Religion and Politics in Pre Modern and Modern Cultures by liaoqinmei

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									Religion and Politics
in Pre-Modern and
Modern Cultures
       Cluster of Excellence
          Cluster of Excellence




        Religion and Politics
in Pre-Modern and Modern Cultures




              Westfälische
          Wilhelms-Universität
             WWU Münster




              Funding Period
          01.11.2007 – 31.10.2012
                                                                              Proposal
                                                                  Cluster of Excellence
                                                                  Religion and Politics




    Proposal for the Establishment and Funding of the Cluster of Excellence


          "Religion und Politik in den Kulturen der Vormoderne und der Moderne"


                "Religion and Politics in Pre-Modern and Modern Cultures"




Host university:                  Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität / WWU Münster

Rector of the host university:                   Coordinator of the cluster of
                                                 excellence:

Prof. Dr. Ursula Nelles                          Prof. Dr. Barbara Stollberg-Rilinger

Schlossplatz 2                                   Historisches Seminar
48149 Münster                                    Domplatz 20-22
                                                 48143 Münster

Phone:       +49 (251) 8322211                   Phone:     +49 (251) 8324315
Fax:         +49 (251) 8322125                   Fax:       +49 (251) 8324332
E-Mail:      Rektorin@uni-muenster.de            E-Mail:    stollb@uni-muenster.de



Münster, April 12, 2007                          Münster, April 12, 2007




Prof. Dr. Ursula Nelles                          Prof. Dr. Barbara Stollberg-Rilinger

Rector                                           Coordinator




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                                                                             Proposal
                                                                 Cluster of Excellence
                                                                 Religion and Politics

1 General Information about the Cluster of Excellence

Principal Investigators


Surname, first name, acad.          Year               Institute         Research
title                                of                                    area
                                    birth
Albertz, Rainer, Prof. Dr. theol.   1943 Old Testament                   C, D
Althoff, Gerd, Prof. Dr. phil.      1943 Medieval History                A, B, D
Basu, Helene, Prof. Dr. phil.       1954 Ethnology (Social               B, C
                                          Anthropology)
Bauer, Thomas, Prof. Dr. phil.      1961 Arabic and Islamic Studies      A, B
Berges, Ulrich, Prof. Dr. theol.    1958 Contemporary and Religious      D
                                          History of the Old Testament
Freitag, Werner, Prof. Dr. phil.    1955 Comparative Regional History    B, C, D
Funke, Peter, Prof. Dr. phil.       1950 Ancient History                 C, D
Fürst, Alfons, Prof. Dr. phil. Dr.  1961 Early Church History            D
theol.
Gabriel, Karl, Prof. Dr. soz.wiss. 1943 Christian Social Sciences        A, C, D
Dr. theol.
Gutmann, Thomas, Prof. Dr. iur. 1964 Civil Law, Philosophy of Law        A, C
                                        and Medical Law
Hahn, Johannes, Prof. Dr. phil. 1957 Ancient History                     C, D
Hensel, Silke, Prof. Dr. phil.     1964 History of the Non-European      C, D
                                        World
Jansen, Nils, Prof. Dr. iur.       1967 Legal History                    A, C
Meier-Staubach, Christel, Prof. 1942 Medieval and Modern Latin           A, B
Dr. phil.                               Philology
Oestmann, Peter, Prof. Dr. iur.    1967 Legal History                    A, C
Pfister, Ulrich, Prof. Dr. phil.   1956 Economic and Social History      C, D
Reuter, Hans-Richard, Prof. Dr. 1947 Ethics and Related Social           A, D
theol.                                  Sciences
Siep, Ludwig, Prof. Dr. phil.      1942 Philosophy                       A
Stollberg-Rilinger, Barbara,       1955 Early Modern History             A, B, C
Prof. Dr. phil.
Thamer, Hans-Ulrich, Prof. Dr.     1943 Modern History                   B, D
phil.
Wagner-Egelhaaf, Martina, Prof. 1957 Modern German Literature            B, C
Dr. phil.
Walter, Christian, Prof. Dr. iur.  1966 Public Law                       A, C
Wolf, Hubert, Prof. Dr. theol.     1959 Medieval and Modern Church       A, B, D
                                        History

Research Programme

1.2.1 Summary
   Aus der Perspektive des „postsäkularen“ Zeitalters stellt sich das Verhältnis von
Politik und Religion neu dar. Nach der weitgehenden Dekonstruktion der historischen
„Meistererzählungen“ von Modernisierung und Säkularisierung sind die historischen
Kulturwissenschaften (im weitesten Sinne) herausgefordert, zur Klärung und



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Bewältigung der daraus resultierenden Fragen beizutragen. Wir gehen davon aus,
dass auch in Zukunft die historische Langzeitperspektive und die Untersuchung
unterschiedlicher Kulturen unerlässlich sind, um die gegenwärtige Entwicklung
angemessen       einzuschätzen.     Dazu    bedarf     es   aber     einer   Ausweitung   und
Neuformulierung der historisch-religionsvergleichenden Fragestellungen und einer
Überprüfung      der    hergebrachten,     auf   den     christlichen     Westen   bezogenen
Denkmodelle. Ausgehend von den interdisziplinären Erfahrungen, die an der WWU
Münster mit neuen kulturwissenschaftlichen Forschungsansätzen gemacht worden
sind, sollen in dem beantragten Verbund die vorhandenen historischen, theologischen,
juristischen, sozial- und literaturwissenschaftlichen Kompetenzen zusammengeführt
werden, um eine Neujustierung der Sicht auf das Verhältnis von Politik und Religion in
verschiedenen Kulturen der Vormoderne und der Moderne zu ermöglichen. Ziel ist,
durch genauere Kenntnis der vormodernen Strukturen den Horizont zur Beurteilung
der gegenwärtigen Problemlagen zu erweitern und darüber mit einer breiteren
Öffentlichkeit ins Gespräch zu kommen.
    Das Untersuchungsfeld erstreckt sich von der paganen, jüdischen und christlichen
Antike über das jüdische, christliche und islamische Mittelalter und die religiöse
Pluralisierung in der Frühen Neuzeit bis zur Gegenwart. Um dieses Feld systematisch
zu strukturieren, richten wir das Interesse auf vier Dimensionen, in denen sich das
Verhältnis von religiöser und politischer Vergemeinschaftung diachron und synchron
vergleichend beschreiben und systematisch reflektieren lässt: 1. Normativität,
2. Inszenierung, 3. Integrative Verfahren, 4. Gewalt.

Summary
    Seen from the perspective of the “post-secular age”, the relationship between
politics and religion appears in a completely new light. Following upon the far-reaching
deconstruction    of    the   historical   “master     narratives”   of   modernisation   and
secularisation, the historical cultural sciences (in the broadest sense) face the
challenge of adapting to the new situation in order to help clarify and deal with
contemporary problems. We take it for granted that, in order to accurately evaluate
present-day developments, the historical long-term perspective and the diachronic
examination of various cultures will also be indispensable in the future. But to this end,
historical questions of comparative religion must be expanded and newly formulated,
and traditional paradigms based upon the Christian West need to be reconsidered.
Starting from the interdisciplinary experiences gathered from new approaches to the
cultural sciences at the WWU Münster, the proposed cluster would bring together the
existing capabilities in the departments of history, theology, law, social sciences and
literature. This would enable a readjustment of the relationships between religion and


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politics in various pre-modern and modern cultures. The goal is to expand the horizon
of possibilities for evaluating present-day problems through a more precise
understanding of pre-modern structures and, moreover, to enter into discussion with a
broader public.
    The area of investigation extends from pagan, Jewish and Christian antiquity
through the Jewish, Christian and Islamic Middle Ages and the religious pluralisation in
the early modern period up to the present. To structure this area systematically, we will
direct our interest to four dimensions in which the relationship between religious and
political   communitarisation   can   be   described    historically   and   comparatively:
1. Normativity; 2. Staging; 3. Integrative procedures; 4. Violence.

1.2.2 Description

1.2.2.1 Relevance of the Subject
    Religion has reappeared on the daily political agenda and has assumed a central
place in the public awareness. In an apparently secularised world, the “return of the
gods” has been noted with a certain irritation; this new mass-media visibility of
religious phenomena extends from esoteric private religion to fundamentalist violence.
The experience of cultural and economic globalisation has permanently called into
question Europe’s long-familiar, self-evident truths. The conviction that the historical
process of modernity realises its goal in the sovereign secular state and makes religion
a legally guaranteed private matter, or possibly allows it to fade completely, has been
vigorously shaken. In the wake of global economic interdependence, mass migrations
and the electronic media revolution, states and institutionalised churches are losing
their ability to provide guidance and national identities are losing their ability to unify,
on the one hand, while trans-cultural and trans-national group identities are being
newly formed on the other. In this, religion plays a central role. Fundamentalisms of
various kinds, whether Islamist or evangelical, take control of the political arena, attack
modernity with its own devices and challenge the very existence of the secular state.
Religion is once again the battlefield for struggles over socio-political power and
meaning. Much of what poses as analysis of the present – above all the talk of the
“clash of civilizations” – intensifies the conflictive aggravation of the situation.
Humanities and cultural studies are thus faced with a considerable challenge, one that
demands a complete readjustment of our perspective on the relationship between
political order on the one hand, and religious norms, practices, and beliefs on the
other.




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1.2.2.2 Long-term Scientific and Structural Goals
    The cluster shall take up this challenge. The present-day situation can be
adequately understood only in a synchronically as well as diachronically comparative
perspective. Only a comparison with the “foreignness” of other periods and cultures
creates the necessary detachment from what the modern Western perspective holds
to be self-evident and thereby enables the adjustment of such a view. Sensitising the
broader public to this seems to us to be one of the most important challenges that the
humanities and cultural sciences can assume.
    Thus the long-term goals of the cluster are as follows:
    The relationship between religion and politics shall be investigated (1) across
periods from the pre-Christian antiquity to the present and (2) cross-culturally between
antique-pagan, Jewish, Christian, and Islamic cultures. The methodical-theoretical
preconditions for such comparisons have as yet been nowhere near adequately
considered; this necessitates (3) reflection upon methodological groundwork and
theory formation. Ultimately this should put us (4) in a position to critically examine and
modify the conventional theories. Our work shall (5) occur systematically in mutual
exchange with a broader public.
    This end shall be served – in addition to the two new recently established
professorships for religious sociology and political science with particular attention to
the relationships between politics and religion – by the following structural measures in
the framework of the cluster:
       (1) The establishment of three professorships: for the History of Islam (W3), for
           Islamic Law/Comparative Law (W1) as well as for Jewish Studies (W1)
       (2) Ensuring scholarly continuity by means of the early reappointment of five
           key professorships
       (3) The flexible promotion of relevant research projects under independent
           participation of junior scholars
       (4) Ensuring time for research through the reduction of teaching demands
       (5) The invitation of international guest scholars and senior fellows
       (6) The    systematic    structuring   of   doctoral    students’   training   beyond
           departmental boundaries by means of an integrated graduate school
       (7) The institutionalised exchange with the public and the training of junior
           scholars for relevant careers by means of a centre for academic
           communication
       (8) Promoting the equality of male and female scholars and the establishment
           of family-friendly working conditions
       (9) The establishment of an academic centre for contact between local and
           foreign scholars, junior scholars and the public.

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1.2.2.3 Relation to Current Scientific Discourses
   On the background of basic consensus over the secularisation theory in the social
sciences, for a long time religion has not had a prominent place on the agenda of
research subjects in the humanities and social sciences. But the return or rediscovery
of religion as a factor in politics since the Iranian revolution and the formation of the
Christian right in the USA has led to intensified research into the relationship between
politics and religion. At first it was the strengthening of fundamentalist or conservative
religious movements in politics that was at the centre of this attention. Then after the
end of the Cold War violent conflicts and civil wars that were religiously motivated or at
least religiously legitimised – like the war in the Balkans or the violent confrontations
on the Indian subcontinent – shifted more urgently into the public focus. This attention
to the relationship between religion and violence has once again been heightened by
the spread of religiously motivated or religiously justified terrorism. In the wake of
these developments, the question of religion as a cause or element in national,
international and trans-national conflicts has been thematised more intensely (see, for
example, Samuel Huntington, Mark Juergensmeyer, R. Scott Appleby).
   A further impetus for investigating the relationships between religion and politics
comprises the conflicts and religious-political measures that have appeared in Western
Europe as a result of religious pluralism through immigration and through alienation
from the church. At the centre of attention is thus the question of how the new religious
minorities, above all Islam, will be integrated into the existing religious-political
structures or how and in what ways these structures can be adapted to the changed
religious-political situation. But the return or rediscovery of religion as a factor in
politics has resulted in an intensive theoretical debate about the configuration of
relations between state and church as well as the status and relative importance of
religious arguments in public discourse. In this debate the classical liberal position of a
separation between church and state as well as the conviction of the private character
of religious arguments have been re-formulated (John Rawls, Robert Audi, Jürgen
Habermas), on the one hand, and, on the other hand, new concepts of a pluralistic
religious-political system have also been drafted (Veit Bader).
   A precise reformulation of the process of secularisation is among the cluster’s
central concerns. The changes described above have led to the labelling of the
present as the “post-secular age” and to the fundamental questioning of secularisation
(Max Weber, Friedrich Gogarten, Hans Blumenberg) and of modern statehood as
temporal paradigms. If we understand secularisation as the decrease in the
significance of religion, as the triumphal advance of a world-immanent rationalistic


 For quoted authors here and in the entire proposal see the bibliography in Appendix 4.8.


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worldview or as the privatisation of the religious, then the theories of secularisation
currently seem to prove themselves to be illusory. But if we define secularisation as
the separation of politics and religion into autonomous systems of functions, then
contemporary phenomena such as religious fundamentalism can also be described as
consequences of secularisation. Rather than begin with the assumption of religion’s
loss of significance and disappearance from the public arena, we have to assume that
its social forms and relations to the political order have changed, and start from the
fact of religion’s increasing withdrawal from its regional cultures of origin and the
formation of new social-religious milieus (Olivier Roy). In the view of an influential
thesis of the sociology of religion, in reference to modern Christianity, it is precisely
when religious communities accept the institutional separation of church and state that
there are chances for their vital return into the public arena of civil society (José
Casanova).

1.2.2.4 Research Approaches
    Seen from a historical perspective, secularisation in the sense of an institutiona-
lised separation of politics and religion is an exception – if an extremely consequential
one in world history. In order to classify it appropriately it is not enough to consider
only the era of secularisation from the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries onwards;
to a greater degree a long-term perspective is necessary. Only from a perspective that
crosses cultural and historical boundaries is it possible to reconstruct the historical
origin of the present state of the problem and to place ourselves at a reflexive distance
to the supposedly self-evident truths of the modern period.
    For this reason we will work from the broadest possible analytical concepts of
religion and politics, in order not to disguise the empirical variety of the historical
phenomena. As “political” we are referring to that dimension of human action that is
related to the generation and enforcement of collectively binding decisions. This
definition takes into account the fact that historically political space has been delimited
and shaped quite variously. What characterised the collective whole in each case,
what the political action related to – polis, civitas, empire, state, church, nation, etc. –
is not only historically variable, but only arises out of procedures, acts of symbolisation,
processes of attribution by the actors. Similarly we take as our concept of religion one
that is not based exclusively on high religious phenomena that are ultimately seen
from the perspective of Christianity. At the same time this concept goes beyond the
respective self-understanding of religions, without on the other hand ignoring the
individual perspective of the faithful (see Franz Xaver Kaufmann, Detlev Pollack).
According to this, religion is characterised by the act of transcending the this-worldly
everyday human life-world while simultaneously referring to it. Religion thus manifests


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itself as a comprehensive symbol system that generates meaning and consists of
beliefs, norms and practices; it creates a social space in which it makes available a
symbolic language (cultic, visual and conceptual) that makes it possible to
communicate about that which cannot be communicated and thus to link
transcendence and immanence, uncertainty and certainty. In terms of function, religion
serves the constitution of personal identity (through affective bonding or overcoming
fear), the conducting of actions that are out of the ordinary (by means of magic, ritual,
and ethos), the managing of contingency (by dealing with suffering and death), social
integration (by legitimizing the formation of community) and the coherent interpretation
of the world, but also the distancing of oneself from it (in the form of resistance and
protest against social relations that are seen as unjust). Even if it must remain open
whether, in comparing cultures, all phenomena that qualify as religious are capable of
achieving all of the above, the heuristic assumption is that their specifically religious
quality consists of their fulfilling several of these functions simultaneously.
    In simple societies, the social realm of religiousness can be identical to that of the
political order. Simple political communities can be structured to a relatively high
degree by religious rules and can see themselves as sacral communities. In such
cases it is possible to ascertain fundamental structural analogies between religious
and socio-political ideas of order (theocracy, analogies between worldly and heavenly
hierarchies, etc.); the apparent obviousness of such ideas leads to their mutual
reinforcement. But as societies become more complex, religious identity begins to
differ from political identity in a variety of ways and to compete with it. Religious and
political collective identities can then harmonise with each other in various ways, mirror
each other, support and instrumentalise each other, or collide with each other and
develop various forms to help withstand this collision.
    The relationship of the faithful to the political community ranges – in some
circumstances within one and the same system of symbols – from complete
identification to a radical, subjectivist-spiritualist, anti-institutional stance (which in its
negations remains nevertheless closely related to the political order). We are
proceeding from the assumption that religious symbol systems as such possess a
certain openness with regard to the respective political system. In other words,
whether the faithful are more likely to assume an affirmative-legitimizing or a critical-
transcendental position depends not on the religious system of beliefs itself but results
rather from the constellation of political, social and economic circumstances as a
whole. It seems particularly true of monotheistic, universalising, text-based religions
like Judaism, Christianity and Islam that they allow numerous varieties of relationship
between religious and political order. Historically this can be observed, for example, in



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the conflicts between the respective political and spiritual ruling elites, in their
reciprocal instrumentalisation, but also in the religious virtuosos’ radical detachment
from the world.
    If, with respect to the secularisation paradigm, we cast a comparative eye on the
pre-modern and modern periods, we draw attention to the year 1800 as a turning
point. But we explicitly do this for heuristic reasons and with the proviso that it is
exactly these process categories – bound together with this division into epochs and
oriented upon Europe – that we need to reconsider. So we must always expect the
simultaneity of the non-simultaneous and make allowance for different “moderns”
occurring in shifting phases in different societies. Most importantly, the term “pre-
modern” should not be seen to suggest a homogeneous, archaically uniform “Old
Europe”, but rather the contrary, to take into consideration the variety of relationships
between political and religious order that were already present in pre-modern
societies.

1.2.2.5 Research Areas
    The subject area of our research extends from pagan, Jewish and Christian
antiquity through the Jewish, Christian and Islamic Middle Ages and the religious
pluralism of the early modern period into the “post-secular” present. In order to
structure this area systematically we shall focus our attention on four areas in which
the relationship between religious and political communitarisation can be described in
diachronic and synchronic comparison: normativity, staging, integrative procedures
and violence.
    (A) Normativity: This is a matter of the fundamental questions of where norms
derive their claim to validity (transcendentally-religiously or secularly), how far this
validity extends, how it reacts to historical change, what role is played in this by
changes in media and what relationship religious and secular norms have to one
another.
    (B) Staging: Proceeding from the thesis that symbolic acts of staging play a
fundamental role in maintaining and stabilising political and religious systems, but also
in contesting and transforming them, we shall investigate the reciprocal relationship
between sacral and secular forms of staging and their particular potency. In this,
particular attention will be paid to the question of whether and to what degree symbolic
acts have changed their functions and lost their constitutive and obliging effect on the
path to modernity.
    (C) Integrative Procedures: Under this heading it should be asked, first, how
religious plurality can be politically integrated into a society by means of formal




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procedures and practices, but also how religious practices and forms of organisation
can create identity and effect social integration beyond political diversity.
   (D) Violence: Finally, the fundamental question arises of the affinity of various
religions to physical violence (violentia) and to force of sanctions by those in power
(potestas) as well as the converse: religions’ potential for love of peace and the
containment of violence directed inwardly and outwardly. It remains to be asked how
violence is religiously judged, interpreted and justified, what role undergoing or
exerting violence plays for the collective religious identity and under which historical
circumstances a religious system’s violence or potential for peace becomes virulent
(on the areas of research see the more extensive discussion in 2 A-D).

1.2.2.6 Value of the Interdisciplinary, Culturally and Historically
        Comparative Collaboration
   Under the influence of post-colonialism, the media revolution, global processes of
migration, etc., scholars in the humanities and social sciences have become
increasingly aware of the cultural and disciplinary constriction of their particular views
and have demanded a cross-cultural perspective on the present but also on the past.
This means, on the one hand, that an increasing number of culturally comparative
studies are being conducted; on the other hand and more fundamentally, it means that
cultures for their part can no longer be seen as objective and static, internally
homogenous realities, but rather as heterogeneous, flexibly applied repertoires of acts.
Cultural boundaries seem to be continuously newly generated, renegotiated or re-
contested    by   people    through   a   social   practice   that   generates   meaning.
Correspondingly, attention to the fluid boundaries between cultures and religions, to
cultural transitional zones and hybrids, reciprocal influences and interweavings has
grown – whether in the Mediterranean Late Antiquity, in Confessional Age Europe, in
the age of colonialism or in the present. But at the same time the increasing (and
necessary) disciplinary specialisation of the humanities runs counter to the awareness
of such interactions and marginal phenomena. This problem will be confronted by the
cooperative work in the cluster. A few remarks should suffice here as examples.
   The dualism between two institutional orders, a worldly and a spiritual, which
characterises pre-modern Latin Christian Europe, and the complex mutual cooperation
and competition of these two orders has long been a classical theme of constitutional
and church history. A systematic comparison with the relationship between spiritual
and political leadership in countries shaped by Islam makes it possible on both sides to
evaluate these phenomena with greater detachment and to understand their
interactions as well. As yet, this has been scarcely tackled; the respective cultural
perspectives have seldom been crossed over by Western church and political



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historians nor conversely by Islamic scholars. Comparatively or in terms of their
connections; Islamic and Western legal systems have also hardly been investigated up
to now; the boundaries between disciplines at the university stand in the way of the
necessary comparative legal competence. The cluster enables these limitations to be
overcome.
     Through specific interdisciplinary cooperation between theologians and legal
scholars, specialists on pre-modern Europe and Islam, entirely new perspectives are
revealed also for the evaluation of normativity, dogmatics, and hermeneutics in the
various cultures of knowledge. All cultural forms of representation (practices, images,
writings, etc.) are fundamentally, if to varying degrees, ambiguous; this is doubly true
of religious symbol systems. Ways of dealing with this multivalence vary significantly in
different cultures and during different periods. They can be used productively or
avoided, tolerated or concealed, settled discursively or an unequivocal meaning can
be established authoritatively. Pre-modern Islam can be described as a culture with a
high tolerance for ambiguity (Thomas Bauer) and can be compared in this respect to
Christian Bible exegesis and to Jewish hermeneutics during the Middle Ages. On the
other hand episodes of increased effort at disambiguation can be discerned in history,
for example, in Europe during the Confessional Age or rationalism. In this respect as
well religious fundamentalisms have more in common with Western modernity than
they would like to believe. One of the cluster’s main interdisciplinary questions
concerns making the ways various periods and cultures deal with ambiguous
phenomena (in religion and law, rhetoric and politics) fruitful as a parameter for
comparing them.
     But a precondition to all this is making synchronic and diachronic comparisons
across disciplinary boundaries themselves the subject of reflection. On this point,
essentially no preliminary work has yet been done. The cluster’s task is thence also a
contribution to interdisciplinary theory formation.
     Historical and intercultural comparison form the specific method of the cluster. And
yet the method of comparison has to now differed remarkably among individual
disciplines: Theologians, social scientists, historians and legal scholars each do
different things when they compare; and they have developed special conceptual
instruments and methods for doing so. Legal comparisons are predominantly assumed
to be a matter of understanding legal normativity from a functional perspective,
whereas the formation of comparative concepts within this takes place within the
framework of national dogmatics. In contrast, the comparison of religions (in distinction
to sociology of religion) has always renounced a functional definition because the latter
adheres to a normative, genuinely religious perspective and cannot methodically



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relinquish the metaphysical character of religion. Its methods consist in forming
complex “Weberian” typologies on the basis of detailed, dense descriptions of
comparable religious phenomena. This leads on the one hand to a language of
comparison whose conceptuality abstracts from each specific meaning within a
religion, and on the other hand to the formulation of various overlapping categories
that enable a comparative understanding of various religions. Finally in histoire
comparée as well it was always a matter of a common academic language, but the
work of the comparative historical sciences has always been guided by theory to a
much greater extent than comparisons of law and religion.
   In light of this, interdisciplinary comparisons and the associated interdisciplinary
transfer of guiding concepts for the research (such as staging, normativity, ambiguity,
etc.) pose special problems. An interdisciplinary discourse on the methodology of
comparison has only recently arisen and does not extend much beyond a preliminary
anthology. The success of the cluster will also depend on to what degree it will be
possible to get a grip on this problem: Necessary for this is an exact, neutral “two-
level” (thus across disciplines) terminology, the conscious and reflected treatment of
the metaphorical content of the research’s guiding concepts (“political religion”,
“staging”, etc.) and a clear comparative analysis of the overall conceptuality, even with
its possibly diverging meanings (“normativity” in religion, law and politics; “dogmatics”
in religion and law, etc.). For this reason a self-reflective element shall be integrated
into the cluster by means of workshops on theory and method. Thus comparative
methods will, for their part, be compared and reciprocally critically examined. At the
same time, the goal is to formulate the concepts that guide the research as clearly as
possible and to insure that these kinds of concepts are either used consistently or that
the participating scholars are aware of the conceptual differences.

1.2.2.7 Local Conditions at the WWU Münster:
Research Centres and Graduate Schools
   The WWU Münster offers outstanding conditions for making a substantial original
contribution to such an interdisciplinary approach to the areas of research in question.
The humanities – especially history and theology – have made special contributions to
the scholarly profile of the university, which is reflected in their high standings in the
university rankings of the DFG and the Centrum für Hochschulentwicklung (Centre for
Development of Higher Learning, CHE).




http://www.dfg.de/ranking/ranking2006/download/dfg_foerderranking_4_1.pdf;
http://www.che.de/downloads/CHE_ForschungsRanking_Geschichte_2004.pdf.



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2 Research Areas

     The scholarly goals outlined above can be divided into four research areas. Since
these areas are interdisciplinary in design, they will be fundamentally approached
together and not by separate research groups; individual disciplines would, however,
participate according to the main points of focus. Nor would the newly proposed
professorships be individually classified within the four research areas. The
supervisory theory and method workshops mentioned above would provide for
continuous coordination and integration of the content of the four research areas.


     For each of the four research areas a series of selected model drafts of projects
will be introduced further down the text. These project drafts originate not only from the
primary applicants, but also from a group of additional scholars including doctoral
candidates and scholars who have completed their doctorates. This selection is the
first result of an initial competition that was open to all members of the participating
departments. The group of projects that will be supported in the cluster as well as the
participating scholars is thus not final. Rather, the distribution of means should take
place as flexibly as possible: During the funding period, every scholarly member of the
WWU Münster, including junior scholars, can apply with a project draft for support from
the cluster (for positions, travel, technical help or assistance, conferences,
publications, etc.). The selection of the projects shall follow the process described
under 1.7 Organisation. Due to this flexible structure of project promotion and the
interweaving of personnel within the four areas of research, means of support will not
be applied for separately for each area but collectively at the end of the proposal
under 3.




44
                                                                                Proposal
                                                                    Cluster of Excellence
                                                                    Religion and Politics

Research Area A: Normativity

Coordinator:
Prof. Dr. iur. Oestmann, Peter, 09/04/1967

Institut für Rechtsgeschichte
Germanistische und Kanonistische Abteilung
Universitätsstraße 14-16
48143 Münster

Phone: +49 (251) 83-28640
Fax:    +49 (251) 83-28643
E-Mail: germkan@uni-muenster.de

Responsible Investigators
Gerd Althoff, Medieval History; Thomas Bauer, Arabic and Islamic Studies; Karl
Gabriel, Christian Social Sciences; Hermann-Josef Große Kracht, Christian Social
Sciences; Thomas Gutmann, Philosophy of Law; Christian Hengstermann,
Philosophical Fundamentals of Theology; Nils Jansen, Legal History; Muhammad
Kalisch, Arabic and Islamic Studies; Hagen Keller, Medieval History; Martin
Kintzinger, Medieval History; Gregor Klapczynski, Medieval and Modern Church
History; Christel Meier-Staubach, Medieval and Modern Latin Philology; Torsten
Meireis, Ethics and Related Social Sciences; Klaus Müller, Philosophical
Fundamentals of Theology; Peter Oestmann, Legal History; Hans-Richard Reuter,
Ethics and Related Social Sciences; Klaus Schubert, Political Science; Reiner
Schulze, Legal History; Ludwig Siep, Philosophy; Hans-Georg Soeffner, Sociology;
Barbara Stollberg-Rilinger, Early Modern History; Christian Walter, Public Law;
Ulrich Willems, Political Science; Hubert Wolf, Medieval and Modern Church History.

A 2.1 Summary
   Various periods and cultures are characterised by quite different concepts of
normativity. The European modern era is marked by the differentiation of legal norms
(sanctioned by the state) on the one hand, from ethical, moral and religious norms on
the other. In the light of religious and ideological pluralism the liberal constitutional
state’s renunciation of any religious-transcendental justification of norms seems
necessary. Within the research area Normativity we shall be concerned, first, with this
historical special case of the secular state, with its religious roots, whose norms it
nevertheless possesses, and with the current problems that confront it. Second, it shall
be asked in diachronically and synchronically comparative perspectives how norms
differ in various times, societal organisations, and religious communities in terms of
their claims to legitimacy, their social reach, their enforceability, their clarity, their
media and above all the (religious or secular) bases for their legitimisation. In this,
special attention will be given to the question of to what degree cultures (pre-modern
and modern, Islamic and Christian) are characterised by, whether they tolerate the
ambiguity of norms or not and how they deal with mutually contradictory norms.


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Proposal
Cluster of Excellence
Religion and Politics

A 2.2 Description
     One of the ways pre-modern societies differ from modern ones is in the justification
and validation of norms. In a secular state, on the one hand, the religious foundation of
legal norms is problematic. But on the other hand – in the well-known words of Ernst-
Wolfgang Böckenförde – the state is founded upon preconditions that it cannot itself
create, including religious ones. And in the light of the possibilities of biotechnology,
the question of whether the state can completely do without any religious-
transcendental anchoring to justice and morality is being newly discussed (project draft
A4 Willems). In particular, absolute, sacrosanct normative commandments such as the
inviolability of human dignity or the protection of unborn life can probably be grounded
only with the help of religious arguments, for example with the idea of man as God’s
image (see A3 Gutmann). Only an examination of the establishment and justification of
norms that crosses cultural and historical boundaries can create the detachment
necessary for answering such questions.
     The concept of normativity is admittedly in need of clarification. The apparent
clarity that the nineteenth century believed to have achieved with the reference to
norms as “abstract imperatives for human conduct” (Rudolf von Jhering) has become
increasingly tenuous. On the one hand, studies in linguistic and legal history have
shown that in pre-modern societies it was not even possible to conceive of law – a
classical case of normativity – in the abstract, but as claim, judgment, or legal
convention that sporadically took the form of consensus (Gerhard Dilcher). But even
for the modern world Hans Kelsen, for example, expanded the concept of the norm to
that of the individual-concrete commandment. Additionally, in the European tradition
ecclesiastical norms and rules of conduct often stood in opposition to the noble-
knightly tradition, so that in certain periods one is dealing with several normative
concepts, each with their own claims to validity. Also in pre-modern Islam norms were
not abstractly predetermined, but rather were crystallised out of the tradition by means
of an exacting process, with quite varied results (A2 Bauer). In comparison in the field
of ethics normativity has become a generic concept, under which questions of virtues,
responsibilities, laws of morality, the categorical imperative, etc. can be subsumed.
The discussion of deviating concepts of normativity in various historical periods,
different kinds of societal organisation and religious communities as well as between
different disciplines of the humanities will comprise a large part of the charm of our
cooperative work.
     Therefore, we shall work with a broad concept of normativity. Norms as rules for
human actions in a broad sense exist not only as laws or moral commandments, but
they are also contained implicitly in the legitimacy of institutions, ideals, ways of life,



46
                                                                                 Proposal
                                                                     Cluster of Excellence
                                                                     Religion and Politics

values and worldviews. The separation of religious from worldly ruling powers or the
fulfilment of individual and collective self-determination places demands upon a
system of institutions while simultaneously being embodied within it. The “free citizen”,
just like the “father,” the “prince”, and so on, embodies a model of certain kinds of
action and directives that can be traced back to inherited ideas about the good life and
the just society; such ideas can be traditional or taken up through cultural contact.
Their authority can be founded upon various reasons and can be changed itself
through social and mental or spiritual changes. In this, the influence of religious ideas
of the good and just life and of the extra-quotidien experience of grace and the sacred
play a role that is just as important as, for example, the ideal of an autonomous
morality and dignity without transcendental help. With a view to the entire phenomenon
of normativity, modern ethics and moral philosophy differentiate between the contexts
of the decently good (in the sense of a common way of life), the morally correct (in the
sense of behaviour owing to all persons) and the legally just (in the sense of the
principle of legitimacy of enforceable justice). The question to be raised here is how
these contexts reciprocally affect each other, also in the modern circumstances of their
separation from one another.
   Our group anticipates an increased understanding of these questions when, in the
discussion of normativity, it is guided by four principal questions concerning the norms
themselves: (1) First, the extent of their validity must be questioned (socially
generalised or particular norms, such as those relating to social status, gender,
religious confession, etc.), (2) and additionally, norms differ in how and to what degree
they can be sanctioned (for example state sanctioning of legal norms vs. moral or
ethical norms) (3) but also in the basis for their legitimacy (for example sovereign
decree, consensual settlement, tradition “from time immemorial,” divine will, etc.)
(4) and not least in terms of their medium (for example oral or literate).
   (1) Norms, so it seems to us today, apply in an abstract and general way to their
addressees: laws demand compliance from every inhabitant of the state, religious
commandments are directed to all the members of their faiths, basic ethical norms are
valid for everyone. The claim to general validity on the part of (legal) norms
characterises the modern constitutional state. But in most historical societies, on the
contrary, norms possessed a fundamentally unequal validity according to one’s social
position, age, gender, etc. Thus a medieval bishop could preach non-violence and on
the other hand call for a crusade, Pope Gregory VII could even, in modification of the
Sermon on the Mount, claim that those who practiced violence were blessed (D5
Althoff). Here it should be asked how the universality or particularity of religious norms
(for example all mankind as created in God’s image vs. the exclusion of women from



                                                                                       47
Proposal
Cluster of Excellence
Religion and Politics

the cult) influenced these social and legal rules and vice versa. The interactions of
religion and politics in making norms universally valid can be seen for example in the
modern state. The origin of Europe’s social civil rights, for example, cannot be
explained without recourse to Christian social ethics. It must thus be asked whether a
kind of religious “deep structure” exists that precedes the central political concept of
the social, and thus what normative concept underlies the welfare state (A7 Gabriel et
al.).
     (2) Closely related to the question of general validity is that of the kind and degree
of enforceability of norms. Today it is coercive enforceability that distinguishes legal
norms from other social or religious norms. The potential enforceability of rules by
those who hold the legitimate power monopoly is the quintessential marker of
sovereign statehood. Meanwhile, however, the guiding function of laws is being viewed
with increasing scepticism, and not only in respect to pre-modern societies. Problems
with the implementation of legal norms stand at the centre of investigations in history,
political science and law. Under the heading “symbolic legislation”, for example, the
question is being discussed of to what extent the establishment of norms has, from the
very outset, no intention of their being enforced, but rather serves quite different goals.
And for years now, “laws that are not enforced” have even been elevated to a
structural feature of pre-modern statehood (Jürgen Schlumbohm). Even numerous
conflicts among subjects were solved in the early modern period by means of a
remarkable “infrajudiciaire” (Benoît Garnot), and even in modern law, mediation
instead of litigation is a trend that leaves the enforcement of norms increasingly to the
disposition of the parties. Historically, problems in enforcement similarly exist for
religious norms. Confessional homogeneity was, for example, obtained by force to a
much lesser degree than was formerly assumed. There was possibly thus an
ambiguity of norms in early modern Europe similar to that familiar from pre-modern
Islam. Phenomena such as inter-confessionalism would seem to make this likely and
should thus be scrutinised more closely. This confessional ambiguity raised many
questions about the religious and political self-image of the scholarly persons at
princely courts (C6 Pietsch/Stollberg-Rilinger) and led to difficulties in drawing a
demarcation line between worldly and spiritual courts as well as worldly and spiritual
law (C7 Oestmann).
     The distinction between legal norms capable of being sanctioned and other norms
fails for societies in which there are no boundaries between law, religion, morality and
ethics. This is true not only of ancient cultures such as ancient Israel or medieval
societies, but also largely for present-day Islam. The fundamental question thus arises
– not only for pre-modern cultures – in which ways and with what force of



48
                                                                                Proposal
                                                                    Cluster of Excellence
                                                                    Religion and Politics

perseverance norms in various cultures are maintained despite their lack of
enforceability and what actions are shown in the face of their continued violation. Are
there “contra-factually stabilised expectations of behaviour” (Niklas Luhmann), and
how are these expectations confirmed or disappointed? In addition to the existent
historical, theological, philosophical and juridical competence we need to work with the
social sciences to clarify these kinds of questions.
   (3) Societies can be distinguished on the basis of how their norms are primarily
given legitimacy: divine will, for example, tradition “from time immemorial”, consensual
agreement or formalised procedures and sovereign decree. Whether norms can be
changed or not depends on the way they can be justified. Societies also differ greatly
in the kind of change they allow norms to undergo and in how they reconcile actual
changes in norms with their claim to timeless validity.
   Pre-modern cultures that do not distinguish between worldly and religious power
frequently give norms a religious justification. For example, they do not draw a
distinction between the divine establishment or finding of norms and their
establishment or finding by worldly rulers. This is true for example of ancient Israel and
(within limits) for the European Middle Ages. A clear demarcation between religious
and worldly norms can thus not always be strictly drawn. After Christianisation the
early Germanic law handed down by Germanic tribes, for example, was increasingly
reworked and justified ecclesiastically. As a church of law, especially the Catholic
church of course differentiated clearly between religious and legal norms. The fact that
the church could not violently force compliance with its doctrine meant that for
centuries it was dependent upon political support to help it do so. At the same time the
universal Catholic church was compatible at all times with the most varied forms of rule
and statehood, so that the question must be clarified of what criteria the ecclesiastical
ministry used to judge these forms of statehood and the norms associated with them
(A8 Wolf/Klapczynski). Not only in the Middle Ages but also later contradictions and
competitions arose from the differing ways in which norms were legitimised, which
resulted in conflicts and conciliation attempts whose consequences continue to be felt
today.
   In the case of Islam as well secularly grounded norms exist alongside religious
ones, although the latter by no means necessarily led to rigid dogmatism. It is rather
the case that classic, pre-modern Islam appears to have been a culture of ambiguity,
in which a large measure of plurality was tolerated. Only since the second half of the
nineteenth century did modernisation lead to the suppression of this tradition and to
the development of fundamentalist Islamic currents oriented upon Western ideologies.
The early “tolerance of ambiguity” that disappeared in the course of the nineteenth



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Proposal
Cluster of Excellence
Religion and Politics

century is probably one of the most important reasons why a phenomenon analogous
to the Enlightenment in the West might have not appeared urgent in the Islamic world.
This tolerance can be identified on many different levels within Islamic culture(s)
(A2 Bauer). But the roles played in these processes by the different means of
grounding norms in Christian and Islamic cultures have not been comparably
investigated. Even the extraction of norms from the authoritative religious texts is
shown to be an exacting procedure of disambiguation that entails numerous subjective
processes and rational methods and whose similarities to and differences from the
methods of pre-modern European theologians and jurists are not yet known. The
Islamic norms are not simply given in the authoritative texts, but have to be obtained
from them by means of exegesis. To evaluate the traditions handed down by the
prophets (Hadith), for example, Islamic scholars developed a linguistic analysis of the
texts that inspired them to great heights of linguistic performance and led to a theory of
rhetoric that even today remains the standard. With the help of these instruments the
exegete arrived at his own judgment of the case, which laid claim to a certain authority
without being able to make an incontestable claim to the truth. The classical scholarly
culture – unlike the modern – not only accepted this latitude, but also welcomed it as a
possibility for making one’s individual mark (A2 Bauer). On this basis it needs to be
asked whether the specifically differing ways in which norms are produced and
legitimised in Christianity and Islam, made it possible, on the one hand, to formulate
claims to truth, but, on the other hand, to accept the diverging views of others for inner-
theological reasons (D12 Kalisch/von Stosch/Werbick). The model of the “tolerance of
ambiguity” could possibly open up completely new perspectives for the comparison of
Christian and Islamic cultures.
     Norms can be not only divinely justified, but also themselves become objects of
more or less religious veneration. One only has to recall the ritual veneration of the
Corpus Iuris Civilis or the civil-religious cult of the American constitution or the
replacement of royal portraits by “La Loi” on French revolutionary coins. On the other
hand ancient rulers replaced images of the Gods on their coins with their own portraits
(B1 Salzmann/Lichtenberger/Nieswandt). Already Kant, and certainly Hegel endowed
the constitution with the status of a terrestrial absolute, in order to counter the
relativising of the state against religion and the church as well as its “theocratic”
instrumentalisation. This raises the philosophical and theological question of the
justification of immutable constitutional principles and legal norms in a secular and
plural society (A5 Siep, A3 Gutmann). Despite the greatest variety of conceptions of
life there seems today to be a small but fixed canon of values and norms that
represents an “overlapping consensus” with divergent justifications from religious and



50
                                                                               Proposal
                                                                   Cluster of Excellence
                                                                   Religion and Politics

secular traditions (John Rawls). The fact that this consensus is also a function of the
processing of collective historical experiences (religious wars, industrialisation,
totalitarianism, etc.) means that the historical-empirical research here intersects
fundamental philosophical-theological perspectives. As far as the theme of “religion
and politics” is concerned, systematic theology’s and philosophy’s current questions of
how norms are justified extend from Hobbes’ state as “mortal God”, via Kant’s
transformation of metaphysics into a moral theology subject to the principle of the
autonomy of reason, via the naturalistic counter-movement in the nineteenth century,
up to the present rehabilitation of pre-discursive resources derived from religion and
existential philosophy (A6 Müller/Hengstermann).
   (4) Norms’ claim to validity cannot be separated from the forms in which they are
created and communicated – in writing, orally, or also by means of symbolic acts.
Norms are dependent upon constant outward forms. This is especially true of non-
literate cultures; but also written norms require repeated oral proclamation,
interpretation and ritual presentation. Archaic societies frequently fail to distinguish
between the contents of a norm and its outward form; in these cases, the ritualised
form is itself “the oldest norm” (Wilhelm Ebel). Here the question to be posed is when
and how such an archaic legal formalism changes, for example, with the introduction
of writing, and how it differs from more recent types of legal formalism. A possibly
specifically European-academic manifestation of the political-legal and religious
legitimisation of norms is dogmatics. Here the question must be asked to what extent
normativity stages itself by means of the systematisation of norms and a specific
technique for expounding and producing them, and simultaneously delimits itself from
the sphere of the laity (A1 Jansen). The interests of the field “Normativity” and that of
“Staging” come together unrestrictedly in this intersection between legal studies and
theology.
   From widely divergent points of departure, our group brings together numerous
lines of inquiry concerning normativity in the four guiding questions addressed here of
the generality, enforceability, legitimacy, and form of norms. The research into
normative structures from a theological, philosophical, historical, legal and Islamic
studies perspective will not only redefine the cooperation and contestation of politics
and religion with respect to the ethical and legal measures of various social orders of
the pre-modern and modern periods; beyond this, it will also lead to a significantly
improved understanding of the concepts of norms used by the participating scholars of
the humanities.




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Proposal
Cluster of Excellence
Religion and Politics

Selected Project Drafts to Research Area A
(A1) Legal and Theological Doctrines (“Dogmatics”) as Symbolic Staging of
      Normativity
Prof. Dr. Nils Jansen, Legal History / Roman Law
     Legal and theological doctrines (“dogmatics”) constitute a special manifestation of
political-legal and religious normativity. Only the immanent functions of such dogmatics
(the reduction of normative complexity, stabilisation of normative expectations) have
been well researched, not their social function and effect. If one turns one’s attention to
the connection between normative claims for legitimacy and form, dogmatics
nevertheless appears as one – specifically Western – “staging” of law and religion in
the shape of scholarly knowledge. In particular, doctrinal propositions have, namely,
despite their normative form, a “descriptive meaning” (Hans Kelsen). This results in a
particular potential for legitimacy, because normativity, which is represented as clear
and capable of being true and thus, in principle, capable of being rationally founded,
seems for this reason to be legitimate. In addition there is the fact that doctrines form a
crucial factor in the creation and stabilisation of the autonomy of law and religion. For
making something an academic doctrine transforms the normative – despite its
rationality – into epistemological arcana that have to be managed by a group of
experts who are allowed to claim the appropriate trust in advance.
     The central question is how far the phenomenon of “dogmatics”, which is
seemingly internal to law and religion, should actually be understood historically as this
kind of staging and as having the suspected social relevance: To what extent have
processes of dogmatisation fashioned answers to law’s and religion’s social crises of
legitimacy and influenced the authority and political strength of religious or juristic
elites; and to what extent have the social perception and relevance of law and religion
changed as a result of processes of dogmatisation? A comparison of legal and
theological processes and their respective effects on society promises here to be
especially informative, whereas it is of course still to be examined, to what extent the
concepts of doctrine or dogmatics within law and religion correspond to one another
and permit telling comparisons. Particular attention is owed to the linguistic and
aesthetic aspects of the staging of dogmatics: the stylistic peculiarities of the
respective specialised vocabularies (apparently rational substantivisation, Latinisms,
and termini technici) and the representative creation of doctrinal works. Periods of
significant dogmatisation will form the focal point. In law these are the end of the
Roman republic and the early Principate, the time after the “rebirth” of the study of
Roman law in Northern Italy (eleventh and twelfth centuries) as well as the nineteenth
century; particularly the latter two should also be of interest from a theological



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                                                                          Cluster of Excellence
                                                                          Religion and Politics

perspective (stabilisation of the Gregorian reforms; the infallibility dogma of the
nineteenth century).


(A2) The Culture of Ambiguity: Another Side of Islam
Prof. Dr. Thomas Bauer, Arabic and Islamic Studies
   Islamic culture seems to be the ideal example of a culture dominated entirely by
religious norms. But in this sense the modern understanding of Islam differs markedly
from that of the classical period (i.e. the pre-modern until into the nineteenth century).
Whereas     modern     fundamentalist     movements      aim     at     the   greatest   possible
legitimisation of religious norms throughout the entire society, and see this as being
the most Islamic structure (and are confirmed in this by the Western public opinion of
Islam), a glimpse at pre-modern Islamic culture offers a much more complex picture.
Already the extraction of norms from the authoritative texts reveals itself to be an
exacting process of disambiguation that included several subjective processes and
rational procedures. The fact that these procedures led to a juxtaposition of competing
norms was accepted (see the much quoted prophet’s hadith “Difference of opinion is a
mercy for my community”).
   This kind of tolerance of ambiguity manifests itself not only in Islamic law but also
in many other spheres of Islamic scholarship (for example in Koran exegesis and in
linguistics, where, especially in rhetoric, considerable results have been achieved), in
several literary genres, but also in the mentality of the people and the social conditions
(tolerance of religious minorities, sympathetic attitude towards foreigners, high social
mobility). Symptomatic is also the considerably conflict-free coexistence of religious
and secular discourses in classical Islamic culture, which stands in striking contrast to
the inseparability of Islam and the worldly sphere postulated today. Under these
specific conditions Islam was spared many of the crises of the Occident, but herein
also lies an important cause of the current conflicts between Islam and the modern
West. The collision of Islam with a culture that hardly knew such a tolerance of
ambiguity and tended to reject it had to lead to a reformulation of the fundamentals of
Islam in the form of ideologies that were more in conformance with modernity, which in
both their pro-Western liberal form as well as in their Islamist variation, are equally
characterised by the rejection of their own cultural traditions.
   Beyond      the   investigation   of   cultural   ambiguity     in    Islamic   history,   this
interdisciplinary project would test out to what degree the investigation of the
(in)tolerance of ambiguity allows relevant cultural-historical approaches to be
established.




                                                                                               53
Proposal
Cluster of Excellence
Religion and Politics

(A3) The Grounding of Norms in the Pluralistic State
Prof. Dr. iur. Thomas Gutmann, M.A., Law Faculty
     The grounding of norms in the liberal constitutional state is tied up with the
requirement of public justification. The legitimate, ideologically neutral legislator, who is
required to treat his citizens with equal concern and respect (Ronald Dworkin), has to
limit himself to reason that in principle could be explained to anyone in a discourse.
Thus motifs based upon particular ideas of the good – for example of a religious kind –
are barred as resources for grounding legal norms, and this is also fundamentally the
case even when these religious contents are translated into profane semantics. The
unique non-substitutable ability of the ethically neutral, secular state to stabilise a
society of free and equal citizens – separated by incompatible religious, philosophical,
and moral basic values – within a common constitutional system (John Rawls) is
based on this model of order, which was grounded upon the separation of legal theory
from theology established at the latest in the seventeenth century.
     This legal- and social-philosophical research project aims first at the theoretical
sharpening of the concept of public justification and its reconstruction as a central, if
tension-filled, normative component of modern Western legal and political thinking,
and second, at an investigation of how much the existing stock of norms of the
German legal system complies with this principle. For this question of the state of the
process of differentiation of law and religion in the applicable law and in legal studies,
predominantly recent processes of the setting of norms will be analysed, especially in
the area of bio-politics. The study will investigate the question of what religious and/or
theological content still or once again lies hidden in contemporary legal discussions
and to what extent it can be transferred to a secular grounding. The question of
whether and to what extent a secular legal system in this sense remains motivationally
dependent upon the pre-political and moral convictions found in religious communities
will then be investigated with social-theoretical and legal-sociological means. Finally,
questions of comparative legal sociology will be addressed by contrasting German
processes of norm-setting to analogous processes in neighbouring European
countries.


(A4) Religion and Bio-Politics
Dr. Ulrich Willems, Political Science
     The accelerated advances in the life sciences have opened human nature up to
technical intervention to an unprecedented degree. In the wake of this “end of nature”
(Giddens) more and more biomedical matters are appearing on the political agendas
of contemporary societies. For, as a rule, there is profound moral-ethical disagreement



54
                                                                                  Proposal
                                                                      Cluster of Excellence
                                                                      Religion and Politics

about whether technologies such as pre-implantation diagnostic and therapeutic
cloning should be allowed or forbidden. Not least among the social groups that
strongly shape the character of these debates are the religious organisations. In this,
they frequently represent positions that aim at defending the conventional limits of
technological control over human nature. But the legitimacy and the functionality of
such religious interventions in the “secular” state are, however, both politically and
political-theoretically, not uncontroversial (see for example Ronald Dworkin, John
Rawls, Jürgen Habermas).
   Before this background a total of four questions present themselves within the
research areas of Normativity and Integrative Procedures: (1) In what ways do
religious traditions and organisations formulate their bio-ethical positions, with which
kinds of reasons do they give their positions validity for various groups of addressees
within the political process and what means do they use to carry out their positions?
(2) In which ways and under what conditions do religious positions and arguments
achieve influence or access to political decisions? (3) In the decision over matters
where there is profound moral-ethical disagreement, which factors are responsible for
the parties’ conduct in the conflict and for the conflict dynamics of the political
process? (4) What political procedures are employed in the decision-making
processes concerning bio-political matters, how much inclusion or exclusion do they
reveal, especially in regard to religious parties, and how do these various processes
and varying combinations of parties effect the results, the dynamics of conflict, and the
acceptance of the decision?
   These questions will be answered in a comparative study of the political regulation
of pre-implantation genetic diagnosis and of reproductive cloning in selected OECD
states and newly industrializing countries since the 1980s. The choice of the countries
to be investigated will be made by varying or keeping constant central religious-
political constellations of conditions such as dominant religious traditions, the degree
of religious pluralism, and the institutional regulation of the relationship between
politics and religion. The research plan will apply the method of focused comparison.


(A5) The State as Worldly Absolute
Prof. Dr. Ludwig Siep, Philosophy
   In the contemporary discussion about the foundations of human dignity or about
the reference to God in the European constitution the thesis is often put forward that
without a religious-transcendental grounding of law and morality a relapse into the age
of “deification of the state” threatens. The state’s disposition over the law and life of the
individual would then know no bounds. This danger is made even more potent by the



                                                                                           55
Proposal
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Religion and Politics

possibility of modern biotechnology (the danger of breeding humans for the state’s
purposes). The philosophy of Hegel is considered to be the pinnacle of philosophical
deification of the state. But the tasks of a “religiously neutral” grounding and securing
of basic rights, the separation of powers, the state’s monopoly of legitimate force, etc.
are not obsolete even after the era of the totalising of state power and in an era of the
erosion of statehood (globalisation, “failing states”). In this project the historical and
systematic reach of Hegel’s conception of the state as a worldly “existence (Dasein) of
the absolute” will be investigated.
     What is systematically important in this thesis even today: 1. The final foundation of
the state as the guarantee of a constitution of rights to individual freedom and enduring
institutions without the precondition of a religion of revelation. 2. The philosophical
legitimisation of the state against its relativisation by means of theocratic or
eschatological tendencies to dissolve institutions, legal norms, and the state monopoly
of legitimate force.
     Historically Hegel takes one orientation of the philosophy of the state to its
conclusion: He believes that in order to secure the increasingly confessionally neutral
but still Christian state of the early modern period (from Hobbes to Kant) against the
threat of deterministic materialism on the one hand and religious instrumentalisation on
the other, this state had to be grounded in absolute reason. Hegel saw, just as Kant
did, the conception of the state as the promoter and manifestation of absolute reason
not only as reconcilable with a Christian idea of God, but even demanded by an
enlightened Christendom. He saw in the God of the Christian religion and the state’s
“Trinitarian” division of powers two equal manifestations of the absolute. This project
investigates the systematic arguments of the Hegelian idea of the “divine” state as well
as its predecessors and successors (the Hegel school, French utopian socialism,
Ranke, etc.).


(A6) Kantian and Post-Kantian Normativity in Inter-cultural Human Rights
       Discourse
Prof. Dr. Dr. habil. Klaus Müller / WM Christian Hengstermann, Philosophical
Fundamentals of Theology, Catholic Theological Faculty
     A conception of the cross-cultural philosophy of human rights in the form of a
rational anthropology that can ground the incommensurability of humanity represents
an inheritance of classical German philosophy that is still not sufficiently appreciated.
Kant placed the question of God within practical philosophy, which alone could
preserve a reasonable hope of the meaningfulness of personal and political action.
The post-Kantians, in their own opinion the better theologians, carried forth the Kantian



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transformation programme with far-reaching moral- and religious-philosophical
implications. This situation of debate leaves behind a vacuum, on the one hand, which
makes possible the triumphal march of naturalism in the mid-nineteenth century, but its
strengths, on the other hand, remain untapped.
   The grounding of universal normativity, i.e. normativity that is valid inter-culturally
and inter-religiously, as the Kantian-idealistic discourse of natural justice seeks to
achieve, is based on a Christendom understood in critical refraction. Thrown open to a
profane semantic its normative resources are thus released from any tie to a
particulate religious community. The conveying of religion and the grounding of norms
is thus paradigmatic for the critical interplay of traditional religion and autonomous
reason established at the beginning of the modern era. It will be shown that the
synthesis of religion and reason in the form of a moral and subject philosophy with an
unmistakably Christian impregnation is of unbroken relevance to contemporary human
rights discourse as well as the possibility of grounding a universal normativity. In this,
the necessary reconstruction of the previous discursive situation, especially the high
phase from 1781 until 1831-32, opens up a retrospective look at the thematic situation
in antiquity as much as a view of its religious-critical reception in the nineteenth
century and its secular reformulations in the twentieth century. Linguistically-
analytically purified and stripped of exaggerated speculative claims the Kantian-
idealistic natural justice also makes possible a critical appraisal of the contribution that
an enlightened Christendom, even under the auspice of secularity, can and will make
to a universal philosophy of human rights. Finally a comparison to analogous
grounding strategies of Jewish or Islamic provenance will be of great interest.


(A7) Religion, Values, and the Welfare State: The Significance of Religious
     Communities to the Normative Background of European Welfare States
Prof. Dr. Hans-Richard Reuter / Dr. Torsten Meireis, Ethics and Related Social
Sciences, Protestant Theological Faculty
Prof. Dr.Dr. Karl Gabriel / Dr. Hermann-Josef Große Kracht, Christian Social Sciences,
Catholic Theological Faculty
   The debates on the self-understanding and the foundational values of the
“European social model” play an elemental role in the European Union’s processes of
identity construction. The modern European welfare states arose from complex
constellations of cooperation, struggle, and transformation between state and religious
communities. However, the study of those constellations and their impact on the
different models has just begun. It is obvious that the normative “substructure” of the
modern welfare state has been – and is still today – shaped to a great degree, if in



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highly diffuse ways, by religiously conveyed welfare and poverty relief impulses and
patterns of values, although the spectrum of participating confessions and religions
has considerably expanded through the migration of workers and the individualisation
of modern religion.
The rise of the “religious substructure" of modern welfare state arrangements has to do
with a complex situation. Since it is necessary to take into account the nationally and
regionally differing influence of specific religions and confessions or currents, the
specific type of the respective welfare models, as well as the differences and various
mechanisms within the religious communities, a two-stage approach suggests itself.
First, the study will focus on the relatively familiar situation in Germany, where sources
are easily available; in a second phase the view will be directed at other types of
European welfare states. Whereas the relatively small segment of newer studies on
welfare that are interested in religious influences pursue a political, scientific, or
religious studies approach and are limited to Western Europe, this study will expand
this view both geographically and in terms of its perspective. On the one hand, the
previous research will be expanded with a view to Eastern and South-Eastern Europe,
on the other hand the project pursues the goal of integrating a theological perspective,
i.e. a view from within the religious communities, into the whole tableau, which can
build upon preliminary findings by the proposal’s applicants.
The project pursues three intentions on each of the stages. While the first aims at
establishing an internet-based, international, interdisciplinary, inter-confessional and
inter-religious research network, the second is oriented towards the organisation of an
internationally composed academic conference and the third towards regional events
and publications for elucidating the relevance of the subject matter in the political
community.


(A8) The Catholic Church and Modern Forms of State – Norms in Conflict?
Prof. Dr. Hubert Wolf / Dipl.-Theol. Gregor Klapczynski, Medieval and Modern Church
History, Catholic Theological Faculty
     Only at the Second Vatican Council (1962–1965) did the Church bring itself to
accept the general autonomy of the worldly sphere and of democracy. Before this
point, which normative criteria had the Church Ministry been using to judge the
justification of “secular” law and the legitimacy of “secular” rule? Extensive collections
of sources in the Vatican archives, which have been made accessible since
September 2006, provide first glimpses into the discussions inside the Curia on
questions of normative theories of statehood in the time between the two World Wars.




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   Among the states that must be taken into consideration, the Austrian “Ständestaat”
or corporative state is to be mentioned, which was given much attention by the
Vatican. Furthermore, other states were measured by the authoritarian regime of
chancellor E. Dollfuß (born 1892, assassinated in 1934). This could be due to the fact
that in many respects the “Ständestaat” approached the ideal type of a model Catholic
model state quite closely. In Austria, church and state joined together in a way that
could scarcely have been closer and more problematic. In its normative self-
legitimisation, the “Austro-fascist” regime made use of an explicitly religious complex of
motifs: not only did the Austrian federal constitution include the much-implored
“preamble God”, but additionally it was claimed that it was based on the same
principles that Pope Pius XI (1922–1939) had laid down in his encyclical
Quadragesimo anno in 1931. In return, the Catholic Church ceded the norms of
political action completely to its corporative state alliance partner. Already during the
Civil War in February 1934 the Pope bestowed his apostolic blessing upon
representatives of the regime, while their fellow party members took violent action
against the social-democratic opposition. After the death of Dollfuß Pius XI even had a
bust of the deceased placed in his study.
   On the basis of sources unknown until now, it is possible to investigate the
theological and political stance of the curia with regards to modern forms of state for
the first time. Which strategies of legitimising norms did the Vatican observe and in
which states? How did it evaluate them, how did it react to them, and how did it define
the Church’s role on site in each case ? Which reciprocity existed in the perception of
worldwide political development? What was the Catholic Church’s attitude towards
monarchies and republics, communist and fascist dictatorships and towards
democracy? How were normative synergistic effects brought about, as in Austria?
What instruments were available for regulating normative convergences and
divergences? Which mechanisms were activated for justifying the state-theoretical
principles of Catholicism? The goal is a comprehensive, international comparative
examination of the relationship between church and state in the modern period from
the perspective of the Roman ministry.

A 2.3 Requested Funding


Not applicable here, see 3 below.




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Research Area B: Staging

Coordinator:
Prof. Dr. phil. Althoff, Gerd, 09/07/1943

Historisches Seminar
Domplatz 20-22
48143 Münster


Phone: +49 (251) 83-24341
Fax:    +49 (251) 83-24332
E-Mail: althofg@uni-muenster.de

Responsible Investigators
Gerd Althoff, Medieval History; Arnold Angenendt, Medieval and Modern Church
History; Alexander Arweiler, Classical Philology; Helene Basu, Ethnology (Social
Anthropology); Thomas Bauer, Arabic and Islamic Studies; Katrin Bourree, Medieval
History; Werner Freitag, Comparative Regional History; Jürgen Heidrich,
Musicology; Dominik Höink, Musicology; Martin Kintzinger, Medieval History; Achim
Lichtenberger, Classical Archaeology; Christel Meier-Staubach, Medieval and
Modern Latin Philology; Ruth-Elisabeth Mohrmann, European Ethnology; Gabriele
Müller-Oberhäuser, English Philology/History of the Book; H.-Helge Nieswandt,
Classical Archaeology; Joachim Poeschke, Art History; Dieter Salzmann, Classical
Archaeology; Hans-Georg Soeffner, Sociology; Barbara Stollberg-Rilinger, Early
Modern History; Hans-Ulrich Thamer, Modern History; Martina Wagner-Egelhaaf,
Modern German Literature; Günther Wassilowsky, Medieval and Modern Church
History; Hubert Wolf, Medieval and Modern Church History; Lukas Wolfinger,
Medieval History.

B 2.1 Summary
   The metaphor of staging, borrowed from theatre, is a key concept in cultural
studies, referring to a mode of acting with demonstrative emphasis and denoting a
planned and publicly visible performance by actors before spectators (ceremonies,
rituals, music, drama, etc.). Acts of staging have a symbolic character in that they point
beyond themselves and evoke messages. In this it is particularly difficult to
differentiate between sacral and secular forms. Research area B will inquire into the
manifestations and specific potency of such acts of staging for the political, social and
religious system from antiquity to the present. Guiding the research is the thesis that in
the upheaval of modernity acts of staging forfeited or at least transformed their effect
of bringing about commitment. The way cultic-sacral practices of staging were
transferred into secular contexts shall be investigated, as shall the converse, how for
example religious communities today make use of mass media forms of staging. – In a
figurative sense works of visual art, artefacts such as coins and above all texts can
also be considered media of staging. Particular interest shall be directed here to the
staging of literary authorship: it shall be asked how authors from antiquity to the


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present staged themselves or were staged as political and religious authorities, for
example as pagan seers, Christian visionaries, or martyrs.

B 2.2 Description
     We are living today in a “society of staging” (Herbert Willems), whose dynamic
overburdens many people and whose power of suggestion arouses a diffuse distrust.
But it is fundamentally uncertain whether it is at all possible to circumvent public
staging or if it is not rather the case that staging is constitutive of political space, and
possibly also religious. A comparison of pre-modern and modern acts of staging
promises clarification; a first glance reveals many common features, but upon closer
examination these can be seen to fulfil very different functions. Explaining this
phenomenon and using it to deepen our understanding of political and religious
staging, its general circumstances, possibilities and limits is the goal this project will
pursue.
     The fact that the modern world cannot exist without symbolisation and staging, the
fact that they survive every media revolution and are even strengthened as a result
has meanwhile become a commonplace of research. The current self-image of the
modern world, which assumes that the path from “mythos to logos” (Hans
Blumenberg) is characterised by an increase in abstract rationality and discursive
reflection and a loss of symbolic communication forms, has in the meantime been
permanently challenged. And this has awakened a new interest in investigating pre-
modern and modern symbolic practices. It seems to be of paramount importance to
focus – by means of a comparative investigation through different historical periods –
on the changing function of these manifestations on the path to modernity. But the
process as such has not yet been described and its causes are unknown. With full
understanding that the term staging is used differently in the various participating
departments, what would be investigated as “acts of staging” in the strict sense are
those symbolic acts that are demonstratively carried out for the sake of a specific
effect. This mostly occurs with the suggestion of spontaneous authenticity even when
it has in fact been planned and agreed upon by the actors. The performative character
is carefully hidden at all times. For this reason it is also of interest to examine when
and why fictions of spontaneity, which acts of staging are, were seen pejoratively.
     But the demand for a renunciation of all forms of staging in the name of inwardness
and authenticity, which has been made time and again in various historical periods –
thus a renunciation of rhetorical brilliance, of dramatic intensity of gesture and mien, of
publicly effective intensification and accentuation, of the use of suggestive
figurativeness, of deciding on the matter beforehand, etc. – seems contrary to all
habits of human communication. In any case this demand was never truly effective.


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Especially in religion and politics, acts of staging seem to yield results for people in
various epochs and cultures that makes them indispensable means of communication.
   In comparing the pre-modern and the modern, the question arises of what effects
acts of staging achieve. Pre-modern societies established a large part of their order
through acts of staging. The publicly displayed behaviour entailed an obligation for the
future. Whether this character of obligation has vanished completely from modern acts
of staging needs to be examined more closely. In this, the question of when and by
what means this obligatory character has faded and what has replaced it in its function
of establishing order promises insights into the process of the separation of religion,
politics and law from each other.
   In our cluster, the unique character of acts of staging shall first be thematised in the
longue durée and with respect to various contents. In Greco-Roman antiquity the
indispensable and indissoluble connection between public (that is political) and
religious spheres shaped the prerequisites and conditions for political action, which
was always characterised by appropriate acts of staging. Cult practice and religious
rituals were media of political staging. A central actor on both stages was the
community of citizens acting as a collective unit, which in contrast to the (sole,
autocratic) ruler and his religious staging in politicis, has until now been much less the
subject of intensive ancient historical research (see project drafts B1 Salzmann;
D3 Hahn; C2 Funke).
   Due to the diachronic continuity of this form of political organisation – with a
simultaneous discontinuity in the world of religious ideas through the rise of Christianity
– the analysis of communal rituals offers a promising access to the theme of politically
motivated acts of staging in the religious sphere and vice versa. An outstanding
example of religious staging in the public sphere, for example, can be seen in the
procession, which under polytheistic auspices led to communal sacrifice and in
Christian garb lived on as the translation of martyrs’ relics or as episcopal Adventus.
For the active participants as well as the spectators, non-Christian and Christian
processions alike conveyed – in quite diverse ways – an image of the social and
political order of the ceremonial participants and thus produced social meaning (see
B4 Freitag). This surprising continuity in the longue dureé, which mutatis mutandis
reaches into the present, opens up the possibility of comparatively working out the
discontinuities and differences between the practice of staging among ancient-
polytheistic and Christian-monotheistic communities of citizens. For antiquity it will also
be necessary to thematise the question of how, after the turning point of Constantine,
the Christian church used the Roman state and rulership ceremonial as a model for its
sacral and liturgical ceremonies.



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     A large number of projects that originated in CRC 496 serve for the pre-modernity
of the Middle Ages and early modern period as a differentiated starting point against
which modern events in the area of staging can be compared. The pre-modern order
established and consolidated itself namely primarily by means of symbolisation and
acts of staging. In the centuries in question a high culture of demonstrative-symbolic
actions can thus be observed, while the political sphere was in large part pervaded by
forms of religious-ecclesiastical origin. Characteristic is additionally the technique of
discussing and agreeing upon the symbolic ritual actions in advance, and then
“performing” them as if they were spontaneous occurrences (B3, Althoff/Wolfinger).
There was for example a large repertoire of types of behaviour intended to establish
trust, in which peaceable intentions, friendship, favour, and familiaritas were given
obligatory expression. This was also true of a repertoire of differentiated symbolic acts
that bindingly symbolised subordination, loyalty, readiness to serve and submission.
These forms were repeatedly culled from liturgical or para-liturgical contexts. Just as
the Christian church had appropriated the Roman ceremonial of secular rule as the
model for sacral ceremonies, these in turn shaped political forms in the Middle Ages
and the early modern period. In this, social reality manifests itself as a network of
reciprocal symbolic legitimacy claims and repudiations; this is most clearly
comprehensible in the case of conflicts (B2 Bourree).
     A serious caesura in the area to be treated here is represented by the French
Revolution, in which a society whose self-understanding and political culture was
based on its separation and distinction into various ranks attempted to transform itself
into an egalitarian society. This meant a break with the old acts of staging, but the new
situation created an even greater need for new kinds of acts of staging that could lend
expression to the new order. In this the traditional language of forms shaped by
Christianity was frequently called to service and in the course of the revolution
secularised and supplemented by elements of a genuine revolutionary tradition. If
Mass was still being celebrated in 1790 on the first anniversary of Bastille Day, in later
ceremonies the altar served exclusively the fatherland – for the presentation of the
constitution or other “holy objects” of the new regime, such as, for example, allegorical
personifications of freedom, equality or peace. It is possible to observe similar
occurrences in the nineteenth century in both restoration movements and regimes as
in such revolutionary-Jacobin traditions.
     It is obvious that even today a great number of such symbolic assurances still
exist, ranging from “high” politics to everyday interactions. Totalitarian regimes of the
twentieth century granted symbolisation and staging just as much importance as
democratically elected presidents of a world power such as the USA do even today.



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The Catholic Church as well as Islamic cultures are virtuosos in using the power of
symbols and rituals for their respective goals. The recipients regard this with
ambivalence: on the one hand they willingly let themselves be affectively
overwhelmed, on the other they are incensed when the “suspicion of staging” becomes
too apparent in the public acts of politicians.
   Previous research has done only partial justice to these phenomena. Elements
similar to religion in the dictatorships of the twentieth century have repeatedly led to
the temptation to use the concept of “political religion” to grasp their structural
similarities. This has been done predominantly under the auspice of the theory of
totalitarianism and this approach has then been coupled with the question of the
utopian content of dictatorships in the years between the two world wars. Such a
systematisation is generally based on a description of specific forms of staging and
techniques of ruling that are marked by a recourse to religious uses of language and
ideas, and symbolic actions such as the sanctification of persons and places. There
seems to be a general consensus that a pure this-worldliness and exclusive claim to
validity are the characteristic features of the new political doctrine of salvation that
locates “the divine not in a transcendental principle of the world, but rather in single
contents of the world” (Hans Maier). But a systematic description of the various quasi-
religious elements in a comparison of dictatorships or dictatorship movements is still
lacking; the usefulness of the concept of political religion as applied to democratic,
non-totalitarian systems in the twentieth century is still unclear; and the concept of
religion at its foundation seems to be relatively undifferentiated. In contrast, the
interpretive approach of a “secular religious history” seems to be more promising. This
approach attempts to understand the genesis and historical development of the
modern world – from the time of the French Revolution to the political mass
movements of the twentieth century – as a phenomenon arising from the embracing of
secular beliefs, which becomes most relevant during crises of upheaval and
modernisation (B6 Thamer).
   The question of the function of political-religious staging can also be profitably
posed in respect to modern national and supranational communities. On the one hand,
the failure of the EU constitutional contract has shown how much difficulty this union
has had with common political acts of staging. On the other hand, the last change of
pontificate has clearly shown the astonishing appeal of “hybrid” religious-political acts
of staging (B7 Wassilowsky). The analysis of phenomena such as these can be
sharpened by a comparison with pre-modern acts of staging: How do sacral and
worldly acts of staging in different periods of time reciprocally borrow from each other’s
symbolic repertoires and what are the consequences of this? How and by what means



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does the legitimacy claim of political and religious acts of staging change from the
Middle Ages to the modern period? What causes their continuous attractiveness and
effectiveness in the domains of politics and religion? How can this be reconciled with
the finding that within the framework of the modern state, the function of creating order
by means of acts of staging seems to have receded into the background; and that in
the domain of religion the Reformation programmatically proclaimed the unimportance
of outward forms only to use them even more forcefully in its practice of securing
identity and creating self-assurance, for example, in ceremonies commemorating
Luther or the Reformation. And finally, what role have the various media revolutions
played?
     Works of visual art, artefacts, music, and above all literary texts can also be
understood as acts of staging, broadly conceived. The question of the history of
political and religious acts of staging thus also demands the abilities of literary studies
scholars and art historians. It is well known that over and against the dominant social
powers of politics and religion, but also the sciences, art and literature constitute
society’s own system of self-observation and self-assurance; they accompany the
political, religious, and other types of organisations, analyse and comment upon them,
criticise them and confront them with alternatives. Their representatives function as an
agency that – with its own specific symbolic forms and media, its historically developed
repertoire of modes of articulation – takes a stance upon the respective contemporary
society in which it is itself integrated (B5 Höink).
     In the pre-modern age it is typical author roles like that of the mytho-poet or the
poet-prophet – which, with a special, even religious or quasi-religious, authorised
competence – laid claim to possessing the evaluative judgment of a “literary control
institution” (B9 Meier-Staubach). Even in the modern period and to the present day
artists avail themselves of this “office” of advisor, warner, and critic in their own
symbolic medium (B10 Wagner-Egelhaaf). A comparative investigation of the agency
of literature with its media at the moments in time when its functions within the political-
religious play of forces are particularly prominent – that is, in antiquity (especially in the
Augustan age, B8 Arweiler), in the High Middle Ages, in humanism, and in the modern
period – is a worthwhile and topical task: This is true also with respect to analogous
agencies in the contemporary media society.
     The question is: What exactly does it look like, this interconnection of politics and
religion with and in the authors and artists of the various eras up until the classical
modern, in which it is still a typically important component? How do politics and religion
assure themselves with regard to this agency? How do they react to criticism by artistic
symbolic constructs, which stage themselves as such but also refer beyond



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themselves to the practical experiences of life? What forms of alternative, for example
those of a utopian nature, confront the actual respective political-social realities? What
role is played by the religions of art propagated in the classical modern period? What
reflexive references and what transformations do they document with respect to the
pre-modern mythic-ancient and mystic-religious traditions? What is the meaning of the
present re-politicising of literature and art, which also implies a return of the religious
and/or the metaphysical? What relationship do artistic acts of staging have to more
properly political ones in the pre-modern and early modern periods?
   If literature and art are valued as autonomous media and the authors and artists as
independent social agencies in connection with politics and religion, and if they
themselves frame their commentaries in symbolic conceptions – and there is no doubt
about reactions (and repressions) – then they are simultaneously not only an indicator
but also an important factor in the changing of society’s conception of values.

Selected Project Drafts to Research Area B
(B1) Religion and Politics in the Oldest Mass Medium of Humanity: Royal Coin
     Portraits from the Iberian Penninsula to the Hindu Kush
Prof. Dr. Dieter Salzmann / Dr. Achim Lichtenberger / Dr. H.-Helge Nieswandt, all:
Classical Archaeology and Early Christian Archaeology / Archaeological Museum
   The goal of the project is to work out the forms and structures of the staging of
politics and religion on the coins of Hellenistic rulers. This raises the question of the
unity and diversification of religious and political identity in the images and their role
and structural function of collective integration in maintaining and stabilising the ruler’s
power; it is thus a question of the communication between the ruler and his subjects
through the mass medium of coins.
   The scientific value of coins as sources in the study of the ancient world has
always been underestimated, although coins are mankind’s first mass medium and the
only kind of ancient source that has come down to us with an almost complete
inventory of types. In addition they represent primary sources of state representation.
The image on the coin is public and presupposes a large audience for whom it is
intended.
   Based on the official coins of fifteen rival dynasties of the Hellenistic Mediterranean
(4-3th centuries BC) that were in communication with each other – from the Iberian
peninsula to the Hindu Kush – the project shall compile the structural similarities and
distinctions in the images’ staging of the ruler and the gods. The images on the
Hellenistic royal coins offer great potential for comparative findings on the question of
religion and politics in pre-modern cultures. The paradigm shift that began with
Hellenism (“the omniscience of the image of the ruler”, “the sacralisation of the image


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of the ruler”) has been passed along into the modern era. This kind of description of
the origin, form, and transformation of the image of the ruler and the gods in Hellenistic
coin minting has never been undertaken.

(B2) The Enforcement and Consolidation of Rule by Late Medieval Princes at the
      Intersection of Religion and Politics
Katrin Bourree M.A., Medieval History
     The religious staging of late medieval princes as Christian rulers and the
representation of their rule as a demonstration of divine benevolence correspond to
the pre-modern practice of legitimising rule and – in contrast to the ostensibly
secularised societies of the present day – appear to be basic prerequisites to
sovereign action. If one investigates the degree of instrumentalisation of religion for the
purpose of enforcing and consolidating rule by the princes, it remains to ask whether
the frequently cited opposition between “private piety” and “state piety” (Machilek) can
be maintained. For, the question of what kind of religious practices and forms of
organisation can have a socially integrating function even across political diversity
could usefully annul this opposition.
     For the practice of rulership by Frederich II (1440 to 1470) it can be remarked that
religious activities were especially central during a time in which the Hohenzollerns
were still in the process of establishing themselves in the Margraviate of Brandenburg.
Thus as one of his first acts in office he founded a courtly order aimed at the nobles of
the Margraviate. The founding of a Marian brotherhood in Berlin aimed at the urban
middle class followed a few years later. In addition to the contribution of these two
religious societies for the integration of Frederich II’s rule in the Margraviate, various
aspects of sovereign church rule – generally assumed to have an instrumental
character – must be reassessed from the viewpoint of symbolic staging. To the degree
that the elector took church law upon himself – the relocation, for example, of a heresy
trial to his Berlin castle in 1458 that he presided over himself or his involvement in the
dispute over the Miraculous Blood of Wilsnack – he demonstrated his spiritual and
worldly responsibility to his rule and his subjects. Religious staging as a means of
solidifying the political claims of the electors did not only contribute to the consolidation
of social and political organisation in the Margraviate, but was also relevant on the
level of imperial politics. Through the founding of the first courtly order by an elector,
Frederich II here too set a visible sign of his political claims. In the imperial system,
which was re-staged time and again at court and imperial diets, he now appeared as
the sovereign of an order and as the member of a dynasty that only recently shared
the status of prince of the empire. The staged presentation of the imperial rose by the




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pope ultimately elevated him from among the faithful onto the international stage as a
Christian ruler and symbolically underlined the proximity of pope and elector.

(B3) Staged Voluntariness: On the Erection of Facades of Political Consent in
     the Ninth and Tenth Centuries
Prof. Dr. Gerd Althoff / Lukas Wolfinger M.A., Medieval History
   One of the characteristics of the communication of medieval ruling classes was
that in public, the rank and honour of the participants was strongly emphasised, while
compulsion and heteronomy were concealed as much as possible. Voluntary
submission was always better than coerced submission, voluntary help more
honourable than demanded service, gifts were more acceptable than tributes, because
in this way the honour of the persons in question was taken into consideration. One
can speak of a culture of staged voluntariness, which characterised public
communication and already in medieval courtly critique was stigmatised as a sign of
decadence and dishonesty. The public expression or performance of confessions of
guilt and admissions of wrongdoing seems particularly and strikingly alien.
   For the Middle Ages, it must be clarified to what extent the model of the sinner,
who repents and is prepared to perform penance, helped bring this kind of staged self-
accusation into being. Relevant cases in the form of a churchly penitential ritual are not
seldom in the extant sources, and even include the emperor. On the other hand it
should not be overlooked that this model of a change of heart was used not only in the
case of sinful behaviour, but also in political disagreements, in order to stabilise or re-
establish the existing order. And finally there was a distinct culture of saving the face
and preserving the honour of the other party; this could be done by keeping open the
possibility of voluntarily doing or allowing something that otherwise would be
demanded with coercion. Even kings were allowed the pose of the magnanimous
benefactor, even when the humble requests were in reality demands that left him no
choice. This reality appears with special frequency behind the set phrases of royal
documents.
   In the intended project the problem area, relevant for the entire Middle Ages, will
be investigated in a case study in which the Carolingian and Ottonian periods will be
compared. In the conflicts over an appropriate sharing of power the fictions of
voluntariness seem to have their origin in rituals that established obligation. It will be
necessary to work out the ambivalence of relevant acts of staging that were suitable
both for being used by the king as instruments of power for disciplining the nobles and
as means of restricting the ruler’s license and committing him to take noble or churchly
interests into consideration without a loss of face.




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(B4) Blessings for the Mighty: The Legitimacy and Legitimising of Political
      Rulership in Late Medieval and Modern City Processions
Prof. Dr. Werner Freitag, Comparative Regional History (in cooperation with the
Institute for Comparative Urban History)
     The fact that rogation, corpus christi and saints’ processions procured God’s
blessing or the help of the saints for councillors, princes, and statesmen belongs to the
general knowledge of historical research. Urban and national leadership elite situated
themselves near the altar sacraments and, dressed in ceremonial clothing, carried
baldachins, images, and reliquary shrines. Period-specific case studies thematise the
reflection of late medieval urban society (Löther, Trexler), the relative importance of
processions in the Reformation (Scribner), the enforcement of the early modern
confessional state (Châtellier, Freitag), the preservation of Catholic identity during the
Kulturkampf, and the resistance against an inhuman national socialist ideology that
was given expression in the form of processions (Freitag, Stambolis).
     In accordance with the considerations of the cluster of excellence, these isolated
approaches shall be abandoned in order to show longitudinally how political order was
created in religious rituals, and to show how, through the aura of the divine, urban
representatives laid claim to legitimacy and won it in the eyes of the faithful, even in
competition with national rulers. The period under consideration begins around 1400,
when, in the wake of urban conflicts, the patrician councillorship was questioned by the
guilds, and ends in the 1960s–1970s, as political representatives increasingly
dispensed with nearness to the real presence of the son of God and the saints.
     As a preliminary consideration, it is possible to assert that the symbolic
representation of the religious system of order changed more slowly than did the rules
of politics. This statement is of course true only of Catholicism. For this reason the
consideration of the nature of processions during the urban Reformation and the
survival of processions should be investigated in bi-confessional cities of the early
modern period. For the modern period, of interest is the nature of processions in
industrial cities, in order to illuminate various legitimizing strategies against the
background of religious plurality. As a working hypothesis, it shall be assumed that the
polity of the late medieval city initially defined itself as a sacral community. The rise of
different ideas of political order, for example that of the autonomous city in competition
with the early modern princely city aimed at mediatisation, and thus the concept of
communal self-administration in competition with the “semi-feudal” (Wehler) German
empire (1870-1918), led to coexisting claims of political justification. Together or in
conflict, national and urban representatives sought their place in proximity to the
divine, but could also avoid it when Catholicism was counted among the “internal



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enemies of the empire” (1871 to around 1900) or, as from 1933 to 1945, was politically
marginalised or even persecuted. The participation in processions developed into a
form of demonstration against the concepts of political order of the time.


(B5) Political-National Material in a Spiritual-Religious Form – Oratorio
      Composition in the Nineteenth Century as an Example of a German
      “National Religion of Art”
Dominik Höink M.A., Musicology
   It is not only the stylisation of Richard Wagner into a savior figure, not only the
labelling of the Bayreuth festival as a cult and the festival house as the “temple of a
pseudo-religion” (F. Spotts) that manifest the close affinity of the religious and the
artistic-musical during certain times within intellectual history. Already Friedrich
Schleiermacher had coined the term “religion of art” (“Kunstreligion”), which had been
filled with content especially through the “Herzensergießungen eines kunstliebenden
Klosterbruders” (W. H. Wackenroder; L. Tieck). He mirrored the romantic intention of
being able to experience a higher reality through art, even of abolishing the substance
of the religious by means of art. In the nineteenth century this idea of an artistic
pseudo-religion was linked to the “German mythology” created in the wake of the
search for national identity and thus became elevated to a “national religion of art”
(“Nationale Kunstreligion”) (W.-D. Hartwich).
   On the background of this artistic-religious paradigm, in the second half of the
nineteenth century numerous oratorios were composed with mythological and
historical subjects from the Germanic and Scandinavian cultural regions. Particularly in
the wake of the founding of the German Empire in 1871 this development was
accompanied by the increased founding of oratorio societies, which made evident the
political significance of such “worldly oratories” (“weltliche Oratorien”); this even
reached the point of a Culture-Protestantism (Kulturprotestantismus) aimed at the
connection between “throne and altar”. This repertoire, which has not yet been made
accessible in its entirety, and of which only Max Bruch’s Arminius of 1875 shall be
named here as an example, forms the subject of the project. Firstly, how was the
interlacing of national-political material with the idea of a “holy musical art” (“Heilige
Tonkunst”) achieved on the level of a genuinely spiritual-religious genre, beyond the
great musical-dramatic works? The examination of the respective institutional-historical
bonds (courtly, churchly, bourgeois) and the performative-practical context offer,
secondly, a point of departure for determining the political function of these kinds of
staging more precisely. Thirdly, how, for example, in August Reißmann’s virtually
martial Boniface Oratorio is violence (the third pillar of the cluster) politically



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functionalised in the framework of its specific staging? In a further step the reception
history of the compositions is to be illuminated longitudinally, in which the investigation
of the structure of political reception in the totalitarian system of National Socialism –
comparable to the ideological instrumentalisation of Richard Wagner – forms the focal
point.


(B6) Utopia, Political Religion and Violence in the Twentieth Century
Prof. Dr. Hans-Ulrich Thamer, Modern History
     In the twentieth century utopian thinking and pseudo-religious expectations of
salvation have often been connected with the political violence of radical political mass
movements. This is true above all of Bolshevism and National Socialism, but also of
neo-Marxist movements in the second half of the twentieth century. The design of a
“counter-image of a purified world” along with the “use of a vocabulary of salvation”
(Fest) and the idea of a new man have been considered the central contents of the
utopian consciousness. The tension between a utopian vision of the future and a
depraved present filled with crises leads, according to this interpretation, to an
increased readiness for violence.
     Using the example of the 1968 movement, which is seen as an international
phenomenon and a significant manifestation of a social movement, the central
elements of a utopian consciousness will be initially elaborated in a multi-levelled,
comparative and analytical process. This utopian consciousness shall be examined
with respect to its religious tendencies as well as its function as critique of the present
and draft of a vision for the future. Next, the intellectual spokesmen and supporters
(including theologians and priests) of the developing social movement shall be
established and the forms of interpretation, action, and mobilisation deriving from the
utopian visions of a non-alienated and non-authoritarian society – up to the rise of
militant activism – shall be investigated. The fields to be investigated will be the
movements of the New Left in France, Germany, and Italy with a view to the various
political cultures including the different meanings attached to the churches and
confessions.
     The goal of the research is to develop a selective concept of “political religion” by
means of a cross-cultural comparison and to determine the significance of the various
quasi-religious forms of representation and “the adoption of a secular faith” (Küenzlen)
for the development of radical patterns of interpretation and action.
     Further, it will be necessary to observe the motives and causes of political violence
– in its instrumental and communicative form – as well as the ways it functions to form
community, and examine its connections to the (self-) sacralisation of political leaders



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and actors and to the aesthetic dimensions and ritualisation of the representation of
violence. It will also be important to consider the ways in which the latter have
contributed to strengthening the dimensions of faith and the expectations of salvation,
but also to integration within the social movement.


(B7) Images and Messages – John Paul II as Global Symbolic Event
Dr. Günther Wassilowsky, Medieval and Modern Church History
   The power of social integration that public acts of staging can develop – by means
of which a pre-modern symbolic repertoire is transferred almost intact into the post-
secular modern world – was made clear by the course of events of April 2005 in
Rome. But the public death of John Paul II and the subsequent sede vacante
ceremonies were only the consequential final act of a pontificate that, in terms of the
theory of staging, is illuminating to a very high degree. The fact that this pope moved
such masses of people, even though many disagreed with him on the issues, must be
explicable by the virtuoso deployment of symbolic gestures and images conveyed by
the media. His role in the erosion of the communist block or the high regard in which
he was held by Islamic religious leaders are only two examples of the fact that the
effects of such papal acts of staging far transcended the internal church and religious
spheres.
   In single events from Karol Wojtyla’s seventeen-year term of office (the visit to the
wailing wall in Jerusalem, the World Day of Prayer for Peace in Assisi, youth events,
millennium festivities, the last Angelus prayer, his burial, etc.) it will be necessary to
investigate the spectrum of ways in which these events were endowed with meanings,
especially those capable of giving rise to religious symbols in the modern period. By
drawing upon global reporting in the various visual and print media, interpretations of
these symbolic acts of staging must be analysed in the light of the question to what
degree the content of this pope’s statements effectively placed any kind of precedent
upon the interpretation of the image (for example the religious theology of the
encyclical Dominus Iesus on the interpretation of the symbolism of “Jerusalem” and
“Assisi”); was there a conscious distinction drawn between visual and discursive
messages; and finally, in terms of an appraisal of the individual events and the
pontificate as a whole, did the image dominate discourse or did discourse dominate
the interpretation of the image? An analysis of this kind promises not only to cast light
upon the change in the politics of papal symbols in an era of global media, but also
upon the transformation of religiosity in post-secular modernity.




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(B8) The Staging of Political Authorship in the Augustan Age
Prof. Dr. Alexander Arweiler, Classical Philology
     The transformation of the concept of authorship in late republican and Augustan
literature, which discusses Rome’s political and cultic reforms, is the subject to be
investigated.
     Characteristic of Augustan literature is, on the one hand, its attentiveness to
questions of the relationship between politics and cult, which was determined by the
Principate’s striving for reform and the central position of techniques of staging power.
On the other hand, as seers (vates), the poets laid claim to an autonomous legitimacy
in competition with cultic and magistral institutions; this legitimacy allowed them to
define past and future in respect to the present and was supposed to secure them
recognition as public agencies.
     Myth exegesis – in its correspondence to or divergence from politically motivated
interpretation – and commentary upon the cultic constitution of the contemporary
Roman world is found in various genres and will be examined with respect to the
changed self-image of the author. Complementary to each other will be an
investigation of prose authors who subject the political and cultic topics to Hellenistic
concepts of science (the writing of history, scholarly specialised writing), and the
analysis of various texts (prose/poetry) as witnesses to a contest full of tension
between literature and politics over the sovereignty of interpretation. Primary questions
concern the models of actual or ideal relations between politics, cult, and literature
drafted especially by the poets as commentators on Augustan religious politics, and
the meaning they apportion to the self-staging of political instance as reformers of the
cult in Rome (for example, Horace and the elegy of love).
     Of special interest for this investigation of literary discourse in a time of cultural
transformation will be the question of how the new concepts of authorship and
Principate affected the role of the recipient in the process of literary self-understanding.
This is also true of the question of which processes of increasing or decreasing
relevance for the reader’s collaboration in the writings become manifest (for example
in the development of genres up to normative modes of speech in which the rhetorical
Trias of communication can be unilaterally weakened).
     Authorship and the staging of authorship in non-literary contexts thus turns out to
be a paradigmatic concept for the determination of relations between the various
cultural fields (literature, politics, religion) from the late republican period to the early
imperial era, allowing us to trace the transformations of Roman culture within changes
in the self-perception and self-image of authors, whose self-authorisation imitates the




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model of concentration of power in the Princeps just as much as it questions the
justification of this model.

(B9) The Agency of the Author and the Staging of Authorship in the High Middle
      Ages and Renaissance
Prof. Dr. Christel Meier-Staubach, Medieval and Modern Latin Philology
    For the pre-modern period, there exists only sporadic research on the author as a
public agency in maintaining, stabilising, and expressing or in challenging and
transforming the political and religious order. Comparative studies of the forms,
conditions, and consequences of such authorship are a desideratum whose fulfillment
can lead to fundamental insights into the functions of literary production in pre-modern
societies and is thus also suitable for comparison with modern and non-European
cultures (see Thomas Bauer on panegyric poetry in Arabian countries and Martina
Wagner-Egelhaaf on the modern).
    Already in the Carolingian period the poet appeared before the public with literary
productions containing political and religious programmes. His function would become
more differentiated in the controversial and public discourse on religion and politics in
the twelfth century when – in panegyric, satire, and literary sketches – he takes a
position and meddles in current questions of imperium and ecclesia. Such authors
respectively choose their genre with the specific mode of speech traditionally reserved
for it (epic, lyric, vision in verse and prose, didactic poem, letter, dialogue, drama) in
order to adapt it to their intentions and to effectively stage their vote in a reflected and
specifically profiled authorship. An interesting corpus of texts of this kind is, for
example, Hildegard of Bingen’s visionary correspondence (around 300 letters) with
numerous religious and worldly persons of high standing of her time; the critical edition
of this correspondence is just finished, but an analysis is yet to be done. Upon request
Hildegard gives her visionary advice to popes, the emperor, kings and queens,
prelates and masters, priests, monks, and nuns as well as members of the laity of
various social positions from Northern Denmark to Italy, and from Western France to
Prague. After being approved as an author at the Synod of Trier in 1147–48, in the
course of a few years she thus became a respected official agency – as a woman! The
specific achievements of the agency of public authorship shall be described in
comparative studies with various other literary forms and models of authorship for the
first time.
     In a second step corresponding forms of humanistic authorship for the ruler from
the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries (lyric, epic, novels, hybrid forms such as homage
plays, among others) shall be analysed in comparison. The flourishing theatre in the
Confessional Age proves to be both the most significant literary and multi-media


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institution for the formation of public opinion: an early “mass media” for the – literally –
staged discussion of societal values concerning politics and religion, about whose
intentions many prologues also provide quite definitive information.

(B10) Authorship as Scandal: Strategies of Staging, Political and Religious
        Subtexts
Prof. Dr. Martina Wagner-Egelhaaf, Modern German Literature
     The project is devoted to the relationship between present-day politics, religion,
and literature based on the example of literary scandals in whose centre there is
always the person of the author. The death threat of Islamistic fundamentalists against
Salman Rushdie after the publication of The Satanic Verses in 1988 shows – in the
globalised and apparently secularised world – how closely interwoven the political, the
religious, and the literary spheres remain. The project shall be guided by the question
of what role “the author” – who traditionally represented a charismatic, religious and/or
political agent (poeta vates, “Gewissen der Nation” [conscience of a nation]) – plays in
modern and post-modern societies and to what degree the patterns of perception that
have come down to us continue to work implicitly.
     The project shall examine the thesis that in the scandal around an author – even
after the post-modern declaration of the ‘death of the author’ (see Roland Barthes,
Michel Foucault) – the religious potential deposited in the cultural agency of the author,
but as a rule no longer present in modern consciousness, breaks through and plays
out its implicit political virulence. Scandals are (usually quickly passing) disruptions of
the order, in which something is brought to light whose articulation enables the re-
stabilisation of the order. The project shall pursue the question of what kind of
disruptions these are that emerge to the surface in literary scandals and what they
disclose about a society’s political and religious unconscious. In doing so, it must be
borne in mind that the scandal (etymology: “stumbling block” or “trigger of a trap,”
“obstacle on the path”) is originally a figure of religious discourse, which in the Old
Testament designated apostasy or rebellion against God. In the New Testament, the
“stumbling block” becomes the “cornerstone” of faith, the death of Christ on the cross,
which as the skandalon of Christianity annuls the rebellion against God.
     The project shall investigate literary scandals from the end of the1980s onwards. In
addition to a national emphasis devoted to the scandals around Chr. Wolf, M. Walser,
P. Handke and G. Grass among others, along with the ways these were staged in the
media, it will also have an international emphasis in which the discourse of authorship
scandals in their worldwide media reception shall be critically analysed. The fact that
authors are frequently staged or stage themselves as “martyrs” when they stand in the
crossfire of political public opinion demonstrates the persistence of religious imagines


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in the discourse of authorship. The emphasis on the time around the year 2000 shall
be compared with a look at the concepts and functions of authorship around the year
1900, the beginning of classical modernism, which is linked to neo-mystical currents in
literature and art and stages authorship in the patterns of perception based on both, art
and religion.

B 2.3 Requested Funding

Not applicable here, see 3 below.




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Research Area C: Integrative Procedures

Coordinator:
Prof. Dr. phil. Stollberg-Rilinger, Barbara, 17/07/1955

Historisches Seminar
Domplatz 20-22
48143 Münster

Phone: +49 (251) 83-24315
Fax:    +49 (251) 83-24332
E-Mail: stollb@uni-muenster.de

Responsible Investigators
Reinhard Achenbach, Old Testament; Rainer Albertz, Old Testament; Helene Basu,
Ethnology (Social Anthropology); Michael Beintker, Reformist Theology; Antje
Flüchter, Early Modern History; Werner Freitag, Comparative Regional History; Peter
Funke, Ancient History; Karl Gabriel, Christian Social Sciences; Hermann-Josef
Große Kracht, Christian Social Sciences; Thomas Gutmann, Philosophy of Law;
Johannes Hahn, Ancient History; Silke Hensel, History of the Non-European World;
Nils Jansen, Legal History; Hermann Kamp, Medieval History; Clemens Leonhard,
Liturgy Science; Peter Oestmann, Legal History; Ulrich Pfister, Social and Economic
History; Andreas Nikolaus Pietsch, Early Modern History; Klaus Schubert, Political
Science; Thies Schulze, Medieval and Modern Church History; Folker Siegert,
Jewish Studies and New Testament; Sita Steckel, Medieval History; Barbara
Stollberg-Rilinger, Early Modern History; Martina Wagner-Egelhaaf, Modern
German Literature; Christian Walter, Public Law; Ulrich Willems, Political Science;
Jakob Wöhrle, Old Testament.

C 2.1 Summary
   The research perspective in area C addresses, on the one hand, the instrumental
and symbolic procedures and practices with which pre-modern and modern societies
from the Ancient Near East to the present have dealt with religious plurality. Religious
convictions and practices are of fundamental significance to social integration and/or
exclusion; religious plurality is thus a possible factor in conflicts. How can religious
identity be safeguarded in a socially heterogeneous environment? To what extent do
processes of political integration lead to the suppression of religious plurality, to what
extent do they allow it to be maintained? How do procedures allowing the peaceful
coexistence of various religious communities arise and function? On the other hand it
will be asked, vice-versa, to what extent religious practices for their part act to create
unity beyond political and social differences. And third and finally, this area is
concerned with specific problems of integration that arose in Latin Christendom and in
Islam out of the competition or cooperation between worldly and spiritual powers. The
area to be investigated extends from the strategies of integration and distinction of the




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Israelites during the Babylonian exile up to the strategies of modern constitutional law
in dealing with religious minorities.

C 2.2 Description
     Not only the modern period has been confronted with a plurality of mutually-
exclusive systems of religious meanings and norms. Whereas the research area
“Normativity” is concerned with the various ways in which norms are justified and
derive their legitimacy, the research perspective in this area addresses the
instrumental and symbolic procedures and practices used to deal with this plurality in
pre-modern and modern societies. The complex of problems around the themes of
plurality and integration will be discussed from two opposing perspectives: first, it will
be asked how religious plurality can be politically and socially integrated into a society,
and second and conversely, how a shared religion can function to integrate and
establish identity above and beyond political and social diversity. In this context, it will
also be necessary to examine the ever-present reverse side of procedures and
practices of integration, namely mechanisms of exclusion.
     With the introduction of the category of truth in religion, religious plurality becomes
a problem (Jan Assmann). The suppression of religious diversity through use of
physical violence was and is only an extreme case of the ways in which members of
the same or different religions or confessions, each with its claim to the exclusive truth,
relate to each other. The more complex the various forms of economic integration and
political organisation in the past, the more likely it was that religious groups within a
community were able to peacefully coexist. In these cases, either toleration seemed
advantageous or the religious plurality could not be done away with by violence, the
threat of violence or other means of discipline. Plurality became and becomes a
potential problem wherever the respective religious communities collide in their basic
values, forms of representation and daily practices. This can occur in all conceivable
areas, beginning with the structuring of time and space (holidays, daily rhythms, etc.),
through the category of gender (sexual control, purity laws, marriage rules, clothing
rules, etc.), and including ways of dealing with the liminal situations of birth and death.
Collisions in daily activities are facilitated when the members of various religious
groups differ significantly from one another in other ways as well – for example in their
ethnic origin, economic position or social class membership – so that the respective
potentials for conflict mutually reinforce each other. There is also the additional
problem that in religious plurality means of establishing political bonds and sanctions
such as oath taking, excommunication, sacral ritual, etc., lose their effectiveness and
have to be replaced by others.




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   From a historical perspective various ways of dealing with religious plurality can be
reconstructed: from more or less violent strategies of homogenisation, on the one
hand, which force the members of different faiths to conversion, flight, martyrdom, or
dissimulation (C5 Steckel; C6 Pietsch/Stollberg-Rilinger), up to various modes of
coexistence on the other hand, which can channel the potential for religious conflict in
various ways temporarily or lastingly. The latter can be accomplished by means of the
establishment of corporative special rights for religious minorities or through their
social separation (C12 Basu), the introduction of procedural-technical rules of equality
that permanently fix religious plurality, by trans-religious, theologically-grounded
models of tolerance (C9 Flüchter), or finally by means of the far-reaching exclusion of
the religious sphere from the political-legal constitution of the state, whereby there are
very different models of the constitutional-legal regulation of the relationship between
state and religious communities (C6 Walter).
   The modern West has long laid claim to having finally solved the problem as a
consequence of confessional schism, not, however, without significant birth pains. The
secular state was seen as a truth-neutral agency established above religion and
confessions, which it has made into private matters: religion, that is to say, has
differentiated itself into one among many autonomously functioning systems within
society. But at present, the resistance to, and the limits and consequences of this
process are becoming visible. This is especially true of the confrontation of Western
societies with Islam, which for its part had at its disposal in the pre-modern period its
own specific culture of dealing with religious diversity in a non-restrictive way (see A2
Bauer). Modern religious fundamentalisms, of Christian as well as Islamic and Jewish
provenance, can be seen as defensive reactions to this process of differentiation, and
simultaneously as after-effects of it. In the light of this it thus seems at present of great
importance to look at the historical forms of political coexistence of various religious
groups in pre-modern and modern Jewish, Christian and Islamic cultures in a
comparative light, a task for which the cluster provides optimum conditions.
   The investigation could draw upon the results of recent research into the
coexistence of Muslims, Jews, and Christians in medieval and early modern urban and
rural communities as well as those of research on confessionalisation in early modern
Europe. In the Münster research group the Leibniz project “Pre-Modern Procedures” is
concerned with the question of the relationships between pre-modern forms of political
procedures and religious and social legitimacy claims. It is well known that above all
the Holy Roman Empire since the Reformation was an experimental field for forms of
confessional coexistence on all levels of daily life. By anchoring the peaceful
coexistence and the equality of all confessions in imperial law, politics by no means



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became autonomous in relation to religion; on the contrary all decision-making
procedures were much more permeated with confessional antagonism. Thus all
political questions could also potentially be disputed as religious questions and all
questions of religion were potentially questions of political procedures. For
confessional reasons, in the seventeenth century there were, for example, two
different calendars, all offices were filled doubly, and the principle of majority was
constantly thwarted by divisions in the confessional camp.
     The Holy Roman Empire but also other confessionally mixed European regions
with a complex political structure such as the Swiss confederation or the Netherlands
offer broad illustrative material for the fundamental questions of the connection
between conflict and confession: What were the consequences when political or social
conflict was confessionally coded? How did political decision-making procedures
function when confessional difference was anchored as a formal procedural norm?
What role was played by the relationship between local, territorial and cross-territorial
levels for the emergence, escalation or resolution of confessionally influenced conflicts
(C7 Pfister)?
     The functioning of political procedures of deliberation and decision-making under
the conditions of religiously influenced conflicts is a theme whose topicality is clear. At
the moment the question is urgent in the case of Iraq, where it is a matter of anchoring
a religious equality between Sunnis, Shiites and Kurds in the new constitution and of
how this will function in daily practice. But the problem of religious plurality and formal
procedures is also potent in the Western states at the moment, where ideologically-
religiously grounded conflicts of values (termination of pregnancy, euthanasia, bio-
politics) threaten to push the procedural political decision-making procedures to their
limits (see A3 Gutmann, A4 Willems).
     Another area in which political ways of handling religious plurality in the pre-
modern and modern periods should be viewed comparatively concerns the control of
sexuality and the regulating of gender roles. In most societies gender roles are not
only justified and supported by religious practices and beliefs, but they also
simultaneously serve to emphatically demarcate other social groups (see C3
Leonhard). This can be seen in numerous cultures in the concept of purity; in this
concept religious and sexual norms become one, and at the same time it defines the
boundaries of one’s own culture in relation to all others. This can be seen not only in
the history of the Reformation, which was accompanied by a new definition of gender
roles. At the moment, this context is particularly topical and familiar in various Christian
and Islamic fundamentalisms, for which the purity of the woman simultaneously
embodies the purity of the social group. This makes the question of gender roles and



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their symbolic representation in daily life into the central battlefield of cultural conflicts.
The question of how to deal with these conflicts in the framework of national-
ecclesiastical, educational and integration policies is already the subject of an
interdisciplinary research project at the WWU Münster (Oebbecke/Kalisch) on the
constitutional-legal and theological problems of Islamic religion classes in German
schools. The posing of questions of a historical, cultural-comparative nature should
follow upon this work.
    In the framework of this cluster of excellence, ancient, medieval and early modern
phenomena would be confronted with (post-)modern problems and the historian of the
pre-modern era brought into discussion with scholars of constitutional law, religion and
political science. Guiding questions for the comparison of pre-modern and modern
societies are: How are political and social norms interconnected with religious norms?
And thus how closely is political and social control bound to religious control? How are
social and religious identity bound together with definitions of gender roles? Under
what circumstances is daily social and political cooperation possible even if religious
norms of behaviour, symbolic representations, and values are extremely divergent?
What instrumental procedures and what symbolic practices enable this? What limits
are there to such procedures; under what circumstances do they collapse?
    Religion, however, should not be thematised only as an element of dissociation
that requires political integration, but also conversely as an element that for its part
creates integration over and above political and social plurality. Historical examples of
this extend from the integration of the ancient world of the Greek polis by means of
supra-regional shrines (C2 Funke), via integration of the Jewish Diaspora in the Middle
Ages (C3 Leonhard) and the supra-regional unity of the reformed communities under
conditions of persecution in the early modern period (C6 Stollberg-Rilinger/Pietsch), up
to the religious identity of immigrant groups in the USA and present-day Europe. This
applies as well to current debates about the European Union as a community of values
whose religious roots and ability to be publicly staged can be placed within this
historical context.
    Here it is possible, to give only one example, to build upon historical research into
the ancient world, which, in the framework of Münster’s “Centre for Religion and
Culture of the Eastern Mediterranean”, investigates the formative and integrative
function of religion through the example of supra-regional sanctuaries that transcended
the boundaries of polis and tribe in the world of Greco-Roman city-states. These
sanctuaries are especially well suited as subjects for analysing the importance of
religion with respect to the development and formation of international or federal state-
type organisations in antiquity. What is meant are sanctuaries and their cults whose



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regions of organisation and effectiveness extended far beyond a clearly delimited
landscape or the area of a polis. The Delphic Amphiktyony is undoubtedly the most
well known but by no means the only case of such a cult centre, in which cult
community and political community were woven together as closely as possible. On
the one hand, the cultic concurrence could also contribute to stabilising the respective
political and ethnic identities of the participating communities, and on the other hand,
Amphiktyonies tied to state and tribal groups could generate federal alliances.
     A comparison with pre-modern confederations of states opens new perspectives
on the question of the meaning of religious identity for the stability of supra-nationalist
communities also in the modern period. This is just as true for the reciprocal question
of what kinds of political tensions are caused by divergent basic religious ideas within
the confederations. The question of to what degree the EU is in fact a community of
values was not posed for the first time in debates about EU expansion. Even in its
secularised form, the demand for a European canon of values is essentially based
upon its history having been shaped by Christian (and Jewish) traditions. This is of
course the reason why Turkey’s envisaged entry into the EU became such a political
issue. At the same time the EU seems to have a general difficulty arriving at common
political acts of staging. It has been charged with having a “shortage of myths”, which
is at the same time a symbolisation deficit. On the one hand religious plurality seems
to presuppose the complete ideological neutrality of political procedures of integration.
On the other it must be asked whether it is possible to completely do without religious
or quasi-religious value references in the establishing of supra-regional political
identity. Here the questions of research area C touch upon those of area A, which
thematises the religious grounding of norms, and with area B, which treats the role of
symbolic acts of staging in the pre-modern and modern periods.
     The third subject area that will be addressed from the point of view of integrative
procedures is the relationship of competition to cooperation between spiritual and
worldly powers, a classic thematic area of both traditional constitutional history and
church history. The dualism of two institutional orders – laity and clergy, worldly and
spiritual law, temporalia and spiritualia – as it is well known characterises the history of
pre-modern Latin Europe and belongs to the central subjects of the cluster. Strained
relations between worldly and spiritual power, their complex mutual interpenetration
and instrumentalisation as well as their gradual disentanglement can be precisely
traced in the development of formal procedures. In the light of the competition of the
two powers in the Christian Middle Ages, how did procedures of settling conflict
function between worldly persons and the clergy (C4 Kamp)? What problems of
integration arose from the establishment of new intellectual institutions such as the



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universities and new monastic forms of belief and life, and what procedures were used
in reacting to this new religious plurality (C5 Steckel)? In which ways did spiritual and
worldly law still interpenetrate even in the early modern period (C8 Oestmann)?
Finally: How did the relationship between the Catholic church as a supra-national
organisation and other state and non-state actors take shape under the conditions of
modern secular statehood; how did the pope represent himself as spiritual authority
and at the same time as one sovereign political actor among others (C10 Schulze, C11
Gabriel/Große     Kracht;   see    also   A8    Wolf/Klapczynski,     D10    Hensel,   D9
Wolf/Baxmeyer/Arning)?
   By appointing specialists in Islamic history and Islamic law the cluster will make it
possible to answer these questions no longer from only the limited perspective of
Medieval Latin Christendom and the Christian confessional churches of the early
modern period. Instead it will open up the possibility of comparison to the relationship
between political and spiritual authority in Islamic rule and state organisation.

Selected Project Drafts to Research Area C
(C1) Distinction and Integration in the Foundational Document of Israel
Prof. Dr. Rainer Albertz / Dr. Jakob Wöhrle, Old Testament, Protestant Theological
Faculty
   An essential reason for religiously motivated prejudices and conflicts lies in the
basic function of all religions of distinguishing themselves from other groups and
religions. This distinguishing function is only the reverse side of their central basic
function, achieving the internal integration of a community. Religious distinction is thus
indispensable. But all religions also are faced with the task of developing integrative
procedures that are directed outwardly, and that mitigate the potential for conflict
evoked by the frequently sharp and emotionally loaded drawing of boundaries so that
a peaceful coexistence with other religions is possible.
   The ancient Israelite religion is particularly well-suited for an investigation of the
correlation between religious distinction and integration, because after the loss of
national and territorial unity, on the one hand, Israel found itself compelled to develop
very strict religious mechanisms of delimitation in order to ensure the survival of its
own group, and on the other hand, had to get along with the members of very many
other nations and religions in the Diaspora. Thus the founding document of Israel, the
Pentateuch, dating from the fifth and fourth centuries B.C., shall be investigated with
appropriate literary-historical and theological-historical methods in terms of the
relationship between distinction and integration. This work stands out in its
organisation through a gradual development from universal (Genesis) to particular
traditions (Exodus to Deuteronomy). This has been up to now generally understood


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one-sidedly as a concept of distinction, as if the God Yahweh’s history with humankind
first attained its goal with the election of Israel. But more recent investigations have
revealed that the more universal book of Genesis was only placed before the particular
books relatively late. This means that for the founding document of Israel, a universal
introduction was intentionally created, which located Israel within the world and family
of peoples created by God and integrated other peoples into their own world of
religious symbols. The Pentateuch thus intentionally combines a distinguishing and an
integrative concept; it seeks to secure Israel’s identity and at the same time prevent
the danger of devaluing societies with different religious and cultural orientations.
Research into the origin of this combination and the history of its consequences in
Judaism and Christianity allows important insights to be won for strengthening and
developing integrative procedures in the coexistence of present-day religions.


(C2) Partisan Gods – Competing Gods: The Role of Cults and Shrines in Ancient
      International Treaties
Prof. Dr. Peter Funke, Ancient History
     In thought and action, the world of ancient city-states was unalterably oriented
towards maxims of honour, revenge, and retaliation. International relations were thus
in a permanent state of precariousness. The guarantee of a regulated international
coexistence required the enforcement of behavioural norms that worked towards the
restriction and control of violence. The mutual acceptance of such norms alone was,
as a rule, not sufficient; it was necessary to anchor them in a collective context of
meaning, one that religion and cult could offer especially well, since even within the
conditions of polytheistic societies, religion and cult were indispensable for a recourse
that could justify and secure these norms.
     The planned investigation aims at determining the importance of religion and cult in
securing the acceptance of international agreements. The initial focus will be on the
world of ancient Greek city-states in the Eastern Mediterranean from the Archaic to the
Roman imperial period. The contractual practice is very illuminating here because –
above all when the sphere of the polis religion was exceeded – religious recourse was
tied up in very complex conditions. The Greeks were well aware of their essentially
common religion and knew a pan-Greek pantheon, which was, however, filled with
Gods who were in conflict with one another. The circumstances became even more
complex when, in cases of international agreements, a common frame of reference in
religiosis did not only have to be found within the Greek realm, but also had to be
settled in relation to foreign religions. The point of departure shall be international
treaties which survived in inscriptions or literary texts and whose publication in



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Antiquity was frequently so regulated that these were displayed not only at specific
cultic sites belonging to the respective treaty partners, but also at the great shrines of
“third-party places.” The practice and meaning of these rules will be analysed just as
the treaties’ basic forms of oath and malediction with their respective appeals to the
gods (even in treaties with non-Greek states). Here the problem of exclusion and
inclusion in polytheistic religions also plays an important role as does the question of
mutual tolerance and acceptance. In addition it will be necessary to describe the
instruments used in these treaties in dealing with violence with recourse to cult and
religion (e.g. Asylie, Ekecheiria).


(C3) Initiation – Circumcision – Identity
Prof. Dr. Clemens Leonhard, Liturgy Science, Catholic Theological Faculty
    In the communal life of members of various religions, rituals were developed as
procedures for creating and representing relationships between people and their
religion. They integrate or exclude, mark and celebrate the transgression of
borderlines and point to differences within and without. An outstanding example is
circumcision in Judaism. The rejection of circumcision from the external perspective of
ancient Roman authors as well as in polemical discourses with Christianity – which
recalls the original function of this practice as an important element in the formation of
identity – is indicative of the great significance of this institution. Besides additional
ritual elements of conversion, developed in antiquity, circumcision also represents the
difference between the sexes. Proceeding from a comparison to rituals of initiation and
of group identity formation in antiquity, this study shall go on to describe the forms of
the circumcision ritual in Judaism and its interpretation up to its integration into the
religious service in synagogues in the Middle Ages.
    In accordance with the horizon of questions of research area 3 (Integrative
Procedures) circumcision (together with other ritual elements of the conversion of an
adult) in Judaism is located at the liminal situation of birth or the transgression of a
boundary between religions. It is a prerequisite for participation in rituals of maintaining
identity (the celebration of Passover) and thus a clear sign of (and important
precondition for) group membership. Pagan, Christian, and Jewish texts (and other
forms of documentation) from antiquity shall be investigated for what they reveal about
the form of the ritual and how it was understood both within and outside of the group.
Once circumcision became part of the synagogue’s religious services, liturgical works
can also be included. The goal of the project is understanding circumcision (and the
other ritual elements connected with it) as a method of identity formation and as a
process of delimitation from other religions and thus in comparison to the rituals of



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those traditions (baptism, initiation). It remains to be asked what possibilities existed
for people to locate themselves, in different historical situations, between the
appearance of “Judaism” or “Christianity” from a later perspective (for example the
“God-fearers” of late antiquity). The possibilities inherent in such undefined ways of life
could be taken as an indicator of a society’s openness. In terms of working methods,
the approaches of Jewish Studies shall play the leading role, in order to analyse
rabbinical literature and liturgical evidence from Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages.
The theoretical approaches and methods of ritual studies and liturgical studies shall
also be employed.

(C4) Captured Bishops Between scandalum and Political Business
PD Dr. Hermann Kamp, Medieval History
     Immunities and the Church’s own jurisdiction (privilegium fori) have allowed
bishops to achieve a legally privileged status since the early Middle Ages. After having
risen to the position of political advisors and spiritual princes, these privileges secured
certain special rights for the bishops, especially in respect to the king. Above all the
king could not simply summon them before his court as he could a rebellious duke. But
the boundary thus drawn between worldly and spiritual power was occasionally
transgressed. Bishops were taken into custody, some were put to trial. Because the
violation of privileges very often provoked resistance on the part of the clergy and
since the twelfth century also called the papal curia into action, an arrest very soon
gave rise to a conflict between royal power and the Church. This conflict not only
called into question the limits of a bishop’s political role and the limits of the royal
authority, but also placed the participants before the problem that there was no
procedure recognised by both sides for solving such conflicts.
     Although individual investigations of the extraordinary cases exist (Bernhard
Saisset, Jens Grand), a systematic assessment of these kinds of conflicts does not.
Since they seem to begin appearing from the end of the twelfth century onwards, it
seems that the traditional and repeatedly violated privileges appear to have stood in
the way of the institutionalisation of royal or sovereign power and the attempt to
organise this power over large areas. It shall first be necessary to examine this by
looking at conflicts of this kind over a longer period of time, from around the twelfth to
the fifteenth centuries. In addition an initial inventory will be taken and the body of
source material belonging to the cases under investigation will be established. Based
on these, it will then be possible to question the reasons and justifications, the
condemnations and reactions and to seek to ascertain how the scandalum of the
captured bishop was dealt with in each case and how the conflict might have been
settled. This would create a basis for reconstructing the implicit and explicit discourse


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on the latitude and limits of the bishops’ political activity and consequently on the limits
of royal and princely power with regard to the political situation, as well as a basis for
sketching out and even explaining potential changes in this discourse.


(C5) Heresy and Politics: The Establishment of Norms and Forms of Procedure
     in Large-scale Ecclesiastical Controversies, 12th – 14th Centuries
Dr. des. Sita Steckel, Medieval History
    Between the twelfth and fourteenth centuries, the western Latin church was not
only confronted with the institutionalisation of new forms of scholarly thought in the
universities, but also with new religious movements and the formation of the great
monastic orders. The ensuing institutional and epistemological crises led to large-scale
controversies, in which the newly appearing ways of life and thought were subjected to
a distinction of heretical versus orthodox. In these struggles, established procedures
for finding consensus and various forms of justify norms within the church soon
reached their limits: Conciliar proceedings were heavily subjected to the exertion of
political influence, and discursive scholarly argumentation and charismatic forms of
behaviour increasingly competed with and mutually penetrated one another. With their
balancing of tensions between large and politically influential groups such as monastic
orders and universities, and their sometimes quite innovative procedural approaches,
such large-scale controversies appear as prime examples for the interconnecting of
religion and politics.
    Among the various ecclesiastical controversies of the high and late Middle Ages,
the project singles out large-scale controversies with papal participation, and focuses
on synodal procedures without ignoring the processes of political mobilisation and
theoretical positioning preceding and following them.
    From a comparative and interdisciplinary perspective, the project thus treats, firstly,
the series of heresy trials against (proto-)university scholars and confrontations
between monastic and university groups in twelfth- and thirteenth-century Paris.
Secondly, it focuses on the conflicts between mendicant groups and the official church
conducted throughout Europe in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, eventually
leading to the controversy over apostolic poverty.
    The project aims at a comparative investigation of the relevant series of conciliar
proceedings and the scholarly and political discourses connected to them on the basis
of three guiding questions: 1. The development of forms of conciliar proceedings, for
example the interplay of increasing literacy and scholarly professionalisation with
innovative or traditional rituals of finding consensus. 2. The justification of norms and
competition between systems of norms, for example in the development of textual



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censorship and the representation of personal orthodoxy. 3. Processes of group
formation in the framework of pending heresy trials, especially inter-institutional
mobilisation and opinion formation between scholars, monastic groups and the curial
and ecclesiastical hierarchy.

(C6) Political Office and Religious Dissimulation: Confessional Ambiguity at
      German Princely Courts in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries
Prof. Dr. Barbara Stollberg-Rilinger / Andreas Nikolaus Pietsch, Early Modern History
     The Holy Roman Empire during the early modern period was a virtual laboratory of
religious and political plurality. Previous historical research has primarily described the
process of the reciprocal external delimitation and inner homogenisation of the
confessional churches that went along with territorial state building. In contrast, most
recently it is generally the resistance to, and the fractures and limits of
confessionalisation that are emphasised, situations of “osmosis” within and between
religions (von Greyerz, Kaufmann et al.) that are highlighted. In the meantime the
homogeneous religion seems increasingly like a construct; confessionalism is
described as – frequently quite vacillating and unstable – cultural practice.
     The project will focus on the learned personnel at the European princely courts,
who – due to changes in the politics of princely confession (the conversion of the
dynasty, intensified re-Catholicisation) – were faced with the decision of adapting or
relinquishing their careers. This situation raised the fundamental question for them,
whether external conformity in the practice of a faith could be reconciled with inner
adherence to one’s true religious convictions, in other words, how far confessional
dissimulatio was allowed to go in the case of inner reservatio mentalis. This debate
was not least carried out on the basis of Biblical examples – Nicodemus in the New
Testament, Esther in the Old, etc. – and reflected in many ways literarily. In essence it
concerned the fundamental questions of the relationship between outer practice and
inner faith, cult and dogma, visible and invisible church, body and soul. Opposing
poles marked on the one hand the irenic, pre-confessional, spiritualistic position of
Erasmus, who held all physical reality as being worthy of neglect, and on the other
hand the strict confessionalism of Calvin, who demanded conformity between physical
and spiritual religious conduct. On the basis of selected territories (Upper and Lower
Austria, the Habsburg Netherlands) these scholarly discourses will be investigated in
their concrete confessional and political context, and the question of their
consequences for the history of piety will be raised.




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(C7) The Change in Religious Mentalities and Confessional Conflicts in the
     Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries: A Structural Analysis
Prof. Dr. Ulrich Pfister, Social and Economic History
   Beyond the religious divisions of the early sixteenth century, the practice of faith in
Western Europe underwent a profound transformation between the fifteenth and
seventeenth centuries. With different emphasis in the individual confessions, but
nevertheless with common basic tendencies, the content of faith became based less
and less on actions that created a relationship between this world and the next, and
increasingly on universal content. At the same time this content became logically
systematised and connected with moral demands; in the wake of a “normative
centralizing” (B. Hamm) its inner coherence increased and under the dismantling of
gradualism it led to a stricter external demarcation. In the same step, universalistic
forms of piety freed from social primary groups increased in importance to the
detriment of group-oriented forms of piety.
   Because of the universalistic, socially generalised character of religious practice in
the Confessional Age the contrast between two confessions lent itself to the
transformation of numerous other binary elements of political language. But the
implications of this statement are ambivalent. On the one hand, as a “moralised
universe” (B. Scribner), socially generated confessional knowledge could serve to
integrate large social groups and delineate them from the outside. On the other hand,
the difference between confessions offered a point of contact for countless lines of
binary conflict and could thus have the effect of escalating conflicts. This was
especially true of contexts in which the territorial state was weakly developed and the
competing processes of Church formation had led to the development of different
confessional milieus.
   On this basis it is possible to formulate regional-historical research that
investigates the connection between the implementation of Church reforms, change in
the practice of popular religion, and the development of milieus as well as confessional
conflicts. This research could be sited in confessional border areas and in territories
with weak statehood (for example, North West Germany, South West Germany, the
Swiss confederation), and for comparison, also in the context of the Netherlands,
characterised by voluntary churches. In contrast to the classical concept of
confessionalisation, studies like this promise a clear added value in allowing for the
relationship between state formation and conflict to be made more explicit and placing
the accent on the link between church-political processes on the territorial level and
the culture of popular religion and conflict on the level of the rural inhabitants.




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(C8) Procedures for Enforcing Secular and Church Law in Territories Ruled by
      Members of the Clergy
Prof. Dr. Peter Oestmann, Legal History
     In contrast to modern law, pre-modern law was characterised by a variety that is
almost inconceivable today. Conventional habits existed in combination with the great
tradition of scholarly Roman canonical law as well as with thousands and thousands of
public ordinances released by early modern sovereigns. In terms of the matter of the
law, there was a blurring of law and morality, politics and religion. For enforcing this
variety there arose numerous, at times conflicting, jurisdictions. Their respective
competencies and functions are to a large extent unknown.
     The project poses the question of to what degree the various particulate courts can
be differentiated from each other in terms of their composition, jurisdiction and rules of
procedure. In particular the division between churchly and secular justice – which had
previously been drawn far too strictly – begins to crumble (Wetzstein 2006). It turns
out, for example, that in territories ruled by a member of the clergy, in their position as
princes bishops issued worldly laws that in turn laid down rules for matters of church
jurisdiction. The investigation concentrates on the example of the constitution of the
law courts and procedural law in the Diocese of Paderborn. The contrast between
Catholic sovereigns and Protestant estates and cities, the conversion of a prince
bishop to Protestantism, the planned conversion of the diocese into a secular territory
by one of his successors, and finally the re-Catholicisation offer an ideal historical-
constitutional background for this purpose. The research into early modern jurisdiction
will provide information about pre-modern justice’s dependence upon or autonomy
from political and religious upheavals. The assessment of extant territorial sources
shall be supplemented by an analysis of files from the Imperial Chamber Courts in
conflicts of jurisdiction and courts’ refusal of jurisdiction, which illuminate the particular
problem from the perspective of the empire and at times deliver a supreme court
decision.

(C9) Akbar and His “Divine Faith” – A Method of Trans-Religious Integration
Dr. Antje Flüchter, Early Modern History
     In early modern Europe confessional heterogeneity posed a central challenge to
the community. With the European expansion, the Europeans encountered world
religions whose extent of religious plurality far exceeded what had been known in
Europe, for example on the Indian subcontinent. The European reaction to this plurality
was initially the more or less violent homogenisation of the territories, later through the
establishment of the state as a neutral higher agency. The Indian Mughal Akbar
(1542–1605) took a different path: He attempted to integrate the various religions of


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his empire (Hinduism, Islam, Christianity, etc.) into a trans-religious divine faith (Din-i
ilahi). To this end he institutionalised discussions in which experts of the various
religions (including Jesuit priests) took part. In this way Akbar staged his religious
openness and his competence as an arbitrator. The latter culminated in an ordinance
that made Akbar the highest decision-making agency on questions of faith. In addition
he placed himself as the sun king at the centre of a cult of the sun. This strategy of
integration stood in contrast to European approaches to resolving conflicts, because in
a situation of religious plurality a religious charismatic figure attempted to use his
position of political power to establish a new syncretism. The question of the European
perception of these attempts at trans-religious integration, their technical procedures,
their symbolic conveyance, and their assessment forms the centre of this project. With
the Jesuit accounts and early English travel accounts, two bodies of source material
are available, which arose within different confessional backgrounds; each thus
recognises a different relationship between politics and religion as legitimate. Akbar’s
concept of religion is also interpreted highly controversially by modern European
historians. This virtually calls for using the history of these versions as a mirror of how
the European assessment of trans-religious integration has changed. This dual
perspective – the contemporary European perception and its transformation in the
scholarly discussion – makes it possible to focus on the fundamental change in
structure of the relationship between politics and religion, as well as the change in how
religious plurality and its integration were evaluated, even beyond the year 1800. This
project is embedded in a research group with Dr. Christoph Dartmann on the theme of
“Religious Charisma and Political Power”.


(C10) Universal Claims and National Identities: The Vatican Stance on Ethnic
       Conflicts in the Period Between the World Wars
Dr. Thies Schulze, Medieval and Modern Church History, Catholic Theological Faculty
   In the period between the two world wars, ethnic conflicts caused not only a
permanent threat to peace among European states. But also for the Roman Catholic
Church, the competing patterns of national identification turned out to be a particularly
difficult problem. In regions like Alsace-Lorraine, South Tyrol or Upper Silesia it had to
have an interest in maintaining a neutral stance so that no doubts about its credibility
as a supranational institution could arise. However, the Church had concluded
concordats in which ethnic conflicts and the rights of minorities had not always been
taken into account. Sources from the Vatican Secret Archives that have been made
accessible in 2006 for the first time provide a possibility for detailed research,
particularly on the internal curial perspective on this topic.



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     The Catholic Church had to deal with very different kinds of ethnic conflicts: the
policy of assimilation pursued by France in Alsace-Lorraine in reaction to the previous
policy of the German Empire, the “Italianisation policy” in South Tyrol, and the partition
of Upper Silesia (1922) were entirely different examples of disregard for the rights of
national minorities. Because of its religious mission the Church could not allow these
problems to go unnoticed. The investigation on the basis of these examples offers a
possibility for comparing the Church’s way of acting in the various regions and for
analysing constants as well as regional peculiarities of its relations to national
minorities.
     The Vatican’s stance on these ethnic conflicts has not yet been the issue of a
coherent research project. How, for example, did the Catholic Church face political
attempts to “nationalise” those sermons that local priests delivered in the “minority
language”? In what ways did concordats limit the Church’s alternatives for acting (or,
on the contrary, provide ammunition for its argumentation)? How did the Church react
to problems that arose, when the boundaries of the dioceses did not correspond with
post-war national borders? Questions like these can now be answered – thanks to
archival materials that have only recently been made available by the Vatican Secret
Archives.


(C11) The Renunciation of Violence in Religious Traditions: Modern Catholicism
       in the Field of Tension between Distinction and Integration
Prof. Dr.Dr. Karl Gabriel / Dr. Hermann-Josef Große Kracht, Christian Social Sciences,
Catholic Theological Faculty
     The secular standard of the modern political world stands in sharp contrast to the
claims to power of traditions of religious truth. In Europe numerous conflicts have been
sparked by this, especially between the Catholic church and the democratic public. On
this background it is thus surprising that, within a few decades, the initially strongly
anti-modernistic Catholicism has integrated itself into the modern constitutional state,
whose normative foundations – for example the sovereignty of the people, freedom of
conscience and religion – were, however, long considered “illegitimate.” The newly
observable self-confidence of re-politicised religions, often with a militant style – and
not only in the context of Islam – makes clear that this fundamental conflict has by no
means been resolved but rather continues to work at least latently.
     With the declaration of religious freedom of the Second Vatican Council in 1965,
Catholicism programmatically renounced the state-coercive enforcement of its claim to
truth. This “Declaration of Renunciation”, considerably influenced by United States
Catholicism, can be considered an act of voluntary self-restriction that is virtually



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unique in the history of religion, and one whose meaning can scarcely be
overestimated. Even today it remains largely unclear how such a fundamental change
of position could have come about in an institution that is as tied to tradition as the
Catholic church. The specific context of its origin and the various conflicts and learning
experiences that made this upheaval possible are the subject of this interdisciplinary
research project. Methodologically, structural analyses shall be linked with the
reconstruction of semantics of identity and images of the world. The project shall
examine whether specific structural patterns are at work here in the field of tension
between religion and modernity, which can play a role not only for Catholicism, but in
similar form also for other religions, for example Islam. At the same time this poses the
further question of whether this self-modernisation of Catholicism in the context of
distinction and integration attains paradigmatic significance for the relationship
between religious communities and the modern political world in general.


(C12) South Asian Islamic Traditions: Muslims in the Field of Tension between
      Religious Pluralism, Multi-Ethnic National States and Transnational
      Networks
Prof. Dr. Helene Basu, Ethnology (Social Anthropology)
   The object of this research project is the comparative investigation of two (Sunni)
Islamic traditions of South Asian origin but global scope – Chishtia Sufism and the
Tabliqhi Jama’at – using social anthropological methods. Both traditions raise
questions of difference, transformation and hybridisation in relation to both holistic and
individualistic world views, as well as of how religious and political actions in the
contexts of different nation states are morally rooted in Muslims’ self-image.
   The Chishtia Tariqa (path) is one of the oldest Sufi orders on the Indian
subcontinent, dating back to the thirteenth century, and is considered a genuine South
Asian Islamic tradition. Characteristic of the medieval Chishtia Tariqa was the explicit
distinction between the religious and political spheres, marked by a refusal to accept
political patronage. In the course of history, however, the Chishtia Tariqa developed
into an important institution that legitimised Islamic rule on the Indian subcontinent. In
the twentieth century, Chishtia Sufi masters were active in the anti-colonial Indian
independence movement and supported the foundation of Pakistan. The Chishtia
Tariqa embodies a hierarchical-holistic world view, represents a spirituality directed
towards the lives of believers in the world, and distinguishes itself from other Sufi
Tariqas through ritual practices (music) and the willingness to initiate non-Muslims.
Since the nineteenth century, the Chishtia Tariqa have accompanied indentured
labourers to other parts of the British Empire (especially South Africa) and, through a



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British Sufi master, to Europe, the USA and Australia. Although the majority of Chishtia
followers continue to be South Asians living in their homeland or in the diaspora, today
they also include Muslims from other countries, as well as Hindus, Europeans and
Americans.
     The Tabliqhi Jama’at, founded in India in the middle of the twentieth century,
represents a puritanical programme of reform among Muslims and is particularly
opposed to Sufi traditions. Its most important goal is to differentiate itself from Hindus
(or outside India, from any other faiths, including Shi’ism) by producing changes of
behaviour on the part of individual believers following the model laid down by the
Prophet and sharia law. On the other hand, the Tabliqhi Jama’at also promotes a strict
division between ‘religion’ and ‘world’, especially with regard to exerting political
influence. Nonetheless it can be observed that politically motivated, violent conflicts
frequently break out in regions in which the Tabliqhi Jama’at has been successful. In
contrast to the Chishtia Tariqa, the Tabliqhi Jama’at represents not only an extreme
ideology that is contemptuous of the world, but also an egalitarian, anti-hierarchical
Islam focused on the activities of the individual. Through mendicant preachers, it has
developed into a large movement all over the Muslim world, as well as in Europe and
the USA.
     The values, social practices and political ideas of Muslims who belong to either of
these two traditions in India, South Africa and Great Britain will be examined in this
research project. The project will be a contribution to the understanding of the
interaction between religious sub-systems and their claims to provide meaning and
normative actions, as well as of the processes and policies of post-colonial and/or
democratic national states under conditions of globalisation.


(C13) Integration of Muslims as a Factor of Transformation for the Relationship
       between Church and State in Great Britain?
Prof. Dr. Christian Walter, Public Law
     In all European countries, church and state relations are a matter strongly shaped
by history, which is under pressure to change due to the arrival of Muslim immigrants.
For France and Germany freedom of religion and the prohibition against discrimination
on religious grounds are to be seen as legal instruments which deal with this process
of change. For the United Kingdom the question has not been investigated more
closely.
     The historical experiences unique to each European country have produced
different models in the different countries of the relationship between spiritual and
worldly power, ranging from the strict laicistic separation along the lines of the French



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model to the national church structures in Great Britain. In France and Germany,
questions about the integration of Muslims are frequently treated from the point of view
of religious freedom and the prohibition against discrimination. This is certainly also
due to the fact that the institutional law regulating the relationship between spiritual
and worldly power was always connected to the Christian churches and came about in
accordance with their requirements or consciously in repudiation of them.
   An investigation into the relationship between the structures of institutional church
and state relations and the basic right of freedom of religion appears of interest
especially for the United Kingdom, since religious tolerance has a long historical
tradition there, but at the same time the national church structures of the Anglican
church appear to be necessarily in conflict with a consistently neutral position by the
state. What are the concrete instruments with which these conflicting aims are
reconciled? Are the patterns of argument used in constitutional law also effective here
or is it possible in the United Kingdom to find solutions to the religious aspect of the
integration problem that operate outside of strict legal structures and patterns of
argument? A comparative analysis that contrasts the English development to the
French and German does not only promise to explain the various mechanisms of
integration but would also deepen the understanding of the countries’ respective legal
thinking.

2.3 Requested Funding

Not applicable here, see 3 below.




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Research Area D: Violence

Coordinator:
Prof. Dr. theol. Wolf, Hubert, 26/11/1959

Seminar für Mittlere und Neuere Kirchengeschichte
Zimmer 136
Johannisstraße 8-10
48143 Münster

Phone: +49 (251) 83-22626
Fax:    +49 (251) 83-22636
E-Mail: hwolf@uni-muenster.de


Responsible Investigators
Rainer Albertz, Old Testament; Gerd Althoff, Medieval History; Arnold Angenendt,
Medieval and Modern Church History; Holger Arning, Medieval and Modern Church
History; Martin Baxmeyer, Medieval and Modern Church History; Ulrich Berges,
Contemporary and Religious History of the Old Testament; Martin Ebner, New
Testament Exegesis; Werner Freitag, Comparative Regional History; Peter Funke,
Ancient History; Alfons Fürst, Early Church History; Marian Füssel, Early Modern
History; Karl Gabriel, Christian Social Sciences; Johannes Hahn, Ancient History;
Silke Hensel, History of the Non-European World; Reinhard Hoeps, Christian Image
Theory; Muhammad Kalisch, Arabic and Islamic Studies; Barbara Meier, Ethnology
(Social Anthropology); Gabriele Müller-Oberhäuser, English Philology/History of the
Book; Ulrich Pfister, Economic and Social History; Hans-Richard Reuter, Ethics and
Related Social Sciences; Klaus von Stosch, Apologetics; Hans-Ulrich Thamer,
Modern History; Jürgen Werbick, Apologetics; Ulrich Willems, Political Science;
Hubert Wolf, Medieval and Modern Church History; Erich Zenger, Contemporary and
Religious History of the Old Testament.

D 2.1 Summary
   In the name of religions, violence (violentia) is exerted against people and things.
Religions serve to motivate, legitimate and interpret the exertion of physical violence
just as vice-versa they provide meaning to sustaining violence and request love of
peace and non-violence. This raises the question in how far specific religions, from
within themselves, due to their doctrine or the established practice of their faith, have
an affinity to physical violence or to non-violence or whether the real violence or love of
peace of their followers first arises from the functions that the religion assumes in its
respective social and political context. In research area D it will be asked what
potentials for violence or peace the religious writings and symbol systems of Judaism,
Christianity and Islam contain, under what circumstances they become effective as a
concept of meanings for the faithful, how the religious coding of sustained or exerted
violence serves the collective creation of meaning and identity, and how the religions




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are interpreted and reinterpreted for the purposes of legitimising sovereign power
(potestas), enforcing interests and engaging in conflicts.

D 2.2 Description
      The confessional wars of the early modern period are deeply engraved into the
European memory; this memory is still kept alive by the wars in Northern Ireland and in
the Balkans. This is one of the reasons why the re-emergence of religions into public
discourse is viewed with a good measure of mistrust and concern. The new attention
to religions can, to a considerable extent, be traced back to acts of violence or an
increased willingness to use violence, which are religiously grounded or can be
conveyed as such.
      With the end of the Cold War and the strengthening of religious movements, but
above all through the attacks on the World Trade Center in 2001, the role of religion as
a cause and element of violently waged conflicts has also become the focus of
research in the political and social sciences. With regard to terrorism, an increase in
religiously motivated violent groups can be diagnosed. But the thesis that the central
lines of conflict of contemporary and future politics run along cultural formations,
whose cores are constructed by means of religious traditions (Samuel Huntington), is
extremely contested. Research findings on the causes of war rather suggest that
modern state conflicts and civil wars are not increasingly shaped by religious lines of
conflict. The tendency is to attribute to religion a rather subordinate role in comparison
to economic and political causes of the conflicts. But it cannot be overlooked that
conflicts demonstrate a special potential for escalation and violence when they are
religiously loaded by the various parties or the respective elites. For this reason other
authors reduce the role of religious traditions in conflicts to the function of a cultural
resource, which, in the pursuit of economic and/or political matters, the political elite
can instrumentalise more or less at will in order to legitimise and mobilise violence as a
means to an end (Andreas Hasenclever, Jonathan Fox, Dieter Senghaas, etc.). But
such a functionalistic approach hardly does justice to religion’s cultural potency.
      From a historical perspective, approaches that presume an “ambivalence of the
sacred” seem to be more convincing. According to these approaches, religious
systems of meaning can have the effect of both intensifying conflict as well as
promoting peace. The object of the investigation is to determine which factors and
conditions lead to religious traditions being used to legitimise and mobilise violence
and which factors impede or hinder this. Up until now research in the social and
political sciences has tended to concentrate on identifying in religious traditions the
elements     that   promote   violence   (Johan   Galtung,   R.   Scott   Appleby,    Mark
Juergensmeyer). More recently, however, the question is being discussed how the


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“ambivalence of the religious” can be used to contain the destructive potential and to
strengthen the productive potential for inhibiting violence (D12 Kalisch/von
Stosch/Werbick).
   The analysis of the contemporary phenomena requires expansion by means of a
historically comparative perspective. The research goal of area D of the cluster
addresses (1) the meaning of the sustaining or exercise of physical violence in the
systems of meaning of pagan, Christian, Jewish and Islamic religions; (2) religion as a
genuine motive for using violence and a factor in the escalation of violence; (3) the
function of physical violence in the creation of identity and cohesion within religious
communities; (4) the role of religion in legitimising, intensifying but also containing
organised violence (i.e. military violence or violence within a totalitarian state) as well
as violence against the followers of one’s own or other religious communities.
   Violence here refers to physical violence in the sense of an attack on the bodily
integrity of people including the possibility of their death as well as the damaging and
destroying of objects. Violence can be carried out collectively or individually, in a
controlled or excessive manner, it can be organised or spontaneous, can be
considered legitimate or illegitimate. Every sovereign power (potestas), whether
legitimately recognised or not, in the end rests upon the potential exercise of the force
of physical sanction; thus the two dimensions of the German word Gewalt are
connected to each other.
   An additional concept of violence, which encompasses every restriction of the
possibility for human development (“structural violence” in the sense of Johan Galtung
or “symbolic violence” in the sense of Pierre Bourdieu), can make explicit to what
extent institutional structures rest upon the latent threat of physical violence and can
thus be analytically useful. But for describing the phenomena to be investigated here a
concept of violence like this is too broad and non-specific.
   Physical violence in the narrower sense always has a symbolic dimension. Its
function extends beyond the direct harm to or annihilation of the opponent and the
destruction of his material power base. The violent act serves as a sign; it is not
seldom staged in front of a third party. For both the wielder of legitimate power as well
as for the underprivileged expressive violence is a means to represent oneself and
threaten the addressee; violence in its elemental form can be exercised by anyone.
Violent acts become religious acts by means of their symbolic charge. This is true not
only of violence against persons, but above all of violence against objects that are for
their part symbolically charged and/or themselves considered to embody the sacred:
against sacred sites, animals and implements, against cult images and houses of god
(D3 Hahn).



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      (1) The extreme violence of God in the Old Testament (D1 Berges/Zenger), the
sustaining of violence in the passion story (D8 Hoeps), the excesses of violence in
John’s Apocalypse (D2 Ebner) or the war heroism of the prophet Mohammed –
physical violence is central and omnipresent in the symbol systems of the Christian,
Jewish and Islamic religions. It will be asked what representations of violence and of
non-violence are laid out in the canonical and non-canonical texts of these religions of
the word, what conceptions of violence shape the stories of their origins and scenarios
of the end, what language of violence can be found in their images, prayers, songs,
visions and saints’ vitae (D4 Fürst) and which normative effects these gave rise to. In
what context did these texts originate (D2 Ebner), how were they handed down,
received, and in various contexts reinterpreted or even twisted into their opposite (for
example D5 Althoff)? When and how was the potential of these violent conceptions
activated in order to give meaning to the actual exercise or sustaining of violence? The
fact that the polytheistic ancient religions were not based in the same way as the
monotheistic religions of the book on binding tenets and doctrines of faith makes the
functional analysis and localisation of violence more difficult in these frameworks of
tension. But here literary, historiographical, philosophical and rhetorical written records
could serve as sources as well as the rules for the exact formulation of laws, contracts
and agreements.
      (2) This simultaneously addresses additional dimensions of area D: the highly
controversial question of the role of religion as a cause of conflicts and as a motive for
violence and the question of the function of violence in the enforcement of religious
doctrines and behavioural norms. Because of their claim to absolute truth and their
intolerance of foreign gods, the monotheistic religions of salvation are suspected of
impeding the peaceful coexistence of diverse religious communities and cultures and
of possessing a structural affinity for violence. The “Mosaic distinction” (Jan Assmann)
between true and false in the area of faith is said to have led not only to the violent
conversion of members of other faiths, but also to the suppression of divergent
behaviour within the community and to phenomena such as the persecution of
heretics, the inquisition, the control of knowledge by means of forbidding and burning
books (D6 Müller-Oberhäuser), segregation and exclusion (see C5 Steckel). Here it
must be more precisely asked above all in a comparison among the three monotheistic
religions and in a historical dimension what latitude for various interpretations of the
truth of faith was tolerated at different times, how generously religious ambiguity was
dealt with and/or conversely when and under what circumstances the tendency to
dogmatise and violently enforce faith dominated (see A2 Bauer; A1 Jansen). But
simple models of development that proceed from a constantly increasing tolerance on



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the path to modernity have turned out to be wrong. Similarly the Western idea that
presumes that religious competition in the modern period takes place as an open and
peaceful competition between various images of God, contents of faith, offers of
identity and community options must be questioned.
   It must also be asked under what conditions particularly a religion’s relationship to
transcendence has the effect of escalating violence because it devalues earthly life
and because the eternal salvation and the supposed will of God seem to be the
highest norm, which justifies all means, including violent ones. The destruction of the
enemies of God by means of the sacrifice of one’s own life as well as the voluntary
acceptance of violence at the hands of religious opponents as a witness to God and as
a way to salvation (various forms of martyrdom) are phenomena that must be
thematised in this connection; in this it is particularly important to inquire into the
influence of apocalyptic patterns of interpretation on the willingness to practice as well
as to endure physical violence.
   (3) Physical violence directed inwardly and outwardly plays a crucial role in the
enforcement of norms and the creation of identity and cohesion within religious
communities. Thus practices of violence must be thematised that represent
components of the socialisation power of religions and serve the social integration of
communities: for example initiation rituals such as circumcision (see C3 Leonhard),
penal, penitential and atonement rituals for the symbolic restoration of order after
violations of norms (D11 Meier) or collective rituals of hate and violence against
members of other faiths. Unlike in theological elite discourse, in rituals of violence even
the simple members of the religious community can take part. Religiously motivated
violence thus seems to lead to a strengthened self and group identity, which for its part
has effects on the social and political structure. The phenomenon of the reciprocal
functionalising of religion, politics and violence becomes especially apparent here.
   (4) The same is true as well of the role of religions in the legitimising of organised
violence by a sovereign entity (for example in the military or within totalitarian states).
Research has always paid special attention to religion as a factor in the military
conflicts of the Confessional Age. But against prevailing opinion, even afterwards,
military conflicts were still glorified, interpreted and legitimised by religion (D7 Füssel).
In diachronic comparison it will be investigated whether and how even the wars of
national formation and state wars of the modern period until the present still moved
within religious frameworks of meaning. And conversely it must also be asked what
role the religious semantics of loving one’s enemy, peaceableness, humility and
tolerance played in the settling and resolving of conflicts – one should recall, for




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example, the appellative sign of non-violence during the prayer for peace at Assisi or
the religious appeals for peace in prayers, songs and sermons.
      Finally this raises the question of the relationship of the religious communities to
organised state violence under the condition of the separation of the two systems of
function in the modern period. Even in the secular state institutionalised religion is
ascribed the function of tending to support the state system of norms, while in return
many states, now as then, legally privilege specific religious communities, so that the
interests of the official church are linked to those of the state. What consequences
does this have for the position of the official church’s hierarchy as well as the faithful
concerning the state use of force, whether internally or externally? In particular the
behaviour of the Christian churches with respect to dictatorial and totalitarian regimes
should be addressed (D9 Wolf/Baxmeyer/Arning; D10 Hensel). What constellations
lead to what political options for various churchly actors in different countries?
      Conclusion: The interaction of religion, politics and violence is marked by mutual
instrumentalisation but also by resistance. The analysis of the functionality or
disfunctionality of religiously motivated, legitimised and interpreted violence within the
lattice of social, political and economical structures presupposes a comprehensive
comparative and interdisciplinary approach. The contemporary challenges through old
and new forms of “religious” violence, a phenomenon that at least in the West had
been seen as overcome, can be surmounted only when the atrophied awareness for
both the sign-like character of religious violence as well as the potential for peace
inherent in the religions is newly developed and a comprehensive interpretation, which
has been secured by the fields of history, theology and religious studies, set forth.
Precisely in this area can the public relevance of the humanities be seen as
exemplary.

Selected Project Drafts to Research Area D
(D1)     Divine   Violence:    Religious-Historical     and    Reception-Hermeneutical
         Analyses of the Images of God in the Hebrew Bible
Prof. Dr. Ulrich Berges / Prof. em. Dr. Erich Zenger, Contemporary and Religious
History of the Old Testament, Catholic Theological Faculty
      The discussion of violence of the last few years, conducted in many areas, has
brought the realisation that religion in particular contains a high and dangerous
potential for violence. It is also uncontested that the images of God in the three
monotheistic religions with common religious-historical roots are so strongly
impregnated with violence, that beyond all apologetic attempts at explanation, it must
be fundamentally asked what function the language of divine violence has in their
respective symbol systems. Connected to this the question arises of whether and how


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these religions can develop a potential from within themselves for controlling the
systemically immanent violence in such a way that “divine violence” does not become
realised as human violence.
    The outlined horizon of questions would be concentrated upon the images of God
in the Hebrew Bible and their reception in the New Testament and in Rabbinical
Judaism and would be constructed in three steps:
    1. The basis is a detailed, textual analysis of all sources in the Hebrew Bible that
deal with divine violence. Central is not the question of the historicity, but of the exact
recording of their semantics and textual pragmatics.
    2. The high proportion of images of God that contain violence in the Hebrew Bible
requires a cultural studies and religious interpretation. The functions of these images
of violence in the religious symbol system of Israel will be classified and evaluated,
also with regard to feminist lines of inquiry.
    3. The complex reception history of divine violence will be traced on the basis of a
number of significant patterns of reception in antiquity and in the present era (for
example in prayers and hymns as well as political rhetoric) in order to develop from
these a hermeneutic of religiously motivated violence as well as ways of dealing with it.
In addition the theologically and socially explosive question of the explicitly and
implicitly violent content in all talk of God will be discussed.


(D2) Revelation’s Violent Visions and Spectacles of Violence in the Roman
      Empire
Prof. Dr. Martin Ebner, New Testament Exegesis, Catholic Theological Faculty
    Anyone who reads the Revelation to John of the New Testament, comes across an
enormous potential for violence: the dream that at the end of time each and every one
of the unbelievers will be slaughtered and the birds will gorge on their flesh (Rev. 19).
The problem horizon “religion and violence” is thus encountered head-on: Is
Revelation also an example of the fact that the affirmation of one’s own religious truth
leads to a willingness to commit violence against all those who think differently?
    In order to pose this question the project plans a culturally-historically mediated
historical-critical approach: The texts will be understood from within the situation of
their origins in order to elicit their original intention and from thence to critically
encounter their reception within their own (church) history. The evaluation of
Revelation’s visions of violence is namely strikingly different when the texts are
examined on the background of the spectacles of violence in the Roman Empire, that
is the animal hunting, scenes of execution, and gladiator contests in the
amphitheatres. For here in violent “games” the Roman emperors stage with extreme



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public effectiveness their own world order: the Emperor as Lord over nature (animal
hunting), as guarantor of justice (execution of wrongdoers) and motivator of the
Roman system of values (the brave gladiator who looks death in the face has a
chance to survive).
      On this background Revelation appears as the literary staging of a counter-world
with which the publicly practiced violence of the Roman Empire is to be exposed:
instead of exotic animals from conquered lands the representative of Rome himself is
slaughtered – in the caricature of the beast (Rev. 13). The propagandised “actor” in the
arena is not the gladiator, but the “witness” who stands up for God’s world order at the
risk of his life. Altogether Revelation inspires a refusal to participate in the Roman
“system” of violence and establishes a new assignment of roles: the use of violence
belongs solely to God.
      These dramatically shaped inversions will be investigated interdisciplinarily
(exegesis/ancient history) and reconnected by means of local history to the
archaeology of the amphitheatre in the Roman province of Asia (first and second
centuries), the Revelation’s place of origin.


(D3) The Destruction of Sanctuaries in Late Antiquity: Events and Discourse
Prof. Dr. Johannes Hahn, Ancient History
      Religiously motivated violence represents a signum of late antiquity. But violence
against different faiths and their cultic sites, formerly exceptional and put under taboo
now – since the policy of the Christianisation of the Imperium Romanum introduced by
Constantine – targeted on a local level not only the radical transformation of religious
conditions. The destruction of temples, synagogues, or churches and the conversion of
cultic sites also had the goal of transforming social-political configurations and modes
of public communication in late antiquity. The diversity of these processes and their
effective powers and conditions are currently the subject of a great deal of research
attention.
      But in contrast, there is very little attention paid (as a problem and as a chance) to
the semantics and functionality of the destruction of sanctuaries in the (mostly
Christian) sources: Successful access to religious sites staged power and orthodoxy,
contained sacred-historical potential, and allowed for representation that generated
meaning. The project first analyses the origin of an internal Christian debate over the
legitimacy and necessity of the use of violence as well as the Christian discovery and
conceptualisation of sacred space in the fourth century. From this basis, the grammar
of the discourse (in sermons, church histories, hagiography, etc.) that was conducted
especially in the fourth and fifth centuries on pagan, Jewish, or heterodox cultic sites



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and their destruction will be reconstructed and its temporal and spatial parameters
clarified. The analysis aims equally at the concrete historical consequences of the
discourse (for example in legislation), its meaning as an argument in the religious and
political confrontation, and its concrete historical effectiveness. The project will look
both at the repercussions of religious violence and its discourse on the self-
understanding and activity of the state of late antiquity as well as, exempli gratia, the
establishment and securing of authority by means of the destruction of sanctuaries in
the sphere of the Christian church or the formation of identity and tradition by means of
violence as mirrored in the founding legends of Christian communities.

(D4) Images of the Other: Analyses of the Rhetoric of Violence in Late Antiquity
Prof. Dr. Dr. Alfons Fürst, Early Church History, Catholic Theological Faculty
   Whether religions activate their own potential for violence or peace has not least to
do with the images of themselves and the enemy that they have drawn up. Since the
very existence of views and types of behaviour that diverge from one’s own
convictions and norms can be felt as a threat to one’s own identity, in pluralistic
societies the talk of the “other” plays a central role in the ways competing groups deal
with one another. In this, religious traditions remain an important resource for the
construction of images of the enemy – or their dismantling.
   In the Roman empire of late antiquity religious conflicts were among the main
causes of public turmoil. Whereas the internal Christian conflicts have been
investigated in respect to the polemical clichés and strategies that were used
(keywords: polemic of heresy), the analysis of the rhetoric of violence in pagan-
Christian confrontations remains a desideratum of research. Important sources for this
are (1) anti-Christian polemics (Galen, Kelsos, Porphyrios, Julian, among others) and
the Christian responses (Origen and Kelsos among others), (2) the apologetic writings
of the Church fathers in which programmatic “images of the other” were drafted in
contrast to their own self-image, and (3) literary and archaeological testimonies to
concrete conflicts (for example destructions of temples or the violent actions of
Schenute of Atripe). The analysis of the rhetoric of violence in these sources would
occur in the following steps: (1) collecting and arranging the individual statements; (2)
developing a typology; (3) analysing the kinds of statements with a view to their
potential for conflict or peace. The following could serve as guiding questions for this
analysis: What stereotypes are recognisable? What role do religious traditions and
convictions play in the formation of images of the enemy? What do the images of “the
other” say about those who created the images? Is it possible to recognise interactions
between the rhetoric of violence (or peace) and specific historical conflicts?




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(D5) “Blessed Are Those Who Practice Persecution for the Sake of
         Righteousness”: On the Uses of Tradition in the Era of Gregory VII
Prof. Dr. Gerd Althoff, Medieval History
      The project targets the context of the church’s contemplating of its own tasks and
rights as initiated by the reform papacy in the eleventh century with the interesting
result that the process of redefining its own position was linked with a very clear
declaration of the permissibility of the use of violence. Pope Gregory VII is the
symbolic figure in this episode of churchly willingness for violence and its theoretical
formulation, which could be realised only with a considerable “hyperextension” (Carl
Erdmann) of the tradition. From this willingness to place behind him the dominant
teachings of, for example Augustine, a relatively direct path led to the crusades under
papal leadership. It is thus among the most important concerns of a critical history of
the church to investigate this new papal willingness to use violence, the conditions in
which it arose, and the stages of its argument.
      The transformation of the famous passage quoted in the title from the Sermon on
the Mount, which completely reverses its meaning, stems from Bonizo of Sutris’ Liber
ad amicum, where, in defending Gergory VII, he deals most importantly with the
question of whether it is permissible for Christians to use violence for the sake of their
faith. The process of theoretical grounding of this new position has until now been
anything but clear. Apparently considerable efforts were undertaken to sort through the
tradition, as canon collections (Anselm of Lucca, Deusdedit), polemic treatises, and
papal letters (Gregory’s register) from the period in question make sufficiently clear.
But the new position could not be derived from the tradition alone. What seems to be
additionally new is the radicalism, in terms of consequences, which one was prepared
to elicit from the dicta and exempla of the past. This radicalism in the exhaustion of all
possibilities and the readiness to go beyond the possible can already be seen in the
tersely expressed guiding principles of the Dictatus papae, which however did not
address the question of violence. But it seems to be the same mental attitude that, in
questions of papal supremacy such as the exercise of violence, wrested new
interpretations from the tradition or reinterpreted them for one’s own purposes. Here
the sometimes extravagant argumentation of theoreticians like Anselm or Bonizo must
be understood critically and their relationship to the arguments used by Gregory
established. The project will need to clarify to what extent the techniques of
argumentation and the presentation of evidence differed from what had been
previously the case in that they interpreted Biblical or patristic documents in new ways,
with what stringency the presentation of evidence was characterised, and how the new
arguments were established and disseminated. With this, the project promises to yield



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results not only concerning the church’s relationship to violence and the understanding
of processes of change in this area, but also make contributions to the validity claims
of norms and how these were dealt with, as treated in research area A.

(D6) The Censorship and Destruction of Books in Late Medieval and Early
     Modern England: The Example of the Lollard Heresy and the Reformation
Prof. Dr. Gabriele Müller-Oberhäuser, History of the Book and Text Research
   Forms of written communication play a significant role in pre-modern as in modern
times in the combative confrontation over the “right faith”; this is true of both the
conveying and enforcement of desired religious concepts as well as in the control of
the dissemination of undesired concepts by means of (book) censorship. The most
extreme case of book censorship can be seen in the various acts of physical violence
against books, which can extend from mutilation and damage to the total destruction
by means of the staged and public, symbolically charged burning of books. With
respect to the complex of violence, this raises the question of the connection between
the exercise of violence against the people participating in the process of
communication (authors, scribes, printers, publishers, booksellers, book owners, and
readers) and against their products.
   By means of a comparison between the English heretical movement of the Lollards
in the train of John Wyclif (from the end of the fourteenth into the sixteenth century)
and the English Reformation (from Henry VIII to Elizabeth I) the central media-
historical question of the role of the book and related forms of written communication –
as ammunition in the religious conflicts – will form the subject of investigation. This will
be done above all with a view to the change from a manuscript culture oriented
towards a single and unique product to the culture of book printing, i.e. to the
beginning of “mass media communication” in the framework of the first media
revolution. The question of violence against persons (the burning of heretics, execution
for treason, e.g. the Jesuit Edmund Campion in 1581) and/or against their books (the
mutilation and burning of books) becomes clear in the context of the interaction
between religion and politics in the Bible-oriented heresy movement of the Lollards,
the “Bible Men” or “book men”, and their persecution (see the Norwich Heresy Trials)
on the one hand, and on the other in the peculiarities of the Reformation in England.
The latter – in the light of the inseparable link between church and state (Henry VIII:
Act of Supremacy), the varied history between Protestantism and Catholicism (Mary
Tudor 1553-1558), the search for a new religious orientation especially by means of
the destruction of memoria (compare the dissolution and destruction of monasteries
and their libraries), and the close connection between the English nation and anti-
Catholicism – represents an especially rich field for investigating the connection


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between politics and religion. Attempts at the religious and political legitimisation of
violence against persons and books (see De heretico comburendo, 1401, Arundels
Constitutiones, 1409, the Tudor Royal Proclamations, 1485-1603) and an assessment
of the (sometimes limited!) effect of censorship and use of violence constitute the
interpretative framework of the investigation.


(D7) Religious Frameworks of Meaning in Military Violence 1648-1815
Dr. Marian Füssel, Early Modern History
      In the early modern period the close connection between religion, politics, and
violence has a particularly evident effect in the arena of war. Despite the “farewell to
the war of religion” (Johannes Burckhardt) posited in the literature after 1648 the
political legitimation of war and violence continued to bear a strongly religious-
confessional mark. The attempt at the propagandistic restaging of situations of
confessional conflict during the Seven Years’ War or the founding of the “Holy
Alliance” in 1815 provide only two particularly prominent examples of this among many
others. But the specific appropriation and shaping of religious frameworks of meaning
for violence in the everyday lives of the respective participants has until now scarcely
been investigated. Recent military historical research, for example, has begun to ask
about whether early modern soldiers were members of a specific religion.
      On this basis religion’s function of endowing warlike violence with legitimacy and
meaning in an increasingly secularised society can be examined. Particularly a focus
on the period of time following the wars of religion makes it possible to more clearly
see the persistence of religious frameworks of meaning in the modern period. The
most important basic sources used will predominantly be personal testimonies, which
promise a particularly good access to contemporary patterns of perceiving and
interpreting violence. Among the groups of persons whose activity shall be subject to a
diachronic comparison are field preachers and priests, who bore witness to military
violence in diverse ways in chronicles and personal documents. Added to this are
investigations of sermons and performative acts such as the singing of the Te Deum,
the ringing of bells, etc., which build a bridge to the research areas of “Normativity” and
“staging.” On the basis of the Ottoman wars in Europe, the Seven Years’ War, and the
revolutionary wars, the examples of various situations of conflict can be examined in
terms of their horizons of religious meaning: The defence of the Christian religion
against a non-Christian one, the instrumentalisation of confessional difference and the
challenge of the religion of reason of the revolution. At the same time all patterns of
interpretation are characterised by a bipolarity of authoritative (king and fatherland)
and metaphysical creation of meaning, which refers back to the fundamentally



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reciprocal relationship between religion and politics. A consideration of the respective
configuration promises to cast light upon possible processes of differentiation or
historically conditioned cycles.


(D8) Images of the Wound / The Wound as Image: Conceptions of the Passion in
     Pre-Modern Christendom and the Visual Art of the Modern Period
Prof. Dr. Reinhard Hoeps, Christian Image Theory, Catholic Theological Faculty
   The goals of this project are an exhibition and an interdisciplinary symposium
devoted to the representation of the sustaining of physical violence as a theme of pre-
modern Christian religiosity (images of the wound) and as an image concept in the
modern era (the wound as image). The contributions to the symposium will be
juxtaposed to the objects in the exhibition in terms of their specific contrast between
medieval and/or early modern conceptions of the passion and the autonomous art of
the modern period. The goal is the art-theoretical and religious-historical exploration of
transformations in pre-modern passion piety by means of modern concepts of the
artistic image and their confrontation with the wound as reality and metaphor. The
findings will contribute to the development of a critical concept of the mediality of
violence and suffering, and will also be open to a wider public.
   In competition to power-political symbol systems, the Christian religion produced
models for giving meaning to the experience of violence and to this end developed
conceptions on an iconographic level (for example the crucifixion) as well as in the
creation of image types (for example the Pietà or the Man of Sorrows) that have been
formative throughout the European cultural region. Their various, non-verbal means of
conveying suffering and pain intensify its expression, transform the experience of the
image into an experience of the body’s presence, evoke compassion, and reflect on
the limits of representation in the medium of the image. Beyond the crisis of the
religious image, the increasingly autonomous and self-reflexive art of the nineteenth
and twentieth centuries has devoted a great deal of attention to medieval and early
modern conceptions of the Passion; in the modern period the wound is transformed
into a determinative ground for artistic work and for the image itself. The project follows
central image-theoretical categories of these transformations: the expression of the
existential, the interplay between representation and presence, between image and
viewer, the connection between body and image. Expected are art historical and
religious-historical treatments of significance to the discussion of the theory of
secularisation as well as for the critique of present-day media representations of
violence. The images’ claims of being based upon direct experience lay the
foundations for a thematic confrontation in the context of an exhibition that will be



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carried out in cooperation with the Westfälisches Landesmuseum für Kunst und
Kulturgeschichte (Westphalian State Museum for Art and Cultural History).


(D9) The Vatican and the Legitimisation of Physical Violence: The Example of the
       Spanish Civil War (1936-1939)
Prof. Dr. Hubert Wolf / Martin Baxmeyer M.A. / Dr. des. Holger Arning, Medieval and
Modern Church History, Catholic Theological Faculty
      The extensive collection of the Vatican secret archives (ASV) that has been
accessible since September of 2006, offers a nearly inexhaustible reservoir for
examining the Catholic Church’s world-wide policy in the first half of the twentieth
century with a view to the subject area “religion and violence” from a new perspective:
How did the Vatican view physical violence in various countries? According to which
“unshakeable foundations” did the Church judge it? Which schematism can be
identified in its activities? When did the Vatican condemn, tolerate, or propagate force
of arms? On the basis of the bloody conflict that tore apart a deeply Catholic Spain in
the 1930s, the explosiveness of these questions will become especially clear.
      In the twentieth century, the question of the relationship between Church, religion,
and violence has seldom been more emphatically posed than during the Spanish Civil
War (1936-1939). Upon the outbreak of war, the Spanish Catholic Church openly took
sides and supported the insurgent military under General Franco ideologically,
propagandistically, and materially. Influential church leaders publicly justified the use of
extreme force against opponents and declared the civil war a “crusade,” in which the
commandment of Christian mercy and charity possessed no validity. The Spanish
episcopate repeatedly pressed Rome for a fundamental position on the religiously
legitimated use of violence, to be able to justify its support for Franco’s faction.
Whether (and if so, how) Rome became involved, which forces within the Vatican
promoted such a discussion, which forces wanted to prevent it and which
consequences this had upon the fundamental relationship of Catholic Christendom to
physical violence can, on the basis of the new archival materials, be examined and
compared to related documents from the church in Spain for the first time. But it is also
now possible for the first time to work out in detail how pragmatic the Vatican’s Spain
policy (possibly) was in terms of the violence of its partisans.
      The Vatican’s position on state and non-state violence would additionally be
studied in international comparison by means of examples in Mexico, the Soviet Union,
Italy, Germany, and Austria, among other places.




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(D10) Between Support for Authoritarian Regimes and the Defence of Human
       Rights: The Catholic Church in Chile and Argentina during the Military
       Dictatorships of the 1970s and 1980s
Prof. Dr. Silke Hensel, History of the Non-European World
   When a state legitimates its use of violence against its opposition with an ideology
that, among other aspects, refers to the religious character of the nation, this raises
questions about the relationships between church and state and between religion and
violence. From the 1960s to the 1980s, the Catholic Church in many Latin American
countries found itself caught between traditional support for state authorities and its
condemnation of human rights violations. In Chile, for example, the church became an
important pillar of the opposition against the military junta. In Argentina, however, the
church hierarchy supported the military dictatorship. A comparison of the varying
political tendencies of the Catholic Church within authoritarian regimes, while
understanding the church to be a set of complex social networks imbedded within a
society, can reveal how a religious institution could become bound primarily to the
defence of peace, on the one hand, and support state violence, on the other.
   At present, studies that analyse the conduct of the church within military regimes
focus mostly on actions of the church hierarchy. In contrast, this proposed study
proceeds from the understanding that the church hierarchy could not and did not act
on its own. Rather, the religious hierarchy was bound to all of its church members.
Thus, to understand the complex relationships between the different levels of church
membership, the concept of hegemony will be deployed. Though the primary duty of
the secular clergy, regular orders, and laity was to obey the rules emanating from
above, these groups nonetheless exercised a degree of influence over the episcopate.
As such, in Chile, the church hierarchy did not uniformly condemn the actions of the
dictatorship from the onset of Pinochet’s regime, yet it took a clear stance against
human rights violations during the early period of the dictatorship. The relatively
democratic structures of the Chilean church, which began to take shape in the 1920s
following its strict separation from the state, played just as much a role in shaping
church behaviour as the social reform efforts of the 1960s (i.e. Vatican Council II,
liberation theology, Christian base communities). Contrastingly, in Argentina, there
existed close connections between the Catholic Church and the military junta,
evidenced by the junta’s use of religious propaganda, describing its actions as the
defence of the Catholic nation. But, this did not mean that opposition to the military
regime did not exist within the church. However, the questions of how strong was that
religious opposition to the junta and what structures prevented that opposition from
influencing church politics are yet unanswered. Moreover, in the two cases discussed



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above, the roles of the Vatican, transnational organisations (e.g. the Latin American
Bishops’ Conference), and alliances of lay organisations must also be examined.


(D11) The Lord’s Resistance Army: Violence and Christianity in East Africa
Dr. Barbara Meier, Ethnology (Social Anthropology)
      In the post-colonial African context the relationship between religion and politics
presents itself in culturally specific but often also violent forms. In the case of the
conflict in Northern Uganda Christian religious content (the trinity) is referred to on the
basis of the traditional belief in spirits. In this so-called “ethnic” conflict it is by means of
“rituals” that rebels are both recruited and also re-socialised into their home
communities. An analysis of the conflict can elucidate the various societal discourses
of the Northern Ugandan war. Territorial aspects and processes of migration,
discourses of ethnic and religious identity, political affiliations and aspects of
powerlessness as well as access to resources form a complex bundle of root causes
all playing varying roles in both legitimating violence as well as in the attempts to
resolve it.
      In a wider perspective the organisation and activities of the Lord’s Resistance Army
resemble other conflicts in the region in which aspects of gender, good and bad as
well as animated and unanimated nature are being negotiated. Such conflicts can be
viewed as the expression of a collective social trauma, of ecological and economic
protest and of religious conflict. The leaders of these rebels, “possessed” by spirits, are
distinguished by their charismatic personalities and, in the case of Northern Uganda,
have for twenty years now, been extremely successful at re-interpreting Christian,
Muslim and elements of the traditional Acholi religion into strong metaphors. At present
there is a marked international interest in the situation of the child soldiers, who are
said to compose most of the rebels. The re-socialisation of former rebels has caused
great difficulties for the society. The study, which would require a segment of field
research in East Africa, will explore what part the Christian motif of atonement plays in
the reintegration and how much acceptance the inhabitants demonstrate for traditional
rituals of reconciliation, which have recently been employed with increasing frequency.
The planned research complements the research area of “violence” by providing a
perspective on the so-called ethnic or small war, a phenomenon of violent conflict that
can be observed to be on the increase worldwide as well as offering an interpretation
of acts of staging of “traditional” rituals in conflicts and their resolution.




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(D12) A Comparative Study of Strategies for the Pacification of Religious
        Legitimacy Claims
Prof. Dr. Muhammad Kalisch, Arabic and Islamic Studies and Centre for Religious
Studies / PD Dr. Klaus von Stosch / Prof. Dr. Jürgen Werbick, Apologetics, Catholic
Theological Faculty
    A discussion is currently taking place on the extent to which not only social factors
external to religion are responsible for the increasingly violent aspect of religious
traditions, but predominantly inclinations within the religions themselves. In the
foreground is the claim that unconditionally valid claims to truth must see themselves
as being levelled against competing claims to truth and pursue their de-legitimisation;
and that in this they can also develop a political-social dynamic of violently contesting
the right for competing communities of faith to exist. But in monotheistic religions
strategies have also been developed for formulating one’s own convictions of faith not
as being levelled against other religious systems, but, for reasons internal to the
religion, of relating positively to other religious validity claims. This research project will
trace and evaluate such strategies.
    The object of the investigation will be models of religious self-thematisation in
Christianity and Islam that make it possible
    –   to formulate one’s own normative legitimacy as a claim to truth and
        simultaneously positively process the factual limits of its recognition, so that
        also the refusal by “the other” to unconditionally recognise one’s own claims to
        legitimacy can in turn be accepted for internal theological reasons;
    –   to control the internal religious dynamic of assurance to the extent that it does
        not need to violently defend itself against tendencies and influences that are
        perceived as causing for insecurity.
    Concretely, the study will work out approaches and strategies for a comparative
theology of religion (as well as its historical roots) as well as theological attempts in
Islam and Christianity to positively work through the shaking up or relativising of
internal religious assurance. Particularly to be examined is to what extent
corresponding models of self-thematisation can relativise the contemporary religious-
philosophical and religious studies critique of the monotheistic religion’s potential for
violence; and to what extent – on the basis of an understandable inner-theological
legitimacy – these models are suitable for helping to determine the self-understanding
of the respective religious traditions. This study will take place in a network fashion.
International symposia would offer the possibility of staying in contact with comparable
research projects. They would additionally help to clarify the “framing questions” by




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means of research exchanges with other disciplines (in particular religious studies and
sociology of religion), so that the respective potential for reflection and self-
thematisation can be taken into consideration as well as the question of which
conditions of social or religious systems tend to hinder this.

D 2.3 Requested Funding


Not applicable here, see 3 below.




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4 Appendices

4.1 Most Important Publications


Funke, Peter (Ed. with K. Freitag / M. Haake): Kult – Politik – Ethnos. Überregionale
    Heiligtümer im Spannungsfeld von Kult und Politik (HISTORIA Einzelschriften
    189), Stuttgart 2006

Fürst, Alfons (Ed.): Friede auf Erden? Die Weltreligionen zwischen Gewaltverzicht
      und Gewaltbereitschaft, Freiburg i.Br. / Basel / Wien 2006

Jansen, Nils: Comparative Law and Comparative Knowledge, in: The Oxford
     Handbook of Comparative Law, ed. M. Reimann / R. Zimmermann, Oxford
     2006, pp. 305-338

Pfister, Ulrich (Ed. with G. Jäger): Konfessionalisierung und Konfessionskonflikt in
      Graubünden. 16.-18. Jahrhundert, Zürich 2006

Walter, Christian: Religionsverfassungsrecht in vergleichender und internationaler
     Perspektive, Tübingen 2006

Bauer, Thomas (Ed. with A. Neuwirth): Ghazal               as   World   Literature   I.
    Transformations of a Literary Genre, Beirut 2005

Stollberg-Rilinger, Barbara (Ed.): Was heißt Kulturgeschichte des Politischen?,
      Berlin 2005

Wolf,       Hubert   (Ed.):  Römische     Inquisition  und    Indexkongregation.
        Grundlagenforschung: 1814-1917, 6 Vols. and Index, Paderborn 2005 (Index
        in print)

Althoff, Gerd: Family, Friends and Followers. Political and Social Bonds in Early
      Medieval Europe (German: Verwandte, Freunde und Getreue, Darmstadt
      1990), transl. by Christopher Carroll, Cambridge 2004

Gabriel, Karl / Reuter, Hans-Richard (Eds.): Religion und Gesellschaft, Paderborn
     2004

Hahn, Johannes: Gewalt und religiöser Konflikt. Studien zu den
    Auseinandersetzungen zwischen Christen, Heiden und Juden im Osten des
    Römischen Reiches (von Konstantin bis Theodosius II.) (Klio Beiheft 8), Berlin
    2004

Meier, Christel et al. (Eds.): Das Theater des Mittelalters und der Frühen Neuzeit als
     Ort und Medium sozialer und symbolischer Kommunikation (Symbolische
     Kommunikation und gesellschaftliche Wertesysteme. Schriftenreihe des SFB
     496, 4), Münster 2004

Siep, Ludwig: Konkrete Ethik. Grundlagen der Natur- und Kulturethik, Frankfurt a.M.
      2004 (Japanese Translation by H. Yamauchi, Tokio 2007)

Althoff, Gerd: Die Macht der Rituale. Symbolik und Herrschaft im Mittelalter,
      Darmstadt 2003



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  Berges, Ulrich: Klagelieder (Herders Theologischer Kommentar zum Alten
       Testament), Freiburg i.Br. 2002


  Oestmann, Peter: Rechtsvielfalt vor Gericht. Rechtsanwendung und Partikularrecht
      im Alten Reich (Rechtsprechung. Materialien und Studien 18), Frankfurt a.M.
      2002

  Reuter, Hans-Richard (Ed. with R. Beestermöller): Politik der Versöhnung, Stuttgart
       2002

  Stollberg-Rilinger, Barbara (Ed.): Vormoderne politische Verfahren (Zeitschrift für
        Historische Forschung, Beiheft 25), Berlin 2001

  Gutmann, Thomas: Freiwilligkeit als Rechtsbegriff, München 2001

  Gabriel, Karl: Christentum zwischen Tradition und Postmoderne, 7. ed. Freiburg
       i.Br. et al. 2000

  Reuter, Hans-Richard (Ed.): Ethik der Menschenrechte. Zum Streit um die
       Universalität einer Idee, Tübingen 1999

  Albertz, Rainer: Religionsgeschichte Israels in alttestamentlicher Zeit, Vol. I: Von
       den Anfängen bis zum Ende der Königszeit, Vol. II: Vom Exil bis zu den
       Makkabäern (Grundrisse zum Alten Testament 8,1-2), Göttingen 1992; 2. ed.
       1996/97 (English 1994, Spanish 1999, Korean 2003/04; Portuguese and
       Italian translation in preparation)

  Freitag, Werner: Volks- und Elitenfrömmigkeit in der Frühen                Neuzeit.
        Marienwallfahrten im Fürstbistum Münster, Paderborn 1991

  Wagner-Egelhaaf, Martina: Mystik der Moderne. Die visionäre Ästhetik der
      deutschen Literatur im 20. Jahrhundert, Stuttgart 1989

  Thamer, Hans-Ulrich: Verführung und Gewalt. Deutschland 1933-1945, Berlin 1986,
      3. ed. 1995 (Italian: Il Terzio Reich, Mailand 1994)




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4.5 Five-Page Proposal Summary (Executive Summary)

      The experiences of cultural and economic globalisation has permanently called into
question Europe’s long-familiar, self-evident truths. In an apparently secularised world,
the “return of the gods” has been noted with a certain irritation; this new mass-media
visibility   of   religious     phenomena     extends   from   esoteric    private   religion    to
fundamentalist violence. The conviction that the historical process of modernity
realises its goal in the sovereign secular state and makes religion into a legally
guaranteed private matter, or possibly allows it to fade completely, has been
vigorously shaken. In the wake of global economic interdependence, mass migrations
and the electronic media revolution, states and institutionalised churches are losing
their ability to provide guidance and national identities are losing their ability to unify,
on the one hand, while trans-cultural and trans-national group identities are being
newly formed on the other. In this, religion plays a central role. Fundamentalisms of
various kinds, whether Islamist or evangelical, take control of the political arena, attack
modernity with its own devices and challenge the very existence of the secular state.
Religion is once again the battlefield for struggles over socio-political power and
meaning. Much of what poses as analysis of the present – above all the talk of the
“clash of civilizations” – intensifies the conflictive gravity of the situation.
      Seen from the perspective of the “post-secular age”, the relationship between
politics and religion appears in a completely new light. Following upon the far-reaching
deconstruction       of   the    historical   “master   narratives”   of   modernisation        and
secularisation, the humanities face the challenge of adapting to the new situation in
order to help clarify and deal with contemporary problems. We take it for granted that,
in order to accurately evaluate present-day developments, the historical long-term
perspective and the diachronic examination of various cultures will also be
indispensable in the future. But to this end, historical questions of comparative religion
must be expanded and newly formulated, and traditional process categories based
upon the Christian West need to be reconsidered. Only a comparison with the
“foreignness” of other eras and cultures creates the necessary detachment from what
the modern Western perspective holds as self-evident and thereby enables the
adjustment of such a view. Sensitising the broader public to this seem to us to be one
of the most important challenges that the humanities and cultural sciences can
assume.
      Starting from the interdisciplinary experiences gathered from new approaches to
the cultural sciences at the WWU Münster, the proposed cluster will for the first time
bring together the capabilities in the departments of history, theology, law, literature




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and social sciences. This would enable a readjustment of the relationships between
religion and politics in various pre-modern and modern cultures.
   The long-term goals of the cluster are as follows:
   The relationship between religion and politics shall be investigated (1) across
periods from ancient times to the present and (2) cross-culturally between ancient-
pagan,     Jewish,     Christian,    and   Islamic     cultures.   The   methodical-theoretical
preconditions for such comparisons have as yet been nowhere near adequately
considered; this necessitates (3) reflection upon methodological groundwork and
theory formation. Ultimately this will put us (4) in a position to critically examine and
modify the conventional theories. Our work shall (5) occur systematically in mutual
exchange with a broader public.
     This end shall be served – in addition to the recently concluded establishment
of two new professorships for religious sociology and political science with particular
attention to the relationships between politics and religion – by the following
structural measures in the framework of the cluster:
         (1) The establishment of three professorships: for the History of Islam (W3), for
            Islamic Law/Comparative Law (W1) as well as for Jewish Studies (W1)
         (2) Insuring scholarly continuity by means of the early reappointment of five key
            professorships
         (3) The flexible promotion of relevant research projects under independent
            participation of junior scholars
         (4) Insuring time for research through the reduction of teaching demands
         (5) The invitation of international guest scholars and senior fellows
         (6) The     systematic     structuring   of   doctoral    students’   training   beyond
            departmental boundaries by means of an integrated graduate school
         (7) The institutionalised exchange with the public and the training of junior
            scholars for relevant careers by means of a centre for academic
            communication
         (8) Promoting the equality of male and female scholars and the establishment
            of family-friendly working conditions
         (9) The establishment of an academic centre for contact between local and
            foreign scholars, junior scholars and the public.
   The area of investigation extends from pagan, Jewish and Christian antiquity
through the Jewish, Christian and Islamic Middle Ages and the religious pluralisation in
the early modern period up to the present. To structure this area, we will direct our
interest to four dimensions in which the relationship between religious and political




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communarisation can be described historically and comparatively as well as reflected
systematically: A Normativity; B Staging; C Integrative procedures; D Violence.


A Normativity
      Various periods and cultures are characterised by quite different concepts of
normativity. The European modern is marked by the differentiation of legal norms
(sanctioned by the state) on the one hand from ethical, moral and religious norms on
the other. In the light of religious and ideological pluralism the liberal constitutional
state’s renunciation of any religious-transcendental justification of norms seems
necessary. In the framework of the research area normativity we shall be concerned,
first, with this historical exception of the secular state, with its religious roots, whose
norms it nevertheless possesses, and with the current problems that confront it.
Second, it shall be asked in diachronically and synchronically comparative
perspectives how norms differ in various times, societal organisations, and religious
communities in terms of their claims to legitimacy, their social reach, their
enforceability, their unam-biguousness, their media and above all the (religious or
secular) bases for their legitimisation. In this, special attention will be given to the
question of to what degree cultures (pre-modern and modern, Islamic and Christian)
are characterised by whether they tolerate the ambiguity of norms or not and how they
deal with mutually contradictory norms.


B Staging
      The metaphor of staging, borrowed from theatre, is a key concept in cultural
studies, referring to a mode of acting with demonstrative emphasis and denoting a
planned and publicly visible performance by actors before spectators (ceremonies,
rituals, music, drama, etc.). Acts of staging have a symbolic character in that they point
beyond themselves and evoke messages. In this, it is particularly difficult to
differentiate between sacral and secular forms. Research area B will inquire into the
manifestations and specific potency of such acts of staging for the political, social and
religious system from antiquity to the present. Guiding the research is the thesis that in
the upheaval of modernity acts of staging forfeited or at least transformed their effect
of bringing about commitment. The way cultic-sacral practices of staging were
transferred into secular contexts shall be investigated, as shall the converse, how for
example religious communities today make use of mass media forms of staging. – In a
figurative sense works of visual art, artefacts such as coins and above all texts can
also be considered acts of staging. Particular interest shall be directed here to the
staging of literary authorship: it shall be asked how authors from antiquity to the



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present staged themselves or were staged as political and religious authorities, for
example as pagan seers, Christian visionaries, or martyrs.


C Integrative Procedures
   The research perspective in area C addresses, on the one hand, the instrumental
and symbolic procedures and practices with which pre-modern and modern societies
from the Ancient Near East to the present have dealt with religious plurality. Religious
convictions and practices are of fundamental significance to social integration and/or
exclusion; religious plurality is thus a possible factor in conflicts. How can religious
identity be safeguarded in a socially heterogeneous environment? To what extent do
processes of political integration lead to the suppression of religious plurality, to what
extent do they allow it to be maintained? How do procedures allowing the peaceful
coexistence of various religious communities arise and function? On the other hand it
will be asked, to the contrary, to what extent religious practices for their part act to
create unity beyond political and social differences. And third and finally, this area is
concerned with specific problems of integration that arose in Latin Christendom and in
Islam out of the competition or cooperation between worldly and spiritual powers. The
area to be investigated extends from the strategies of integration and distinction of the
Israelites during the Babylonian exile up to the strategies of modern constitutional law
in dealing with religious minorities.


D Violence
   In the name of religions, violence (violentia) is exerted against people and things.
Religions serve to motivate, legitimate and interpret the exertion of physical violence
just as vice-versa they provide meaning to sustaining violence and request love of
peace and non-violence. This raises the question of to what extent specific religions,
from within themselves, due to their doctrine or the established practice of their faith,
have an affinity to physical violence or to non-violence or whether the real violence or
love of peace of their followers first arises from the functions that the religion assumes
in its respective social and political context. In research area D it will be asked what
potentials for violence or peace the religious writings and symbol systems of Judaism,
Christianity and Islam contain, under what circumstances they become effective as a
concept of meanings for the faithful, how the religious coding of sustained or exerted
violence serves the collective creation of meaning and identity, and how the religions
are interpreted and reinterpreted for the purposes of legitimising sovereign power
(potestas), enforcing interests and engaging in conflicts.




                                                                                      153
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Basic Organisational Structure
      As all of these research areas are interdisciplinary and diachronic in design, they
will be fundamentally approached together and not by separate research groups.
Individual disciplines will, however, participate according to the main points of focus.
Supervisory theory and method workshops will provide for continuous coordination and
integration of the content of the four research areas. For each of them a series of
selected project drafts have been proposed. Furthermore, during the funding period,
every scholarly member of the WWU Münster, including junior scholars, can apply with
a project draft for support from the cluster (for positions, travel, technical help or
assistance, conferences, publications, etc.). These drafts will be evaluated through a
formal assessment procedure assisted by an external advisory board. Thus, a flexible
funding, continuous quality assessment and independent participation of junior
researchers are guaranteed.




154
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4.8 General Bibliography

(without publications of the principal investigators)

Aguilar, Mario I.: A Social History of the Catholic Church in Chile, 2 Vols., Lewiston et
     al. 2004-2006
Alexy, Robert: Menschenrechte ohne Metaphysik?, in: Deutsche Zeitschrift für
     Philosophie 52 (2004), pp. 15-24
Allen, Tim: Understanding Alice: Uganda’s Holy Spirit Movement in Context, in: Africa
      61,3 (1991), pp. 370-399
Álvarez Bolado, Alfonso: Para ganar la guerra, para ganar la paz. Iglesia y Guerra
     Civil: 1936-1939, Madrid (Universidad Pontificia de Comillas) 1995
Andenna, Giancarlo / Mirko Breitenstein / Gert Melville (Eds.): Charisma und religiöse
    Gemeinschaften im Mittelalter. Akten des 3. Internationalen Kongresses des
    Italienisch-deutschen Zentrums für vergleichende Ordensgeschichte (Vita
    regularis 26), Münster 2005
Angenendt, Arnold: Toleranz und Gewalt. Das Christentum zwischen Bibel und
    Schwert, Münster 2006
Appleby, R. Scott: The Ambivalence of the Sacred: Religion, Violence and
     Reconciliation, Lanham 2000
Appleby, R. Scott / Martin E. Marty (Eds.): The Fundamentalism Project, 5 Vols.,
     Chicago 1995
Arendt, Hannah: On Violence (German: Macht und Gewalt), New York 1970
Asad, Talal: Formations of the Secular. Christianity, Islam, Modernity, Stanford/Cal.
     2004
Asch, Ronald G. / Dagmer Freist (Eds.): Staatsbildung als kultureller Prozess:
     Strukturwandel und Legitimation von Herrschaft in der Frühen Neuzeit, Köln
     2005
Assmann, Jan: Die Mosaische Unterscheidung oder der Preis des Monotheismus,
    München et al. 2003
Assmann, Jan: Herrschaft und Heil. Politische Theologie in Altägypten, Israel und
    Europa, München 2000
Audi, Robert: Religious Commitment and Secular Reason, Cambridge / New York
     2000
Bader, Veit Michael et al. (Eds.): Die Wiederentdeckung der Klassen, Berlin 1998
Bauman, Zygmunt: Moderne und Ambivalenz. Das Ende der Eindeutigkeit, Hamburg
    2005
Baumann, Gerlinde: Gottesbilder der Gewalt im Alten Testament verstehen, Darmstadt
    2006
Bellomo, Manlio: L' Europa del diritto comune, Rome 19947; engl: The Common Legal
     Past of Europe (1995)
Benedict, Philip: Confessionalization in France? Critical Reflections and New
    Evidence, in: Id., The Faith and Fortunes of France’s Huguenots, Aldershot 2001,
    pp. 309–325
Berger, Peter L.: Zur Dialektik von Religion und Gesellschaft. Elemente einer
     soziologischen Theorie, Frankfurt am Main 1973 [Original title: The Sacred
     Canopy. Elements of a Sociological Theory of Religion, Garden City, New York
     1967]




                                                                                     203
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Bergmann, Marianne: Die Strahlen der Herrscher. Theomorphes Herrscherbild und
    politische Symbolik im Hellenismus und in der Römischen Kaiserzeit, Mainz 1998
Berman, Harold J.: Law and Revolution. The Formation of the Western Legal Tradition,
    Cambridge/Mass. 1983; Vol. II. The Impact of the Protestant Reformations on the
    Western Legal Tradition, Cambridge/MA. 2003
Beyer, Peter (Ed.): Religion im Prozess der Globalisierung, Würzburg 2001
Bielefeldt, Heiner: Kants Symbolik. Ein Schlüssel zur kritischen Freiheitsphilosophie
      (Alber-Reihe Praktische Philosophie 69), Freiburg / München 2001
Black, Antony: Church, State and          Community:     Historical   and   Comparative
     Perspectives, Aldershot 2003
Blank, Robert H. / Samuel M. Hines, Jr.: Biology and Political Science, London / New
     York 2001
Bleiklie, Ivar / Malcolm L. Goggin / Christine Rothmayr: Comparative Biomedical
      Policy. Governing Assisted Reproductive Technologies, London / New York 2004
Blickle, Peter / Rudolf Schlögl (Eds.): Die Säkularisation im Prozeß der Säkularisierung
      Europas, Epfendorf 2005
Blumenberg, Hans: Die Legitimität der Neuzeit, Frankfurt am Main 1966
Böckenförde, Ernst-Wolfgang: Die Entstehung des Staates als Vorgang der
    Säkularisation, in: Id., Recht – Staat – Freiheit, Frankfurt am Main 1992, pp. 92-
    114
Bourdieu, Pierre: Das religiöse Feld. Texte zur Ökonomie des Heilsgeschehens,
     Konstanz 2000
Bourgeois, Bernard: Der Begriff des Staates, in: Ludwig Siep (Ed.), G.W.F. Hegel,
     Grundlinien der Philosophie des Rechts. Klassiker auslegen, Berlin 2005², pp.
     217-242
Brann, Ross: The Compunctious Poet. Cultural Ambiguity and Hebrew Poetry in
     Muslim Spain, Baltimore 1991
Brendle, Franz / Anton Schindling (Eds.): Religionskriege im Alten Reich und in
     Alteuropa, Münster 2006
Buchanan, Allen E. / Dan W. Brock / Norman Daniels / Daniel Wikler: From Chance to
    Choice. Genetics and Justice, Cambridge / New York / Melbourne 2000
Bultmann, Christoph / Benedikt Kranemann / Jörg Rüpke (Eds.): Religion, Gewalt,
     Gewaltlosigkeit. Probleme - Positionen - Perspektiven, Münster 2004
Burdick, Michael A.: For God and the Fatherland – Religion and Politics in Argentina,
     New York 1995
Cancino Troncoso, Hugo: Chile: Iglesia y dictatura 1973-1989. Un estudio sobre el rol
     político de la iglesia católica y el conflicto con el régimen militar, Odense 1997
Casanova, José: Catholic and Muslim Politics in Comparative Perspective, in: The
    Taiwan Journal of Democracy (2005)
Casanova, José: Public Religions in the Modern World, Chicago 1994
Chapman, Cynthia R.: The Gendered Language of Warfare in the Israelite-Assyrian
    Encounter (HSM 62), Winona Lake 2004
Châtellier, Louis: The Europe of the Devout. The Catholic Reformation and the
     Reformation of a New Society, Cambridge 1991
Cohen, Shaye J.D.: The Beginnings of Jewishness. Boundaries, Varieties,
    Uncertainties (Hellenistic Culture and Society 31), Berkeley 2000
Coleman, Kathleen M.: Fatal Charades: Roman Executions Staged as Mythological
    Enactments, in: The Journal of Roman Studies 80 (1990), pp. 44-73



204
                                                                               Proposal
                                                                   Cluster of Excellence
                                                                   Religion and Politics

Dasen, Véronique / Marcel Piérart (Eds.): Idia kai demosia. Les cadres 'privés' et
    'publics' de la religion grecque antique, Liège 2005
Didi-Hubermann, Georges: Die leibhaftige Malerei, München 2002
Dilcher, Gerhard: Gewohnheitsrecht und Rechtsgewohnheiten im Mittelalter, Berlin
     1992
Dussel, Enrique (Ed.): The Church in Latin America, 1492-1992, Maryknoll 1992
Dworkin, Ronald M.: Life's Dominion. An Argument about Abortion, Euthanasia, and
    Individual Freedom, New York 1993
Dworkin, Ronald M.: Freedom’s Law, New York 1996
Ebel, Wilhelm: Geschichte der Gesetzgebung. Eine staatsbürgerliche Einführung,
     Hannover 1956
Eikelman, Dale F. / James Piscatori: Muslim politics, Princeton 1996
Erdmann, Carl: Die Entstehung des Kreuzzugsgedankens, Stuttgart 1935
Esping-Andersen, Gøsta: The Three Regimes of Welfare Capitalism, Cambridge 1990
Essen, Georg / Magnus Striet (Eds.): Kant und die Theologie, Darmstadt 2005
Fassbender, Bardo: The United Nations Charter as Constitution of the International
     Community, in: Columbia Journal of Transnational Law 36 (1998), pp. 529-619
Felbecker, Sabine: Die Prozession. Historische und systematische Untersuchungen zu
     einer liturgischen Ausdruckshandlung, Altenberge 1995
Fink, Carole / Philipp Gassert / Detlef Junker (Eds.): 1968. The World Transformed,
      Washington 1998
Finnström, Sverker: Living with Bad Surroundings. War and Existential Uncertainty in
     Acholiland, Northern Uganda (Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, Uppsala Studies in
     Cultural Anthroplogy 35), Uppsala 2003
Fischer, Norbert (Ed.): Kants Metaphysik und Religionsphilosophie (Kant-Forschungen
     15), Hamburg 2004
Foucault, Michel: Surveiller et punir. Naissance de la prison, Paris 1975
Fox, Jonathan / Shmuel Sandler (Eds.): Religion in World Conflict, London 2006
Fox, Jonathan: Religion, Civilization and Civil War: 1945 Through the New Millennium,
     Lanham 2004
Franke, Heike: Akbar und Gahangir. Untersuchungen zur politischen und religiösen
     Legitimation in Text und Bild, Schenefeld 2005
Frilingos, Christopher A.: Spectacles of Empire. Monsters, Martyrs, and the Book of
       Revelation, Philadelphia (PA) 2004
Galtung, Johan: Die andere Globalisierung. Perspektiven für eine zivilisierte
     Weltgesellschaft im 21. Jahrhundert, Münster 1998
Galtung, Johan: Strukturelle Gewalt. Beiträge zur Friedens- und Konfliktforschung,
     Reinbek 1982
Garnot, Benoit (Ed.): L’infrajudiciaire du Moyen Âge à l’époque contemporaine, Dijon
    1996
Geissmar-Brandi, Christoph / Louis, Eleonora (Eds.): Glaube. Hoffnung. Liebe. Tod
     (Ausstellungskatalog Kunsthalle Wien), Wien 1995
Gelmi, Josef: Geschichte der Kirche in Tirol, Nord-, Ost- und Südtirol, Innsbruck et al.
    2001
Gentrup, Theodor: Nationale Minderheiten und katholische Kirche (Quellen und
     Studien zum Nationalitätenrecht, H. 1), Breslau 1927




                                                                                     205
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Cluster of Excellence
Religion and Politics

Geyer, Michael / Hartmut Lehmann (Eds.): Religion und Nation. Nation und Religion.
    Beiträge zu einer unbewältigten Geschichte, Göttingen 2004
Giddens, Anthony: The Constitution of Society. Outline of the Theory of Structuration,
     Cambridge 1984
Gogarten, Friedrich: Verhängnis und Hoffnung der Neuzeit. Die Säkularisierung als
    theologisches Problem, Stuttgart 1953 (19582)
Gordley, James: Foundations of Private Law: Property, Tort, Contract, Unjust
     Enrichment, Oxford 2006
Gradel, Ittai: Emperor Worship and Roman Religion, Oxford 2004
Greyerz, Kaspar von / Kim Siebenhuener (Eds.): Religion und Gewalt. Konflikte,
     Rituale, Deutungen (1500–1800), Göttingen 2006
Greyerz, Kaspar von et al. (Eds.): Interkonfessionalität - Transkonfessionalität -
     binnenkonfessionelle Pluralität. Neue Forschungen zur Konfessiona-
     lisierungsthese, Gütersloh 2003
Grossi, Paolo: L’ordine giuridico medievale, Rome / Bari 1996, Reprint 2006
Habermas, Jürgen: Faktizität und Geltung. Beiträge zur Diskurstheorie des Rechts und
    des demokratischen Rechtsstaats, Frankfurt am Main 19944; engl.: Between
    Facts and Norms (1998)
Habermas, Jürgen: Zwischen Naturalismus und Religion. Philosophische Aufsätze,
    Frankfurt am Main 2005; engl.: Between Naturalism and Religion (2007)
Hadfield, Andrew (Ed.): Literature and Censorship in Renaissance England,
     Houndmill/Basingstoke 2001
Hamilton, Malcom: The Sociology of Religion. Theoretical and Comparative
     Perspectives, London 1994
Hamm, Berndt: Reformation als normative Zentrierung von Religion und Gesellschaft,
   in: Jahrbuch für Biblische Theologie 7 (1992), pp. 241-279
Hartwich, Wolf-Daniel: „Deutsche Mythologie“. Die Erfindung einer nationalen
     Kunstreligion (Kulturwissenschaftliche Studien, Vol. 3), Berlin / Wien 2000
Hasenclever, Andreas / Volker Rittberger: Does Religion Make a Difference?
    Theoretical Approaches to the Impact of Faith on Political Conflict, in: Millennium
    3/29 (2000), pp. 641-674
Hildebrandt, Mathias / Manfred Brocker (Eds.): Unfriedliche Religionen? Das politische
     Gewalt- und Konfliktpotenzial von Religionen, Wiesbaden 2005
Huber, Christoph / Burghart Wachinger / Hans-Joachim Ziegeler (Eds.): Geistliches in
    weltlicher und Weltliches in geistlicher Literatur des Mittelalters, Tübingen 2000
Hudson, Anne: The Premature Reformation. Wycliffite Texts and Lollard History,
    Oxford 1988
Humphreys, Sally C.: The Strangeness of Gods. Historical Perspectives on the
    Interpretation of Athenian Religion, Oxford 2004
Huntington, Samuel P.: The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order,
     London 1996
Imbusch, Peter: Moderne und Gewalt. Zivilisationstheoretische Perspektiven auf das
    20. Jahrhundert, Wiesbaden 2005
Jäger, Georg / Ulrich Pfister (Eds.): Konfessionalisierung und Konfessionskonflikt in
     Graubünden, 16.–18. Jahrhundert, Zürich 2006
Jeong, Ho-Won: Peace and Conflict Studies. An Introduction, Aldershot / Burlington /
     Singapore / Sydney 2000
Jonas, Hans: Der Traum von der gewaltfreien Moderne, in: Sinn und Form 2/1994, pp.
     309-318


206
                                                                               Proposal
                                                                   Cluster of Excellence
                                                                   Religion and Politics

Jürgensmeyer, Mark (Ed.): Religion in Global Civil Society, Oxford 2005
Jussen, Bernhard / Craig Koslowsky (Eds.): Kulturelle Reformation. Sinnformationen
     im Umbruch 1400-1600, Göttingen 1999
Kaelble, Hartmut / Jürgen Schriewer (Eds.): Vergleich und Transfer. Komparatistik in
     den Sozial-, Geschichts- und Kulturwissenschaften, Frankfurt am Main / New
     York 2003
Kallscheuer, Otto: Ein Medienpapst an Leib und Leben? Johannes Paul II. auf
      Sendung, in: Communicatio socialis. Internationale Zeitschrift für Kommunikation
      in Religion, Kirche und Gesellschaft 38 (2005), pp. 251-261
Kaufmann, Franz-Xaver: Religion und Modernität, Tübingen 1989
Kelsen, Hans: Allgemeine Staatslehre, Berlin / Heidelberg / New York 1925
Klauck, Hans-Josef: Die Johannesoffenbarung und die kleinasiatische Archäologie, in:
     Max Küchler / Karl M. Schmidt (Eds.), Texte – Fakten – Artefakte. Beiträge zur
     Bedeutung der Archäologie für die neutestamentliche Forschung, Freiburg
     (Schweiz) / Göttingen 2006, pp. 197-229
Klein, Bernard et. al. (Eds.): Pouvoir et religion dans le monde romain, Paris 2005
Klueting, Harm (Ed.): Irenik und Antikonfessionalismus im 17. und 18. Jahrhundert,
      Hildesheim 2003
Kochanowski, Jerzy / Maike Sach (Eds.): Die "Volksdeutschen" in Polen, Frankreich,
    Ungarn und der Tschechoslowakei. Mythos und Realität, Osnabrück 2006
Küenzlen, Gottfried: Der Neue Mensch. Zur säkularen Religionsgeschichte der
    Moderne, München 1994
Kyle, Donald G.: Spectacles of Death in Ancient Rome, London 1998
Lademacher, Horst et al. (Eds.): Ablehnung - Duldung - Anerkennung. Toleranz in den
    Niederlanden und in Deutschland. Ein historischer und aktueller Vergleich,
    Münster 2004
Laursen, John Christian / Cary J. Nederman (Eds.): Beyond the Persecuting Society:
     Religious Toleration Before the Enlightenment, Philadelphia 1998
Lehmann, Hartmut (Ed.): Multireligiosität im vereinten Europa. Historische und
    juristische Aspekte, Göttingen 2003
Letz, Alexander: Fürstliche Herrschaft und Kirche. Brandenburg und Burgund in der
      Mitte des 15. Jahrhunderts, Berlin 2004 (Online publication: http://edocs.tu-
      berlin.de/diss/2003/letz_thomas.pdf)
Levine, Donald N.: The Flight from Ambiguity. Essays in Social and Cultural Theory,
     Chicago 1985
Liedhegener, Antonius: Macht, Moral und Mehrheiten. Der politische Katholizismus in
     der Bundesrepublik Deutschland und den USA seit 1960, Baden-Baden 2006
Loades, David: Politics, Censorship and the English Reformation, London / New York
    1991
Löther, Andrea: Prozessionen in spätmittelalterlichen Städten. Politische Partizipation,
     obrigkeitliche Inszenierung, städtische Einheit, Köln et al. 1999
Luhmann, Niklas: Die Religion der Gesellschaft. Frankfurt am Main 2000
Luhmann, Niklas: Funktion der Religion, Frankfurt am Main 1982
Machilek, Franz: Privatfrömmigkeit und Staatsfrömmigkeit, in: Ferdinand Seibt (Ed.),
    Kaiser Karl IV. Staatsmann und Mäzen, München 1978, pp. 87-94, 99-101, 441-
    443
Maier, Hans (Ed.): Wege in die Gewalt. Die modernen politischen Religionen,
     Frankfurt am Main 2000



                                                                                      207
Proposal
Cluster of Excellence
Religion and Politics

Maihold, Harald: Strafe für fremde Schuld? Die Systematisierung des Strafbegriffs in
     der spanischen Spätscholastik und Naturrechtslehre, Hamburg 2005
Manow, Philip: The Good, the Bad and the Ugly. Esping-Andersens
    Sozialstaatstypologie und die konfessionellen Wurzeln des westlichen
    Wohlfahrtsstaats, in: Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie 54
    (2002), pp. 203-225
Marek, Kristin et al. (Eds.): Bild und Körper im Mittelalter, München 2006
Marwick, Arthur: The Sixties. Cultural Revolution in Britain, France, Italy, and the
    United States, 1958-1974, Oxford 1998
Matthes, Joachim: Religion und Gesellschaft. Kirche und Gesellschaft. Einführung in
     die Religionssoziologie, 2 Vols., Reinbek 1967-69
McCrudden, Christopher: A Common Law of Human Rights?: Transnational Judicial
    Conversations on Constitutional Rights, in: Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 20
    (2000), pp. 499-532
Melville, Gert / Markus Schürer (Eds.): Das Eigene und das Ganze. Zum Individuellen
      im mittelalterlichen Religiosentum (Vita regularis, Vol. 16), Münster 2002
Michaels, Ralf / Nils Jansen: Private Law Beyond the State? Europeanization,
     Globalization, Privatization, in: American Journal of Comparative Law 55/2 (2007)
     (www.private-law.org)
Michel, Andreas: Gott und Gewalt gegen Kinder im Alten Testament (FAT 37),
     Tübingen 2003
Miethke, Jürgen: Gelehrte Ketzerei und kirchliche Disziplinierung. Die Verfahren gegen
     theologische Irrlehren im Zeitalter der scholastischen Wissenschaft, in: Hartmut
     Boockmann et al., (Eds.) Recht und Verfassung im Übergang vom Mittelalter zur
     Neuzeit (Abhandlungen der Akademie der Wissenschaften in Göttingen.
     Philologisch-Historische Klasse - 3. Folge 239, Tl. 2), Göttingen 2001, pp. 9-45
Mignone, Emilio: Iglesia y dictatura militar, Buenos Aires 1986
Minkenberg, Michael / Ulrich Willems (Eds.): Politik und Religion (Politische
     Vierteljahresschrift, Sonderheft 33/2002), Wiesbaden 2003
Mörschel, Tobias (Ed.): Papsttum und Politik. Eine Institution zwischen geistlicher
    Gewalt und politischer Macht, Freiburg 2007
Nagel, Ernst Josef: Die Friedenslehre der katholischen Kirche. Eine Konkordanz
    kirchenamtlicher Dokumente (Theologie und Frieden 13), Stuttgart 19972
Olyan, Saul M.: Generating „Self“ and „Other“: The Polarity Israelite/Alien, in: Id., Rites
     and Rank. Hierarchy in Biblical Representations of Cult, Princeton 2000, pp. 63-
     102
Palmquist, Stephen R.: Kant’s Critical Religion. Vol. II of Kant’s System of
    Perspectives, Aldershot et al. 2000
Parker, Robert: Polytheism and Society at Athens, Oxford 2005
Pollack, Detlef (Ed.): Säkularisierung – ein moderner Mythos? Tübingen 2003
Rafetseder, Hermann: Bücherverbrennungen. Die öffentliche Hinrichtung von Schriften
     im historischen Wandel, Wien / Köln / Graz 1988
Raguer, Hilari: La pólvora y el incienso. La Iglesia y la Guerra Civil española (1936-
    1939), Barcelona (Península) 2001
Rawls, John: Political Liberalism, New York 1993
Richard, Birgit: Pictoral Clashes am medialen Gewaltkörper: Abu Ghraib, Nick Berg
     und Johannes Paul II., in: Id. (Ed.), Ich-Armeen. Täuschen – Tarnen – Drill,
     Paderborn 2006, pp. 235-255




208
                                                                              Proposal
                                                                  Cluster of Excellence
                                                                  Religion and Politics

Richards, John F.: The Formulation of Imperial Authority under Akbar and Jahangir, in:
     Id., (Ed.), Kingship and Authority in South Asia, Oxford 1998, pp. 285-326
Rothacker, Reich: Die vergleichende Methode in den Geisteswissenschaften, in:
     Zeitschrift für vergleichende Rechtswissenschaft 60 (1957), pp. 13-33
Roy, Oliver: Der islamische Weg in den Westen. Globalisierung, Entwurzelung und
     Radikalisierung, München 2006
Saffle, Michael / Rossana Dalmonte (Eds.): Liszt and the Birth of Modern Europe.
      Music as a Mirror of Religious, Political, Cultural and Aesthetic Transformations,
      Hillsdale (NY) 2003
Sahm, Astrid / Manfred Sapper / Volker Weichsel (Eds.): Die Zukunft des Friedens.
    Eine Bilanz der Friedens- und Konfliktforschung, Wiesbaden 2002
Schlumbohm, Jürgen: Gesetze, die nicht durchgesetzt werden – ein Strukturmerkmal
     des frühneuzeitlichen Staates?, in: Geschichte und Gesellschaft 23 (1997), pp.
     647-663
Schmid, Hansjörg / Andreas Renz / Jutta Sperber / Duran Terzi (Eds.): Identität durch
    Differenz? Wechselseitige Abgrenzungen in Christentum und Islam, Regensburg
    2007
Schmid, Konrad: Erzväter und Exodus. Untersuchungen zur doppelten Begründung
    der Ursprünge Israels innerhalb der Geschichtsbücher des Alten Testaments
    (Wissenschaftliche Monographien zum Alten und Neuen Testament 81),
    Neukirchen-Vluyn 1999
Schweitzer, Friedrich (Ed.): Religion, Politik und Gewalt (Veröffentlichungen der
    Wissenschaftlichen Gesellschaft für Theologie 29), Gütersloh 2006
Scribner, Robert W.: Reformation and Desacralisation: From Sacramental World to
     Moralised Universe, in: R. Po-chia Hsia / Robert W. Scribner (Eds.), Problems in
     the Historical Anthropology of Early Modern Europe (Wolfenbütteler Forschungen
     LXXVIII), Wiesbaden 1997, pp. 75-92
Scribner, Robert W.: Ritual and Reformation, in: Ronnie Po-Chia Hsia (Ed.), The
     German People and the Reformation, Ithaca 1988, pp. 122-144
Seelmann, Kurt: Theologie und Jurisprudenz an der Schwelle zur Moderne. Die
     Geburt des neuzeitlichen Naturrechts in der iberischen Spätscholastik, Baden-
     Baden 1997
Senghaas, Dieter: Zivilisierung wider Willen. Der Konflikt der Kulturen mit sich selbst,
    Frankfurt am Main 1998
Slaughter, Anne-Marie: A New World Order, Princeton 2004
Smith, Brian: The Church and Politics in Chile: Challenges to Modern Catholicism,
     Princeton 1982
Smith, R. R. R.: Hellenistic Royal Portraits, Oxford 1988
Southall, Aidan: Creativity of Power: Cosmology and Action in African Societies,
     Washington 1989
Stambolis, Barbara: Religiöse Festkultur: Tradition und Neuformierung katholischer
    Frömmigkeit im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert, Paderborn 2000
Stock, Alex: Poetische Dogmatik: Christologie, Vol. III: Leib und Leben, Paderborn
     1998
Stosch, Klaus von: Komparative Theologie – ein Ausweg aus dem Grunddilemma
     jeder Theologie der Religionen?, in: ZKTh 124 (2002), pp. 294-311
Tálos, Emmerich / Wolfgang Neugebauer (Eds.): Austrofaschismus. Politik –
     Ökonomie – Kultur 1933-1938 (Politik und Zeitgeschichte 1), Wien et al. 20052




                                                                                    209
Proposal
Cluster of Excellence
Religion and Politics

Tanner, Norman P. (Ed.): Heresy Trials in the Diocese of Norwich, 1428-1431, London
    1977
Teubner, Gunther: Recht als autopoietisches System, Frankfurt am Main 1989; engl.:
    Law as an Autopoietic System (1993)
Ther, Philipp / Holm Sundhaussen (Eds.): Nationalitätenkonflikte im 20. Jahrhundert.
     Ursachen von inter-ethnischer Gewalt im Vergleich (Forschungen zur
     osteuropäischen Geschichte 59), Wiesbaden 2001
Theunissen, Michael: Hegels Lehre vom absoluten Geist als Theologisch-Politischer
    Traktat, Berlin 1970
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