Unit 3: The Federal Period, 1789-1824 Chapter 8: The Federalist Era - PowerPoint by HC121107041216

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									Unit 3: The Federal Period, 1789-1824
Chapter 8: The Federalist Era




       The Washington Administration
                1789-1796
Launching the New
   Government
           The First Elections
Members of the first Congress under the
Constitution were elected in 1788
• The first session of Congress began in March
  1789 in New York City (the nations temporary
  capital)

George Washington was, as expected,
elected the first President of the United
States with John Adams as the
Vice President
• Washington took the oath of office and
  officially began his presidency on April 30,
  1789
       Washington’s Cabinet
Washington created several executive departments
to help him fulfill his duties as President
• The heads of these departments, or the Cabinet, acted
  as Washington’s chief advisors on political matters

Members of Washington’s Cabinet
• Thomas Jefferson – Secretary of
  State
• Alexander Hamilton – Secretary of
  the Treasury
• Henry Knox – Secretary of War
• Edmund Randolph –Attorney
  General
Organizing the Federal Courts
The Judiciary Act of 1789
• Created 13 district courts and
  3 courts of appeal
• Organized the Supreme Court with
  6 justices, and invested it with the
  power to …
   – rule on the constitutional validity of state laws
   – act as the interpreter of the “supreme law of the
     land” (the Constitution)


John Jay was appointed as the first Chief
Justice of the Supreme Court in October,
1789
  Adoption of the Bill of Rights
The Bill of Rights (or the first 10 Amendments to the
Constitution) was finally ratified in
1791
• The first 9 Amendments spelled out
  specific guarantees of personal
  freedoms, such as religion, speech,
  press, assembly, petition, and due
  process of law
• The 10th Amendment reserved to
  the states all those powers not specifically delegated to the
  federal government
    Hamilton’s Financial Plan
Secretary of the Treasury, Alexander
Hamilton proposed a 3-part plan to cure
the nations financial troubles …

   1) Pay off the national debt and have the
      government assume the war debts of the
      states

   2) Protect the nation’s infant industries and
      collect revenue at the same time by imposing
      high protective tariffs on imported goods

   3) Create a national bank for depositing
      government funds and printing banknotes
      that would provide the basis for a stable
      currency
Reactions to Hamilton’s Plan


Support for Hamilton’s plan came mainly from
northern merchants, who would gain from high
tariffs and a stabilized currency

Opponents of the plan included many of the old
Anti-Federalists who felt Hamilton’s
program broadened federal powers
• Secretary of State, Thomas Jefferson argued
  most fiercely against high tariffs and the
  creation of a national bank
Hamilton’s Plan in Effect


Eventually, Hamilton’s program was adopted
by Congress

But, the tariff rates were set lower than Hamilton
had wanted
• Hamilton argued that this was a mistake because it cut
  into revenues that the government could have used to
  pay its debts
• To make up for this, Hamilton ultimately convinced
  Congress to pass a series of excise taxes, particularly on
  the sale of whiskey
Foreign Affairs
        The French Revolution
American reactions to the outbreak of
the French Revolution in 1789 were
mixed

• Initially, most Americans supported
  the French effort to overthrow Louis
  XVI and establish a republic
• During the Reign of Terror, however,
  Americans were horrified by reports of mob hysteria and mass
  executions
• Complicating matters further was fact that Britain (and other
  European countries) launched a war against the French
  revolutionaries
   – Jefferson and his supporters argued that the Franco-American alliance
     from the American Revolution remained in effect and obligated the US
     to come to France’s aid
Washington’s Response to the French
Revolution

President Washington believed that the young
nation was not strong enough to engage in a
European war

As a result, In 1793 Washington issued a formal
Proclamation of Neutrality
• This decision prompted Thomas Jefferson to resign from
  Washington’s cabinet
• And it began a long American tradition of neutrality that
  would not be broken until WWI
The Problem of Citizen Genet
“Citizen” Edmund Genet, the French
minister to the US, opposed Washington’s
policy of neutrality and appealed directly to
the American people to support the French cause
• In Charleston and Philadelphia, he engaged privateers to capture
  British ships
• On the frontier, he intrigued with speculators to potentially attack
  Spanish Florida and Louisiana


In response to his constant meddling, Washington
eventually had “Citizen” Genet recalled to France
• He stayed in the US and married instead, but caused no further
  problems
Diplomacy under Washington

France was not the only country with whom
the US faced tension during the Washington
administration

To keep the peace during the nation’s infancy,
President Washington sent diplomats to work
out treaties with both Britain and Spain
Problems with Britain

As a result of Britain’s war with France, the
British clashed with Americans at sea …
   – American ships headed to France were often seized by the British
     navy
   – Goods were confiscated
   – sailors were forced (impressed) into service


In addition, British soldiers still occupied forts in the
Northwest Territory in violation of the Treaty of Paris (1783)
Jay’s Treaty (negotiated by John Jay, 1794)

Terms
  – The British agreed to evacuate the Northwest Territory
    by 1796
  – But, the issue of British behavior at sea was left
    unresolved

Mixed Reactions
  – Jay’s Treaty was criticized by the public as
    appeasement of British aggression
  – Despite the controversy, Washington viewed the treaty
    as a success because it did keep the peace with
    Britain
Problems with Spain


The US had conflict with Spain over …
  – control of the lower Mississippi River
  – the border between the US and Spanish Florida
Pinckney’s Treaty (negotiated by Thomas
Pinckney, 1795)

Terms
  – Spain agreed to open the Mississippi River and New
    Orleans to American traffic
  – Spain agreed to recognize the Florida boundary as
    the 31st parallel


Reactions
  – Pinckney’s treaty gave the US everything it asked for,
    so it was much more popular with the public than
    Jay’s Treaty
Domestic Concerns
The Native American Problem

In the years since the American Revolution, Native
American tribes along the Northwest and Southwest
borders of the US were increasingly resisting the
encroachments of American settlers onto their lands



Making matters worse, British authorities in Canada were
actively encouraging the Native Americans in their attacks
on frontier settlements
Clearing the Northwest Territory

Due to the rapid population growth in the Northwest
Territory, Native Americans there were especially
protective of their lands

In 1794, General Anthony Wayne
defeated a group of Northwestern Native
Americans at the Battle of Fallen Timbers
• After losing the battle, the Native Americans
  were forced to sign the Treaty of Greenville
  and clear out of the Ohio Territory
      The Whiskey Rebellion
In 1794, a group of Pennsylvania farmers
terrorized tax collectors and refused to pay
the federal excise tax on whiskey in the
Whiskey Rebellion
Washington’s Response to the Whiskey
Rebellion
In response to the rebellion, Washington called out
15,000 militiamen to suppress
the rebellion

This show of force had its desired
effect and demonstrated that the
new federal government would
use force, if necessary, to enforce
its laws
• But, this action was condemned by some as an
   unwarranted use of force against the common people
   – The greatest critic of Washington’s action was Thomas
     Jefferson, who was becoming quite a champion of the
     common man
            The Emergence of
             Political Parties

The continuing conflicts
between Alexander Hamilton
and Thomas Jefferson during
the Washington
administration, ultimately
resulted in the formation of the
nation’s first political parties
The First Two Political Parties

       The Federalists                     The Democratic-
  (followers of Hamilton)                    Republicans
                                       (followers of Jefferson)
•Favored a strong federal            •Favored strong state
government                           governments
•Used a “loose” interpretation of    •Used a “strict” interpretation of the
the Elastic clause                   Elastic Clause
•Supported the National Bank         •Opposed the National Bank
•Supported the protective tariff     •Opposed the protective tariff
•Favored industry                    •Favored agriculture
•Favored Britain in foreign policy   •Favored France in foreign policy
Washington’s Farewell
        The Two-Term Tradition
In 1796, Washington decided not to run for a third
term as President

• He felt it was vital for the success of democracy in the
  US for the nation’s leadership to change regularly

• Thus began the two-term tradition for the American
  presidency
   – This tradition was not broken until President Franklin Roosevelt
     won a third term in 1940
   – Now, the 22nd Amendment to the Constitution officially limits the
     president to two terms
   Warnings from Washington’s
        Farewell Address

As Washington left office he wrote a farewell
address in which he warned Americans …

  – Not to get involved in European affairs
  – Against the US making “permanent alliances” with
    other nations
  – Not to form political parties
  – To avoid sectionalism

								
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