"Third Grade Overview - DOC 11"
United States History and Geography SS0904 Becoming a World Power Instructional Organization Note to Teachers: Freedom Tracking Notebook: Students will be using a Freedom Tracking Notebook (FTN) throughout the course. It is advised that each student have a spiral notebook to serve as their FTN. During the course, this notebook will be used to reflect on freedom, its influence, and its changing meaning in American history by questions such as: How has the meaning of freedom changed? How has it remained the same? How has the idea of freedom influenced the actions of individuals and groups? How has the idea of freedom affected Americans and American policy in the world? While specific references to using the Freedom Tracking Notebook occur in the lessons throughout this course, teachers are encouraged to create additional or alternative opportunities for students to think and write about freedom. Textbook: This course assumes that students will have an American History textbook, but does not recommend a particular one. The lessons identify specific topics for students to read and it is incumbent on the teacher to identify the location of this topic in their textbook. Readings: Many lessons reference student readings (including textbook topics). It is recommended that these readings be assigned prior to the lesson. Lesson 1: The Expanding Nation to 1898 Content Expectations: USHG 6.2.1; C4.1.1 Key Concepts: annexation, imperialism, internationalism, isolationism, nationalism Abstract: In this lesson students review the major milestones in the evolution of American foreign policy from George Washington’s Farewell Address to the conflict within the United States over the attempt to annex Hawaii. Begin the lesson by reviewing how the United States expanded geographically since its birth as a nation. Using the website http://www.animatedatlas.com, show “Growth of a Nation” to refresh students’ prior knowledge. After viewing the video to 1900, have students engage in a quick write describing how the United States expanded geographically from thirteen colonies to 1898. This should be review for students of their 8th grade social studies course and from Unit 1. Next, remind students that the first president – George Washington – made some early statements about America’s foreign policy in his Farewell Address. Note that students explored Washington’s Farewell Address in detail in 8th grade (See Unit 2 of 8th grade). Distribute copies of “Excerpts from George Washington’s Farewell Address” located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 4). Model a “Think Aloud” strategy as you read the excerpt to the class. As you read, have students highlight Michigan Citizenship Collaborative Curriculum Page 1 of 14 www.micitizenshipcurriculum.org October 21, 2009 United States History and Geography SS0904 Becoming a World Power key passages of the text. Then have students work with a partner to answer the following questions and make notes in the margins: What were Washington’s main points regarding foreign policy? What do you think motivated Washington to reach his conclusions? Are any of his suggestions still applicable? If not, why not? Explain. If so, which ones? Explain. Give students about 5-8 minutes to discuss their responses with their partners and then engage the class in a general discussion about the above questions. To what extent does the class agree? To what extent does it differ? Next, provide students with working definitions of imperialism, isolationism, nationalism, and internationalism. Have students record these ideas in their notes. Imperialism can be defined as the act or process of a nation extending its control over areas beyond its borders. Isolationism is a policy or doctrine by which one country separates itself from the affairs of other nations. In an effort to remain at peace, the country avoids both foreign entanglements and responsibilities. Countries usually accomplished this by avoiding alliances, foreign economic commitments, and international agreements. The United States remained politically isolated throughout the 19th Century. Historians argue that this was possible because the United States was geographically separated from Europe. Nationalism can be defined as loyalty and devotion to a nation. Nation- states are political entities whose boundaries do not always align with ethnic, linguistic, religious, and territorial forms of identity. Students should be reminded that during this period in American and world history, nation-states were expanding, contracting, and being redefined. This made the process of claiming nationhood and celebrating nationalism all the more important. With respect to policy, nationalism is the doctrine of asserting the interests of one’s own nation-state as separate and distinct from the interests of other nations or the common interests of all nations. Nationalism has been one of the most important forces shaping international politics. Finally, internationalism is a broad term but for the purposes of this lesson explain to students that it refers to the belief by some influential Americans in the late 19th century that the United States needed to move beyond its continental boundaries to both protect itself and help enlighten other people who would otherwise fall under the control of predatory European powers. Divide the class into groups of five students each and distribute copies of the chart “Foreign Policy Decisions” and the “Websites for Foreign Policy Decisions”, both of which are found in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 4). Explain to students that each group member should select a separate topic on the chart to investigate. Have students use their textbooks and the identified websites to research their topic and complete the “Description” column of the chart. Note: This part of the lesson may be assigned for homework. After the groups have completed their research, have each group member share the results of their investigation with their small group. Students should record information in the appropriate section of the chart. Display the “Foreign Policy Views” sheet, located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 4) and explain the meaning of each term. The following descriptions may help. Exclusively Expansionistic – a practice or policy that focuses solely on increasing economic or territorial size or scope of the country Michigan Citizenship Collaborative Curriculum Page 2 of 14 www.micitizenshipcurriculum.org October 21, 2009 United States History and Geography SS0904 Becoming a World Power Growing Sense of US Potential – increasing belief that the US was capable of doing something that it had not yet accomplished Clear Sense of National Limitations – recognizing that economic and political realities might restrain or inhibit the achievement of potential goals Reckless/Unrealistic Sense of Foreign Policy – acting despite evidence to the contrary Reassessing Meaning of America’s Core Values – Revising or redefining the meaning of ideals such as liberty and equality Engage students in a class discussion using the following questions: Which of the five topics demonstrates an exclusively expansionistic policy? Which of the five topics demonstrates a growing sense of America’s potential on the international stage? Explain. Which of the five topics demonstrates a clear sense of the limitations to which the nation was subject at that particular moment in its history? Explain. Which of the five demonstrates a reckless or unrealistic sense of foreign policy? Explain. Which of the five topics demonstrates America reassessing the meaning of its core values? How so? Have students use the right hand column of the chart to record information from the class discussion. Note that a reference guide has been included in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 4). Conclude the lesson by having students write in their Freedom Tracking Notebooks in response to the following question: Did American expansion during the 19th Century contradict the core values of the United States? If so, explain how? If not, explain why you think it did not. Lesson 2: “Yellow Journalism” and the Spanish-American War Content Expectations: USHG 6.2.1; C3.5.1; C3.5.5; C3.5.7; C3.5.9; C4.1.1; C4.1.2 Key Concepts: imperialism, nationalism, yellow journalism Abstract: As the 19th century came to a close the American people were engaged in a dispute over the United States’ role on the international stage. The public discussion was both amplified and distorted by the most powerful newspapers of the time. These publications employed increasingly sensationalistic methods which have come to be known as “yellow journalism” after the period’s popular cartoon character, “the yellow kid”. Prior to the lesson, distribute the “Timed Reading (ACT Prep),” located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 4) to students. Have students engage in a timed reading for homework, allowing themselves 15 minutes to read the selection and answer the questions. Tell students that the idea is to try to read and answer the questions in the allotted time, but they should feel free to go back and complete the assignment after time has elapsed if necessary to understand the passage and answer the questions. The topic of the reading is the focus of the lesson. Michigan Citizenship Collaborative Curriculum Page 3 of 14 www.micitizenshipcurriculum.org October 21, 2009 United States History and Geography SS0904 Becoming a World Power Begin the lesson by informing students that journalistic, literary or artistic effort to persuade or influence public opinion did not begin in the 19th century. There is abundant evidence of its use during the American Revolution and the early history of the United States. It was also used during Antiquity. Julius Caesar’s Commentaries on both the Gallic and Civil Wars are early examples of self-promotion. Remind students of the term “Boston Massacre” and the engraving by Paul Revere, a picture of which can be found in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 4). Display the picture to the class and have students turn and talk with a partner about what they notice. Discuss students’ observations with the entire class and how this piece worked as propaganda using the following questions as a guide: From whose perspective is this event described? How do you know? What in the image that makes you believe it is from this perspective? What in the words used makes you believe it is from this perspective? How would the drawing differ if it was trying to demonstrate another side to the story? What would be different? What suggestions would you make to change the image? How might this image have influenced public opinion about the British? Explain that we are surrounded by propaganda everyday from advertisements to news shows. Propaganda has propelled our country to war in the past. Explain that this was so in the Spanish- American War. Engage students in a class discussion of the assigned reading using the following questions: What benefits did American society gain from the marketing techniques used by Hearst and Pulitzer? Explain. What negative consequences derived from the techniques used by Hearst and Pulitzer? Explain. Have students read a copy of the First Amendment located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 4) in order to refresh their memories. The First Amendment clearly states that the Press in the United States must be a “free” one. Briefly discuss the meaning of “free” with the class. Then arrange the class into a fishbowl discussion with six seats in the center of the room and the remainder of the seats around the perimeter of the inner circle. Have six students engage in an in-depth discussion using the questions: The First Amendment clearly states that the Press in the United States must be a “free” one. What exactly is the Press “free from” or “free” of? Does the First Amendment give editors and owners the right to conduct business the way that Hearst and Pulitzer did on the eve of the Spanish-American War? In what ways did the media influence the public agenda and ultimately public policy at the end of the 19th Century? In what ways do the media influence the public agenda and ultimately public policy today? If the media can influence public agenda and ultimately public policy, what responsibilities do the media have to the public? Who polices them? What responsibility do citizens have as consumers of the press? During the discussion, record some of the more insightful student answers or ideas on the board and see if the class can amend or elaborate upon these responses. Encourage students on the outside of the fishbowl to join in the discussion by tapping and replacing students from the inner Michigan Citizenship Collaborative Curriculum Page 4 of 14 www.micitizenshipcurriculum.org October 21, 2009 United States History and Geography SS0904 Becoming a World Power group once they have made at least three statements. Debrief the discussion by informing the class that the leading newspapers in the United States in 1898 played a major role in convincing the American public that war with the Spanish Empire was an ethical, political, and an economic necessity. After students have read about the causes and consequences of the Spanish-American War in their textbooks, distribute “A Look at the Press” to students, located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 4). Have students work in groups of four to examine the images of both newspapers and discuss any similarities and differences they notice. Then have them work with a partner from their small group to analyze one of the newspaper articles and complete parts 1-3 on the “Examining the Source” handout located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 4). Be sure that each pair from the group should explore a different source from the “A Look at the Press” handout. Have students reconvene in their small groups to share the results of their investigations. Then have the small group discuss part 4 of “Examining the Source.” After students have had ample time to discuss and respond to these questions, debrief the exercise with the class. Ask students to share a sampling of their answers from part 4. Discuss the depth and range of their responses. Conclude the lesson by having students respond in their Freedom Tracking Notebook to the following question: How did the role of a free press influence the America’s growth of global power? Lesson 3: Growth of the United States as a Global Power, 1898-1914 Content Expectations: USHG 6.2.1; C4.1.1; C4.1.3 Key Concepts: annexation, imperialism, internationalism, nationalism, national interest Abstract: As the 20th century began the United States under President William McKinley had acquired an overseas empire and adopted an approach to China known as the “Open Door Policy”. McKinley was assassinated in 1901 and was succeeded by his Vice President, Theodore Roosevelt, one of the more forceful and energetic men to hold the office. Roosevelt’s presidential successors were William Howard Taft and Woodrow Wilson, both of whom adopted varying measures to consolidate and promote America’s position as an international power. Begin the lesson by posing the question to students: How and why did America’s role on the international stage change? Post the question in the room and explain that this is the focus of the next few lessons in this unit. Then, briefly review the causes of the Spanish-American War using the document “The Spanish American War” located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 4). Be sure to cover up the “Consequences” portion of the handout for use later in the lesson. Have students brainstorm about some of the potential consequences of an America victory in the Spanish-American War. Use the handout to verify student responses. Explain to students that the Platt Amendment is a result of the Spanish-American War. The amendment defines the relationship between the United States and Cuba, allowing the US influence over Cuban affairs and land claims. Probe students’ understanding using the following questions: What consequence most surprises you? Why? Michigan Citizenship Collaborative Curriculum Page 5 of 14 www.micitizenshipcurriculum.org October 21, 2009 United States History and Geography SS0904 Becoming a World Power What consequence is a typical consequence of victory in a conflict? Why? If the United States’ involvement in the Spanish-American War was allegedly to promote Cuban independence, why was it important to the US to have such an influence in Cuba? Distribute copies of the “Outline of a World Map” located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 4) and have students work with a partner to locate Cuba, Puerto Rico, Hawaii, Guam, Wake Island and the Philippines on the map. Assign each pair one of the places listed above. The pairs should investigate US involvement in that region at the turn of the century and annotate brief description of it on the back of the map. Students should use their textbook as a reference. After about 10 minutes, use a class wall map of the world to explore US involvement in the places listed above, with each pair sharing the results of their research. As students share, the remainder of the class should take notes on the back of their maps. After all locations are described, discuss how America’s acquisition or involvement in these locations positioned the United States to be recognized as both a world and imperial power. Teacher note: The two maps (blank outline and political maps) located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 4) depict the world from two different perspectives. It is suggested that the teacher guide students to recognize these two different perspectives. Next, explain to students that with the Spanish-American War, the United States became increasingly visible in world affairs, and the foreign policy positions of subsequent presidents reflected this shift. Have students read about the “Open Door Policy” in their textbooks or by using the handout “Open Door Policy,” located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 4). If using the handout, instruct students to take notes in the left-hand column and record their thoughts about the reading in the right-hand column. Note that this portion could be assigned as homework. After the reading, discuss with students the Open Door Policy and whether it was another example of imperialistic behavior or an attempt to promote “economic freedom”. Have students support their position with reasoning. Provide students copies of “Presidential Approaches to Foreign Policy” located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 4). Engage students in a brief lecture about the different foreign policy approaches of Presidents T. Roosevelt, Taft, and Wilson, using the Teacher Reference Guide, also located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 4). For additional information, the following websites may be helpful background for teachers: Teddy Roosevelt http://millercenter.org/academic/americanpresident/roosevelt/essays/biography/5 http://www.latinamericanstudies.org/us-relations/roosevelt-corollary.htm William Howard Taft http://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/taft2.htm http://millercenter.org/academic/americanpresident/taft/essays/biography/5 Woodrow Wilson http://www.sparknotes.com/biography/wilson/section7.rhtml http://millercenter.org/academic/americanpresident/wilson/essays/biography/5 Provide students with copies of “The Change in Manifest Destiny,” located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 4). Use the teacher reference version (also located in the Supplemental Materials Michigan Citizenship Collaborative Curriculum Page 6 of 14 www.micitizenshipcurriculum.org October 21, 2009 United States History and Geography SS0904 Becoming a World Power (Unit 4)) to review the meaning of Manifest Destiny during the 19th Century. Explain that in 1899 Rudyard Kipling wrote “The White Man’s Burden.” The poem explained that the responsibility of colonizers was to help primitive people and “fill full the mouth of famine and bid the sickness cease.” Divide students into small groups of four or five and have them engage in a small group discussion that considers how the meaning of Manifest Destiny changed in light of US imperialism and the foreign policies explained earlier in the lesson. Have students discuss how this “burden” or “responsibility” may have changed the meaning of Manifest Destiny for Americans. After a few minutes, have the groups share their conclusions with the rest of the class. Through the discussion, guide students in completing the chart under the New Manifest Destiny column. Have students engage in a conversation line in which they discuss America’s changing role on the international stage. To do this, write the following question on the board or overhead transparency: “How and why did America’s role on the international stage change?” Divide students into two equal lines facing each other. Have one side talk for two or three minutes (be specific with a timer) about America’s changing role. Then have the other side talk, giving them the same time limit. Note that the students not speaking should conduct themselves as good listeners and not interject at all. Then, slide the students in one line down three students (students at the end of the line will move to the other line) so that students now have a new partner. Repeat the process allowing each side of the line to address the issue again. Finally, have students slide down the line again and repeat the discussion. It is preferable that students have three attempts at answering the question. Their answers will become more thoughtful and detailed each time. Debrief the exercise by asking students how the content of their conversations changed. Conclude the lesson by having students write in their Freedom Tracking Notebooks in response to the following question: Is it possible for a nation to genuinely pursue and promote freedom at home and restrict it abroad? Explain. Lesson 4: Causes of World War I and United States Involvement Content Expectations: USHG 6.2.2; C4.1.2; C4.1.4; Key Concepts: alliances, imperialism, isolationism, militarism, nationalism, neutrality Abstract: In August of 1914 the heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne was assassinated in the Bosnian city of Sarajevo. This event was the spark that ignited a conflagration which lasted for four years, involved most of the nations of the world, and at its conclusion World War I (or the Great War as it was known at the time) was the most costly war humanity had experienced to date. Historians have different ideas about what the most crucial factor was in terms of convincing President Woodrow Wilson, the United States Congress, and most American citizens that war with Germany and its’ allies had become necessary by April 2, 1917. Wilson ran for reelection as the “peace” candidate in 1916, but by the spring of 1917 reversed his position and asked Congress for a declaration of war. In this lesson, students examine the causes of World War I in general and Michigan Citizenship Collaborative Curriculum Page 7 of 14 www.micitizenshipcurriculum.org October 21, 2009 United States History and Geography SS0904 Becoming a World Power consider some of the basic theories about what the most important factor was in propelling America to war. Prior to the lesson, have students use their textbooks to read about the causes of World War I and complete the graphic organizer “Origins of World War One,” located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 4). Students should also read about US entry into the war. Begin the lesson by informing students that the causes of the First World War are extremely complex. Some of them can be traced back to events that occurred over a thousand years ago. Historians in general, however, have focused on four major causes of the conflict. The mneumonic “MAIN” can be used to facilitate student memory of these causes: Militarism – The aggressive buildup of armed forces often in the name of security that intimidates and threatens other nations. It can also mean that the military plays a large role in governing a country. The Alliance System – There were two major security networks in Europe. The nations of each network were pledged to support one another in the event of conflict with outside parties. Imperialism – The act or process of a nation extending its control over areas beyond its borders. Control can be economic, military, political, or any combination thereof. Nationalism – Generally, pride in one’s nation. In late 19th and early 20th centuries, this feeling intensified as people became increasingly aggressive toward other nations, which were perceived to interfere with the legitimate aspirations of their own nation. Briefly discuss the causes with the class while displaying the graphic illustrations located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 4). Encourage students to correct any inaccuracies and add further information on their graphic organizer. Then, place pairs together to create groups of four students. Have the small groups discuss the question: Which of the four causes seems to have been the most powerful or influential in terms of bringing on a world war? Have the groups construct an argument in support of their position and present their argument to the class. After each group presents, encourage students to ask questions and challenge their classmates where they have a different interpretation. There is no “right” or “wrong” answer to the question. Once all the presentations are complete, the teacher summarizes the processes, events and ideas which culminated in World War I for the class. It is advisable to distinguish between the underlying causes (MAIN) and the immediate cause of the war for students. The most dramatic proximate causes, of course, were the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand and the Austrian ultimatum to Serbia. Next, have students consider the role of the United States in the war. Begin by reminding students of Washington’s Farewell Address and the tradition of isolationism that dominated America’s approach to foreign policy during most of the 19th and early 20th century. Provide students a working definition of neutrality. For example: the state of being unengaged in contests or conflicts between others, not assisting by word, deed or any action one antagonist as opposed to another. Michigan Citizenship Collaborative Curriculum Page 8 of 14 www.micitizenshipcurriculum.org October 21, 2009 United States History and Geography SS0904 Becoming a World Power Explain to the class that Wilson favored neutrality. Share some of the following arguments in favor of neutrality with the class: Traditionally, Washington and Jefferson had warned about the danger of becoming involved in European conflicts. In this case, it wasn’t our war. The US had no direct or indirect role in causing its outbreak. There was a large immigrant population in US that had come from Europe. There was concern that these immigrants would empathize with their nation of origin. This would cause conflict between immigrant populations in the US. In general, war endangers democracy. The passions caused by it can erode rationality and compassion. American citizens would kill and be killed in the war. Both results would be damaging to those involved and their families and countrymen. After students understand the reasons for Wilson’s commitment to neutrality, inform them that as the conflict continued and expanded in scope, the American public became increasingly sympathetic to the Allied war effort. Outline the main reasons historians have offered about the causes of America’s entry into the First World War. Students should take notes while the teacher lectures. Note that an “Outline of the Reasons for America’s Entry into World War I” and a reference guide are included in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 4) to guide student note taking. The teacher should also explain that some reasons seemed more or less plausible at various times in the nation’s history. After presenting the reasons listed on the outline, the teacher should conduct a class discussion and see if there is a general consensus about which of the causes seems to be most powerful or influential. Does the drama of particular events seem to be more important than that of ideas or processes in terms of their impact on people’s feelings? If this is so, what are the ramifications of that for the future of a rational democracy? Next, have students read “Wilson’s Speech to Congress, 2 April 1917” located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 4) and engage in a “Talking to the Text” strategy. Explain to students that a talking to the text strategy requires them to read a piece twice. First, they should read through the document. Then, as they re-read the document, they should interact with the text by jotting notes in the margins, making comments, asking questions, making predictions, underlining and/ or highlighting key passages or phrases as they read. Have students compare their notes with a partner. The teacher should then discuss the excerpt with the entire class, highlighting the reasons President Wilson gives for going to war. Note that it is important to employ the sourcing and contextualizing strategies as you discuss the document. Also be sure to point out the reason for the speech to Congress by emphasizing that the power to declare war belongs with Congress under Article I of the US Constitution. Continue the lesson by describing to students how America’s entry into the First World War influenced that conflict. Be sure to emphasize that the military role played by the United States was a crucial one in that the Allies may well have lost the war without American involvement. Some Americans, however, have used that assertion as a stepping stone to the claim that “America won the war”. Be sure to point out that this interpretation ignores the previous three years of heroic sacrifice by the Allied powers which profoundly weakened the Central Powers before the Americans set foot in Europe. Beyond its military contribution, the United States Michigan Citizenship Collaborative Curriculum Page 9 of 14 www.micitizenshipcurriculum.org October 21, 2009 United States History and Geography SS0904 Becoming a World Power financed much of the Allied War effort- an essential contribution. Also note that America’s political and diplomatic influence was important, but they are the subject of a later lesson (see Lesson 6). Conclude the lesson by having students write in their Freedom Tracking Notebooks in response to the following question: How did America’s involvement in World War I demonstrate the country’s changing role on the international stage? Lesson 5: Domestic Impact of World War I Content Expectations: USHG 6.2.3; C3.4.4 Key Concepts: civil liberties, isolationism, neutrality Abstract: One of Woodrow Wilson’s chief fears about having the United States join in hostilities during World War I was the impact it would have on the American people and their way of life. The President felt that under any circumstances war was a savage and dangerous business. It always had negative consequences for those engaged in it. When Congress declared war, America was ill prepared for the conflict. This meant that in order to meet the extraordinary demands imposed by shifting from a peace time to a war time economy and drastically expanding the armed forces, the government would have to insure massive coordination and guarantee the efficient use of natural resources. Have students read the sections in their textbooks about the domestic impact of World War I in the United States before coming to class. Begin the lesson by explaining to students that some of the most important acts and organizations created by the government were the War Industries Board, the National War Labor Board, the Espionage and Sedition Acts, and the Committee on Public Information. All of these measures were designed to promote security in general and the war effort in particular. Divide the class into eight groups. Assign one group the task of arguing for the creation of and powers bestowed upon the War Industries Board. Another group is assigned to argue against the Board as unethical or a violation of basic American rights. The next six groups should similarly argue for or against the National War Labor Board, the Espionage and Sedition Acts, and the Committee on Public Information. In addition to their textbooks, provide students with the list of websites from “Domestic Impact of World War I,” located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 4). After the groups have completed the research and formulated their positions, distribute copies of copies of the “Domestic Impact of World War I Chart” located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 4). Have students engage in a fishbowl discussion of each topic. In a fishbowl, students that researched the topic (both for and against) sit in the center of the room while the rest of the students sit in seats around the perimeter of the inner circle. Be sure to write the topic the students are discussing on the board for reference. After students in the outer circle take notes during the Michigan Citizenship Collaborative Curriculum Page 10 of 14 www.micitizenshipcurriculum.org October 21, 2009 United States History and Geography SS0904 Becoming a World Power discussion, provide them with an opportunity at the end to ask questions of the student experts. Teacher Note: The topic of the National War Labor Board is the least complex of the topics. Debrief the fishbowls with the whole class using the following questions: Which of the four actions, if any, were reasonable? How did the government use propaganda to influence public opinion during the war? How can we distinguish this from the yellow journalism that led to the Spanish-American War? Do the exigencies of the war justify the compromise of core democratic values? How so? Poll the students on their individual opinions. Is there consensus? Follow up with a brief discussion exploring and amending the main points raised during the fishbowl discussions. Next inform students that the war also had an impact on society in terms of how people perceived one another and interacted. The flames of fear and anger, fanned by the savagery of the conflict, caused some Americans to seek a scapegoat. For example, hate crimes against people of German descent sharply escalated during the war. In 1919, the year after the war ended, the United States experienced the so-called “Red Scare”. This was an intense reaction against some real, but mostly imagined, Communists in the United States who were supposedly conspiring to overthrow the government. The Communist seizure of power in Russia in November of 1918 and other Communist uprisings in Europe caused some Americans to panic at the prospect of a “Red” takeover in the United States. The Attorney-General at the time, A. Mitchell Palmer, had law enforcement officials round up and detain without trial hundreds of suspects, many of whom were later illegally deported. After students have digested these unpleasant realities, inform them that the war’s impact was not entirely negative. Some historians have argued that the war helped speed up the passage of the 19th Amendment, which states that the right to vote shall not be denied or restricted by the United States or any state on the basis of sex. American women had greatly assisted the war effort and in the process had gained greater confidence and respect from their fellow citizens. This helped convince many that women were in fact capable and deserving of the vote. Conclude the lesson by having students write in their Freedom Tracking Notebooks in response to the following question: “Are the need for freedom and the need for national security unavoidably in conflict?” Have students explain their reactions. Lesson 6: Ending the War, 14 Points and Opponents Content Expectations: USHG 6.2.4; C4.1.1 Key Concepts: civil liberties, isolationism, national interest, neutrality Abstract: In January of 1918 President Wilson appeared before a joint session of Congress and gave a speech which outlined his ideas about the kind of settlement that was needed in order for humanity to promote democracy and avoid any future conflicts of the sort then being waged. He presented his speech without consulting Republican leaders in the Congress or American allies in Europe. According to some historians, this was to prove a most unwise political course of action. Michigan Citizenship Collaborative Curriculum Page 11 of 14 www.micitizenshipcurriculum.org October 21, 2009 United States History and Geography SS0904 Becoming a World Power Prior to the lesson have students read about Wilson’s 14 Points in their textbooks. Begin the lesson by describing how President Wilson traveled to Europe to personally lead the American delegation, which along with representatives of the so-called Great Powers, were preparing to reach diplomatic settlements which would formally end the war. Introduce students to the concept of “national interest.” It can be defined as the interest of a state, usually as defined by its government. Display the document “National Interests” located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 4) to help students develop a clear understanding of the term. Next, distribute the handout “The 14 Points in My Own Words” located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 4). Have students discuss each point with a partner and then record what each means in their own words on the handout. Divide the class into five groups and assign each group to one of the following: Republicans in Congress Great Britain France Italy Germany Provide each group with the appropriate handout for their country from the “Perspectives” handouts located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 4). Also provide each group with a list of “Wilson’s Fourteen Points” located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 4). After reading their assigned perspective, have students cut apart the list of Fourteen Points and place each point in order of importance from their assigned perspective. Teacher note: It might be easier to cut apart the points and place them in an envelope for each group. Allow 8 minutes. Next, have each group give a brief presentation on their perspective of the Fourteen Points based on their country’s “national interest”. As students representing the European powers present, they should explain why the Fourteen Points don’t suit their nation’s needs. Instruct students to take notes on each country’s national interests and its criticisms of the Fourteen Points during the presentations using the “Views on Peace” chart located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 4). Note that students should have the column “Description of Position” filled out at the end of this portion of the lesson. After each group has presented, engage students in a class discussion which explores the vexing issue of “perspective”. We all collide in the course of our lives with people or groups who disagree with our opinions. Not infrequently we conclude that those who disagree with our more cherished ideas are insane, stupid, and evil or are simply being obstinate. The discussion should be aimed at students coming to grips with the fact that there were intelligent, compassionate, and honorable diplomats from each of the Great Powers who disagreed with Wilson’s idealistic program. The class must also understand that having noble ideas and feelings are not enough. One must find a way to implement them. After students have read about the Treaty of Versailles and the peace settlement in their text, review some of the significant provisions of the treat using “The Treaty of Versailles,” handout Michigan Citizenship Collaborative Curriculum Page 12 of 14 www.micitizenshipcurriculum.org October 21, 2009 United States History and Geography SS0904 Becoming a World Power located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 4). After exploring some of the “Results of the Treaty of Versailles” also located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 4) with the class, use the following questions for a class discussion: How did the responses to President Wilson’s Fourteen Points illustrate tensions between interventionism and isolationism? How might the peace treaty established after World War I result in geopolitical tensions in Europe? Conclude the lesson by having students write in their Freedom Tracking Notebook in response to the following: How have foundational values and principles shaped foreign policy positions such as isolationism, imperialism, and interventionism? Lesson 7: Constructing an Historical Argument about US Foreign and Domestic Policy Content Expectations: USHG 6.2.1; USHG 6.2.2; USHG 6.2.3 Key Concepts: civil liberties, isolationism, neutrality Abstract: In this lesson students employ their understanding of U.S. diplomacy in the early 20th century to make an argument about the changing nature of America’s domestic and foreign policies. Begin the lesson reminding students of the work they did on the foreign policy approaches employed by the three Progressive-Era presidents in Lesson 3 (Roosevelt – Big Stick/Gunboat Diplomacy; Taft – Dollar Diplomacy; Wilson – Moral Diplomacy). Display the timeline “The United States on the World Stage” to the class. Have students study the timeline and engage in a quick write about what they notice. Discuss the timeline by eliciting students’ ideas and using the following questions: What pattern do you notice? Why do you think this is so? What kind of diplomacy was being used at the beginning of timeline? Middle? End? Encourage students to think of the difference between the three presidents mentioned above, their approaches to foreign policy, and the tools they used (diplomacy, military, economic). Next, have students work in groups of four to discuss the question: How and why did American domestic and foreign policies change from 1890 to 1918? Tell students that they will be writing a two-page essay answering the question. Encourage students to use the timeline (distribute a copy to students) and their notes from the unit to discuss the question. After students have had about 10 minutes to discuss the question, distribute the “Essay Rubric” located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 4) to students. Review the rubric with the class and then give students time to organize their thoughts and begin to outline their essays. Students should be allowed to work part Michigan Citizenship Collaborative Curriculum Page 13 of 14 www.micitizenshipcurriculum.org October 21, 2009 United States History and Geography SS0904 Becoming a World Power of one class period on them as well as one night at home. Explanations must be precise, logical, and where possible backed up by evidence. When students bring in their essays the next day have them exchange their work with a partner who will read and critique it. Give the class about twenty minutes to complete this portion of the assignment. The essays are then returned to their owners who have the opportunity to make corrections. Next, engage students in a class discussion about approaches to foreign policy. Which of the three –Stick, Dollar, or Moral -- most closely resembles the approach currently being employed by the current administration? Or is the current approach so vastly different that none of the three “fits the bill”? The teacher should end the discussion by stressing the evolving nature of American foreign policy and the fact that the world too is in a constant state of flux, necessitating constant monitoring and adjustment of the solutions the nation proposes to meet the challenges it faces. Conclude the lesson by having students work in small groups to construct a magazine cover which illustrates America’s changing role on the international stage. Michigan Citizenship Collaborative Curriculum Page 14 of 14 www.micitizenshipcurriculum.org October 21, 2009