wine growers began to plant Palomino Fino variety in the area, which was the
                                                                  verdejo                               basis for making rich flor wines. This variety, which produces more yields than any other,
                                                                                                        can be optimal to produce wines similar to Jerez’s which were very demanded back then.
                                                                                                        For this reason, it was the most extended variety in the Medina area back then (Rueda Control
                                                                                   viura                Board does not allow new plantations of this variety any more as its neutral character does not
                                                                                                        lend the appropriate characteristics as to make today’s’ quality wines).

6                                                                                     sauvignon blanc
                                                                                                        It has medium-large leaves, medium-large clusters, a fruit bigger than the Verdejo, and golden,                                     7
                                                                                                        prune-like berries.

                                                                      palomino fino
                                                                                                                         Medium-large, cylindrical, compact, winged cluster. Small, round, blue-

                                                                                                                         black berries with a soft pulp. Large pentagonal leaves, with a dark green,
                                                                                                                         almost black front and a velvety back.

                   varieties                      THE DENOMINATION OF
                                                  ORIGIN RUEDA, WIDELY

                                                                                                                                                   cabernet sauvignon
    At some point a process of selection must     ACKNOWLEDGED FOR
    have taken place, favouring the production    ITS WHITE WINES, ALSO
    of white wine over red wine. This may have
                                                  MAKES RED WINES.
    been due to the area’s location between two                                                                                                    Small, cylindrical, compact, sometimes winged clusters.
    regions, Toro and Ribera del Duero, which     THIS AREA HAS A                                                                                  Small, round, very dark blue berries, with a slightly herbal
    produce mainly red wine, and the strong       HISTORICAL TRADITION                                                                             flavour. Medium-sized leaves, orbicular-pentagonal in shape,
    demand for generous wines in the 16th and                                                                                                      with sharp sinuses.
                                                  OF RED GRAPE VINEYARDS,
    17th centuries, when those were the wines
                                                  ESPECIALLY BEFORE THE
    drunk at Court.
                                                  DEVASTATING PLAGUE OF
    The devastating plague of Phylloxera might    PHYLLOXERA IN THE LATE 19TH
    also have led to the virtual disappearance    CENTURY.
    of red vines, leading to the absolute
    predominance of white varieties.
                                                  The varieties authorized for winemaking have adapted
                                                  perfectly to the area and demonstrated their qualities for                      Medium, long, conical clusters with little compactness.
                                                  the elaboration of top-quality wines.                                           Medium, broad, elliptical, dark blue berries. Large to
                                                                                                                                  medium pentagonal leaves, with a dark green front and
                                                                                                                                  a scratchy back.
                                                  List of registered area per variety


                                                                                                 cabernet sauvignon
                                                                                                                          Very compact, winged, pyramidal, trunk-like medium cluster. Medium, round,
                                                                                                                          dark violet berry, with a juicy, colourless pulp. Medium, pentagonal leaves with
                                                                                                                          very faint lateral sinuses.
8                                                                                                                                                                                                                 9
                                                                                    THE OLD RUEDA WINES
                                                                                    WERE THE FIRST
                                                                                    ONES TO BE PRICED IN
                                                                                    DIRECT PROPORTION       THE TIMES HAVE CHANGED. TODAY, PROVENANCE
                                                                                                            AND ORIGIN-RELATED ISSUES PREVAIL OVER
                                                                                    TO THEIR AGE. MOST
                                                                                                            ALCOHOLIC CONTENT AND AGING TIME.
                                                                                    OF THE WINES WERE

                                                                                                                                                                       new times
                                                                                    SOLD YOUNG, EVEN        Grapes are harvested when they are at just the right
                                                                                                            point of maturity, an important factor for winemaking.
                                                                                    THE JEREZ WINES,
                                                                                                            The mechanised grape harvesting process avoids                         Another example of these “new times”, and an
                                                                                    WHICH, UNTIL THE 18TH   the oxidation of the must, and a large part of the                     attempt to provide the market with still another
                                                                                    CENTURY, LEFT THE       harvesting therefore takes place at night, with no                     choice in the wide variety of Rueda wines, is the
                                                                                                            sunlight to oxidise the must. The grapes enter the                     barrel fermentation carried out by some wine cellars
                                                                                    PORT OF CÁDIZ FOR
                                                                                                            cellars at 10-15ºC, as opposed to September’s daytime                  in the D.O. Rueda, which produces well-structured
                                                                                    ENGLAND IMMEDIATELY     temperatures of 24-28ºC. Fermentation takes place                      wines with a strong personality, offering consumers
                                                                                    AFTER FERMENTATION.     in stainless steel containers fitted with temperature                  a plethora of sensations.

     the Rueda wines
                                                                                                            control devices, cold-treatment machines in some
                                                                                    SOME 16TH CENTURY
                                                                                                            cases, and vacuum filters that clean the must without
                                                                                    DOCUMENTS MAKE A        taking away the nutrients necessary for the yeasts. The
                                                                                    DISTINCTION BETWEEN     wine is now clean and pale, having been filtered and
     In the late 1970’s, Rueda wine was a tasty, warm, smooth wine, with a rustic                           having undergone quick cold decantations.
                                                                                    TRASAÑEJO (VERY OLD)
     touch. As a luxury wine there was the Dorado, reminiscent of the generous
     white wines of the Golden Age, considered the official Court wine under the    AND AÑEJO (MORE         Three months later the wine has taken on a slightly                    “THE SAVOIR FAIRE OF
     Catholic Monarchs.                                                                                     yellowish colour, with a youthful, greenish hue, and
                                                                                    THAN ONE YEAR) WINES,
                                                                                                            has a fresh, fruity aroma and flavour. We now reach                    THE WINEMAKERS AND
                                                                                    WHEREAS THE NEW
     The wine is renowned for its mellowness, and a Royal Decree of 1911                                    the crucial stage of bottling, Rueda Verdejo wine’s
     declared that the wine of Tierra de Medina was a special wine, “similar to     WINE IS CALLED MOSTO    claim to fame: an unaged harvest wine, the result of a                 THE IMPLEMENTATION OF
     the wine made in Jerez and Málaga”.                                                                    completely aseptic process and the implementation of
                                                                                                            state-of-the-art technology, with the Verdejo grape full               STATE-OF-THE-ART
                                                                                                            of primary, powerful, elegant aromas.
                                                                                                                                                                                   TWO KEY FACTORS FOR
                                                                                                                                                                                   A TOP-QUALITY WINE”

10                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        11
     map of D.O. Rueda



12                                           13
     Maximum productions permitted per hectare:

                                                                                         the vineyard                                                                Average age of the vineyard
     White Varieties (Wire-Trained Vines)

                                                              Sauvignon                                                                                                     The implementation of state-of-the-art winegrowing
        Verdejo                    Viura                                                                                                                                    technologies and European aid for the restructuring
        10.000 kg/ha.              12.000 kg/ha.                                                                                                                            of vineyards have lead to a major rejuvenation in the
                                                              10.000 kg/ha.
                                                                                                                                                                            Rueda vineyards. Only the Palomino Fino variety
                                                                                                                                                                            shows signs of excessive aging, and its neutral
                                                                                                                                                                            character does not adapt to today’s Rueda wines.
     White Varieties (Bushed Vines)                                                                                                                                         The Regulatory Council is therefore not authorising
                                                                                                                                                                            new plantations of this particular variety, which will
                                                                                                                                                                            most probably be removed and substituted with
                                                              Sauvignon                 Palomino
        Verdejo                    Viura                                                                                                                                    Verdejo grapes.
                                                              Blanc                     Fino

        8.000 kg/ha.               10.000 kg/ha.
                                                              8.000 kg/ha.              10.000 kg/ha.

                                                                                                                                                                     Type of harvesting
      Red Varieties
                                                                                                                                                                             Every year the Regulatory Council establishes the
                                                                                                                                                                             harvesting regulations, with a view to improving
                                                                                                                                                                             the quality of the grapes received, encouraging
        7.000 kg/ha.                                                                                                                                                         a quick delivery of the grape and avoiding long
                                                                                                                                                                             stays in trailers and any contact with the metallic
                                                                                                                                                                             parts of the trucks.

                                                                                                                                                                             The modernisation process experienced by the
     PLANTATION DENSITY:                                                                                                                                                     D.O. Rueda and the implementation of the appro-
         • Bushed Vines: 1,100 vines per hectare (minimum)                                                                                                                   priate technology in the winepresses have made
         • Wire-Trained Vines (*): 2,200 vines per hectare (minimum)                                                                                                         it possible to harvest almost 85% of the white
                                                                                                                                                                             grapes mechanically (this is general practise in
     HABITUAL PLANTATION FRAME:                                                                                                                                              100% of the Sauvignon Blanc production).
         • Bushed Vines: 3x3 m frames.
         • Wire-Trained Vines: 3x1.5 m frames (with a tendency to reduced spacing among vines).                                                                              Mechanical harvesting is normally done at night,
                                                                                                                                                                             thus avoiding the oxidation of the musts (which
                                                                                                                                                                             happens when the grapes are harvested in broad
                                                                                                                                                                             daylight at high temperatures) and optimising
     Depending on the grape variety and the conduction system employed, the more common pruning types are:                                                                   the use of cold in the cellars, obtaining musts at
          • Short pruning: Viura, Palomino, Tempranillo and Garnacha.                                                                                                        temperatures ostensibly lower than those achie-
          • Long pruning:                                                                                                                                                    ved with daylight harvesting.
               -Double Guyot system: Verdejo, Sauvignon Blanc, Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot (Wire-Trained Vines)
               -Rod: Verdejo (Bushed Vines)                                                                                                                                  For manual harvesting, the grapes must be trans-
14                                                                                                                                                                           ported in stainless steel trailers, or protected by
                                                                                                                                                                             canvasses, avoiding the contact of the must with                   15
     (*) In order to estimate yields, a “Wire-Trained vines” is being described as a vine training system that shapes a vertical structure consisting of posts and           the iron or metal parts of the trailer.
     supporting wires. The latter are aligned in at least three wire rows, with a minimum height of 150 cm. from the soil to the top of the post, except for those
     vineyards registered in the Control Board before passing the Regulations or those vineyards to be restructured with the “Wire-Trained” system before June
     30th, 2011.
     back labels
     The back label is the seal of identity which informs the
     consumer about the origin of the grape and the product’s
     quality parameters, established through a strict control
     process described in the Regulations of the Regulatory
                                                                and types of wine
     Council.                                                   Each back label has a number and a series in order to
                                                                avoid potential falsifications and to control existing wine
     The Denomination of Origin Rueda has different types       volumes in relation to each batch of classified wine.
     of back labels, for the consumer to be able to identify    Specific back labels have also been designed for 37.5
     its wines. The labels of Denomination of Origin Rueda      cl bottles, so as to avoid the unlawful use of the same.
     wines must indicate the year of harvesting (except for     The back label allows the Technical Services to identify
     generous and sparkling wines), allowing consumers to       the original batch of the wine and to trace the original
     know the vintage of the wine they are drinking.            product.

16                                                                                                                            17
     whites wines
     Rueda Verdejo
     At least 85%, but normally they are made with 100%, of Verdejo
     grape. Straw yellow. Great aromatic potential and very elegant scent.          Rueda Espumoso (Sparkling)
     Fruity aromas with anisette-like and fennel hues. Strong body and              Made according to the traditional method, consisting of a second
     good palate, with great fruitiness and the bitter touch characteristic        fermentation in the bottle and a period of aging in the bottle of no
     of this variety. Dry wines, with a minimum alcohol content of 11.5°          less than 9 months. By following this method, the Verdejo develops
                                                                                  great fruitiness and smoothness. Dry or semi-dry (at least 50% of
                                                                                 Verdejo) and Brut or Brut Nature (at least 85% of Verdejo). Minimum
                                                                                 alcohol content of 11.5°

     At least 50% of Verdejo grape. In this case the properties of the Verdejo
     are more diluted, due to the presence of other varieties.Fresh, smooth
     and floral, with a minimum alcohol content of 11°                             Rueda Dorado
                                                                                   Liquor wine, dry, achieved by means of an oxidizing aging
                                                                                    process; must stays in oak barrels for at least two years prior to
                                                                                    its being marketed. Golden colour, with slightly toasted aroma
                                                                                     and flavour due to the long oxidation in oak barrels. Alcohol
                                                                                     content of no less than 15°.
      Rueda Sauvignon
      At least 85% of Sauvignon Blanc grape. Great aromatic intensity
      and reminiscences of tropical fruits are the main features of this
      variety. Agreeable on the palate, it has a long aftertaste with a
      minimum alcohol content of 11°.

18                                                                                                                                                        19
     red and rose wines
                                                                                    the regulatory council
      D.O. Rueda also includes the following types of wines:

                                                                                    The Denomination of Origin Rueda was approved on January 12, 1980,
                                                                                    through an Order of the Ministry of Agriculture; it was the first Denomi-
                                                                                    nation of Origin to be approved in the Region of Castilla y León.

                                                                                    The Regulations currently in force are those of the Order of July
                                        Tinto Joven              Tinto Crianza      21, 2008 of the Department of Agriculture and Farming of the
                                                                                    Regional Government of Castilla y León, whereby the Regu-
                                                                                    lations governing the Denomination of Origin Rueda and its
                                                                                    Regulatory Council were approved.

                                                                                    D.O. Rueda is, therefore, the first Appellation of Origin in
                                                                                    Castilla y León that revises its Relugations to comply with
                                                                                    the National and Regional Vine and Wine- Growing Regula-

                                                                                    Among other novelties, we underline the fact that red and
                                       Tinto Reserva           Tinto Gran Reserva   rosé wines are being protected by D.O. Rueda.

                                       Rosado (Rosé)           Rosado Espumoso
                                                                (Sparkling Rosé)
 El control de calidad que
 se realiza al calificar los                                                                          Dissemination and promotion
        es una operación
 vinosInspection and control                                                                          One of the main tasks of the Regulatory Council is to provide professionals, the media and the final consumer with spe-
                                                                                                      cific information about the distinguishing features of the product, its wine cellars and their wines.

 fundamental, si tenemos
                                                                                                      The communication campaigns have the aim to trasmit an image of the D.O. Rueda as a guarantee for brands of the
                                                                                                      D.O. Rueda wine cellars.
      The main mission of the Regulatory Council is to control and ensure compliance with the
      norms included in the Regulations of the Denomination of Origin, to which the winemakers

 en cuenta que sólo los
                                                                                                      The Regulatory Council’s Department of Communication is particularly attentive to the communication media, providing
      and wine cellars included in the D.O. are subject, both in the early stages of growing and
                                                                                                      relevant explanations, all necessary information and documentation, and also maintaining a transparent and direct
      harvesting and in the elaboration, aging and labelling of the wines. The Regulatory Council
                                                                                                      channel of communication.
      consequently aims to promote and encourage quality through the continuous improve-

 vinos que superen los
      ment of the wines produced in the region.

      The daily duties of the technical inspection team are concerned with different issues: con-
                                                                                                      Main Office of the Regulatory Council
      trol of the planting of new vines, performance control per land plot, harvest control (hygie-
                                                                                                         Address: C/ Real, 8. 47490 Rueda. Valladolid

 análisis sensoriales y
      ne, origin and variety), wine performance in each wine cellar, methods and times of ela-
                                                                                                         Telephone: + 34 983 86 82 48
      boration and aging as well as classification of the wines to be bottled. The quality control
                                                                                                         General Fax: + 34 983 86 81 35
      implemented when classifying the wines is a fundamental operation, bearing in mind that
                                                                                                         Communication Department Fax: + 34 983 86 82 19

 fisico-quimicos estarán
      only those wines successfully subjected to the sensorial and physical-chemical analyses
      will be authorised to carry the back label, the true guarantee of the control and origin of
                                                                                                          General e-mail:
      the product for the consumer.
                                                                                                          Communication Department e-mail:

 autorizados a vestir la
      The wines that do not meet the standards the wine-tasting session of the Qualification
      Committee, formed by oenologists, sommeliers, government specialists and other pro-
                                                                                                      Updated information is always available on our Web page, from most recent statistics and press releases, to a compre-
      fessionals (37 people in the D.O. Rueda) are disqualified and will be sold under the “Table
                                                                                                      hensive winery list including their data and brands.

 contraetiqueta, auténtica
      wine” or other similar denominations.

 garantía de control y
 procedencia del producto
22                                                                                                                                                                                                                              23
 para el consumidor.

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