Latour and Traweek Technoscience and Bodies of Evidende by V3hL21

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									                       Location Technology
Facts, New Approaches, Applications, Future?


                                Silvia Lindtner
                                 February, 07
Content

Location Technologies in theory
       Recap: location systems
       Place Lab
       location stack model
       Sentient Computing - spatial monitoring



Location Technologies applied
       Applications that use location technology
       Social Positioning vs. locating in physical space


What do people want to share?
Location-based experiences

“…extend digital media out into the physical world. Users with
mobile displays move through the world. Sensors capture
information about their current context, including location, and
this is used to deliver them an experience that changes
accordingly to where they are, what they are doing, and maybe
even how they are feeling. As a result, the user becomes
unchained from their PC and experiences digital media that is
interwoven with the everyday world.”

                       Steve Benford, JISC Technology and Standards Watch, 2001




                                                     Recap: Location Systems
Components

mobile devices
mobile phones, personal digital assistants, laptop computers, mobile
gaming consoles, personal media players, wearable computing, smart
fabrics, tangible and embedded interfaces, mobile 3D displays

wireless networking
GSM, GPRS, 3G, 802.11 WIFI, Bluetooth

location-sensing
GPS, cellular positioning, WiFi triangulation, Ultrasonic, RFID, video
tracking




                                                     Recap: Location Systems
Techniques


Triangulation

Proximity

Scene analysis




                 Recap: Location Systems
System Properties

physical position and symbolic location

Absolute vs. relative

Localized location computation and broadcasting

Accuracy, precision - coverage, privacy and cost




                                             Recap: Location Systems
Cost

Coverage

Privacy cost

Interoperability

Place Labeling

Uncertainty



                   Challenges
Cost

Coverage

Privacy coast

Automatically learn and estimate places in addition to geo-
coordinates.

Place Labeling: “Bank”, “Starbucks”, “Movie Theater”, “UCI”,
“Long Beach”




                                                               Place Lab
Everyday situations

A lot of technologies - but: wide variety of people and settings in
everyday situations not supported

Approach: use of existing technologies to support location
detection

client computes own location - privacy

3 elements: radio beacons, data bases, place lab clients




                                                              Place Lab
   3 elements: radio beacons, data bases, place lab clients




GSM cell towers, 802.11 access points, fixed bluetooth devices




                                                              Place Lab
Results

GSM:             high-coverage, low accuracy

802.11:          high accuracy, low coverage

fusing of both

20-30 meter, about 100% coverage

http://www.placelab.com




                                               Place Lab
Prototyping tool for location-enhanced applications




http://dub.washington.edu/topiary/



                                                      Topiary
Interoperability

Uncertainty

a layered software engineering model

common vocabulary and standard infrastructure

increase of flexibility and scalability

problem: usually no single location technology possesses
adequate capabilities




                                                      Location Stack
OSI Model   Location Stack



                      Location Stack
Spatial Monitoring - Programming with Space


programs react to changes in the environment according to the
user’s preferences

applications appear to share the user’s perception of the
environment

current state of environment is treated as common ground
between computers and users




                                                   Sentient Computing
Follow me

moving interfaces to nearest appropriate input or output device

interpreting nearness




                                                  Sentient Computing
Symbolic notion: place

place = human-readable labeling of positions

GIS and usage logs

to prune and improve place predictions

label: demographic, environmental, historic, personal, or
commercial significance of place

Automatically Labeling Places by inferring people’s activities in
those places



                                                       Place vs. Position
Web pages linked to places




                             A2B
Applications that use location technologies

Social Positioning vs. locating in physical space

What do people really want to share?




                                                    Trends
Can you see me now?

Technology: GPS receiver and WiFi
Topic: Game -virtual and physical world interact




                                                   Applications
Social Positioning: MobiTip

technology: Bluetooth connectivity as social space
topic: collaborative filtering of tips




                                                     Applications
Savannah

An educational location-based game




                                     Applications
Locative Art and Media




                         Applications
What do people want to share?


Who is sending a request?

Why?

What level of detail?




                                Privacy
What do people want to share?



investigations often focused on software infrastructures for
managing disclosure

When are users willing to disclose something about location?
What helps users to decide what to disclose?
Who is requesting?
Where are they when they receive a request?
How do they feel? What are they doing?




                                                               Privacy
What do people want to share?


If the information seems not to be useful to the requester, people
don’t disclose information at all.

If they thing information is usefull, they give 77% of the time
fairly specific answers (address, generic place name - home,
work)

who is requesting has strongest influence

activity and mood



                                                                  Privacy
What do people want to share?

When I am out and about, them knowing where I am is not
beneficial and “would be a speed bump in my day.”

“It would create a burden, because someone else knows you are
there - you might have to do something for them too, which will
take more time.”

“It would be creepy for people to always know where I am”

trade-of: interrupt user or realizing on a priori preference
configuration



                                                               Privacy
What do people want to share?

Entertaining system vs. surveillance:

When is it surveillance when is it play?
Surveillance under the cloak of leisure and fun?
Is privacy violated when security is guaranteed?

Technical perfection or socially responsible systems:

How can we support both?
Which stakeholders support different directions?




                                                   Systems for the Future

								
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