Latour and Traweek Technoscience and Bodies of Evidende by V3hL21


									                       Location Technology
Facts, New Approaches, Applications, Future?

                                Silvia Lindtner
                                 February, 07

Location Technologies in theory
       Recap: location systems
       Place Lab
       location stack model
       Sentient Computing - spatial monitoring

Location Technologies applied
       Applications that use location technology
       Social Positioning vs. locating in physical space

What do people want to share?
Location-based experiences

“…extend digital media out into the physical world. Users with
mobile displays move through the world. Sensors capture
information about their current context, including location, and
this is used to deliver them an experience that changes
accordingly to where they are, what they are doing, and maybe
even how they are feeling. As a result, the user becomes
unchained from their PC and experiences digital media that is
interwoven with the everyday world.”

                       Steve Benford, JISC Technology and Standards Watch, 2001

                                                     Recap: Location Systems

mobile devices
mobile phones, personal digital assistants, laptop computers, mobile
gaming consoles, personal media players, wearable computing, smart
fabrics, tangible and embedded interfaces, mobile 3D displays

wireless networking
GSM, GPRS, 3G, 802.11 WIFI, Bluetooth

GPS, cellular positioning, WiFi triangulation, Ultrasonic, RFID, video

                                                     Recap: Location Systems



Scene analysis

                 Recap: Location Systems
System Properties

physical position and symbolic location

Absolute vs. relative

Localized location computation and broadcasting

Accuracy, precision - coverage, privacy and cost

                                             Recap: Location Systems


Privacy cost


Place Labeling




Privacy coast

Automatically learn and estimate places in addition to geo-

Place Labeling: “Bank”, “Starbucks”, “Movie Theater”, “UCI”,
“Long Beach”

                                                               Place Lab
Everyday situations

A lot of technologies - but: wide variety of people and settings in
everyday situations not supported

Approach: use of existing technologies to support location

client computes own location - privacy

3 elements: radio beacons, data bases, place lab clients

                                                              Place Lab
   3 elements: radio beacons, data bases, place lab clients

GSM cell towers, 802.11 access points, fixed bluetooth devices

                                                              Place Lab

GSM:             high-coverage, low accuracy

802.11:          high accuracy, low coverage

fusing of both

20-30 meter, about 100% coverage

                                               Place Lab
Prototyping tool for location-enhanced applications



a layered software engineering model

common vocabulary and standard infrastructure

increase of flexibility and scalability

problem: usually no single location technology possesses
adequate capabilities

                                                      Location Stack
OSI Model   Location Stack

                      Location Stack
Spatial Monitoring - Programming with Space

programs react to changes in the environment according to the
user’s preferences

applications appear to share the user’s perception of the

current state of environment is treated as common ground
between computers and users

                                                   Sentient Computing
Follow me

moving interfaces to nearest appropriate input or output device

interpreting nearness

                                                  Sentient Computing
Symbolic notion: place

place = human-readable labeling of positions

GIS and usage logs

to prune and improve place predictions

label: demographic, environmental, historic, personal, or
commercial significance of place

Automatically Labeling Places by inferring people’s activities in
those places

                                                       Place vs. Position
Web pages linked to places

Applications that use location technologies

Social Positioning vs. locating in physical space

What do people really want to share?

Can you see me now?

Technology: GPS receiver and WiFi
Topic: Game -virtual and physical world interact

Social Positioning: MobiTip

technology: Bluetooth connectivity as social space
topic: collaborative filtering of tips


An educational location-based game

Locative Art and Media

What do people want to share?

Who is sending a request?


What level of detail?

What do people want to share?

investigations often focused on software infrastructures for
managing disclosure

When are users willing to disclose something about location?
What helps users to decide what to disclose?
Who is requesting?
Where are they when they receive a request?
How do they feel? What are they doing?

What do people want to share?

If the information seems not to be useful to the requester, people
don’t disclose information at all.

If they thing information is usefull, they give 77% of the time
fairly specific answers (address, generic place name - home,

who is requesting has strongest influence

activity and mood

What do people want to share?

When I am out and about, them knowing where I am is not
beneficial and “would be a speed bump in my day.”

“It would create a burden, because someone else knows you are
there - you might have to do something for them too, which will
take more time.”

“It would be creepy for people to always know where I am”

trade-of: interrupt user or realizing on a priori preference

What do people want to share?

Entertaining system vs. surveillance:

When is it surveillance when is it play?
Surveillance under the cloak of leisure and fun?
Is privacy violated when security is guaranteed?

Technical perfection or socially responsible systems:

How can we support both?
Which stakeholders support different directions?

                                                   Systems for the Future

To top