"TRANSLATION OF LEGAL ENGLISH VERBS INTO ARABIC"
وزارة التعليم العالي والبحث العلمي استمارة مستخلصات أطاريح الدراسات العليا للجامعات العراقية 609 رقم االستمارة الفرع القسم الكلية الجامعة الترجمة اآلداب الموصل الجهة المستفيدة طبيعة البحث تاريخ تسجيل الرسالة عنوان الرسالة INTENTIONALITY AND THE TRANSLATION OF LEGAL ENGLISH VERBS للتطبيق فقط أكاديمي 7/1/2004 INTO ARABIC : UNSC RESOLUTIONS : A CASE STUDY قناة القبول تاريخ القبول جهة االنتساب الجنس العمر أسم الطالب حجز مقعد 4/01/4004 كلية اآلداب/جامعة الموصل ذكر 24 لقمان عبد الكريم ناصر خضير جهة االنتساب الجنس العمر الدرجة العلمية أسم المشرف كلية اآلداب/جامعة الموصل ذكر 58 أستاذ مساعد د. مصباح محمود داود السليمان الجهة المانحة للشهادة : جامعة الموصل / العراق تاريخ الحصول على الشهادة : 7661 تاريخ آخر ترقية علمية : 5661 االختصاص الدقيق االختصاص العام الشهادة تاريخ صدور األمر الجامعي الترجمة القانونية الترجمة وعلم اللغة دكتوراه الكلمات المفتاحية : Legal Language ، Translation ، Intentionality المستخلص بلغة الرسالة Intentionality is one of the most effective elements in the process of interlingual and intra-lingual communication. The success of interlingual communication depends on the recognition of the speaker's intention by the hearer. The difficulty of communication increases at the interlingual level . The producer of the source language text naturally formulates his language in a way that reflects his /her mental state towards the state of affairs to his readers. So, when s/he desires to do something by himself/herself or by others, s/he uses his/her language to show this desire and when s/he believes in something, s/he uses his/her language to show this belief. The same can be said about showing his/her intention to do something and to express his/her feelings and emotions . A translator, in turn, must find out the mental state of the speaker to reach the real intended meaning of the utterance . The task of the translator is to use a language that can convey the same purpose or intention to the receptors . Many problems face the translator during his task. One of these problems is the translation of certain verbs especially those of similar illocutionary point . Within a pragmatic viewpoint towards language every utterance is seen to have a propositional content and at least one illocutionary force. The translator faces the problem of specifying the force of the utterance . Sometimes, the text is loaded with more than one force in a way that increases the difficulty of translation .Hence, the translator may not know which force should be taken into consideration and then should consequently be conveyed.To solve such a problem, this thesis proposes the application of Searle's theory of intentionality and Searle & Vanderveken's illocutionary logic to translation .The study aims at formulating criteria by which translators can specify different derived illocutionary forces within the same force produced by uttering legal verbs. It also aims at specifying those components of illocutionary force, which distinguish such derived forces intended by the producer of the text. The study puts three hypotheses to realize the aims of the study. The first states that the components of the illocutionary force can be used as distinctive features of secondary forces. The second states that certain components are more important than others in distinguishing illocutionary acts of similar illocutionary points. The third says that translators ignore the components of the illocutionary force as factors affecting the process of translation . This ignorance causes inappropriate translation. Therefore, the study attempts to investigate those variables affecting the final realization of legal verbs. The procedure of the study includes giving a general framework of the related studies and a full description of the characteristics of legal texts in English and their Arabic translation. In the practical chapter, comprehensive tables in terms of source language performative verbs and target language performative verbs as well as the components of the illocutionary force are used . The main findings the study arrived at are :- 1. The United Nations Security Council Resolutions include four categories of codified performative verbs used with different percentages . The most frequent use is that of directive declarations, then comes the use of Assertive declarations and expressive declarations, and finally commissive declarations . 2. The security council uses different performative verbs of different degrees of strength .This usage is based on many factors including the status of the hearer 3. certain components of the illocutionary force are more significant than others as variable to be taken into consideration in translation . For example, in directive declarations, the most important variable has been the mode of achievement of the illocutionary force ; whereas, in commissive declarations, expressive declarations, and assertive declarations, additional preparatory Conditions have been the most important variable. Taking all categories into account, preparatory conditions have been the most important component as a distinctive feature of secondary forces ; whereas, mode of achievement, sincerity conditions, degree of strength ,and propositional conditions have been of less importance . 4. Some performative verbs are loaded with more than one force in addition to their basic force .These additional forces can be found in Arabic in more than one verb. 5. The category of commissive declaration is the most problematic category in that the highest percentage of inappropriate renderings has been for commissive declarations, whereas, it has been less for directive, expressive, and assertive declarations respectively. 6. There are many instances of inconsistency in the translation of the United Nations Security Council resolutions. Finally, the study gives some recommendations and suggests some proposals for further research. د.شامل فخري العالف م.العميد للشؤون العلمية و الدراسات العليا