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                   Alternate
Element            name        Symbol Isotope Half life               Use
Aluminium                      Al            26 710000 years          Medical
Aluminium                      Al            26 710000 years          Research




Americium                      Am           241 432.2 years           Industrial
Argon                          Ar            41 1.82 hours            Industrial

Cadmium                        Cd           109 462 days              Industrial

Caesium                        Cs           137 30.2 years            Medical



Caesium                        Cs           137 30.2 years            Industrial


Calcium                        Ca            47 4.536 days            Research


Californium                    Cf           252 2.64 years            Industrial



Carbon                         C             11 20.3 minutes          Medical

Carbon                         C             14 5715 years            Research


Carbon                         C             14 5715 years            Industrial

Chlorine                       Cl            36 301000 years          Research




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Chromium           Cr    51 27.70 days            Research
Cobalt             Co    57 271.8 days            Medical

Cobalt             Co    60 1925 days             Medical


Cobalt             Co    60 1925 days             Medical


Cobalt             Co    60 1925 days             Industry
Cobalt             Co    60 1925 days             Industry

Copper             Cu    64 12.701 hours          Medical

Copper             Cu    67 2.580 days            Medical

Curium             Cm   244 18.11 years           Industrial



Fluorine           F     18 1.83 hours            Medical


Gallium            Ga    67 3.260 days            Medical



Gold               Au   198 2.694 days            Industrial




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Hydrogen           Deuterium, D   H      2 stable                  Chemistry
Hydrogen           Tritium        H      3                         Medical



Hydrogen           Tritium, T     H      3 12.32 years             Industrial

Indium                            In   111 2.8049 days             Medical


Iodine                            I    131 8.040 days              Medical

Iodine                            I    123 13.2 hours              Medical


Iodine                            I    125 59.4 d                  Medical
Iodine                            I    129 1.7 x 107 years         Medical
Iridium                           Ir   192 73.83 days              Medical

Iridium                           Ir   192   73.83 days            Industrial
Iron                              Fe    55   2.73 years            Medical
Iron                              Fe    55   2.73 years            Industrial
Iron                              Fe    59   44.51 days            Medical
Krypton                           Kr    81   210000 years          Medical

Krypton                           Kr    85 10.73 years             Industrial

Lanthanum                         La   140 1.678 days              Industrial




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Manganese          Mn   54 312.2 days            Industrial



Nickel             Ni   63 100 years             Industrial

Nickel             Ni   63 100 years             Research


Nitrogen           N    13 9.97 minutes          Medical




Nitrogen           N    13 9.97 minutes          Industrial


Nitrogen           N    15 122.2 seconds         Industrial

Oxygen             O    15 122.2 seconds         Medical



Oxygen             O    18                       Medical


Phosphorus         P    32 14.28 days            Medical


Phosphorus         P    32 14.28 days            Industrial


Phosphorus         P    32 14.28 days            Research


Phosphorus         P    33 25.3 days             Research




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Plutonium                     Pu   238 87.74 years           Industrial


Plutonium                     Pu   238 87.74 years           Medical


Polonium           Radium F   Po   210 138.38 days           Industrial




Potassium                     K     42 12.36 hours           Industrial




Potassium                     K     42 12.36 hours           Medical



Promethium                    Pm   147 2.6234 years          Industrial



Radium                        Ra   226 1599 years            Industrial



Rubidium                      Rb    81 4.57 hours            Medical



Rubidium                      Rb    82 76 seconds            Medical


Samarium                      Sm   152                       Medical




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Samarium           Sm          153 1.929 days              Medical


Scandium           Sc           46 83.81 days              Industrial


Scandium           Sc           46 83.81 days              Industrial

Selenium           Se           75 119.78 days             Research

Selenium           Se           75 119.78 days             Industrial

Silver             Ag   110m         24.6 seconds          Industrial


Sodium             Na           24 14.96 hours             Industrial


Sodium             Na           24 14.96 hours             Medical


Strontium          Sr           85 64.85 days              Research


Strontium          Sr           87                         Research


Strontium          Sr           89 50.52 days              Medical


Strontium          Sr           92 2.71 hours              Medical


Sulfur             S            35 87.2 days               Medical




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Technetium                      Tc   99m       6 hours               Medical


Thallium                        Tl         201 3.040 days            Medical


Thallium                        Tl         204 3.78 years            Industrial

Thorium                         Th         229 7880 years            Industrial


Thorium            Ionium       Th         230 75380 years           Industrial



Thorium            Ionium       Th         230 75380 years           Research


Uranium            Uranium II   U          234 245500 years          Medical

Uranium            Uranium II   U          234 245500 years          Industrial
Xenon                           Xe         133 5.243 days            Medical
Ytterbium                       Yb         169 32.026 days           Medical



Yttrium                         Y           90 64.10 hours           Medical
Zinc                            Zn          65 244.26 days           Industrial




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                                                                                                                                  Radiation
Specific Use                                                                        Chemical Properties                           produced
Alzheimer's disease                                                                                                               gamma
Acid rain                                                                                                                         gamma

Smoke Detectors, fluid-density gauges, oil well logging (neutron source), to        Americium 241 emits alpha particles which
measure levels of toxic lead in dried paint samples, to ensure uniform thickness    ionise the air and allow a current between
in rolling processes like steel and paper production, to help determine where oil   two electrodes, if smoke is present, it
wells should be drilled, useful for a level gauge, a X-ray fluorescence analysis.   absorbs the alpha particlas and the current
Am241-Be9 is useful for a moisture gauge                                            is interrupted and the alarm goes off         alpha
ventilation tests in building research                                                                                            beta
to analyse metal alloys for checking stock, scrap sorting, X-ray fluorescene
analysis.                                                                                                                         gamma
treatment of cancerous tumous, measurement of correct dosages of
radioactive pharmaceuticals                                                                                                       beta
measurement and control the liquid flow in oil pipelines, determine whether oil
wells are plugged by sand, ensure the right fill level for food and drug
packaging, tradiotracer for identification of sources of soil erosion and
deposition                                                                                                                        beta


to study the cellular functions and bone formation in mammals                                                                     beta
to inspect luggage for hidden explosives, to gauge moistute content of soil in
the road construction and building industries, to measure moisture of materials
srored in soils                                                                                                                   alpha


glucose tagged with C11 is used with Positron Emission Tomography,                  positron-emitting radionuclides have short
produces positrons in the brain or other organs and monitored by PET                half-lives and high radiation energies        gamma

Dating organic samples up to 35000 yrs old                                        Carbon is present in form of carbonhydrates beta
isotopic tracer, investigations of photosynthesis, also glucose through the body,
to ensure that potential new drugs are metabolised without forming harmful by-
products, useful for thickness gauge of thin plastics                                                                         beta
measurement of sources of chloride and age of water (up to 2 million years),
used for thickness gauge for paper, plastics                                                                                  beta




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to study red blood cell survival rates                                                                                           gamma
Isotopic tracer - for pernicious anemia, X-ray fluorescence analysis                                                             gamma

Treating cancer, sterilisation of medical products and equipment                                                                 beta and gamma

isotopic tracer - vitamin B12 with tagged with Co60 can be used to study the
absorption of vitamin B12 from the gastrointestinal tract                                                                        beta and gamma
Isotopic tracer - for finding flaws in metal castings, together with Ag110m,
La140, Sc46 and Au198 to measure performance of blast furnace, level gauge,
density gauge                                                                                                                    beta and gamma
Isotope dilution - used to calculate amount of compounds                                                                         beta and gamma
Isotopic tracer - brain tumours absorb Copper, genetic diseases affecting
copper metabolism such as Wilson's and Menke's disease                                                                           gamma
when injected with monoclonal antibodies into a cancer patient, helps the
antibodies bind to and destroy the tumour                                                                                        beta
used in mining to analyse material excavated from pits and slurries from drilling
operations                                                                                                                       alpha


PET, detection of cancers and monitoring progress in their treatment,               positron-emitting radionuclides have short
fluorodeoxyglucose(FDG) is useful for Energy metabolism diagnosis                   half-lives and high radiation energies       gamma

isotopic tracer - as gallium citrate to detect inflammation and disorders
associated with AIDS                                                                                                             gamma
trace factory waste causing ocean pollution, trace sand movement in river beds
and ocean floor, together with Co60, La140, Sc46 and Au198 to measure
performance of blast furnace, togther with Ir192 and Cr57 to label sand to study
coastal erosion                                                                                                                  beta




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                                                                                     Deuterium enters into all chemical reactions
                                                                                     characteristic of ordinary hydrogen, forming
                                                                                     equivalent compounds. Deuterium, however,
                                                                                     reacts more slowly than ordinary hydrogen, a
                                                                                     criterion that distinguishes the two forms of
                                                                                     hydrogen. Because of this property, among
                                                                                     others, deuterium is extensively used as an
                                                                                     isotopic tracer in investigations of chemical
isotopic tracer, investigations of chemical and biochemical reactions involving      and biochemical reactions involving
hydrogen                                                                             hydrogen                                      stable
life science and drug metabolism to ensure safety of potential new drugs                                                           beta
self luminous aircraft and commercial exit signs, luminous dials, gauges and
wrist watches, production of luminous paint, geological and hydrological
prospecting,measure "young" groundwater, tracer to study sewage and liquid
waste                                                                                                                             beta

Isotopic tracer absorbed by brain tumours                                                                                         gamma
imaging of the thyroid gland, treatment of thyroid cancer and Graves' disease,
Iodine accumulates in the thyroid, also brain tumors, abnormal liver function,       brain tumours absorb large quantities of
renal blood flow and urinary tract obstruction                                       Iodine                                       beta and gamma
Diagnosis of thyroid disease and other metabolic disorders including brain
function                                                                                                                          gamma
Diagnosis of thyroid disorders, biomedical research, glomerular filtration rate of   used in radioimmunoassay because 125I
kidneys, deep vein thrombosis, radioimmuno assays, show the presence of              attaches easily to most antibodies or
hormones in tiny quantities                                                          antigens                                     gamma
used to check radioactivity counters                                                                                              beta
Implants for tumour irradiation (brachytherapy)                                      Internal radiotherapy                        beta
Test welds in boilers, pipelines and aircraft parts, radiography of steel to
discover flaws                                                                                                                    beta
Isotopic tracer, investigate the metabolism of iron                                                                               gamma
Analyse electroplating solutions and detect the presence of sulfur in the air                                                     gamma
Isotopic tracer, investigate the metabolism of iron                                                                               beta
imaging of pulmonary ventilation                                                                                                  gamma
indicator lights in appliances such as clothes dryers, washing machines, gauge
the thickness of thin plastics and sheet metal, rubber, textiles and paper,                                                       beta
together with Ag110m, Co60, Sc46 and Au198 to measure performance of
blast furnace                                                                                                                     beta




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predict behaviour of heavy metals in mining waste water                                                                            gamma

to detect explosives, voltage and current surge protection devices, useful for
thickness gauge of thin plastic                                                                                                    beta

electron capture detectors for gas chromatographs                                                                                  beta

                                                                                      positron-emitting radionuclides have short
Positron emission tomography                                                          half-lives and high radiation energies       gamma




isotopic tracer used in fertilisers to follow the mechanism of plant growth and
passage of elements through the environment                                                                                        gamma

isotopic tracer used in fertilisers to follow the mechanism of plant growth and
passage of elements through the environment                                                                                        stable
Positron Emission Tomography, incorporated into metabolically important               positron-emitting radionuclides have short
molecules                                                                             half-lives and high radiation energies       gamma
preparation of F18-deoxyglucose for Positron emission Tomography, as
Oxygen-18 water, heart blockage detection, deficiencies in heart valves, brain
scanning for tumour detection, energy expenditure in humans and total body
water composition in humans                                                                                                        stable


treating ovarian and bone cancer                                                                                                   beta


isotopic tracer - to investigate the uptake of fertilisers in plants                                                               beta

molecular biology and genetics research, treatment of polycythermia vera
(excess red blood cells)                                                                                                           beta


molecular biology and genetics research                                                                                            beta




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energy generation in nuclear power stations, source of fuel for spacecraft                                     alpha


power heart pacemakers                                                                                         alpha


reduce the static charge in production of photographic film and other materials                                alpha


isotopic tracer used in fertilisers to follow the mechanism of plant growth and
passage of elements through the environment                                                                    beta




exchangeable potassium in ccoronary blood flow                                                                 beta



electric blanket thermostats, useful for thickness gauge of film and leather                                   beta



makes lighting rods more effecctive, with Be-9 is useful for moisture gauge                                    alpha



imaging of pulmonary ventilation                                                                               gamma

Positron Emission Tomography, short-term effects of physiologic alterations or
of drugs, used to identify blood-brain-barrier deficits                                                        gamma


treating ovarian and bone cancer                                                                               stable




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relieve pain of secondary cancers lodged in bone, complexed with organic
phosphates                                                                                                      beta


isotopic tracer - to investigate the silt movement in rivers                                                    beta and gamma

together with Ag110m, La140, Co60 and Au198 to measure performance of
blast furnace                                                                                                   beta and gamma
protein studies in life science research, study the production of enzymes, useful
for density gauge                                                                                               gamma

weld inspection of pipelines, useful for density gauge                                                          gamma
together with Co60, La140, Sc46 and Au198 to measure performance of blast
furnace                                                                                                         beta and gamma


detecting leaks in underground pipes, oil well studies                                                          beta


isotopic tracer - monitor blood flow, to detect constrictions or obstructions                                   beta


bone formation and metabolism                                                                                   gamma


isotopic tracer - study bone growth                                                                             gamma

relieve pain of secondary cancers lodged in bone, complexed with organic
phosphates                                                                                                      gamma


treating ovarian and bone cancer                                                                                beta


medical treatment                                                                                               beta




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produce images of the brain, lungs, kidney, liver, spleen, gall bladder, skeleton chemically binds with many biologically
and cardiovascular system, about 70% of nuclear medicine procedures, useful active molecules, injected with tin compound
for thickness gauge of film and leather                                           which soon binds with red blood cells,  beta
injected into blood stream, concentrates in normal heart muscle but will not
remain in damaged tissue, area is then photographed with a nuclear
scintillation camera to show damaged areas                                                                                gamma

measurement of dust and pollutant levels on filter paper, gauge thickness of                                                        pure beta emitter,
plastic, sheet metal and rubber, used for thickness gauge for paper, plastics                                                       gamma
helps fluorescent lights last longer, with Tungsten - to improve stability and
efficiency of electric arc welding rods                                                                                             alpha


provide colouring and fluorescence in coloured glazes and glassware                                                                 alpha
                                                                                     Because uranium compounds are soluble in
                                                                                     seawater, while thorium compounds are
                                                                                     quite insoluble and are readily precipitated
dating sediments, as old as 400,000 years                                            and incorporated in sediments


provide natural colouring and brightness to dental fixtures\                                                                        alpha

fuel, production of fluorescent glassware, coloured glazes and wall tiles                                                           alpha
determination of functional lung capacity and blood flow studies                                                                    beta
cerebrospinal fluid studies in the brain                                                                                            gamma


targetted cancer treatments, silicate colloid for treatment of arthritis in larger
joints                                                                                                                              beta
predict behaviour of heavy metals in mining waste water                                                                             gamma




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Advantage                                    Disadvantage                                   Production                          Handling


                                             Radioactive smoke detectors should be
                                             disposed of by returning to supplier or the
                                             Department of Health, small amount of
                                             gamma radiation releases, alpha particals
                                             are produced but are absorbed within a few
readily available                            centimetres of the device




short half-lives of these tracers that allow                                                                                     administered by means of injection
large doses to be administered to the                                                                                            or inhalation, the purpose being
patient with low radiation exposure and      half-life is so short, they have to be         C-11 is created from N-14 (p,alpha), simply to enter the compound into
enable studies to be repeatedly              generated on site                              or B-11 (p,n) using cyclotron.       the bloodstream




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                                                                                            created from V51 (p,n) using a
                                                                                            cyclotron.

                                                                                            Co60 is made by irradiation of Co59
                                                                                            in a nuclear reactor

                                                                                            Co60 is made by irradiation of Co59
                                                                                            in a nuclear reactor

                                                                                            Co60 is made by irradiation of Co59
                                                                                            in a nuclear reactor

                                                                                            produced from a nuclear reactor
short half life, do no emit alpha particles                                                 with Zn64(n,p) reaction.




short half-lives of these tracers that allow                                                                                      administered by means of injection
large doses to be administered to the                                                                                             or inhalation, the purpose being
patient with low radiation exposure and      half-life is so short, they have to be         created from O18 (p,n) using a        simply to enter the compound into
enable studies to be repeatedly              generated on site                              cyclotron.                            the bloodstream




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short half life, do no emit alpha particles
short half life, most is absorbed by        attending staff must wear protection,
thyroid, any other is excreted, dosage too excreted I-131 can be a significant source of
small to harm the thyroid or the rest iof   both contamination and radiation exposure                        administered as NaI in water




localised and cost effective




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short half-lives of these tracers that allow                                                                                   administered by means of injection
large doses to be administered to the        half-life is so short, they have to be         created from O16 (p,alpha), or C12 or inhalation, the purpose being
patient with low radiation exposure and      generated on site                              (d,n) using cyclotron.             simply to enter the compound into




                                                                                            created from O16 (p,alpha), or C12
                                                                                            (d,n) using cyclotron.



short half-lives of these tracers that allow                                                                                     administered by means of injection
large doses to be administered to the        half-life is so short, they have to be         created from N15 (p,n) using         or inhalation, the purpose being
patient with low radiation exposure and      generated on site                              cyclotron                            simply to enter the compound into




majority of injected radiactive material
stays within the body, body acts as
effective shield                                                                                                                 administered by injection




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                                           toxic radioisotope is sealed inside a case
                                           that prevents alpha particles from escaping
                                           and damaging surrounding tissue




advantage of serial measurements in the                                                  can be produced without a cyclotron
same patient                                                                             from a column generator
majority of injected radiactive material
stays within the body, body acts as
effective shield                                                                                                               administered by injection




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majority of injected radiactive material
stays within the body, body acts as
effective shield                                                                                         administered by injection

                                                                       produced from a nuclear reactor
                                                                       with Cl35(n,p) reaction




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half life is only 6 hours, ideal for medical                                                  99Tc is produced as a fission         As Tc-99m has short half life, it is
imaging as it keep radiation dose to           short half life presents problems for delivery product from the fission of uranium   transported as Mo-99 which has a
minimum, do not emit alpha particals           of isotope                                     in nuclear reactors                   half life of 67 hours




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hazard             Web resource




                   http://www.nrc.gov/NRC/NUREGS/BR0217/par
                   t12.html http://www.uic.com.au/nip35.htm




                   http://laxmi.nuc.ucla.edu:8000/lpp/radioisotope
                   s/tracers.html

                   http://www.c14dating.com/




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                   http://laxmi.nuc.ucla.edu:8000/lpp/radioisotope
                   s/tracers.html




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                                                    e44e8af0-aeab-4c45-8979-0cedd0372822.xls




                           http://www.c-f-
                           c.com/specgas_products/deuterium.htm




                           http://www.uiowa.edu/~hpo/training/CCCnurses
protective foot wear and   /sld014.htm
disposable clothing        http://www.eanmrtc.org/Monogrph/iodide.htm




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                                              e44e8af0-aeab-4c45-8979-0cedd0372822.xls




                   http://laxmi.nuc.ucla.edu:8000/lpp/radioisotope
                   s/tracers.html




                   http://laxmi.nuc.ucla.edu:8000/lpp/radioisotope
                   s/tracers.html




UniServe Science                              The Identification and Production of Materials   http://science.uniserve.edu.au/
                                              e44e8af0-aeab-4c45-8979-0cedd0372822.xls




                   http://laxmi.nuc.ucla.edu:8000/lpp/radioisotope
                   s/tracers.html




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                   e44e8af0-aeab-4c45-8979-0cedd0372822.xls




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99Tc is a contamination hazard http://www.ansto.gov.au/ansto/gentech/overvie
and should be handled in a     w.htm
glove box.                     http://www.ainse.edu.au/info/press/2000_02.ht




                               http://www.britannica.com/seo/i/ionium-thorium-
                               dating/


                               http://www.uic.com.au/uicchem.htm
                               http://www.uic.com.au/uicphys.htm
                               http://www.uic.com.au/uicchem.htm


                               http://encarta.msn.com/find/search.asp?search
                               =yttrium
                               http://www.nidlink.com/~jfromm/elements/yttriu
                               m.htm




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