Chapter 4 Study Guide by bm69jY9

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									Chapter 4 Study Guide

Multiple Choice
Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

____    1. Igneous rocks that form ____ the surface are intrusive.
           a. above                                        c. on
           b. below                                        d. all of the above




                                      Figure 4-1

____    2. Figure 4-1 shows that the processes involved in the rock cycle include all of the following EXCEPT ____.
           a. condensation                                 c. weathering
           b. erosion                                      d. compaction
____    3. The rock cycle shown in Figure 4-1 indicates that each type of rock can ____.
           a. provide materials to make other rocks
           b. form other rocks
           c. be changed by forces at Earth's surface
           d. all of the above
____    4. The ____ in Figure 4-1 shows how one rock changes into another.
           a. rock cycle                                   c. formation of crystals
           b. melting process                              d. none of the above
____    5. Figure 4-1 shows that sedimentary rocks are changed to sediments by ____.
           a. compaction                                   c. cementation
           b. weathering and erosion                       d. heat and pressure
____    6. Igneous rocks form from ____ when it cools.
           a. magma                                        c. neither a nor b
           b. lava                                         d. both a and b
____    7. The molten material deep inside Earth from which igneous rocks form is called ____.
            a. magma                                          c. neither a nor b
            b. lava                                           d. both a and b
____   8.   Foliated rocks are distinguished by ____.
            a. layers                                         c. large mineral grains
            b. lack of layers                                 d. air holes
____   9.   Lava that cools quickly forms ____ rocks.
            a. extrusive metamorphic                          c. intrusive metamorphic
            b. extrusive igneous                              d. intrusive igneous
____ 10.    All of the following conditions in Earth can cause metamorphic rocks to form EXCEPT ____.
            a. exposure to air                                c. heat
            b. the presence of hot, watery fluids             d. pressure
____ 11.    Quartz is a mineral; granite is ____.
            a. also a mineral                                 c. a gem
            b. a rock                                         d. an ore
____ 12.    A classification of metamorphic rocks would include whether they are ____.
            a. chemical or organic                            c. foliated or nonfoliated
            b. intrusive or extrusive                         d. basaltic or granite
____ 13.    Sedimentary rocks are ____.
            a. formed from magma
            b. a type of foliated igneous rock
            c. formed because of changes in temperature and pressure, or the presence of hot watery
                fluids
            d. formed when loose materials become pressed or cemented together or when minerals form
                from solutions
____ 14.    The pressure and heat that produce magma are caused in part by ____.
            a. gravity                                        c. radioactive elements
            b. magnetic fields                                d. lava
____ 15.    Metamorphic rocks can undergo all of the following changes EXCEPT ____.
            a. an exchange of atoms between minerals
            b. melting
            c. the formation of new, bigger minerals
            d. the flattening of mineral grains
____ 16.    Detrital rocks are ____.
            a. made from broken fragments of other rocks
            b. formed from magma
            c. deposited from solution
            d. all of the above
____ 17.    Fine-grained, extrusive rocks include all of the following EXCEPT ____.
            a. granite                                        c. basalt
            b. scoria                                         d. pumice
____ 18.    A rock is always ____.
            a. made of molten material
            b. a mixture of minerals, organic matter, volcanic glass, or other materials
            c. formed by heat and pressure
            d. either igneous or sedimentary
____ 19.    The crystals that form in slowly cooled magma produce ____ mineral grains.
            a. tiny                                           c. fine-grained
            b. invisible                                      d. large
____ 20. A detrital rock is named according to ____.
         a. its age                                       c. the shape and size of the sediments
         b. its location                                  d. the color of the sediments
____ 21. Changes that take place in rocks never create or destroy ____.
         a. rocks                                         c. matter
         b. crystals                                      d. minerals
____ 22. ____ would be considered a rock.
         a. Quartz                                        c. Granite
         b. Mica                                          d. all of the above
____ 23. Magma from deep inside Earth rises toward the surface because ____.
         a. it is denser than surrounding solid rock
         b. it is less dense than surrounding solid rock
         c. it has the same density as surrounding solid rock
         d. none of the above
____ 24. When lava cools at Earth's surface, ____ igneous rocks are formed.
         a. extrusive                                     c. intrusive
         b. metamorphic                                   d. coarse-grained
____ 25. When magma cools deep inside Earth, ____ igneous rocks are formed.
         a. extrusive                                     c. detrital
         b. fine-grained                                  d. intrusive
____ 26. Basaltic igneous rocks are ____.
         a. light-colored                                 c. rich in iron and magnesium
         b. lower in density than granitic rocks          d. both a and b
____ 27. Granitic igneous rocks are all of the following EXCEPT ____.
         a. light-colored                                 c. high in silica content
         b. lower in density than basaltic rocks          d. high in iron content
____ 28. An igneous rock can form from ____ magma.
         a. basaltic                                      c. granitic
         b. andesitic                                     d. all of the above
____ 29. Metamorphic rocks that show layers of dark minerals alternating with layers of light minerals are classified as
         ____.
         a. nonfoliated                                   c. foliated
         b. extrusive                                     d. intrusive
____ 30. Metamorphic rocks with a non-foliated texture show metamorphic change that involves ____.
         a. mineral grains arranging into layers
         b. growth in the size of the mineral grains
         c. mineral grains flattening under pressure
         d. mineral grain melting
____ 31. Sedimentary rocks form because of all of the following EXCEPT ____.
         a. sediments becoming pressed or cemented together
         b. crystals solidifying from magma
         c. sediments forming from solution
         d. water evaporating, leaving crystals behind
____ 32. Sediments in sedimentary rocks are often ____.
         a. held together with natural cements
         b. formed when atoms of melted minerals rearrange themselves
         c. formed when lava erupts from a volcano
         d. formed by magma trapped below Earth's surface
____ 33. Sandstone is a(n) ____ sedimentary rock.
         a. chemical                                  c. organic
         b. detrital                                  d. none of the above
____ 34. Sedimentary rocks formed from the remains of once-living things are ____.
         a. metamorphic                               c. organic
         b. detrital                                  d. none of the above
____ 35. Sedimentary rocks formed from broken fragments of other rocks are ____.
         a. chemical                                  c. organic
         b. detrital                                  d. none of the above


Matching

             Match each statement with the correct item below.
             a. compaction                                  e.   weathering
             b. cementation                                 f.   marble
             c. limestone                                   g.   erosion
             d. coal                                        h.   slate
____   36.   a kind of organic sedimentary rock
____   37.   The process in which rock is exposed to air, water, or ice and breaks into pieces.
____   38.   a kind of chemical sedimentary rock
____   39.   The process in which pressure from the upper layers of sediment pushes down on the lower layers, causing
             the sediments to stick together and form solid rock.
____   40.   The process in which minerals hold sediment together, like glue, making a detrital sedimentary rock.
____   41.   the movement of weathered material
____   42.   a kind of foliated metamorphic rock
____   43.   a kind of nonfoliated metamorphic rock


Completion
Complete each sentence or statement.

       44. Sandstone is a(n) ____________________ rock.
       45. Granite is a(n) ____________________ rock.
       46. Rock salt is a(n) ____________________ rock.
       47. Obsidian is a(n) ____________________ rock.
       48. Gneiss is a(n) ____________________ rock.
       49. Slate is a(n) ____________________ rock.
       50. Limestone is a(n) ____________________ rock.
       51. Silica-rich, thick magma is ____________________ magma.
       52. Dense, heavy, dark-colored igneous rocks form from ____________________ magma.
       53. Light-colored rocks with lower density form from ____________________ magma.
       54. Rocks that form from ____________________ magma have mineral compositions between those of granitic
           and basaltic magma.
55. Large-grained, light-colored rocks that form deep inside Earth are composed of ____________________
    magma.
56. Lava flowing from volcanoes in Hawaii is ____________________ magma.
Chapter 4 Study Guide
Answer Section

MULTIPLE CHOICE

      1.   ANS:   B     DIF:   A   OBJ:   4/2   STO:   3.5.7.A.2
      2.   ANS:   A     DIF:   B   OBJ:   2/1   STO:   3.5.7.A.4
      3.   ANS:   D     DIF:   A   OBJ:   2/1   STO:   3.5.7.A.4
      4.   ANS:   A     DIF:   B   OBJ:   2/1   STO:   3.5.7.A.4
      5.   ANS:   B     DIF:   B   OBJ:   8/3
      6.   ANS:   D     DIF:   B   OBJ:   3/2   STO: 3.5.7.A.2
      7.   ANS:   A     DIF:   B   OBJ:   3/2   STO: 3.5.7.A.2
      8.   ANS:   A     DIF:   B   OBJ:   7/3
      9.   ANS:   B     DIF:   B   OBJ:   4/2   STO: 3.5.7.A.2
     10.   ANS:   A     DIF:   B   OBJ:   6/3   STO: 3.5.7.A.2, 3.5.7.A.3
     11.   ANS:   B     DIF:   B   OBJ:   1/1
     12.   ANS:   C     DIF:   B   OBJ:   7/3
     13.   ANS:   D     DIF:   B   OBJ:   8/4
     14.   ANS:   C     DIF:   A   OBJ:   3/2   STO: 3.5.7.A.2
     15.   ANS:   B     DIF:   B   OBJ:   6/3   STO: 3.5.7.A.2, 3.5.7.A.3
     16.   ANS:   A     DIF:   B   OBJ:   9/4
     17.   ANS:   A     DIF:   A   OBJ:   9/4
     18.   ANS:   B     DIF:   B   OBJ:   1/1
     19.   ANS:   D     DIF:   B   OBJ:   4/2   STO: 3.5.7.A.2
     20.   ANS:   C     DIF:   A   OBJ:   9/3
     21.   ANS:   C     DIF:   A   OBJ:   2/1   STO: 3.5.7.A.4
     22.   ANS:   C     DIF:   A   OBJ:   1/1
     23.   ANS:   B     DIF:   B   OBJ:   3/2   STO: 3.5.7.A.2
     24.   ANS:   A     DIF:   B   OBJ:   4/2   STO: 3.5.7.A.2
     25.   ANS:   D     DIF:   B   OBJ:   4/2   STO: 3.5.7.A.2
     26.   ANS:   C     DIF:   B   OBJ:   5/2
     27.   ANS:   D     DIF:   B   OBJ:   5/2
     28.   ANS:   D     DIF:   A   OBJ:   5/2
     29.   ANS:   C     DIF:   B   OBJ:   7/3
     30.   ANS:   B     DIF:   A   OBJ:   7/3
     31.   ANS:   B     DIF:   A   OBJ:   8/4
     32.   ANS:   A     DIF:   B   OBJ:   8/4
     33.   ANS:   B     DIF:   B   OBJ:   9/4
     34.   ANS:   C     DIF:   B   OBJ:   9/4
     35.   ANS:   B     DIF:   B   OBJ:   9/4


MATCHING

     36. ANS: D         DIF: B     OBJ: 9/4
     37. ANS: E         DIF: B     OBJ: 2/1     STO: 3.5.7.A.4
     38. ANS: C         DIF: B     OBJ: 9/4
    39.   ANS:   A          DIF:    B   OBJ:   9/4
    40.   ANS:   B          DIF:    B   OBJ:   9/4
    41.   ANS:   G          DIF:    B   OBJ:   2/1   STO: 3.5.7.A.4
    42.   ANS:   H          DIF:    B   OBJ:   7/3
    43.   ANS:   F          DIF:    B   OBJ:   7/3


COMPLETION

    44. ANS: sedimentary                DIF: A       OBJ: 8/4
    45. ANS: igneous                    DIF: A       OBJ: 3/2
        STO: 3.5.7.A.2
    46. ANS: sedimentary                DIF: A       OBJ: 8/4
    47. ANS: igneous                    DIF: A       OBJ: 3/2
        STO: 3.5.7.A.2
    48. ANS: metamorphic                DIF: A       OBJ: 6/3
        STO: 3.5.7.A.2, 3.5.7.A.3
    49. ANS: metamorphic                DIF: A       OBJ: 6/3
        STO: 3.5.7.A.2, 3.5.7.A.3
    50. ANS: sedimentary                DIF:   A     OBJ:   8/4
    51. ANS: granitic                   DIF:   A     OBJ:   5/2
    52. ANS: basaltic                   DIF:   B     OBJ:   5/2
    53. ANS: granitic                   DIF:   B     OBJ:   5/2
    54. ANS: andesitic                  DIF:   B     OBJ:   5/2
    55. ANS: granitic                   DIF:   A     OBJ:   5/2
    56. ANS: basaltic                   DIF:   A     OBJ:   5/2

								
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